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The skeleton Aims This is a lesson for The skeleton. In this lesson, students start

The skeleton

Aims

This is a lesson for The skeleton. In this lesson, students start by looking at a 6-mark question. The aim of the lesson is to move students towards answering the question, using knowledge they have from previous lessons, and covering new learning objectives.

It covers the following learning objectives:

Describe the structure and function of the skeleton and skeletal system.

Apply knowledge in the context of a 6-mark question.

Big Question

Explain using specific examples how the skeleton provides the body with physical protection and protection against infection (QWC, 6 marks)

Question requirements

For students to be able to answer the question, they need to:

Statement

Answer

Describe the structure of the skeleton.

All the bones in the body make up the skeleton. They are joined together to make a framework. The main bones in the human body are the: skull, jaw bone, collar bone, sternum, humerus, vertebral column (back bone), pelvis, ulna, radius, femur, fibula, kneecap, tibia, and ankle.

Describe how the skeleton protects vital organs.

Bones are strong but flexible. The bones in the skeleton protect vital organs.

Give specific examples of bones protecting vital organs.

The ribcage protects the heart and the lungs.

The skull protects the brain.

 

The vertebral column protects the spinal cord.

Explain how the skeleton protects against infection.

Some bones in the body contain bone marrow (e.g. the longer bones in the arms and the legs). Bone marrow is a soft tissue that produces blood cells. White blood cells are needed to fight infection.

Question marking guidance Explain using specific examples how the skeleton provides the body with physical

Question marking guidance

Explain using specific examples how the skeleton provides the body with physical protection and protection against infection (QWC, 6 marks)

1–2 marks

There needs to be a basic description of how the skeleton protects the body. Students also need to have included at least two of the scientific point listed below to achieve any marks.

3–4 marks

There needs to be a clear description of how the skeleton is structured to help it protect the body, giving at least one example of a particular set of bones. Students should give at least four of the scientific points given below. Spelling and grammar is mostly correct, and the answer is presented logically.

5–6 marks

There is a full and detailed explanation of how the skeleton is structured to help it protect the body, giving at least two examples of a particular set of bones, and a suitable explanation for both physical protection and protection against infection. The answer is well structured and spelling and grammar nearly all correct. Students should give at least six of the scientific points given below.

Scientific points

The skeleton provides support for the body and holds vital organs in place.

The skeleton is made up of bones.

Bones are strong, but slightly flexible (from calcium).

There are specific bones to physically protect specific vital organs.

The skull protects the brain.

The ribcage protects the heart and lungs.

The backbone protects the spinal cord.

Some bones, such as long bones in the arms and the legs, contain a soft tissue called bone marrow.

Bone marrow produces white blood cells.

White blood cells are needed to protect against infection.

Starter Support/Extend Resources Introducing the question (5 minutes)   B1 2.4 Activity: Give

Starter

Support/Extend

Resources

Introducing the question (5 minutes)

 

B1 2.4 Activity:

Give students the Question-led lesson student sheet and write the Big Question on the board. Explain to students that by the end of this lesson, they will be able to answer the question. Students should record key words and answers to the question requirements table as they move through the lesson.

Name those bones! (5 minutes)

Question-led

lesson

 

B1 2.4

This interactive resource asks students to label a diagram of the skeleton, using the names of some of the major bones in the body provided.

Interactive:

Name those

bones!

Main

Support/Extend

Resources

Build your own skeleton (25 minutes)

Support: Students should work in mixed- ability groups.

B1 2.4 Activity sheet: Build your own skeleton

Students use the activity sheet and photocopied images of bones to build a skeleton.

They then use the model skeleton and the information in the student book as a resource to label the bones on their own activity sheet. For the purpose of this lesson, students should only complete questions 1, 2, and 3 on the activity sheet. As an alternative to the questions, ask students to draw a table that lists several regions of the skeleton (skull, ribcage, long bones in the arm and leg) in the first column. They can then fill in the second column with the functions of the bones in these regions, helping them work towards answering the Big Question.

Extension: Students should include in their functions an explanation of how the function is achieved.

 

Question-led activity (15 minutes)

Students answer the big question and then use the mark scheme to check their answers.

Plenary

Support/Extend

Resources

Identifying ways to improve (5–10 minutes)

Support: Students may struggle identifying how they can improve the quality of their writing (structure, spelling). Sharing the best answer from the class will help students appreciate the difference in QWC.

 

Working in pairs, students should list ways to improve their work, first suggesting their own improvements and then looking at their partner’s work to suggest improvements or to look for good ideas on how to improve their own answer.

Homework

   

Students should revise their answer using their improvements identified in the plenary.