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MSE 230

Solutions for Assignment 11

Fall 2014

Problem 1*
Gray iron is weak and brittle in tension because the tips of the graphite flakes act as points of
stress concentration.
Problem 2*
a. Hardness testing or tensile testing. The yield strength (and hardness) of 5052 is typically
greater than 6061. However, this is unreliable because you do not know if the material has
undergone the standard strain hardening or heat treating condition. If nonstandard conditions
were used 5052 may have a lower yield stress than 6061.
b. X-ray diffraction. 5052 is a single phase alloy and will have one set of x-ray diffraction peaks.
6061 is a two-phase alloy and one set of peaks will correspond to the lattice parameter associated
with the matrix while a second set of peaks will correspond to the second phase particles.
Problem 3
This problem asks that we specify and compare the microstructures and mechanical properties in
the heat-affected weld zones for 1080 and 4340 alloys assuming that the average cooling rate is
10C/s. Figure 10.27 shows the continuous cooling transformation diagram for an iron-carbon
alloy of eutectoid composition (1080), and, in addition, cooling curves that delineate changes in
microstructure. For a cooling rate of 10C/s (which is less than 35C/s) the resulting
microstructure will be totally pearlite--probably a reasonably fine pearlite. Figure 10.28 shows
the CCT diagram for 4340 steel. From this diagram note that a cooling rate of 10C/s produces a
totally martensitic structure. Pearlite is softer and more ductile than martensite, and, therefore, is
most likely more desirable in the case of a weld.
Problem 4*
This problem is concerned with the precipitation-hardening of copper-rich Cu-Be alloys.
(a) The range of compositions over which these alloys may be precipitation hardened is
between approximately 0.2 wt% Be (the maximum solubility of Be in Cu at about 300C)
and 2.7 wt% Be (the maximum solubility of Be in Cu at 866C).
(b) The heat treatment procedure, of course, will depend on the composition chosen. First
of all, the solution heat treatment must be carried out at a temperature within the phase
region, after which, the specimen is quenched to room temperature. Finally, the precipitation
heat treatment is conducted at a temperature within the + 2 phase region.
For example, for a 1.5 wt% Be-98.5 wt% Cu alloy, the solution heat treating
temperature must be between about 600C and 900C, while the precipitation heat treatment

would be below 600C, and probably above 300C. Below 300C, diffusion rates are low,
and heat treatment times would be relatively long.
Problem 5
From the class lecture notes
6
E T 70,000MPa 310 / C 100C
c =
=
= 26.3 MPa
(1 )
(1 0.2)

Recall in class we assumed that glass had a strength (c) of 70 MPa. The actual strength of glass
is greatly affected by surface flaws (i.e. scratching glass lowers the strength making it easy to cut
glass). Thus, the apparent decrease in strength (70 MPa to 26.3 MPa) with exuberant scrubbing
was most likely due to scratches introduced during scrubbing.

Critical flaw size: K = a


2

1 # K & 2 1 # 0.7 MPa m &


4
a c = % IC ( = %
( = 2.25x10 m
$ '
$ 26.3 MPa '
or 225 m

to prevent this decrease in strength:


physically polish away the larger surface flaws
chemically etch the glass to smooth out the scratches
fire polishing: heat the glass, causing localized flow to smooth out the scratches
Problem 6*
There are a couple of ways to approach this problem.
Approach 1: As the interior layer cools, it wants to shrink but is prevented from doing so by the
already rigid outer layer.
The amount of thermal contraction that the interior layer would undergo if unconstrained is given
by:
= T
For pyrex, = (3x10-6/C) (680C) = 2.04 x 10-3
Since the interior is constrained, the residual tensile stress is:
= E = (2.04 x 10-3) (70 x 103 MPa)
= 143 MPa
This residual tensile stress on the interior causes a larger surface compressive stress since the

surface layer is thinner than the interior layer. The surface compressive stress can be estimated
by:
(thickness of exterior layer) ext. = (thickness of interior layer) int.

ext. =

(6 mm)(143 MPa)
4 mm

ext. = 215 MPa


Repeating this calculation for soda-lime glass gives:
.

int. = 476 MPa tensile stress


ext. = 714 MPa compressive stress
much larger due to the larger coefficient of thermal expansion.
Approach 2: You should come up with a similar estimate (in fact somewhat larger) applying the
equation for thermal stresses (from Prob. 2) to this situation.

Temperature

Stress

Distribution

20C

476 MPa

Stress (MPa)

Temperature (C)

700C

Distribution

143 MPa
Position (mm)
10
-215 MPa

10
-714 MPa

Position (mm)
Pyrex
Soda-Lime

Glass

Problem 7
a) 60% of theoretical density
volume fraction of porosity = 0.40
From Chap. 12.11, equation 12.9,
E = Eo (1-1.9P + 0.9P2)
= 393 GPa (1-1.9(0.4) + 0.9(0.4)2)
E = 151 GPa

Modulus of Elasticity (GPa)

b) When the powder compact is placed in the furnace at 0.95Tm it will undergo
densification via sintering (see Chap. 13.12). Therefore, the volume fraction of porosity will
decrease and the modulus of the powder compact will increase (see Fig. 12.34). The plot of
modulus of elasticity vs. time should be asymptotic to E0 because the modulus of elasticity of the
powder compact will not exceed the Young's modulus of Al2O3.

E0

Time

Problem 8*
Refer to the SiO2-Al2O3 phase diagram, Fig. 12.27 on page 480 of Callister.
a) 70 wt.%Al2O3 - 30 wt.%SiO2
Minimum temperature to form liquid 1588C
Weight fraction of liquid:
First let's get the phases and phase compositions from the mullite and liquid two phase region:
Mullite: 71 wt.%Al2O3
Liquid: 8 wt.%Al2O3

WL =

C MUL CO 71 70
=
= 0.016
C MUL C L
71 8

or 1.6 wt.% liquid.sounds good for liquid phase sintering.


b) 80 wt.%Al2O3 - 20 wt.% SiO2
Minimum temperature to form liquid 1891C.
Phases and compositions:
Alumina (Al2O3): 100 wt.% Al2O3
Liquid: 75 wt.% Al2O3

WL =

C Al2 O3 C O
C Al 2 O3 C L

100 80
= 0.80
100 75

or 80 wt.% liquid.sounds lousy for liquid phase sintering because most of the material
present is liquid and very little is solid.