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NAME: Michael Timson

DATE: 9/10/2004
FORM: L6-4
LAB: #2
SUBJECT: Biology
TEACHERS NAME: Miss Sarjeant
TOPIC: Biochemistry (Quantitative food test)
AIM: To estimate the glucose concentration of 3 unknown glucose solutions.
INTRODUCTION:
Quantitative analysis is a branch in chemistry that relates to the determination of the
amount or percentage of one or more constituents of a sample. A variety of methods is
employed for quantitative analyses and can be broadcast into two groups; chemical or
physical. This depends upon which properties of the sample are utilized. Chemical methods
depend upon such reactions as precipitation, neutralization, oxidation, or, in general, the
formation of a new compound. The major types of strictly chemical methods are known
as gravimetric and titrimetric analysis. Titrimetric analysis volumetrically measures the
amount of reagent or concentration, called a titrant, required to complete a chemical reaction
with the analyte. A generic chemical reaction for titrimetric analysis is: aA + tT products,
where a mole of analyte, A, contained in the sample reacts with t moles of the titrant, T. in the
titrant solution. This reaction is carried out containing the liquid or dissolved sample. Titrant
solution is volumetrically delivered to the reaction flask using a burette. Delivery of the
titrant is called a titration. The titration is complete when sufficient titrant has been added to
react with all the analyte. This is called the equivalence point. An indicator is often added to
the reaction to indicate when all of the analyte has reacted. The titrant volume where the
signal is generated is called the end point.
Carbohydrates (hydrated carbon) are organic compounds. Their molecules contain
carbon together with hydrogen and oxygen and have a general formula C x(H2O)y. There are
three groups of carbohydrates. These groups are monosaccharaides, disaccharides and
polysaccharides. Glucose is a carbohydrate, and is the most important simple sugar in human
metabolism. Glucose is monosaccharide because it is one of the smallest units which have the

characteristics of this class of carbohydrates. Glucose, like all other monosaccharides, is


classified as reducing sugars. It readily reduces other chemicals found in the solution.
Monosaccharides are classed into three groups. These groups are classified according to their
number of atoms and the arrangement of atoms. They are trioses, pentose and hexose. Hexose
such as glucose form the main source of energy for a living organism and when broken down
during respiration, releases chemical energy trapped within the glucose molecule.

APPARATUS/MATERIALS:
3 Syringes
Potassium Permanganate

2 Boiling Tubes
Sulphuric Acid

Stopwatch

2% Glucose

4% Glucose

6% Glucose

10% Glucose

8% Glucose

Solution A
Solution B

12% Glucose
Solution C

METHOD:
Three syringes were labelled G, S and P. Two boiling tubes were labelled 2% which
indicated the concentration of glucose used. 10cm3 of 2% glucose solution was place in each
boiling tube. 5 cm3 of sulphuric acid was added. 2cm 3 of potassium permanganate was then
added to each boiling tube and the timer was then started. The solution was then stirred in the
boiling tube text to a white paper and observed when the pink colour disappeared. The
stopwatch was then stopped and the time was then recorded when the solution turned clear.
Steps 4 6 were then repeated. Steps 2-7 were repeated for each glucose solution. The results
were then tabulated and a time vs concentration graph and a rate vs concentration graph were
then plotted.
RESULTS:

TABLE SHOWING THE TIME TAKEN FOR ALL THE GLUCOSE TO REACT FOR
EACH CONCENTRATION LEVEL OF GLUCOSE
Concentration of
glucose / %

Time taken to decolourize / seconds


1st

2nd

Average

297

298

298

180

178

179

115

115

115

86

90

88

10

71

71

71

12

63

64

64

Rate of reaction /
1/t

0.003
0.006
0.009
0.011
0.014
0.017

TABLE TWO SHOWING THE THREE UNKNOWN GLUCOSE SOLUTIONS AND THE
TIME TAKEN TO DECOLOURIZE
Solution

Time taken to decolourize / seconds


1st

2nd

Average

240

238

239

125

125

125

108

107

108

DISCUSSION:
Glucose (C6H12O6) is a monosaccharide reducing sugar. In this reaction the glucose
readily donates electrons which are accepted by the permanganate causing it to change
colour. The purple pink solution of potassium permanganate (MnO4) is reduced to a
colourless solution of manganese ions (Mn2+).

MnO4- + 8H+ + 5ePurple pink in solution

Mn2+ + 4H2O
colourless in solution

As a result of this reaction the glucose is oxidised. The time taken for the loss of colour
from a standardised solution of permanganate is directly related to the concentration of
glucose present in solution
From table one above, a graph of concentration of glucose vs time was plotted
followed by a graph of rate of reaction (1/t) vs concentration (%). From the graph of
concentration of glucose vs time, the concentrations of solution A, B and C was then
determined. According to the graph obtained from the results of this experiment, the
concentration of A, B and C was 2.8%, 5.6% and 6.4% respectively. From this result, the rate
of reaction for these three solutions was then determined using the graph of rate of reaction vs
concentration. Based on these results, the rate of reaction of solutions A, B and C was 0.004,
0.008 and 0.0092 respectively.
From the first graph, it was seen that as concentration of glucose increased, the time
taken to complete the reaction decreased. From concentrations 2-6, there was a rapid decrease
in time whereas for concentrations 6-12, there was a gradual decrease.in time for the reaction
to take place. This first graph thus indicates that the time taken for reaction is thus dependent
on the concentration of glucose present in the solution. From the second graph, a straight line
was obtained when indicates that the rate of reaction was directly proportional to the
concentration of glucose present. This thus means that as the concentration increased, the rate
of reaction increased proportionally with a gradient of 0.0014.
From these two graphs, it is observed that the rate of reaction is faster with a higher
concentration of glucose than a lower concentration of glucose. This is a result of more
molecules of glucose present in the solution and thus the number of collisions will increase
causing the rate of reaction increase.

CONCLUSION: Based on the results obtained from this experiment, the concentration of
solution A, B and C was 2.8%, 5.6% and 6.4% respectively.