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Chapter 16

1. Griffith observed in his transformation experiments that mixing a hit-killed

pathogenic strain of bacteria with a living nonpathogenic strain can convert some into
the pathogenic form
2. Chronological order: Griffith; Avery, McCarthy, and MacLeod; Hershey and Chase;
Watson and Crick; Meselson and Stahl
3. Hershey and Chase made use of the fact that DNA that phosphorus, but protein does
4. Avery, McCarthy, and MacLeod: chemicals from heat-killed S cells were purified,
then tested for the ability to transform; found out that transforming agent is DNA
5. Hershey and Chase: phage labeled with proteins or DNA infected bacteria; was
shown that it was DNA, not protein that entered the cell; concluded that DNA is the
genetic material
6. Chargaf: amount of A = amount of T; amount of G = amount of C *Chargaffs rules
7. 38% C = 12% T
8. Crystallography determined diameter of the helix
9. Prokaryotes have a single origin of replication; eukaryotes have many
10. Daughter cells would have radioactive DNA if a radioactive thymine were added into
a replicating cell
11. Meselson and Stahl grew bacteria in a medium containing a heavy nitrogen
isotope (15N) and then transferred it into a medium of (14N). After one round (first
generation), there is intermediary DNA
12. The conservative pattern has one band on the bottom (really heavy) and other on top
13. Meselson and Stahl proved that DNA replication is not conservative
14. Okazaki fragment has 5 RNA nucleotides and DNA nucleotides 3
15. DNA polymerase III is the elongation in the 5 to 3 direction; adds nucleotides to
growing end
16. Telomerase adds numerous short DNA sequences that form a hairpin turn
17. DNA polymerase I removes RNA nucleotides form primer and adds DNA nucleotides
to 3 end of Okazaki fragment
18. Primase synthesizes short segments of RNA
19. The difference between ATP and nucleotides triphosphates used during DNA
synthesis is that the nucleotide triphosphates have sugar deoxyribose; ATP has sugar
20. Leading strand synthesized in the same direction as the movement of the
replication fork; lagging strand synthesized in opposite direction
21. DNA polymerase can only add nucleotides to the free 3 end
22. Topoisomerase relieves strain in the DNA ahead of the replication fork
23. DNA ligase joins Okazaki fragments
24. Single-stranded binding proteins hold DNA strands apart during replication
25. Hypersensitivity to sunlight = cannot repair thymine dimers
26. No telomerase = short chromosome length
27. Required in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic replication: double-stranded DNA, 4
kinds of dNTPs, primers, and origins
28. Methylation and phosphorylation of histone tails prevent gene expression
29. 30 nm = looped domains by scaffolding
30. Histones pack DNA into nucleus into units called nucleosomes
31. H1 is not present in nucleosome bead; involved in formation of higher-level
chromatin structures
32. Histones bind tightly to DNA because histones are positive and DNA is negative

33. Chromatin organization: nucleosome, 30-nm, 300-nm looped domain on scaffolds,

metaphase chromatin
34. Heterochromatin = condensed; euchromatin = less condensed

Chapter 17
1. Genetic code is the same for all means that DNA was the first genetic material
2. RNA polymerase binds to the promoter to begin transcription in both prokaryotes and
3. RNA polymerase can initiate RNA synthesis, but DNA polymerase requires a primer to
initiate DNA synthesis
4. Termination of transcription is when the polymerase falls of the DNA to release the
5. RNA polymerase moves in the 3 to 5 direction along the DNA template strand
6. The poly A signal sequence codes for a sequence that signals enzymatic cleavage
7. RNA polymerase II is involved in the transcription of mRNA for a globin protein
8. Transcription in eukaryotes require transcription factors
9. The 5 cap and poly A tail prevent degradation of mRNA
10. Exons are the coding regions of DNA
11. Eukaryotic mRNA undergoes the excision of introns
12. Mutations on exons are the most damaging
13. snRNPs join to create a spliceosome
14. RNA catalyzes the excision during splicing
15. Alternative RNA splicing allows production of proteins in different sizes from one
16. DNA sequence: AAA; anti-codon: UUU
17. Accuracy in the translation of mRNA into proteins depends on the specificity in the
bonding of anticodon to codon and attachment of amino acids to tRNAs
18. First event in translation in eukaryotes is the small subunit of the ribosome
recognized and attaches to the 5 cap of mRNA
19. Translation order: A small ribosomal subunit binds with mRNA; an aminoacyl-tRNA
binds to A site; a peptide bond forms between the new amino acid and a polypeptide
chain; tRNA translocates to P site; tRNA leaves the P site, and P site remains vacant
20. Signal peptides translocate polypeptides across the ER membrane
21. In prokaryotic cells, translation beings as soon as transcription beings
22. Translation requires tRNAs, amino acids, ribosomal subunits, polypeptide factors plus
23. Nonsense mutations introduce a premature stop codon in mRNA
24. Sickle-cell is a point mutation
25. Frameshift mutation is the insertion or deletion of a base
26. Base-pair deletion is the most damaging

Chapter 18
1. Operon model explains control of gene expression
2. trp operon is a repressible operon that binds to the repressor and activate it so that
operon is off
3. trp operon is turned off when tryptophan is added
4. Repressor is a product of a regulatory gene
5. A mutation in the promoter can affect binding of RNA polymerase
6. Tryptophan is a corepressor that attaches to repressor and turns operon off
7. Lactose binds to the repressor that repressor detaches to the operator and turns
operon off
8. Lactose operon is likely to be transcribed when the cyclic AMP and lactose levels are
9. Transcription in an inducible operon starts when substrate is present
10. CAP stimulates biding of RNA polymerase to promoter
11. Repressible operon is when RNA polymerase binds to promoter and repressor is
12. Prokaryotes can alter the level of production of enzymes
13. Organization of genes in clusters help control the expression of multiple, related
genes in eukaryotes
14. Epigenetic phenomena = genomic imprinting, DNA methylation, and histone
15. Human DNA = 1.5% codes for proteins or RNA
16. DNA methylation and histone acetylation regulate transcription
17. Gene expression is regulated at transcription in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes
18. In eukaryotes, transcription is associated with euchromatin and histone acetylation
19. Methylation can correctly methylate daughter strands after replication
20. General transcription factors bind to other proteins or to sequence within the
promoter such as the TATA box
21. Activators bind to enhancers to stimulate transcription
22. Steroid hormones produce effects by binding to intracellular receptors and promoting
transcription of specific genes
23. Gene expression might be altered at the post-transcription level in which eukaryotic
exons may by spliced in alternative patterns
24. RNAi is the phenomenon in which RNA molecules are destroyed if they a sequence
complementary to an introduced double-stranded RNA
25. siRNA is a short double-stranded RNA, whose strands are complement and
inactivates a sequence of mRNA

26. A dicer trims small double-stranded RNAs into molecule that block translation
27. Proto-oncogenes code for proteins associated with cell growth
28. Tumor suppressor genes can encode proteins that promote DNA repair or cell-cell
29. The longer we live, the more mutations we accumulate
30. Forms of the ras protein found in tumors cause hyperactive growth factor signaling

Chapter 19
1. Electron microscopes have shorter wavelengths that provide higher resolutions
2. Size and shape of capsid correlates with size of genome
3. Viral envelopes can be best analyzed with antibodies against specific proteins not
found in host membranes
4. Host range is determined by proteins on the surface and on host
5. Viruses are intracellular obligate parasites because they cant reproduce without a
6. Glycoproteins make up the viral envelope
7. Lytic cycle = large number of phages released at a time
8. Prophages = bacteriophage DNA that has become integrated into the host cell
9. Lysogenic cycle of lambda phage = phage genome replicates along with the host
10. RNA viruses have higher rates of mutation because they do not any proofreading
steps during replication
11. Theory that viruses originated from fragments of cellular nucleic acid is supported by:
viral genomes are more similar to the host genome than to other viral genomes
12. Retroviruses = single stranded RNA that acts as a template for DNA synthesis
13. Reverse transcriptase in retroviruses uses viral RNA as a template for DNA synthesis
14. Viroids are infectious nucleic acids
15. Bacteria can be cultured while viruses cannot
16. Prions are infectious proteins; misfolded versions of normal brain proteins
17. Plant virus infections can spread by passing through the plasmodesmata
18. Viruses have capsids; viroids do not have capsids
19. Vertical transmission = parent plant to progeny
20. Horizontal transmission = one plant spreading a virus to another plant
21. Antiviral drugs interfere with viral reproduction

Chapter 20
1. Restriction enzymes cleave nucleic acids at specific sites
2. Bacteria protects its own DNA from restriction enzymes by methylation of its DNA
3. Steps for splicing foreign DNA into a plasmid and inserting plasmid into bacteria:
Extract plasmid; cut plasmid; hydrogen bond plasmid to nonplasmid; use ligase to seal
plasmid; transform bacteria with recombinant DNA
4. Bacteria containing recombinant plasmids are identified by exposing bacteria to an
antibiotic that kill cells lacking the resistant plasmid
5. Bacteria with plasmid and no eukaryotic gene will grow in nutrient brother + amp,
nutrient broth + tetra, nutrient broth + amp and tetra, and nutrient broth without
6. Bacteria with plasmid and eukaryotic gene will grow in amp broth and nutrient broth
7. Bacteria without plasmid will only grow in nutrient broth *no antibiotic resistance
8. A problem with trying to express a eukaryotic gene in a prokaryote is that bacteria
cannot remove introns
9. Gene with introns is made shorter with reverse transcriptase to reconstruct the gene
from mRNA
10. Yeast cells are frequently used as hosts because they are eukaryotic cells
11. DNA fragments making up a genomic library are contained in recombinant plasmids
of bacteria
12. Genomic library is made with a restriction enzyme and DNA ligase; cDNA library is
made with a restriction enzyme, DNA ligase, reverse transcriptase, and DNA
13. Yeast artificial chromosomes contain an origin of replication, centromere, and 2
14. PCR steps: heat to denature DNA, hybridize to target DNA, DNA polymerase extends
primers to copy
15. Bacterial artificial chromosome can carry 100,000 to 500,00 base pairs

16. To introduce a piece of DNA into an animal cells, use electroporation = electrical
pulses create a temporary hole where the DNA enters and genetic recombination
occurs (Good for eukaryotes )
17. Advantage of using YACs and BACs is that can carry more DNA than a plasmid can
18. Reverse transcriptase is used to make cDNA from RNA
19. Gel electrophoresis separates molecules by movement due to size and electrical
charge and separates restriction fragments from one another
20. GEL ELECTROPHORESIS = the shorter, the greater ability to move downwards
through the gel to the positive side; the longer, it cannot move as easily and is usually
stuck at the negative top *think about short people moving through crowds and tall
people who are frustrated because they are too big to move through a crowd lol
21. Southern blotting steps: separated by electrophoresis; denatured by heat/chemical;
probe hybridized with fragment
22. Probe = radioactive single-stranded DNA that is complementary to gene of interest
23. Alternating the nucleotide sequence of the DNA fragment doesnt affect rate of
movement in gel electrophoresis
24. Southern blotting purpose of transferring to nitrocellulose paper: to attach the DNA
fragments to a permanent substrate
25. RFLP analysis can be used to distinguish differences in restriction enzyme recognition
sites between alleles
26. Incubating DNA with restriction enzymes produce RFLPs
27. Sanger/dideoxyribonucleotide-chain termination is a method of sequencing DNA
28. Southern blotting causes DNA sequences to be transferred to a membrane
(nitrocellulose paper) and then identified with a probe
29. PCR uses reverse transcriptase to make cDNA, then amplification
30. in vitro mutagenesis is used to analyze gene function depending on the specificity of
DNA base complementarity
31. Gene therapy has had success in treating disorder involving bone marrow cells (such
as SCID)
32. Transgenic rice is being produced to prevent vitamin A deficiency
33. Microorganisms are crippled so they cannot survive outside the lab for safety
34. A problem with gene therapy is that transferred genes activity may not be
appropriately controlled
35. Transgenic plants used to produce human proteins and vaccines must be tested to
that plant allergens are not transmitted to vaccine recipients