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5/7/2015

TransformerTesting|TypeTestandRoutineTestofTransformer|Electrical4u

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TransformerTesting|Type
TestandRoutineTestof
Transformer
Morerelatedtopics:
.........Previous
Transformerwindingresistancemeasurement
TransformerRatioTest
VectorGroupTestofTransformer
DielectricTestofTransformer
TemperatureRiseTestofTransformer
TransformerImpulseTest
SweepFrequencyResponseAnalysis
TanDeltaorDissipationFactorTest
OverFluxinginTransformer
EarthingorGroundingTransformer
External&InternalFaultsinTransformer
BackupProtectionofTransformer
DifferentialProtectionofTransformer
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RestrictedEarthFaultProtection
MaintenanceofTransformer
DistributionTransformer
AirCoreTransformer
HighVoltageTransformer
InstallationofPowerTransformer
CommissioningofPowerTransformer
Thispageisallabout:
TypeofTransformerTesting
TypeTest
RoutineTests
SpecialTests
PreCommissioningTest
WindingResistanceMeasurement
RatioTest
MagneticBalanceTest
ProcedureofMagneticBalanceTest
MagnetizingCurrentTest
VectorGroupTest
InsulationResistanceTestorMeggerTes
ProcedureofInsulationResistanceTest
DielectricTestsofTransformer
InducedVoltageTestofTransformer
TemperatureRiseTestofTransformer

For confirming the specifications and performances of an


electricalpowertransformerit hastogothroughnumbersof
testing procedures. Some tests are done at manufacturer
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premisesbeforedeliveringthetransformer.Mainlytwotypes
of transformer testing are done at manufacturer premises
typetestoftransformerand routine test of transformer.
In addition to that some transformer tests are also carried
out at the consumer site before commissioning and also
periodically in regular & emergency basis through out its
servicelife.

TypeofTransformerTesting
Testsdoneatfactory

1. Typetests

2. Routinetests

3. Specialtests

Testsdoneatsite

1. Precommissioningtests

2. Periodic/conditionmonitoringtests

3. Emergencytests
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TypeTestofTransformer
Toprovethatthetransformermeetscustomersspecifications
and design expectations, the transformer has to go through
different testing procedures in manufacturer premises. Some
transformer tests are carried out for confirming the basic
design expectation of that transformer. These tests are done
mainly in a prototype unit not in all manufactured units in a
lot. Type test of transformer confirms main and basic
designcriteriaofaproductionlot.

RoutineTestsofTransformer
Routine tests of transformer is mainly for confirming
operationalperformanceofindividualunitinaproductionlot.
Routinetestsarecarriedoutoneveryunitmanufactured.

SpecialTestsofTransformer
Special tests of transformer is done as per customer
requirement to obtain information useful to the user during
operationormaintenanceofthetransformer.

PreCommissioningTestofTransformer
In addition to these, the transformer also goes through some
other tests, performed on it, before actual commissioning of
the transformer at site. The transformer testing performed
before commissioning the transformer at site is called pre
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commissioning test of transformer. These tests are done to


assess the condition of transformer after installation and
compare the test results of all the low voltage tests with the
factorytestreports.

Typetestsoftransformerincludes
1. Transformerwindingresistancemeasurement
2. Transformerratiotest.
3. Transformervectorgrouptest.
4. Measurementofimpedancevoltage/shortcircuitimpedance
(principaltap)andloadloss(Shortcircuittest).

5. Measurementofnoloadlossandcurrent(Opencircuittest).
6. Measurementofinsulationresistance.
7. Dielectrictestsoftransformer.
8. Temperaturerisetestoftransformer.
9. Testsononloadtapchanger.

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10. Vacuumtestsontankandradiators.
Routinetestsoftransformerinclude
1. Transformerwindingresistancemeasurement.
2. Transformerratiotest.
3. Transformervectorgrouptest.
4. Measurementofimpedancevoltage/shortcircuitimpedance
(principaltap)andloadloss(Shortcircuittest).

5. Measurementofnoloadlossandcurrent(Opencircuittest)
6. Measurementofinsulationresistance.
7. Dielectrictestsoftransformer.
8. Testsononloadtapchanger.
9. Oilpressuretestontransformertocheckagainstleakages
pastjointsandgaskets.

ThatmeansRoutinetestsoftransformerincludeallthetype
testsexcepttemperatureriseandvacuumtests.Theoil
pressuretestontransformertocheckagainstleakagespast
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jointsandgasketsisincluded.

SpecialTestsoftransformerinclude
1. Dielectrictests.
2. Measurementofzerosequenceimpedanceofthreephase
transformers
3. Shortcircuittest.
4. Measurementofacousticnoiselevel.
5. Measurementoftheharmonicsofthenoloadcurrent.
6. Measurementofthepowertakenbythefansandoilpumps.

7. Testsonboughtoutcomponents/accessoriessuchas
buchhlozrelay,temperatureindicators,pressurerelief
devices,oilpreservationsystemetc.

TransformerWindingResistance
Measurement
Transformerwindingresistancemeasurementiscarriedoutto
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calculatetheI2Rlossesandtocalculatewindingtemperature
attheendofatemperaturerisetest.Itiscarriedoutasatype
test as well as routine test. It is also done at site to ensure
healthiness of a transformer that is to check loose
connections, broken strands of conductor, high contact
resistance in tap changers, high voltage leads and bushings
etc.
Therearedifferentmethodsformeasuringoftransformer
winding,likewise
Currentvoltagemethodofmeasurementofwinding
resistance.
Bridgemethodofmeasurementofwindingresistance.
KelvinbridgemethodofMeasuringWinding
Resistance.
MeasuringwindingresistancebyAutomaticWinding
ResistanceMeasurementKit.
NB:Transformerwindingresistancemeasurementshallbe
carriedoutateachtap.

TransformerRatioTest
The performance of a transformer largely depends upon
perfectionofspecificturnsorvoltageratiooftransformer.So
transformerratiotestisanessentialtypetestoftransformer.
This test also performed as routine test of transformer. So
for ensuring proper performance of electrical power
transformer,voltageand turnratiotestoftransformerone of
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thevitaltests.
Theprocedureoftransformerratiotestissimple.Wejust
applythreephase415VsupplytoHVwinding,withkeeping
LVwindingopen.Thewemeasuretheinducedvoltagesat
HVandLVterminalsoftransformertofindoutactualvoltage
ratiooftransformer.Werepeatthetestforalltapposition
separately.

MagneticBalanceTestofTransformer
Magnetic balance test of transformer is conducted only on
three phase transformers to check the imbalance in the
magneticcircuit.
ProcedureofMagneticBalanceTestofTransformer
1. Firstkeepthetapchangeroftransformerinnormalposition.
2. Nowdisconnectthetransformerneutralfromground.
3. Thenapplysinglephase230VACsupplyacrossoneofthe
HVwindingterminalsandneutralterminal.

4. MeasurethevoltageintwootherHVterminalsinrespectof
neutralterminal.

5. Repeatthetestforeachofthethreephases.
Incaseofautotransformer,magneticbalancetestof
transformershouldberepeatedforLVwindingalso.
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Therearethreelimbssidebysideinacoreoftransformer.
Onephasewindingiswoundinonelimb.Thevoltage
inducedindifferentphasesdependsupontherespective
positionofthelimbinthecore.Thevoltageinducedin
differentphasesoftransformerinrespecttoneutralterminals
giveninthetablebelow.
Leftside
phase

Voltageappliedatleftside
phase
Voltageappliedatcentral
phase
Voltageappliedatright
sidephase

Central
phase

Rightside
phase

AN

BN

CN

230V

180V

50V

115V

230V

115V

50V

180V

230V

MagnetizingCurrentTestof
Transformer
Magnetizingcurrenttestoftransformerisperformedto
locatedefectsinthemagneticcorestructure,shiftingof
windings,failureinturntoturninsulationorproblemintap
changers.Theseconditionschangetheeffectivereluctanceof
themagneticcircuit,thusaffectingthecurrentrequiredto
establishfluxinthecore.
1. Firstofallkeepthetapchangerinthelowestpositionand
openallIV&LVterminals.

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2. Thenapplythreephase415Vsupplyonthelineterminals
forthreephasetransformersandsinglephase230Vsupply
onsinglephasetransformers.

3. Measurethesupplyvoltageandcurrentineachphase.
4. Nowrepeatthemagnetizingcurrenttestof
transformertestwithkeepingtapchangerinnormal
position.
5. Andrepeatthetestwithkeepingthetapathighestposition.
Generallytherearetwosimilarhigherreadingsontwoouter
limbphasesontransformercoreandonelowerreadingonthe
centrelimbphase,incaseofthreephasetransformers.An
agreementtowithin30%ofthemeasuredexcitingcurrent
withtheprevioustestisusuallyconsideredsatisfactory.Ifthe
measuredexcitingcurrentvalueis50timeshigherthanthe
valuemeasuredduringfactorytest,thereislikelihoodofa
faultinthewindingwhichneedsfurtheranalysis.
Caution:Thismagnetizingcurrenttestoftransformeris
tobecarriedoutbeforeDCresistancemeasurement.

VectorGroupTestofTransformer
Inthreephasetransformer,itisessentialtocarryoutavector
grouptestoftransformer.Propervectorgroupingina
transformerisanessentialcriteriaforparalleloperationof
transformers.
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Thereareseveralinternalconnectionofthreephase
transformerareavailableinmarket.Theseseveral
connectionsgivesvariousmagnitudesandphaseofthe
secondaryvoltagethemagnitudecanbeadjustedforparallel
operationbysuitablechoiceofturnratio,butthephase
divergencecannotbecompensated.Sowehavetochoose
thosetransformerforparalleloperationwhosephasesequence
andphasedivergencearesame.Allthetransformerswith
samevectorgroundhavesamephasesequenceandphase
divergencebetweenprimaryandsecondary.Sobefore
procuringoneelectricalpowertransformer,oneshouldensure
thevectorgroupofthetransformer,whetheritwillbe
matchedwithhisorherexistingsystemornot.Thevector
grouptestoftransformerconfirmshisorherrequirements.

InsulationResistanceTestorMegger
TestofTransformer
Insulationresistancetestoftransformerisessentialtype
test.Thistestiscarriedouttoensurethehealthinessofover
allinsulationsystemofanelectricalpowertransformer.
ProcedureofInsulationResistanceTestofTransformer
1. Firstdisconnectallthelineandneutralterminalsofthe
transformer.
2. MeggerleadstobeconnectedtoLVandHVbushingstudsto
measureinsulationresistanceIRvalueinbetweentheLVand
HVwindings.
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3. MeggerleadstobeconnectedtoHVbushingstudsand
transformertankearthpointtomeasureinsulationresistance
IRvalueinbetweentheHVwindingsandearth.
4. MeggerleadstobeconnectedtoLVbushingstudsand
transformertankearthpointtomeasureinsulationresistance
IRvalueinbetweentheLVwindingsandearth.
NB:Itisunnecessarytoperforminsulationresistancetest
oftransformerperphasewiseinthreephasetransformer.
IRvaluesaretakenbetweenthewindingscollectivelyas
becauseallthewindingsonHVsideareinternally
connectedtogethertoformeitherstarordeltaandalsoall
thewindingsonLVsideareinternallyconnectedtogether
toformeitherstarordelta.
Measurementsaretobetakenasfollows:
Forautotransformer:HVIVtoLV,HVIVtoE,
LVtoE.
Fortwowindingtransformer:HVtoLV,HVtoE,LVto
E.
Threewindingtransformer:HVtoIV,HVtoLV,IVto
LV,HVtoE,IVtoE,LVtoE.
Oiltemperatureshouldbenotedatthetimeofinsulation
resistancetestoftransformer.SincetheIRvalueof
transformerinsulatingoilmayvarywithtemperature.

IRvaluestoberecordedatintervalsof15seconds,1minute
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and10minutes.
Withthedurationofapplicationofvoltage,IRvalue
increases.TheincreaseinIRisanindicationofdrynessof
insulation.
Absorptioncoefficient=1minutevalue/15secs.value.
Polarizationindex=10minutesvalue/1minutevalue.

DielectricTestsofTransformer
Dielectrictestsoftransformerisonekindofinsulationtest.
Thistestisperformedtoensuretheexpectedoverall
insulationstrengthoftransformer.Thereareseveraltest
performedtoensuretherequiredqualityoftransformer
insulation,dielectrictestisoneofthem.Dielectrictestsof
transformerisperformedintwodifferentsteps,firstone
calledSeparatesourcevoltagewithstandtestoftransformer,
whereasinglephasepowerfrequencyvoltageofprescribed
level,isappliedontransformerwindingundertestfor60
secondswhiletheotherwindingsandtankareconnectedto
theearthanditisobservedthatwhetheranyfailureof
insulationoccursornotduringthetest.Secondoneisinduced
voltagetestofTransformerwhere,threephasevoltage,twice
ofratedsecondaryvoltageisappliedtothesecondary
windingfor60secondbykeepingtheprimaryofthe
transformeropencircuited.Thefrequencyoftheapplied
voltageshouldbedoubleofpowerfrequencytoo.Herealsoif
nofailureofinsulation,thetestissuccessful.
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Inadditiontodielectrictestsoftransformerthereareother
typetestforcheckinginsulationoftransformer,suchas
lightningimpulsetest,switchingimpulsetestandpartial
dischargetest.

InducedVoltageTestofTransformer

Theinducedvoltagetestoftransformerisintendedtocheck
theinterturnandlineendinsulationaswellasmain
insulationtoearthandbetweenwindings
1. Keeptheprimarywindingoftransformeropencircuited.
2. Applythreephasevoltagetothesecondarywinding.The
appliedvoltageshouldbetwiceofratedvoltageof
secondarywindinginmagnitudeandfrequency.
3. Thedurationofthetestshallbe60second.
4. Thetestshallstartwithavoltagelowerthan1/3thefulltest
voltage,anditshallbequicklyincreasedupto
desiredvalue.

Thetestissuccessfulifnobreakdownoccursatfulltest
voltageduringtest.

TemperatureRiseTestof
Transformer

Temperaturerisetestoftransformerisincludedintypetestof
transformer.Inthistestwecheckwhetherthetemperature
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risinglimitofthetransformerwindingandoilasper
specificationornot.
Inthistypetestoftransformer,wehavetocheckoil
temperatureriseaswellaswindingtemperatureriselimitsof
anelectricaltransformer.
ObjectiveQuestionsonTransformer(MCQs)

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