Sie sind auf Seite 1von 206

III.

BAND

1. HEFT

A.

M. 8.20.
Subskriptionspreis

Einzelpreis

GRUNDRISS
DER

INDO-ARISCHEN PHILOLOGIE
UND

ALTERTUMSKUNDE

R. G.

A. BAINES-LONDON,

O. FRANKE-KONIGSBERG,
G. A. GRIERSON-

CALCUTTA,

H.

E.

KERN-LEIDEN,
B.

E.

GARBEA.

ALLAHABAD,

\V. GEIGER

C.R. LANMAN-

H.

R.

J.S. SPEYER-GRONINGEN,
SIR R.

A. VENIS-BENARES,

ERLANGEN,

WEST-LONDON,

M. WINTERNITZ-

HERAUSGEGEBEN

BttHLER.

GEORG

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY
BY

A.

A.

MACDONELL.

STRASSBURG
VERLAG

VON

KARL

J. TRUBNER

1897.

Rechte, besonders
\_Alle

das

der

BERLIN,

R. PISCHEL-HALLE,

STEIN-LAHORE, G.THIBAUT-

ZACHARIAE-HALLE

OXFORD, TH.

GELDNER-

E. LEUMANN-STRASSBURG,
(MASS.),

MERINGER-WIEN,
M. A.

K.

JACOBI-BONN, J. JOLLY-WURZBURG,

CAMBRIDGE

OXFORD,

A. MACDONELL-

J.RAPSON-LONDON,

BLOOMFIELD-BALTIMORE, J.BURGESS-EDINBURGH,

TUBINGEN,

HILLEBRANDT-BRESLAU,

KUHN-MUNCHEN,

LIEBICH-BRESLAU,

M.

BHANDARKAR-PUNA,
R.

VON

MITWIRKUNG

UNTER

Uebersetzung,vorbehalten.~\

"

9.70.

ersten

iiberhauptzum

damit

Mai eine

fur die
trotzdem

Wissenschaft

von

erfahren;

in

es

reicher

Werk

dem

darf

selbst
Linie

erster

als
Schwierigkeit

bei anderen

nehmungen,

schien

so

Der

80

Pf.

die
Seite

3
Auskunft.

Umschlags

dieses

Die

Oktober

spater

fur
samtregister

in

English

erschienenen

angesetzt

war

einen
und

States

"

accomplish

will be

written

in German.

or

with

will
the

be

separate

pagination.

for
subscription
at the

price of

rate

singlepart

will

scribers

for

For

also

sheet

enjoy

platesand

the

the

plan

work

complete

65 Pfennig (8d),

of about

Pfennig (10 d), per


percent

published separately

part will be

The

Plan

at

the

of

rate

of

80

Sub

6 pages.

reduction

of

20

maps.

of the

work

see

page

3 of

cover.

The

Grundrisses

war

zusammenzufassen

die darin enthaltenen

Hefte

na

1901.

Begrundung des

in drei Bande

various

to unite in order to

contributions

Verlagshandlung.

Bei

dafiir

and

this

STRASSBURG, im

Hefte

befindliche

The

Each

Karten
fur die Tafeln
Auch
eine Ermassigung von
den Subskribenten
auf den
Einzelpreiszugesichert.Uber
giebt der auf
Einteilung des Werkes

bogen.

of

ent-

Druck-

pro
und

promised

have

either

65 Pf. pro Druckbetragt durchschnittlich


16 Seiten, der Preis der einzelnen
bogen von
durchschnittlich

results
that is

research.

thirty scholars

this task.

ihrer

nach

much

India;

"

Ab-

Beitrage

further

to

up

the

contain

tionalities, from Austria,England,Germany,

Sammelwerke,

Ablieferung
gleich
ausgegeben werden.
gedruckt und
des ganzen Werkes
Subskriptionspreis

einzeln

20

leads

and

also

India,the Netherlands and the United

vermeiden, dass die einzelnen

zu

Abschnitte

never

Though

with

all connected

to

it will

About

geboten,die

auch

einzelnen

der
lieferungstermin

steht,dadurch

es

for

though it chieflysummarises

new

Ent-

grossere
ahnlichen
Unter-

unbereclienbaren

den

durch

welche

wird

useful

be

achieved,

eine

form.

as

and

diese Auf-

raumlichen

meisten

der
Unzutraglichkeit

subjectshave

connected

never

werden.

sclion in der
Besteht
Mitarbeiter
vieler
fernung

Hefte

treated in

students,it will

und

Indian

zu

abfassen

of which

most

of reference

theless

vereinigt,urn

sich

field of

vast

Encyclopedia is primarilyintended

book

ein Teil der Mitarbeiter


losen, wobei
ihre Beitrage deutsch, die ubrigen sie englisch

gabe

complete,syste

of the

antiquities,
languages,religion,history,

art,

before been
the

Deutschland,

aus

England, Holland,

haben

Amerika

Gewinn

erhofft werden,
befur Lernende

ist.
stimmt
Etwa
dreissigGelehrte

Osterreich,

and

at

survey

zusammen-

hangende abgerundeteBehandlung
deshalb

concise

and

matic
Indian

zu

Gegenstande wird

der

Mehrzdil

Die

geben.

in

Darstellung
systematischer

knapper und

the first attempt

contains

indp-

Altertumskunde

Philologieund

arischen

der

Gebiete

Encyclopediaof Indo-AryanResearch

The

der

Gesamtiiber-

einen

einzelnen

iiber die

blick

Mai

ersten

zum

werden,

gemacht

Versuch

soil

Werk

diesem

In

weit

Hefte

grosseren

das Bedlirfnis fur

als

Publisher.

in Aussicht genommen,
die einzelnen
und
Bande
dieser
ein Gejedem

beizugeben. Da aber die bis jetzt


als ursprioglich
Umfang einnehmen
Registerzu den einzelnen Heften sich
Herausgeber und Verlegerentschlossen,

dringendherausgestellt
hat, haben sich
Registerfur jedes Heft herzustellen.
Dem
hier vorliegendenHeft
sind Indices
schienenen Hefte
die Indices zu:
vor
liegenfertig

besondere

I.
I.

fur
beigefligt;

die

berets

er

3b: Zachariae,Die indischen Worterbiicher.


6

II. ib:

Speyer,Vedische
Bloomfield,The

und

Sanskrit

Syntax.

Atharvaveda.

II.

3b: Rapson, Indian coins.


II.
8: Jolly,Recht
und Sitte.
III. i a: Macdonell, Vedic Mythology.
IIL
4: Garbe, Samkhya und
Yoga.
Til. 8: Kern, Manual
of Indian Buddhism.
Die

Verlagshandlung.

GRUNDRISS DER INDO-ARISCHENPHILOLOGIEUNO ALTERTUMSKUNDE


(ENCYCLOPEDIA OF INDO -ARYAN
HERAUSGEGEBEN
III.

VEDIC

BAND,

RESEARCH)

VON

G.

1. HEFT

A.

BUHLER.

MYTHOLOGY

BY

A. A. MACDONELL.

STRASSBURG
VERLAG

VON

KARL

1897.

J. TRUBNER

15"

GRUNDRISS

ALTERTUMSKUNDE

INDO-ARISCHEN PHILOLOGIE UNO

DER

(ENCYCLOPEDIA

OF

INDO-ARYAN

HERAUSGEGEBEN

VON
III.

I.

BAND,

VEDIC

RESEARCH)

G.

HEFT

BUHLER.

A.

MYTHOLOGY
BY

A.

A.

MACDONELL.

I. INTRODUCTION.

"

and

Religion

i.

mythology.

"

Religionin

its widest

includes

sense

divine
entertain of the
men
or
conception which
on
the
that
of
the
human
of
sense
other,
and, on
dependence
supernaturalpowers
which
finds its expression in various
forms
of wor
those
welfare
on
powers
with the former
side of religion as furnishing
ship. Mythology is connected
told about gods and heroes
and
the whole
are
body of myths or stories which
the

hand

one

Such

have

myths

which

with

science

of

their

in

source

man

primitivemental

and

origin,their
the

attempt

of

actions
the

and

human

forces and
age, to explainthe various
is confronted.
They represent in fact

unscientific

and
primitive
nature

character

their

describe

which

the

condition.

For

statements

surroundings.
mind, in a
phenomena of
the conjectural

which

amount

in that

in the

characters

to

the

highly

merely metaphorical,
early stage to
The
intellectual difficultiesraised
explanationsof the phenomena observed.
of the thunderstorm,
of the heavenly bodies, by the incidents
by the course
by reflexions on the originand constitution of the outer world, here receive
basis of these myths is the primitive
their answers
in the form
of stories. The
which
all
entities.
attitude of mind
nature
as
an
regards
aggregate of animated
arises
when
the imagination interprets
natural
A myth actually
a
event
as
the
the
action of a personifiedbeing resembling the human
agent. Thus
without
observation
that the moon
follows the sun
overtakingit,would have
into a myth by describing the former
maiden
been
transformed
a
as
following
is
she
Such
whom
a
man
an
rejected.
by
originalmyth enters on the further
it becomes
the property of people
as
stage of poetical embellishment, as soon
endowed
added
traits are
with creative imagination. Various
now
according
individual
the
the
from
mouth
of
the
to
to
as
fancy
narrator,
story passes
mouth.
fade
The
of
its
natural
the
out
phenomenon
begins to
pictureas
the natural
passions.When
place is taken by a detailed representationof human
with its original
basis of the tale is forgotten,new
touches
totallyunconnected
from
added
other
When
be
transferred
met
even
or
significance
myths.
may
with at a late stage of its development, a myth may
be
far overgrown
so
with secondary accretions unconnected
with its original
form, that its analysis
it
be
would
be hard indeed
extremely difficult or even
impossible.Thus
may
civilised mind

to

discover

the Hellenic

plays

of

would

be

the

primary naturalistic
only
gods, if we knew

elements
the

highly anthropomorphic

or

actions

of

deities in the

Euripides.
B.

DELBRUCK,

ZVP.

Mythenbildung, Berliner
Comparative
Indo-arische

Mythology.

Philolo^ie. III.

1 A.

1865,
Ak.

der

Oxford

266
Uber
KUHN,
99;
Wissenschaften
1873, pp.

pp.

"

Essays. II; Philosophy

Entwicklungsstufender
51; MAX
123
of Mythology.
"

MULLER,
Selected

III. RELIGION;

WlSSENSCH.

WELTL.

KUNST.

U.

VEDIC

A.

MYTHOLOGY.

Workship, IV2, 155" 201; PhysicalReligion276-8 ;


Antike Waldund
Feldkulte,
Mythologie; MANNHARDT,
in preface to MANNHARDT'S
Mythologische ForBerlin 1871, Preface; MULLENHOFF
schungen, Strassburg 1884; LANG, Mythology. Encyclopaedia Britannica; GRUPPE, Die
JAOS. XV, 135"6; F. B.
griechischenCulte und Mythen. Introduction; BLOOMFIELD,
IEVONS,
Encyclopaedia; Introduction to the History of Religion,
Mythology. CHAMBERS'
Essays. I; Chips from

very

source

2.

German
der

1896, pp. 23. 32. 249-69.

London

"

Urspfung

Der

SCHWARTZ,

important positionin
to

presents
of

the

development the
Indians,

modern

world.
germs
the

of

the

of

worship
originalnature
a
foreign monotheistic
at
not
so
primitiveas was
us

to

see

evolution

not

been

faith.

clearly enough
developed into

literary
by uninterrupted
great majority of the
any

traced

be
the

Indo-European

earliest stage

supposed1,
the

process

but
of

the

on

other

in which

race

centuries

entirelysupplanted many

The

time

one

the

of

of beliefs based
than

phenomena,

phase can
religiousbeliefs of

only branch

by

enable

natural

this oldest

To

has

to

the

"

earlier stage in the

worship

and
personification
monument

an

us

Vedic mythology occupies


mythology.
study of the historyof religions.Its oldest

of Vedic

Characteristics

of

its
ago

Vedic

mythology is
it is sufficiently
primitive
by which
personification

not
gods,
apparent in other
phenomena
process
less
than
the
is
The
stilltransparent
literatures.
language,
mythology, no
the
connexion
both of the god and his name
to show
cases
enough in many
with a physicalbasis; nay, in several instances the anthropomorphism is only
incipient.Thus usas, the dawn, is also a goddess wearing but a thin veil of
and
when
agni, fire, designatesthe god, the personalityof
personification;
the deity is thoroughly interpenetrated
by the physicalelement.
which
Vedic
foundation
The
on
mythology rests, is still the belief,
remote
a
antiquity,that all the objects and phenomena of
survivingfrom
is surrounded, are
and
with which
animate
divine.
man
nature
Everything
that impressed the soul with awe
or
was
a
regarded as capable of exercising
a direct
might in the Vedic age stillbecome
good or evil influence on man,
object not only of adoration but of prayer. Heaven, earth, mountains, rivers,
plantsmight be supplicatedas divine powers; the horse,the cow, the bird of omen,
and
other
animals
objects fashioned by the hand
might be invoked; even
of man,
the war-car,
the drum,
the plough, as well as ritual im
weapons,
and
the sacrificialpost, might be adored.
plements, such as the pressing-stones
This
lower
form
of worship, however,
occupies but a small space in
Vedic
of
the
human
Veda
are
religion.
glorified
beings, in
QThe true gods
and
motives
spiredwith human
passions,born like men, but immortal. They
almost
without exception the deified representatives
of the phenomena
are
or
have
of
which
to
agencies of nature 2.]The
they
degree
anthropomorphism
of the god is the
the name
attained, however, varies considerably. When
that of his natural basis,the personification
has not advanced
same
as
beyond
the rudimentary stage. Such
is the case
with Dyaus, Heaven, Prthivi,Earth,
whose
of
Surya, Sun, Usas, Dawn,
names
represent the double character
natural
and
of
them.
the
phenomena
"~Similarly
presiding over
persons
in the case
of the two
great ritual deities,Agni and Soma, the personifying
of the
imagination is held in check
by the visible and tangiblecharacter
of fire and
element
the sacrificial draught, called by the same
of
names,
which
the divine
of
the
they are
the
name
deity is
embodiments.JWhen
different from that of the physicalsubstrate,he tends to become
dissociated
from
the latter,the anthropomorphism being then more
developed. Thus the
Maruts
or
from
their originthan Vayu, Wind,
Storm-gods are farther removed

natural

though the Vedic


in

addition

to

the

poets

are

difference

still conscious
in

name,

the

of the

connexion.

conception

of

Finally,

god

dates

when

from

CHARACTERISTICS

2.

the

pre-Vedic period,
with

case

Varuna,

the

proceeded

ruler

in

monotheistic

ever,

belief

in Vedic

nowhere

of

of

The
age.
process
character
resembles

exalted

an

V. M.

OF

Hellenic

the

to

gods.

of

is the

mytho

abstraction

that

the

of

has

divine

Personification

type.

attained

mythology

characteristic

morphism

earlier

an

far, that Varuna'

so

SOURCES

3.

have
become
complete. Such
may
connexion
can
only be inferred from

severance

in whom

logical traits surviving from


here

MYTHOLOGY.

VEDIC

OF

has, how
individualized anthropo

the

Vedic

The

deities

have

but

attributes and
shared
features, while many
distinguishing
are
powers
very
alike.
This
is
due
that
all
the
fact
the
to
of
nature
partly
departments
by
have
in
much
which
often
their
while
they represent
common,
anthropomor
the activityof a thunder-god, of
phism is comparatively undeveloped. Thus
the fire-godin his lightning
form, and of the storm-gods might easilybe de
function
in the eyes of the Vedic
scribed in similar language, their main
poets
be doubted
that various Vedic
being the discharge of rain. Again, it cannot
few

deities have

started

from

the

by an appellativedenoting
Such
independent character.
often

over,

the

deeds

are

not

pected

of

want

source3,, but

same

particularattribute
is the

clearness

in the

of the

gods; for owing to


but only alluded
to.
allusions
mythological

related
in

such

made
of
by a number
longed literaryperiod.
BRI.

670.

2
--

XIII

ORV.

Works
arischen

on

Volker,

different

ff.; P.

3 L.
591"4Vedic
Mythology
"

ZDMG.

solar
of

statements

the

character

Nor

can

when

Dyaus

become

differentiated

having gradually assumed

the

poets, whose

BRADKE,

v.

with

case

have

of

gods.
the

There

Vedic

an

is,more

poets

about

the

literature,myths
thorough consistencybe ex
it is remembered
that they are
a
productions extend
over
pro

Asura,

Halle

v.

S'CHROEDER,WZKM.

in

general:

R.

ROTH,

1885, 2"11;
9, 125"6;
Die

hdchsten

ZDMG.
cp.

BRI.

Gotter

40,

25.
der

and
Sanskritworter6, 67
ROTH,
77; 7, 607; BOHTLINGK
j.MUIR, Original Sanskrit Texts on the
Petersburg 1852"75;
Origin and History of the People of India, their Religion and Institutions, 5 vols.,
Worterbuch
zum
especiallyvols. 42 revised (1873) and 53 (1884);GRASSMANN,
Rigund
erlauternden
Veda,
AnLeipzig 1873; Rig-Veda iibersetzt und mit kritischen
W.
D.
and
versehen, 2 vols., Leipzig 1876"7;
Oriental
merkungen
WHITNEY,
der
Geschichte
Linguistic Studies, 2, 149 ff.; JAOS. 3, 291 ff. 33 iff.; P. WURM,
indischen
A. BERGAIGNE,
La
Religion, Basel 1874, pp. 21"54;
Religion Vedique
du
A.
Der
d'apres les Hymnes
LUDWIG,
Rigveda, 3 vols., Paris 1878"83;
die
der
Zum
Brahmana.
Male
ersten
Rigveda oder
heiligen Hymnen
vollstandig
ins
Deutsche
iibersetzt.
Mit
Commentar
und
Einleitung. Prag, Wien,
Leipzig
F. MAX
Lectures
the
of Religion,
MULLER,
1876"88;
on
Origin and Growth
London
1878; A. KAEGI, Der Rigveda, 2nd ed., Leipzig 1881 ; English Translation
Boston
The
1886; A. BARTH,
by R. ARROWSMITH,
Religions of India, London
Is : Die
des
Herabkunft
Feuers
1882; A. KUHN,
und
Mythologische Studien.
des
Gutersloh
Indiens
Gdttertranks,
Litteratur und Kultur,
1886; L. v. SCHRODER,
P. D.
CHANTEPIE
der
ReLehrbuch
DE
LA
Leipzig 1887, pp. 45
SAUSSAYE,
145;
Vedische
ligionsgeschichte,Freiburg i. B., 1887, I, pp. 346 69; PISCHEL and GELDNER,
Studien.
vol. I, Stuttgart 1889, vol. II, part I 1892; A. HILLEBRANDT,
Vedische
und
verwandte
Le
Gotter, Breslau
Mythologie, vol. I, Soma
1891; P. REGNAUD,
Rig-Veda et les Origines de la Mythologie indo-europeenne, Paris 1892 (theauthor
follows principles of interpretationaltogether opposed to those generally accepted).
E. HARDY,
Die
Vedisch-brahmanische
Periode
der
alten
Indiens,
Religion des
i. W.
Miinster
Die
Berlin
OLDENBERG,
1893; H.
Veda,
Religion des
1894;
P. DEUSSEN,
der
besonderer
BeriickAllgemeine Geschichte
Philosophic mit
Veda
auf
bis
die
sichtigung der Religionen, vol. I, part I, Philosophie des
The
and
Upanishad's
Leipzig 1894; E. W. HOPKINS,
Religions of India, Boston
London
1895.

buch,

7 vols.

"

St.

"

"

Sources

of Vedic
Mythology.
By far the most
important
of India, the
Mythology is the oldest literarymonument
of coordinate
Rigveda. Its mythology deals with a number
nature
gods of
the
influence of an
varying importance. This polytheism under
increasing

" 3.

source

of

"

Vedic

i*

III. RELIGION,

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

KUNST.

u.

VEDIC

i A.

MYTHOLOGY.

Rigvedic period,exhibits in its latest


and even
of monotheism
signs of pantheism.
the beginningsof a kind
book
with
view to the sa
been
collection
a
of
this
composed
having
The
hymns
furnish
Soma
the
of
t
hat
a
offering,
disproportionate
crificial ritual,especially
The
great gods who
presentment of the mythological material of the age.
in the worship of
sacrifice and
the Soma
at
an
important
position
occupy
with spirits,
forth prominently;but the mythology connected
the wealthy, stand
tendency

abstraction

to

life after

witchcraft,with

with

belief have

death,

with

nothing to do
of the gods

of the

end

the

at

the

is almost
of

poetry

blank,

the

for

these

spheres

rite. Moreover,

Soma

of

while

completely illustrated in these hymns, which


their
them
addressed
to
attributes,their deeds, with the ex
are
far
less definitely
described.
It is only
of
their
a
re
leading exploits,
ception
the

character

that

natural

of
the

demons,

its latest book.

of

inanimate

of

information
and

the

hardly

death.

worship

the

gods,

Thus

after

deification

defective

The

lesser
spirits,

of the wicked
the

sacrificial poetry containingvery little narrative


of this side
scattered and
fragmentary account

of

but

supply

mythology.

garding
plied by
fate

collection

should

matter,
of

is very
extol
and

Beside

and

of

rest

only

the

finds

as

well

place in

here

even

re

the

to

the

adoration

the
to

as

RV.

partially
sup

very

is made

from
distinguished

ancestors,

objects,

the

life,is

reference

any

dead

given by

future

some

extent

religionof

the

Rigveda.
which
in
do not occur
containingbut seventy-fiveverses
in
the
of
Vedic
importance
study
mythology.
deals mainly with
The
dom
more
popular material of the Atharvaveda
estic and
magical rites. In the latter portion it is, along with the ritual text
of the Kausika
and demon
sutra, a mine of information in regard to the spirit
On
world.
deals with notions of
this lower side of religionthe Atharvaveda
the
of the Rigveda.
But
those
on
higher side of
greater antiquitythan
advanced
religionit represents a more
stage. Individual gods exhibit a later
abstractions are deified,while the general
new
phase of development and some
character
of the religionis pantheistic1.
in praise of individual gods
Hymns
the
of a number
invocation
of
simultaneous
are
comparativelyrare, while
deities,in which their essential nature is hardly touched upon, is characteristic.
The
deeds of the gods are
in the same
extolled
in the
as
stereotypedmanner
and
AV.
the
be
said
to supply any
RV.;
can
hardly
important mythological

Samaveda,

The

the

RV., is of

trait which

no

is not

be

to

found

in

collection.

older

the

The

Yajurveda represents a still later stage. Its formulas


being made
for the ritual,are
but
addressed
who
not
the
to
are
directly
gods,
shadowy
beings having only a very loose connexion with the sacrifice. The most salient
features
of the
chief
mythology of the Yajurveda are the existence of one
of an
god, Prajapati,the greater importance ofVisnu, and, the first appearance
old god of the Rigveda under
the new
of Siva.
name
Owing, however, to
the subordinate
here
in
position
comparison with the
occupied by the gods
ritual,this Veda
yieldsbut little mythologicalmaterial.
Between

Aitareya
being the
the
of

and, the Brahmanas,


Satapatha, there

the

main

object

general character
others

is much

animate

logy
or

it

and

increased
the

objects is

of the

the

same

RV.

of

of

reduced.

as

that

and

Father-god

as

most

of

important

essential difference.

no

which
The

are

the

sacrifice

interest,the individual traits of the gods have faded,


certain deities has been modified, and the importance

or

still

the

is

of

Otherwise
the

RV.

recognized. The

the
the

Brahmanas
chief

the

pantheon

of

the

Brahmanas

the worship of in
the AV., and
main
the mytho
difference between

and

is the

deity in

recognized positionof Prajapati


latter.
The
pantheism of the

the

METHOD

4.

divide

to

ency
the

supernatural
the

on

divided

further
and

hand

one

sentative triad

of

itself in

shows
their

various

lord

of

groups.
form
the

the

it is characteristic

Thus

hostile

two

Asuras

three

classes

the

subdivision

and

on

of the terrestrial

The

the

Devas

gods

or

The

other.

gods

are

Vasus, the aerial Rudras,

formalism

of

these

is the
works

repre
further

of
by the personification
lord
of
'Agni,
food',
'Agni,

deities
of

they speak

of

tend

period that

the

of

significantgroup

most

individual

of

Thus

camps
the

demons

or

Adityas (" 45). The


Fire, Wind, and Sun.

attributes.

prayer'

The

powers
and

into the

celestial

the

(SB.

and

into

them

PURSUED.

BE

is said to be the All


explicit. Thus ^Prajapati
everything (SB. i, 6, 42; 4, 5i 72)lost their distinctive features,there is apparent a

is, moreover,
A11
the
or
5'")
3i
The
gods having

Brahmanas
i,

TO

an

forth2.

so

relate

Brahmanas

their

illustration of

in

myths

numerous

main

referred
of these
But where
not
to in the Samhitas.
are
subject-matter.Some
in
in
the
earlier
do
the
Brahmanas
literature,
occur
only as
t
hey
they
appear
their
said
older
and
shed
of
be
to
cannot
forms,
lighton their
developments
link between
the mythologicalcreations
as
a
original forms, but only serve
and
of the post-Vedic periods,
of the oldest Vedic
i

and

age

widely

153.

Method

"4.
an

HRT.

BRI.

"

be

to

country,

differingfrom

our

182.

HRI.

42;

pursued.
social

of

and

Vedic

is the

mythology

climatic

have,

We

own.

conditions
here

moreover,

of

product

far removed

and

deal

with

to

not

of poets whose
imaginative creations
of
different
attitude
towards
that of the men
mental
from
nature
was
vastly
involved
in dealing with material
so
difficulty
complex and re
to-day. The
is
further
increased
of
so
a
early
thought,
by the character
presenting
stage
is thus perhaps no
this thought is imbedded.
There
of the poetry in which
subject capable of scientific treatment, which, in addition to requiringa certain
caution
and
share
of
poetical insight,demands
sobriety of judgment more
has
method
which
Yet
the
is
of
stringency
urgently.
clearly so necessary,
this
in
Vedic
the
been
of
To
defect,
mythology.
largely
lacking
investigation
in con
less than
to the inherent
obscurity of the material, are doubtless
no
due
siderable
the many
and
measure
great divergences of opinion prevailing
Vedic
scholars
of important mythologicalquestions.
number
a
on
large
among
earlier
Vedic
there
the
of
studies
In
a
was
tendency to begin
period
end.
The
research
the
at
etymological equations of comparative
wrong
then
made
the startingpoint. These
identifications,
though
mythology were
inter
continued
the
have
influence
to
now
unduly
mostly rejected,
the
creations
the
Veda.
of
of
But
even
pretation
mythological
apart from
based
have
on
general
etymological considerations,theories
frequently been
impressions rather than on the careful siftingof evidence, isolated and second
traits thus
sometimes
receivingcoordinate weight with what is primary.
ary
direct

of

statements

unmistakable

An

fact,but

bias

has

at

with

the

the

same

time

particularprinciple of interpretation1. Thus


been
mythological figures have
explained as
An
or
moon
a priori bias
respectively.
sun,
consciouslypartialutilization of the evidence.
Such
useful
being the case, it may
poye
one

view

the

to

encourage
scientific

principlethat
to

the

less

character

known,

and

student

more
following

of

the

which
Vedic

some

of
unduly large number
derived
from
dawn, lightning,
an

of

to

this

kind

suggest
cautious

some

leads

to

hints

methods.

an

un

with
On

the

proceed from the better known


aim
at presenting a true
picture of the
gods, ought to begin not with the meagre

investigationsshould

researches

actions

in

of

itself in favour

shown

III. RELIGION,

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

KUNST.

u.

VEDIC

i A.

MYTHOLOGY.

comparativemythology, but with the information


continuous
record
supplied by Indian literature,which contains a practically
in the RV.
down
its most
ancient source
to modern
of Indian mythology from
times 2. All the material bearing on
deity or myth ought to be collected,
any
before
of
the
and
sifted
con
parallelpassages,
by
comparison
any
grouped,
form
the primary features which
the basis
In this process
clusion is drawn3.
later accretions.
should
be separated from
of the personification
conclusions

uncertain

and

As

as

soon

which

nothing
Primary

the

taken

poeticalfancy begins
in

introduced

be

may
do

to

has

person

imagination,the
into

of

with

the

natural

web

weave

of

time

of

course

in

force

the

secondary myth,

material

is borrowed

originalcreation, but

the

of

place

to

that

has

elsewhere.

from

the material is not


essential features,when
too
limited, betray
his
in
Indra
the
Thus
iteration.
themselves
myth
fightwith Vrtra,
by constant
that
is perpetuallyinsisted on, while the isolated statement
is essential,
which

and

strikes Vrtra's

he

by

an

doubt

without
times

is

the

to

bolt

god

Soma

is

(i, 329)

effect.

also.

clearlya

But

before

in

the

the

RV.

The

the

poets

are

in the

RV.

of

from

which

of

the

Soma
Indra

attributes is

such

fond

several

that

statement

juice

the

added

touch,

it is transferred

that

transference

the

the characteristic

share

both

Attributes

fray.

because

later

epithet'Vrtra-slaying',

alone; is

latter

regularly drinks

cularly easy
couples,when

the

Again,
Indra

deity,is sufficiently
plain from
Vrtra-slayingintoxicatingplant' (6, I711),
the

to

'the

poet

his

dramatic

for

originallyappropriate to

applied

former

with

mother

individual

parti
celebratinggods in
of each other
qualities

of

exploitsand

be eliminated
from
the
of course
acquired must
similar remark
A
essential features.
appliesto attributes and cosmic powers
have
which
are
predicated,in about equal degree, of many
gods. They can
in
when
evidence
It
is
to
as
no
a
particulardeity4.
regard
only
cogency
attributes
and
in
such
to an
are
applied in a predominant manner
powers
in such
dividual god, that they can
with any force.
it
be adduced
For
case
is possible they might have
the
started from
god in question and gradu

(cp. " 44).

thus

in this
in mind
The
fact must, however, be borne
to
others.
ally extended
that
some
connexion,
more
gods are celebrated in very many
hymns than
others.
The
there
frequency of an attribute applied to different deities must
fore
as

estimated

be

with

the

former

than

hymns

many

with Varuna

Thus
often
as
an
relatively.
epithetconnected
in all probability
be more
essential to the

Indra,,would
as

of

the

latter.

For

Indra

The

value

of

Varuna.

is invoked

old

an

notion;

but

if it differs from

about

what

may
passage
said
has been

of

of

times

ten

as

evidence

as
particularpassage
the hymn
in which

any
be
affected
by the relative antiquityof
may
A
statement
occurring for the first time in a late

present

in

character

it

occurs.

course

re

the

on

same

it most
earlier hymn,
point in a chronologically
probably furnishes a later
The
of the RV.s
and
tenth
the
first book
the
of
development.
greater part
therefore
are
more
likelyto contain later conceptions than the other books.
the

Moreover,
may
book.

exclusive

different

Thus

Vivasvat

give

connexion

complexion

of
to

the

ninth

with

book

Soma

Pavamana

contained

mythological matter

in another

Trita are
the preparationof
connected
in quite a specialmanner
(cp."" 18, 23). As regards the Brahmanas,
great caution should be exercised in discoveringhistorically
primitivenotions
in them;
for they teem
with far-fetched fancies, speculations,
and identi
and

with

here

Soma

fications6.
In
to

and

the

adducing parallel passages


context.

complex

Their

real

consideration

value

as
can

of their

evidence, due
often

only

be

surroundingsand

regard

should

ascertained
the

by

association

be
a

paid

minute
of ideas

5. THE

which

later

the

as

new

aid

the

certain

conclusions

and

follows.

After

aided

Veda,

by

from

corroboration

lightshould

either

us

be
with

Comparison
material, or when

Indian

the

enable

estim

careful

such

afford,further
may
of the Iranians.
decide

to

the

is old

what

and

about

the

step

may
in order

conceptions. Thus
regard to Vedic
be impossible to arrive at anything
of the god Mitra.
originalnature
taken

be

now

examining

of

the

ascertain if possible,wherein

to

Indo-European period and what is the


heritage.Finally,the teachings of ethnology cannot

heritage from
that

derived

results

parativemythology,
of

the

in
greater defmiteness
of the Avesta, it would

further

The

precedes
of

is inconclusive,may

attain

to

without
like

the

confirm
evidence

or

what

evidence

MYTHOLOGY.

VEDIC

AND

literature
phases of Indian
the
closely allied mythology

from

sought
it may
Indian

internal

the

of

with

them

connects

ation

AVESTA

the

results

of

com

consists the Vedic

originalsignificance
be neglected,when

it becomes

what
elements
survive
still remoter
from
to ascertain
a
necessary
evidence
to all such
development. Recourse
beyond the range of
stage of human
the Veda
itself must
a
safeguard against on the one hand assuming that
prove

various mythological elements

treatingthe Indo-European
notions.
the

latter view

The

Indo-European
i

the very
far from

as

be

as

ZDMG.

48, 542.

49,

HRI.

173.

on
or
origin,
point of
starting

the truth

the very

language represents

OLDENBERG,

ZDMG.

period

would

purely Indian

of

are

the
all

the

as

beginnings of

pvs.

XXVI"

Cp. OLDENBERG,

VIII.

other

hand

mythological

assumption that
Aryan speech7,

BLOOMFIELD,

Die

des Rigveda I,
Hymnen
Berlin
KZ.
1888; E. V. ARNOLD,
HOPKINS,
JAOS. 17, 23
34, 297. 344;
92.
6 HRI.
WZKM.
183. 194; v. SCHR6DER,
7 ORV.
26"33.
9, 120.
liber Methode
bei
Cp. also LUDWIG,
Interpretation des Rgveda,
Prag 1890;
HILLEBRANDT,
Vedamterpretation,Breslau 1895.
4

"

51.

"

"

"

" 5. The
evidence

Avesta

of

the

Vedic

and

Avesta

be

Mythology.
ignored by

--

the

We

have

student

of

seen

that

the

Vedic

mytho
language with the dialect
is so
of the Vedas
great in syntax, vocabulary, diction, metre, and general
poetic style, that by the mere
applicationof phonetic laws, whole Avestan
be
word
into Vedic, so
translated
word
for
stanzas
to produce verses
as
may
The
correct
not
of
only in form but in poetic spirit1.
affinityin the domain
reform
of Zarathustra
so
mythology is by no means
great. For the religious
of mytho
brought about a very considerable
displacement and transformation
If
therefore
literature
old as
we
logical conceptions.
possessed Avestan
as
that
of the RV., the
have
been
much
approximation would
greater in this
in detail,in mythology no
less than in cult,
respect. Still,the agreements
logy.

are

The

affinityof

cannot

the

oldest

Of

numerous.
surprisingly

ritual it

is

here

only

form

of

the Avestan

identical
many
mention
Vedic
to

the

terms

connected

with

the

Avestan
yajna
yasna,
rta
dthravan,fire-priest,
asa
order,
all soma
of
the
Soma
haoma, the intoxicating
juice
plant, in
both
cults offered
main
the
as
libation,pressed, purifiedby a sieve, mixed
with milk, and
described
the lord of plants, as growing on
the mountains,
as
and
as
brought down
by an
eagle or eagles (cp. " 37). It is rather with
the
In both
strikingcorrespondences in mythology that we are concerned.
is
the
term
ahura
the
religions
asura
applied to
highestgods, who in
both
conceived
are
as
mighty kings, drawn
through the air in their war
chariots
in
character
by swift steeds, and
benevolent, almost
entirely
free
from
traits. Both
the Iranians
and
the Indians
guile and immoral
ob
served
the
cult of fire, though under
the different names
of Agni and Atar.
The
invoked
Waters, dpah
by both, though not frequently2.
dpo, were
The
Vedic
Mitra
is the Avestan
Mithra, the sun
god. The
Aditya Bhaga
is vayu,
corresponds to bagha^ a god in general; Vayu, Wind
a
genius of
hotr
sacrifice,
rite,and above

necessary

zaotar, priest,atharvan
=

RELIGION,

III.

Krsanu

Keresani

Trita Aptya

To
and

napat; Gandharva

Apam

MYTHOLOGY.

VEDIC

A.

Gandarewa

with soma
haoma.
beings connected
named
and
Thrita
Athwya,
mythicalpersonages
and
Indra
the genius of victoryVerethragna.

two

demon

the

divine

are

correspond

Vrtrahan

Indra

to

KUNST.

u.

of Waters

napat, the Son

air;Apam
and

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

of
of Vivasvat, ruler of the
dead, is identical with Yima, son
son
Yama,
in
in
The
of
not
ruler
character,
parallel
though
paradise.
name,
Vivanhvant,
of
in

god

the

vol.

i.

i, p.

cit. 225

op.

"

33;

HRI,

" 6.

Comparative
on

are

we

first

made

in

been

rejectedand

Dyaus

the

iranischen

ydtu\

Philologie,

Periode, Leipzig 1887, p. 155.


und
Mythen, I, 86"97;

Arische

have

"

griechischen Culte

SPIEGEL,
ORV.

26

In regard to the Indo-European


Mythology.
certain ground. Many equationsof name
once
of discovery and generally accepted, have
since
enthusiasm
"

far

very
is the

Ze6;

doubt.

der

and

druj

167"8.

"33;

period

of

SPIEGEL, Die
Die
GRUPPE,

"

also
religions

two

druh

terms
Grundriss

KUHN'S

and

GEIGER

in

BARTIIOLOMAE

the
evil spirits

designationsof

as

common

The
spirit.

the wise

Mazda,

is Ahura

Varuna

Varuna

"

less

few

only

of

which

one

remain

that

those

be

can

rest

said to

foundation.

firm

on

be

beyond

the

range

seems
Oupavo?though presentingphonetic difficulties,

possible. The rain-god Parjanya agrees well in meaning with the Lithuanian
thunder-godPerkunas, but the phonetic objectionsare here stillgreater. The
of Bhaga is identical with the Slavonic bogu as well as the Persian bagha,
name
but as the latter two words
cannot
mean
only 'god',the Indo-European word
the
of
Usas
is
individual
have
name
radically
deity.Though
designated any
and
as
Hu"c, the cult of Dawn
a
goddess is a specially
cognate to Aurora
Indian
development. It has been inferred from the identityof mythological
of
traits in the
the Indo-European
thunder-gods of the various branches
that
in
existed
the
a
Indo-European period in spiteof
family,
thunder-god
the

absence

of

There

name.

common

are

also

one

other

two

or

not

im

probable equationsbased on identityof character


only. That the conception
of higher gods, whose
connected
with light(]A//V, to shine) and
nature
was
heaven
arrived at in the Indo-European period,is
(div) had
already been
shown
the
deivos (Skt.deva-s, Lith. deva-s} Lat. deu-s)}god.
common
name
by
The
and
Greek
to Vedic
(common
conception of Earth as a mother
mytho
Zsu
father (Skt. Dyaus
Gk.
as
a
logy) and of Heaven
pitar,
iraiep, Lat.
from
For
still
date
idea of
the
to
remoter
a
Jupiter) appears
antiquity.
Heaven
and
Earth
being universal parents is familiar to the mythology of
and New
China
Zealand
and may
be traced in that of Egypt *. The
practice
of magical rites and
the
of
inanimate
still
objects
survivingin the
worship
Veda,

doubtless

development
cised by the
be

down

came

from

an

equally

stage in the

remote

mental

of mankind,
of a certain influence exer
though the possibility
cannot
primitiveaboriginesof India on their Aryan conquerors

altogether excluded.
1

Culture

II:

GRUPPE

op.

cit. I, 97"

I, 326; LANG,

VEDIC

CONCEPTIONS

" 7. Cosmology.

121;

ORV.

33"

8; HRI.

168"

9.

Mythology. Encyclopaedia Britannica,

OF

THE

WORLD

AND

2
"

p.

TYLOR,

150

ITS

"

Primitive

I.

ORIGIN.

The
Universe, the stage on which the actions of
enacted, is___regarded
by the Vedic poets as divided into the
three
domains1
of earth, air or
The
sky when
atmosphere, and heaven2.
the
above
whole
forms
latter
the entire
as
the
the earth,
with
regarded
space
universe consisting
of the upper
and
the nether
vault (ndkd) of
world.
The
the sky is regarded as the limit dividingthe visible upper
the
world from

the

gods

are

".

COMPARATIVE

7. COSMOLOGY.

MYTHOLOGY.

is the abode
of heaven, which
of lightand the dwelling
favourite
triad of the
earth
the
form
gods. Heaven, air, and
s"ter
S^
or
implicitly(8, io6. go6 "c.). The
RV., constantlyspoken of explicitly
phenomena which appear, to take place on the vault of the sky, are referred
while
those
wind
of lightning,rain, and
to heaven,
belong to the atmosphere.

third

the

of

designatesthe

heaven

when

But
of

invisible world

or

place

phenomena

are

of

spoken

whole

VS.
(4, i43
17, 67) the
and
heaven
the world
earth, air,
=

of

Each

the

three

of

is also

worlds

space

above

the

taking place there.


'vault of the
sky' comes

In

as

light,which

subdivided.

thus
Thus

both

earth

classes

of the AV.
passage
triad of
between
the
a

forms
three

fourth

division 3.

earths, three

atmo

is
the universe
mentioned; or when
six
hear
of
worlds
looked
of
two
as
or
consisting
halves, we
upon
spaces
from
the loose
of the word
use
(rajdmsi). This subdivision probably arose
prthivl 'earth' (i, io89" I0; 7, I0411)4 in the pluralto denote the three worlds
(justas the dual pitarau, 'two fathers' regularlydenotes 'father and mother').
earth is variously called
the great (ma/iT),
The
bhumi, ksam, ksd, gmd,
the
boundless
the broad
(prthivl or urvi), the extended
(apdra), or
(uttdna),
with the upper
the place here
(idam} as contrasted
sphere (i, 221?. i54T"3).
The
does
conception of the__e_arth
being a disc surrounded
by an ocean
in
it
the
But
Samhitas.
not
was
as
circular,
naturallyregarded
being
appear
(io, 894) and expressly called circular (parimandald)
compared with a wheel

spheres,

in

the

three

heavens

are

sometimes

SB.6

The

four

points of the
form
(7, 72s;

are

compass

already

mentioned

in

the

RV.

in

in the
substantives
AV.
as
42") and
'four quarters?^(pradisali)are
(AV. 15, 2 ff.). Hence
spoken of (io, i98),
with
the
whole
earth
also used
term
a
as
(i, i64*2), and the
synonymous
earth is described
as
'four-pointed'(io, 58 3). Five points are
occasionally
mentioned
in the
middle
that
(9, 8629; AV. 3, 24^ "c.), when
(10,42",),
where
the speaker stands, denotes
the fifth. The
AV.
also refers to six (the
zenith
be
same
even
seven
being added) and
points5. The
points may
meant
by the seven
regions (disaJi)and the seven
places (dhdmd) of the
earth spoken of in the RV.
(9, ii43; i, 22l6).
Heaven
div is also commonly
termed
or
sky, or as pervaded
vyoman,
with light,
the 'luminous
(with or without div ah}. Designations
space', rocana
of the dividingfirmament
the 'summit'
besides the 'vault' are
(sdnu], 'surface'
(vistap},'ridge'(prstha), as well as the compound
expressions 'ridge of the
vault' (i, i255cp. 3, 212) and
'summit
Even
of the vault' (8, 922)3.
a "third
three
is mentioned
of heaven'
ridge in the luminous
(9, 86 27). When
space
heavens
are
they are very often called the three luminous
distinguished
spaces
(frTrocana})a highest(uttama), a middle, and a lowest being specified(5,6o6).
The
and pdrya
uttara
highestis also termed
(4, 266; 6, 40 5). In this third
heaven
or
highest
or
vyomari) the gods, the fathers^
(very often parame rocane
and
Soma
conceived
are
as
abiding.
Heaven
and
earth
are
coupled as a dual conception called by the terms
others (" 44), and
rodasi] ksom, dvydvaprthivi and
spoken of as the two
halves
'with
the
The
the
combination
(2, 27^).
semi-spherical
sky causes
-R^
notion
'the
called
of the earth's shape to be modified, when
the two
two
are
other'
each
towards
they are
(3, 5520). Once
(camva) turned
great bowls
the
axle
wheels
ends
of
the
to
two
at
an
(io, 894).
compared
heaven
The
between
RV.
makes
the supposed distance
reference
to
no
and
birds
in
the
such
that
not
soar
can
even
earth, except
phrases as
vague
to
the abode
'the
that
of Visnu
But
the
AV.
two
8l8)
(io,
(i, 1555).
says
wings of the yellow bird (the sun) flyingto heaven
are
1000
days' journey
an

adverbial

io,

36

14.

III. RELIGION,

io

Brahmana

in the

horse

that

states

the

VEDIC

A.

world

heavenly
heavenly world

MYTHOLOGY.

(2, iy8)

it is remarked

where

AB.,

the

is

(PB. 16, 86;

other

each

standing on

cows

1000

as

days' journey

'1000

Another

for

KUNST.

u.

is found

similar notion

apart'. A
that

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

is distant from
far

as

here'.

this world

from

9).
hardly susceptible of per
is also called rajas which
i

21,

(antariksd) is
and
cloud, it
sonification. As
region
is sometimes
is described
as
thought of
watery (i, i245 cp. 5, 85 2j and
'black'
it is spoken of as
(i, 35 2"4'9; 8, 436). The
triple
dark, when
as
the three
is referred to as
subdivision
rajdmsi
(4,
^or
5;
53
5, 69 x).
spaces
of
then
uttama
is
(3,
as
or
The
(9, 225j, parama
spoken
trtlya,
30 2),
highest
and
Soma
the
and
the
waters
are
the third (9, 746; io, 45 3. I238;, where
_"
air

The

intermediate

or

space
of mists

the

Agni is produced. The two lower


perception,but the third belongs to
once
to be the 'mysterious'
latter seems
space
celestial

subdivision

twofold

The

of

the

(7, 99

referred

is

atmosphere

within

are

spaces
Visnu

our

the

cp. i,
elsewhere

to

The

(io, io57).

Then

commoner.

of

range

i555).
the

lower

with
heavenly (divyam or
(i, 62s; 4, 533). The
uppermost
stratum, as being contiguous
often
with heaven
(div) in the twofold as well as the tripledivision,seems
heaven
in
the
with
strict
be
sense.
to
loosely employed as synonymous

(upard) or
divah) space

definiteness

Absolute
of

even

terrestrial (parthiva) is contrasted

the

consistency in

or

could

poet

same

the

the

be

reasonably

not

different poets

of

statements

in

expected

regard

or

such

to

matters.

air

The

above

being

the

its subdivisions,whether
as

it also; and

above

the

(6, 91;
that

view7

the

the

night
view

is,that
shine

the

of

in

the

RV.

sometimes

to

There

balance

the

east

being
of

supposed

as

during the night.

The

is to

between

was

the

limits of sunset

no

the
that

daytime.
the lightwhich

dark

(i, H55),

is different from

return

towards

and

to

the

east

atmosphere

is often

called

sun's
the

earth,to
goes

sunrise.

may
steeds

the
way
what
but

view
he

came,
becomes
no

account

'fhese

round

night
than

more

At

rate,

any

during the night


round
account

so

as

for

to

the

is sometimes

draw

rajas which

that

of

nothing

notion

that

during the return journey. As to


daytime, a doubt is expressed (i, 24"),
The

sun,

the

to

indefinite

lightwith which he
the sun
passingbelow

favour

to

the

the

or

the

direct reference

probabilitiesseems
to

similar

darkened
the

themselves
the

least

Savitr,the
however, mean

may,

the

under

that

effect

This

lend

to

in the AB.

downwards

sun

thought

(3, 44 *) as to the sun's course


luminary shines upwards at night, while it turns

bright and
the

been

conceived

(ubhayatah).

is enclosed

advanced

statement

sun

(5,8i4)

passages
both
sides

that

the

universe,

naturally have been


three, would
regarded
that
at least (i, 8i5cp. 90 7) clearlyshows
verse
of
this position. Three
the
however,
passages,

5,

of

course

division of the

threefold

or

8i4) have
atmosphere

7, So1;
lower

the

three
on

one

'terrestrial space' is in

RV.

for

two

in the

earth

accompanies
373).

rises (io,
the

earth, the

luminary was
becoming entirely
of the stars during
the

conjecture is

made.

of the
(samudra) as the abode
It is also assimilated
the
waters.
it has
to
as
earth, inasmuch
mountains
and
flow
there
which
streams
(i, 322"c.)
seven
(i, 3212"c.),
when
the conflict with the
of drought takes place. Owing
the
demon
to
a

sea

celestial

obvious

resemblance

the

'mountain'

(parvata) thus very often in the


to
sense
figurative
being generallyclear enough. The
word
'rock' (adri) is further regularlyused
in a mythologicalsense
for 'cloud'
as
released
enclosingthe cows
by Indra and other gods9.
The
rainclouds as containingthe waters, as dripping,moving and roaring,
are
milk is rain.
peculiarlyliable to theriomorphism as cows10, whose
RV.

refers

clouds8,the

term

RELIGION,

III.

1 2

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

KUNST.

u.

VEDIC

A.

MYTHOLOGY.

The
first is tem
drought,has three principleapplicationsin the RV.
of
One
idea
the
phenomenon
precedinganother
priority.
poral, as involving
and
the
dawns
the
Thus
its
is spoken of as
generate (Jan) the sun
parent.
is
born
herself
of
Night (i, 1239).
morning sacrifice (7, 78 3), while Dawn
with
is changed, contradictions
regard to such relation
the point of view
As
is ascribed
the risingof the dawn
ships naturally arise (cp. p. 48). When
in
is
be
found
this
notion
the
of
sacrifice
the
to
the
Fathers,
explanation
to
in
The
local
of priority.Secondly, a
applicationfrequently occurs.
space
Illustrations
which
a
thing is contained or produced is its father or mother.
Thus
the quiver is
furnished
statements.
of this are
by purely figurative
are
called the father of the arrows
(6, 755) or the bright steeds of the sun
after

termed

the

his

of

daughters

(i, so9).

car

with
and
heaven
especiallyconnected
in the
of Dyaus
personification

This

idea

local

Paternityis

earth.

and

(see " n),

feature

of

the

parentage

is

characteristic
is constantly

Dawn

Similarlythe Earth, who


produces vegetation
earth
mother
and
her
a
(i, 89 4 "c.). Heaven
on
(5,84
often found
coupled as universal parents, a conception
however, more
are,
fertilizes the earth by the- descent
obvious
enough from the fact that heaven
and
and
further
that both
of moisture
developed by the observation
light,
in
the
form
of
the
nourishment
to livingbeings,
one
rain, the other
supply
in that of herbage. They are
the parents of the gods (" 44).
characteristically
and
often said to have
created
the latter are
heaven
As
earth, we thus arrive
of the Vedic
that
the
children
at the paradox
produced their own
poets
for
described
as
instance, being
having begotten his father
parents; Indra,
and
mother
his own
from
body (i, i592; 10, 54 3). Again, the raincloud
is the mother
of the lightningcalf, or the heavenly waters, as
cow
carrying
the embryo
of the aerial fire,are
of the forms
of the
its mothers, for one
is
'Son
also
'the
of
of
the steep'
waters' (" 24).
son
to
fire-god
appears
be
of lightningin the AV.
a
name
(i, i32'3; cp. 263 and RV.
i422).
10,
the 'daughter of Heaven'.

called

broad

bosom

Thirdly, the

notion

is the

who

father

of

mother

of

chief, the

Thus

parent.

3), is

prominent

from

member

generic point
of

group,

of

view:

becomes

he

their

Wind, is father of the Storm-gods (i, I344), Rudra,


is
or
Rudras, Soma, father of plants, while SarasvatI

Vayu,

the

arises

parentage
most

Maruts

rivers.

of

There

also

applicationsof the idea of paternityin the


languages,an abstract qualityis quite frequently em
ployed in a figurative
sense
(which is sometimes
mythologicallydeveloped)
the
of
that
to
who
bestow
sons
or
represent
qualityin
parent
possess
eminent
Thus
in
an
the
(sunavah
or
degree.
general are sons
pitrdJi)
gods
of immortality1as well
of skill,
daksa
as
sons
(8, 255; cp. " 19). Agni is
the
'son
of strength' or
of 'force' (" 35). Pusan
is the
'child
of setting
free'2.
Indra is the 'son of truth' (8, 58 4), the 'child of cow-getting'
(4,32 22),
and
the 'son of might' (savasah,
twice
mother
his
Si
'*,
being called
4, 24 x; 8,
5.
66 2). Mitra-Varuna
the 'children of great might'. Another
s'avas'i,
8, 45
are
less common.
father
As
transmits his qualities
applicationis much
to his
a
is also occasionally
son, his name
sur
transferred,something like a modern
RV.

As

are

in

the

Thus

name.

his

son.

the

sense

minor

two

Semitic

visvarupa,

Analogously
of the

epithet of Tvastr,

an

the

mythological account

of

name

patronymic

Vivasvat

Vatiasvata

is

becomes

the

applied to

proper

his

son

name

of

Manu

in

(Val. 41).

originof the universe, involvingneither


of the RV.,
of the latest hymns
given in one
the well-known
details in this myth
purusa-sukta (10, 90). Though several
point to the most
recent
period of the RV., the main idea is very primitive,
manufacture

nor

of

generation, is

the

it

as

the

his navel
his

from

gods performed
air,and his feet

the

the

eye

COSMOGONY.

sacrifice,when

formation

the

for

accounts

him

With

8.

sun,

from

also

arose

of

the

his

the

world

earth.

mouth
him.

from

the

his

head

his

From

Indra

from

and

mouth

RV.

some

of

giant.
sky,

the

became

mind

the moon,
sprang
his breath, wind.
from

Agni,

His

body

became
the
brahmana,
his feet the
rdjanya or warrior, his thighs the vaisya, and
itself is pantheistic,for it is
The
sudra.
interpretationgiven in the hymn
is
said
'all
both
that
what
has become
Purusa
and
what
this,
there
(v. 2)
and
the
the
AV.
In
shall be'.
Upanisads (Mund. Up. 2, i10)
(10, 17)
is also pantheistically
He
Purusa
interpreted as identical with the universe.
is also identified with Brahma
(Chand. Up. i, 7 5). In the SB. (n, i, 6 x) he
four

The
his

castes

the

arms

is the

same

the
Prajapati,

as

There

in

are

all that

of

the

RV.

the

is called

he

Statements

(i, 115*).

which

hymns

treat

mythologically.Various

Thus

generation.

of

stands

and

moves

than

cosmological speculation

important agent

an

as

in the

that

the

of

rather
philosophically

originof the world


show

creator.

last book

the

such

sun

passages

regarded
(dtmd) of

was

the

soul

that

as

the

is called

he

(i, 164^;

that his
names
though one
by many
10, ii45 cp. Vol. io2) indicate
abstracted
that
of
to
a
nature
was
being tentatively
god, nearly
supreme
In this sense
the
approaching that of the later conception of Brahma.
sun

glorifiedas a great power


'golden embryo', hiranya-garbha,
is

in the
space
of this hymn,

out
verse

which
in

became

the

only

that

rule

There
the

In

io,

smith.

as

72

he

is called

shines

chief

the

and

universe

the

RV.

where

io,

121.

the

sun

a
6

kind

the

is

It

god^ of

the

who

(vv. 5" 6).

rises

Brahmanas.

of

name

he

the

measures

In

the

last

beings',the name
that
significant

It is

(4, 532),prajdpati
hymn (v.6) is said

occurs
same

is
to

stands5.

of evolution

it is said

From

the

under
-3

Prajapati4,'lord of created

which

cosmogonic hymns

other

two

are

and

of

moves

universe

(asat).
like

the

what

over

air

in

it
of the RV. in which
passage
in the
solar deity Savitr,who

older

epithet of

an

of

of

once

that

of the

Brahmanaspati

non-existent

the

both

explain

existent (sat)from

existent

the

origin

the non-existent

forged together this world


in
Thence
produced.
Aditi
and
after
the
Daksa;

was

earth, the spaces, Aditi with


born.
The
There
gods then brought forward the sun.
were
gods were
eight
she
of Aditi, but the eighth,Martanda, she cast
him
sons
to
brought
away;
die (i.e. to rise and
be born
and
be
to
set). Three
can
distinguished
stages
is produced, then
in this hymn:
first the world
the gods, and
lastlythe sun.
and
sublime
In RV.
abstract
a
a very
more
hymn, it is affirmed
io; 129,
that nothing existed
in the beginning, all being void.
Darkness
and
space
waters
enveloped the undifferentiated
(cp. io, 82 6. i2i7, AV. 2, 8). The
desire (kama),
Then
one
primordial substance
(ekam) was
produced by heat.
the
This
is
first seed
the
the
bond
between
of mind
(inanas) arose.
non
existent
this
emanation
into
and
the existent.
the
gods came
By
being. But
here
the poet, overcome
by his doubts, gives up the riddle of creation as
unsolvable.
short hymn
A
of three
stanzas
(io, 190) forms a sequel to the
it is stated
that from
Here
more
general evolution of that just described.
heat
then
the
the
the
order
(tapas) was
(rta)-,
night,
produced
ocean,
year;
in
and
and
heaven
creator
succession
sun
(dhdta) produced
earth,
moon,
succession

air and
In

arose

the

ether.
a

similar

strain to

RV.

'formerlynothing existed, neither


being non-existent resolved to come
cosmogonic

view

of

the Brahmanas

io,

129
heaven
into

Brahmana
nor

earth

being' (TB. 2,
requiresthe agency

passage
nor

declares

that

atmosphere, which
regular
9 ff.). The
x

2,

of

creator, who

is

HI.

14

RELIGION,

Prajapatiis

is the All.

first seed

is the

which

KUNST.

u.

creator

father

only

an

of in RV.

spoken

MYTHOLOGY.

here
is Prajapati or
gods, men, and demons, but
of the desire
anthropomorphic representation

is not
here

VEDIC

A.

The

startingpoint.

who

Brahma,
personal.

the

the

always

not, however,

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

of

10,

all these

In

129.

the

accounts

startingpoint is either Prajapatidesiringoffspringand creating,or else the


floated
which
Hiianyagarbha the cosmic
golden egg,
primeval waters, on
that desires and
the Universe.
This
is produced the spirit
creates
whence
the
of
of
the
contradiction
to
waters
as
fundamental
priority
Prajapatior
the theory of evolution
the
that
of
result
of
with
be
to
combining
appears
this

Besides

creation.

there

instance, that the

are

minor

many

Prajapatiand

gods
account
The
given in the Chandogya
became
being; the latter changed into
is

Brahma8
the

(5,61),

Up.

order

evolution

of

Brahma

from

3,

(5, 19)
which

egg,

statement,

Prajapaticreates

Brahmana
an

of

after

is that
a

for

as,

the

year

gods 7.
not-being
by splitting

is thus

stated:

creator

in the

the

In

were
beginning waters
this was
produced the real (satyam)-,from
produced
from
Prajapati,
Prajapatithe gods.

All-god appears

The

conflicts

that

was
earth; whatever
produced is the sun, which
in
the
I91"4). Again,
Brhadaranyaka Upanisad

(cp. Ch.

this (universe); they

Brahma,

and

heaven

became

in two

create

as

AV.

the

under

new

of

names

life (AV. n, 4), Rohita,


Support, Pranaq,
notable
of the sun, Kama, Desire,and various others I0. The
most
describes the raising of the submerged
cosmogonic myth of the Brahmanas
in post-Vedic mythology developed into an
Avatar
earth by a boar, which
the

Skambha,

as

personifiedbreath

of

name

of Visnu.11.
OST.

et

vatat

29.

"

5, 52.
Ameretat,
OGR.

"

30

Samhita,
alten Volker,

" 9.

note
note
6

"

SPH.

BRV.

271;
2.

OST.

"

5,

69"72.

48.

in

"

"

10

OST.

HRI.
4,

HRI.

"

ff.;HRI.

20

209.

208.

"

"

Haur4

SPH.

208-9.

MACDONELL,
IS.
AIL.

der
aus
Philosophische Hymnen
Rig- und Atharvader
Die
1887; LUKAS,
Grundbegriffe in den Kosmogonien
Leipzig 1893, pp. 65"99.
I;

SCHERMAN,

Miinchen

Origin
the Vedas

Universe.

27"8;
7

"

of

and

gods

the

men.

"

about

most

have
the

of

the

statements

mentioned,
philosophicalhymns the

element

of

water1.

the non-existent.
born

con

alreadybeen

after

the

In

the

According
creation

of

of
the children
as
general described
a
2)
tripleorigin,apparently
(10,
63
passage
correspondingto the tripledivision of the universe, is ascribed to the gods,
when
been
said to have
'born from
Aditi, from the waters, from
they are
the earth' (cp. i, 139").
According no doubt to a secondary conception,
Thus
the
certain individual gods are
spoken of as having begotten others.
is called
Dawn
the mother
of the gods (i,ii319) and Brahmanaspati (2, 26 3),
of seven
well as Soma_-(9,
as
or
872), is said to be their father. A group
eight gods, the Adityas, are regarded as the sons of Aditi. In the AV. some
gods are spoken of as fathers,others as sons2 (AV. i, 3o2).
The
rather
Vedic
are
conceptions on the subject of the origin of man
but
the
human
fluctuating,
race
regarded as
generally to have been
appear
from
descended
first man.
The
latter is called either Vivasvat's son
a
Manu,
who
the first sacrificer (10, 637) and
father
who
is also spoken of as
was
the

Heaven

and

Otherwise

originof the

As

gods
need
here
be
added.
In
only a brief summary
with the
originof the gods is mostly connected
said to have
AV.
arisen from
(10, 7 25) they are
to one
cosmogonic hymn (10, 129") they were
tained

ff.; DARMESTETER,

2, 422

SPH.

Kosmogonie der Inder, Allgemeine Zeitung,1873, P- 2373 ff-;WEBER,


Die
des Veda;
philosophischen und religiosenAnschauungen

HAUG, Die
LUDWIG,

9, 74;

BRI.

5, 175,

178-89.

JRAS. 1895, PP-

217;
veda

OST.

83; ORV". 232,

295; \VC. 50"1.


IS. i, 261.
9

WEBER,

"

Earth.

In

they
one

are

in

9. ORIGIN

GODS

OF

AND

MEN.

GENERAL

10.

CHARACTER

CLASSIFICATION.

AND

15

l6); or

is Yama
with
his
he
who
Vaivasvata, Vivasvat's
son,
The
of
when
race.
produced the human
thought
origin
men,
conceived
have
been
to
of as going back
beyond this first ancestor, seems
is
of
Vivasvat
the
father
the
while
celestial.
once
(" 18)
primeval twins,
as
and
the water
the celestial Gandharva
are
designated as their highest
nymph
Men's
also alluded
to 3;
kin (10, io*).
relationshipto the gods is sometimes
have
been
the
of
and
must
thought of as included
offspring
men
among
of
all
that
is
said
and
the
exists.
Heaven
Again, Agni
Earth,
great parents
the
have
(i, 962-4), and
to
Angirases, the
begotten the offspring of men
described
his sons.
of later priestly families, are
semi-divine
ancestors
as
families
other
Various
human
are
independently descended
spoken of as
others
the
from
Atri, Kanva, and
(i, i399).
gods through their founders
Mitra
divine
and
the
Vasistha (7, 33 JI) was
Varuna,
miraculously begotten by
his
mother.
different
order
To
of ideas
quite a
nymph Urvasi having been
from
belongs the conception of the origin of various classes of men
parts
of the world
(" 8, p. 13).
giant Purusa4

(i,

Manus

80

twin sister Yam!

SPH.

32.

"

5, 13 f., 23 f., 38 f.

OST.

"

BRV.

i,

36.

ORV.

"

275

7.

"

125-8.

VEDIC

III. THE

"

General

10.

classification.

and

character

GODS.

individualitycharacterize

of out

Indefiniteness

"

Vedic

of

the

conception
gods.
the
to
mainly due to the fact that they are nearer
physical pheno
which
mena
they represent, than the gods of any other Indo-European people.
Thus
the ancient Vedic
(Nir. 7, 4) speaking of the nature
interpreterYaska1
is not
is seen
of them
that what
of the gods, remarks
anthropomorphic at
the
and
The
natural
bases
of
in
of
others.
the
the case
Earth,
Sun,
all,as
while
the Vedic
characteristics,
they
gods have, to begin with, but few specific
share
of the
attributes of other
some
belonging to the same
phenomena
domain.
features of being luminous,
Thus
Dawn,
Sun, Fire have the common
in
The
absence
of distinctiveness
the
darkness, appearing
morning.
dispelling
line

and

This

is

must

be

of

lack

still
and

one

is made

greater when

the

same

of

only

up

features

of

to

common

wisdom.

Certain

few

all the

great

gods,

leading deity individually. The


and
even
are

have

earth

is

so

ascribed
described

to
as

Hence

essential

cosmical

the

created

traits

such

as

functions
action

generally attributed
magical bunch
a

having

different aspects
from
sprung
of each Vedic
the character
god

deities have

several

phenomenon.
a

the

the

of

combined

number

of

other

heaven
establishing

supporting or

to

them,

of

darbha

two

with

beneficence, and
brilliance,
power,
are
predicated of nearly every
that

worlds,

in

the

grass.
and
rather

placed it in the

(19, 32)

AV.

Nearly

dozen
are

more

it is

gods
said

to

produced
sky, or to
prepared
sun,
the
path for it. Four or five are also spoken of as having spread out
worlds.
Several
earth, the sky, or the two
(Surya, Savitr,Pusan, Indra, Prais stationary.
and
janva, and the Adityas) are lords of all that moves
in
is
because
features
tend
what
obscure
to
common
essential,
LJSuch
of
and
hymns
praisethey naturallyassume
specialprominence. Againr
prayer
in
gods belonging to different departments, but having prominent functions
are
god of
common,
apt to be approximated. [JThus Agni, primarily the
terrestrial fire,dispels the demons
with his lightwhile Indra, the
of darkness
aerial god of the thunderstorm, slays them
with his lightning]
Into the con
the
further
of
his
the
ception
enters
fire-god
atmosphere.
aspect as lightningin
The
in pairs.
assimilation is increased
by such
gods often being invoked
a

to

have

have

III. RELIGION,

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

result in

KUNST.

u.

attributes

the

peculiarto

These

combinations

selves

latter appears
to the other, even
of
called Soma- drinker,Vrtra-slayer,winner

to

be

attributes all

dawns,

primarilybelonging to

indefiniteness

The

of

outline

MYTHOLOGY.

god attachingthem

one

alone.

the

when

VEDIC

A.

Thus
and

cows

Agni

waters,

comes

and

sun

Indra.

by the possessionof
tendency to wipe out the
caused

so

com

many

distinctive
attributes,coupled with
to every
god, renders identification of
ones
by assigningnearly every power
identifications are
Such
of fact
as
a
matter
one
god with another
easy.
the
in
Thus
exclaims:
'Thou
the
RV.1
a
fire-god
poet addressing
frequent
kindled
thou
becomest
Mitra, in thee,
at thy birth,O Agni, art Varuna; when
all gods are
of strength,
O son
centred; thou art Indra to the worshipper'
the

mon

the

in

the
on
particular
devoted
priesthood

Reflexions

(5, 3 x).
in

of

eyes

of

nature
to

fire

Agni,
cult,

few

important a god

so

his

on

mani

many

his other

individual fires on
as
earth, and on
aspects as atmospheric
lightningand as celestial fire in the sun, aspects which the Vedic
fond
of alludingto in riddles,would
suggest the idea that various
poets are
of
divine
but
forms
deities are
different
a
single
being. This idea is found
of the RV.
'The
in more
than one
one
being priestsspeak of in
passage
call
it
Matarisvan'
(i,
Yama,
they
Agni,
i644"; cp. AV.
many
ways;
10, 828.
festations

fire in

13,
that

4I5J. 'Priests and poets with


is but one' (10, ii45).
Thus

words

make

the bird (=
into many
that by the end of the

it appears

the

sun)

Rigvedic

monotheism
find there
We
had been arrived at.
polytheistic
of
not
a
incipientpantheistic
conception
deityrepresenting
only all
the gods but nature
well.
For
the
Aditi
is
identified
not
as
goddess
only
with all the gods, but with men,
all that has been
and
shall be
born, air,
and heaven
all gods,
(i, 89 10);and Prajapatiis not only the one
god above
but embraces
all things(10, i2i8-10).This pantheistic
view becomes
deve
fully
in
and
the AV.
is explicitly
(10, 7*4. *5j
loped
accepted in the later Vedic

period

kind

of

the

even

literature 2.
In

the

older

individual

parts of the RV.

gods are often invoked as the


The
fact
out
to
logicalconclusion.
that the Vedic
be
to
engrossed in the praise of the
poets frequentlyseem
particular
deity they happen to be invoking,that they exaggerate his attributes
the point of inconsistency,
has
to
discussed theory
given rise to the much
which MAX
MULLER
and
which
he
has
the
of Henoto
name
originated
given
theism or Kathenotheism
3. According to thistheory, 'the belief in individual
gods alternately
regarded as the highest',
[theVedic poets attribute to the
be
all
the
to
god they happen
addressing
treating
nighest traits of divinity,
him
for the moment
if he were"
as
an
absolutelyindependent and supreme
deity, alone present to the mindj Against this theory it has been urged 4
that Vedic
deities are
not
represented 'as independent of all the rest',since no
its
and com
into
religionbrings
more
frequent and varied juxtaposition
gods
the mightiestgods of the Veda
made
bination,and that even
are
dependent
others.
Varuna
Thus
and
Va
on
subordinate
Indra
are
to
(i,ioi3),
Surya
and
the Asvins
runa
the
Visnu
submit
of
and
to
Indra,
(i, I564),
power
highest,but

this notion

Mitra- Varuna,
It has

been

is not

carried

Rudra

cannot

Aryaman,

further

pointed out

viivedevahior All-gods,
succession,and that as
for

the

the

ritual of

the

all the
the

Soma

entire pantheon, the

tive position of each

unique

or

god

chief (eka),

as

its

resist the ordinances

that in the

deities,even

great

mass

technical
in that

the

of

offering,which

the

is natural

lesser

Vedic

included

priest could
ritual.

ofSavitr

(2, 389).

frequent hymns addressed

not

Even

enough

when
in

ones,

are

hymns was
worship

the
but
a

know

god

the

praised in
composed
of
exact

is spoken

laudations, such

the

to

almost
rela

of

statements

as

GODS,

VEDIC

THE

GENERAL

i o.

CHARACTER

AND

CLASSIFICATION.

force
temporarily monotheistic
through the modifications or corThus
the
a
context
verse.
or
even
lections supplied by
by the same
poet
should
is lord
also be
like Varuna,
of wealth'.
It
that
alone,
'Agni
says
in pairs,triads,
and largergroups,
that gods are
remembered
constantlyinvoked
in conjunction with
the exalted
Varuna
one
being mostly addressed
even
in
with
other
in
Henoseveral
other
6, 67) or
gods (as
god (as
2, 28).
rather than
theism is therefore
a
an
reality,an appearance
pro
appearance
due
to
duced
undeveloped anthropomorphism, by the
by the indefiniteness
Vedic
the
constant
lack of any
as
god occupying the position of a Zeus
of
the
the
natural
of the
head
or
priest
tendency
singerin
pantheon, by
his
and
to
ignore other
extollinga particulargod to exaggerate
greatness
in
the unity of the gods (cf.the refrain of
gods, and by the growing belief
of whom
might be regarded as a type of the divine. Heno3? 55)" each
the tendency of the
theism might, however, be justifiedas a term
to express
their

rose

towards

RV.

Vedic

the
earth

kind

Vedic

^The

or

of monotheism.

gods,

poets, since
some|jrnAC ^f

has

as

been

they
^th^r

described

are
"Ac

This

earlier (purve) gods


of"~golls7but

beginning in the view of


and
the offspringof heaven
as
itself impliesdifferent generations

had

shown,
in

in several
to
expressly referred
is
also
of
the
first age
or
spoken of(7, 21
gods
"c.).
passages
(io; 722-3). The AV. (n, 810) speaks of ten gods as having existed before
This
is expressly stated
The
mortal 5.
the rest.
gods, too,, were
originally
in the AV.
of all the gods
state this both
(n, 5^; 4, n6). The Brahmanas
Indra
and
of
the
individual
(AB. 8, i44), Agni (AB. 3, 4),
gods
(SB. 10, 4, 3 3)
is
and
Prajapati (SB. 10, i, 31)6. That
they were
originallynot immortal
For jmmortality was
bestowed
them
on
by Savitr (4, 54
implied in the RV.
VS. 33, 54) or
by AgnT (6, 74; AV. 4, 23"). They are also said to have
it by drinkingSoma.
is called the prin
(Q, io68 cp. io92-3), which
obtained
of
another
the
of
RV.
immortality
(10, 53'"),
(SB. 9, 5^i 8). In
ciple
passage
is not clear.
but by what
means
they are said to have acquired immortality,
According to a later conception Indra is stated to have conquered heaven
by tapas or austerity(10, I671). The gods are said to have attained divine
rank
death by con
means
(TB. 3, 12, 3*), or to have overcome
by the same
I9
tinence
and
to have
) and
austerity(AV. 11,5
acquired immortalitythrough
Rohita
the gods are
death
stated to have
overcome
(AV. 13, 1 7). Elsewhere
(TS. 7, 4, 2 J). Indra and several
by the performance of a certain ceremony
other
gods are said to be unaging (3, 46 "c.), but whether the immortality
of the
gods was
regarded by the Vedic poets as absolute, there is no evi
dence
show.
to
According to the post- Vedic view their immortality was only
relative,being limited to a cosmic age.
The
of the gods is anthropomorphic, though only
physical appearance
in a shadowy
it
for
often
represents only aspects of their natural
manner;
7

are

also

earlier

An

bases

described
figuratively

to

illustrate their

activities7. Thus

head,, face,

mouth, cheeks,,eyes, hair,shoulders,,


breast, belly, arms,
hands, fingers,feet
attributed to various individual gods. Head, breast, arms, and
hands
are
are
m
entioned
in
connexion
with
warlike
Indra
the
of
and
the
chiefly
equipment
Maruts.

The

his eye is intended


rays, and
his physical aspect.
to
The
limbs
of Agni merely
represent
tongue and
denote
his flames.
The
referred
to
to
fingers of Trita are
only in order
of

arms

illustrate his character


to

emphasize

of

as

that

his

having
in the

Indo-arische

case

or

the

as

sun

simply his

are

preparer

of

Soma,

and

Two
or
drinkingSoma8.
assuming all forms (visvarupd}.It
of

powers
of

Philologie.

deities
III.

1 A.

whose

outward

shape

was

the

belly of
gods

three
is
so

easy

to

vaguely

Indra
are

only
spoken

understand
conceived

III. RELIGION,

20

they

where

RV.

in the

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

of

spoken

are

MYTHOLOGY.

VEDIC

A.

and
old
small, young
great and
view
the
settled
of
represents

as

this statement

that

.It is

KUNST.

u.

probable
the gods (cp. pp. 14. 17).
to
as
gradation of rank among
in
when
one
(8, 30') it is said
It is only a seeming contradiction
passage
all
the
are
to
with reference
gods, 'none of you is small or young;
you
this
could
zods
the
on
directly
for
hardly
point
a
addressing
poet
great';
pt is certain that two gods tower above
have
expressed himself differently,
Indra as the mighty warrior
about
deities
equal in power,
the rest as leading
(i, 2713).

the

Vedic

and

Varuna

owing

poets

the

as

Zoroastrianism

of Varuna

Indra

and

and

were

later

show

that

in the

power
the

to

Mazda
ritual
the

praise.
family books,

whole

them,

to

of the

number
with

that the

while

the

hymns

to

with

to

subordinate

dedicated

hymns

with

Agni

and

each

their

popular deities
dedicated

are

always

hymns

of

the

great

judged by

are,

most

Indra

two

to

Soma

to

first

come

this conclusion21.

confirms

to

which

the

come

Indra

the three

great majority of the

ninth, to themselves,

the

book,

bined

addressed

the hymns

Varuna

For, roughly speaking,three-fifths of its hymns


fact

evidence

no

Rigvedic period occupied


is the highest god and
Indra
only
But
if Indra
even
possessed coordinate
originally
Indo-Iranian
period, he was
necessarily
relegated
Ahura
the
reform
of the Avestan
religionmade

in the

The

the

rate

any

period, but

older

an

Mazda

Ahura

Avesta.

of

of

the

preeminent only
are
contemplated,
by various scholars

background when
to Indra and
supreme20 (cp. p. 28)."^Next
These
and
deities Agni
two
along
SomaJJ

frequency

their

is at

into

as

oldest

the

that

Varuna

of the RV.

the

even

is true

position. It
with

in

highestgods

the

(p. 28). There

Indra

displacedby
Indra

demon

Adityaswere

the

became,
god of

supreme

developed

Varuna

appears
moral
world
Taws"~ot the~pKysTcaland
supreme
held
has
been
It
be called a popular god.
cannot

that Varuna

in

form

the

when

the

India

in

Mazda, while
conquering Aryans.

Ahura

as

of

god

warrior

older

the
qualities,

ethical

his

of

predominance

the

to

The
rulerTJ

moral

supreme

have

Following

remaining deities,com
in the

mentioned

RV.,
2)
Asvins,
distinguished:i) Indra, Agni, Soma;
gods may
Maruts, Varuna; 3) Usas, Savitr,Brhaspati,Surya, Pusan; 4) Vayu, Dyavacan
prthivl,Visnu, Rudra; 5) Yama, Parjanya22. The statistical standard
Mitra)

about
over

the

only

times.

400

Their

in

relative
sacrifice

is due

Such

an

partialguide. For
thirtyhymns,

about

the Asvins

Yet

they

prominence

an

as

deities of

estimate

estimate

cannot

of

of

involves

the

can

be

is doubtless

with

is celebrated

Varuna

his
claim

said

being

name

to

over

50

(mostlytogether
altogether

mentioned

hymns

and

are

Indra.

named

in greatness.
approach Varuna
with
their closer connexion
to

Similar considerations

would

the Maruts
have

to

relative greatness of other deities in the list.


considerable difficultiesand doubts.
A classification

according to gradationsof
for

are

owing
morning light.Again, the importance of

their association

to

into

enter

times,while

250

names

be

only

be

course

with

frequency

of

classes

five

of

the

Vedic

the

rank

would

therefore not

afford

basis
satisfactory

gods.
classification,
satisfactory
might take as its basis
the relative age of the mythologicalconception,according as it dates
from
the period of separate national Indian existence,from
the Indo-Iranian, or
the Indo-European epoch.
Thus
Brhaspati,Rudra, Visnu may be considered
the creations of purely Indian
adequate
mythology; at least there is no
evidence
that they go back
It has already been
to show
earlier age.
to an
indicated (" 5) that a number
of mythologicalfigures date
from
the IndoIranian
period. But as to whether any of the Vedic
gods besides Dyaus may
be traced
back
doubt
is justified.
to the Indo-European
period, considerable
an

account

Another

but

stillless

III.

20

RELIGION,

only

seeming contradiction

KUNST.

MYTHOLOGY.

VEDIC

A.

and
old
small, young
great and
statement
represents the settled view of

of

spoken

are

probable that this


to gradation of
poets as

Vedic

It is

u.

It is

(i, 2713).
the

they

where

RY.

in the

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

as

rank

among
in

when

one

the

gods (cp.pp. 14. 17).


(8, 30 l) it is said
passage

all
are
gods, 'none of you is small or young;
you
this
the
could
on
sjods directly
point
hardly
great';for a poet addressing
pitis certain that two gods tower above
have
expressed himself differently,
Indra
the mighty warrior
as
equal in power,
the rest as leading deities about
reference

with

and

Varuna

owing

to

as

the

moral

supreme

of

predominance

the

to

the

Zoroastrianism

Mazda,

Ahura

as

The
rulerTJ
his

ethical
in

while

older

form

of Varuna

the
qualities,
India

Indra

became,

god

supreme

developed

into

of
the

as
preeminent only
conquering Aryans. Varuna
appears
moral
world
laws "ot the "pEysTcaland
the supreme
are
when
contemplated,
be called
and
cannot
a
popular god. It has been held by various scholars
older
the highestgods of an
and
the Adityaswere
that Varuna
period, but
is
Indra
There
evidence
at
rate
later
to
28).
no
were
(p.
displacedby
any
in
oldest
subordinate
the
Indra
that
show
even
Rigvedic period occupied a
Mazda
Indra
is the highest god and
only
position. It is true that Ahura
in the Avesta.
But
if Indra
demon
even
possessed coordinate
a
originally
in the Indo-Iranian
with Varuna
period, he was
necessarilyrelegated
power
the
reform
of
the
Avestan
when
Ahura
the
to
religionmade
background
Indra
and
Varuna
Mazda
the
to
two
come
supreme20 (cp. p. 28).f/Next
great
These
ritual deities Agni and
two
along with Indra
judged by
SornaTJ
are,
the frequency of the hymns addressed
to them, the three most
popular deities
of the RV.
dedicated
to
For, roughly speaking,three-fifths of its hymns are
their praise. The
fact that the hymns
Indra
first
to Agni and
come
always
have
in the family books, while the great majority of the hymns to Soma
a
this
confirms
conclusion21.
whole
book, the ninth, to themselves,
Following
the number
of the hymns dedicated
of the remaining deities,com
to each

of

god
\yarrior

with

the

with

which

their

in the RV.,
mentioned
are
2) Asvins,
Indra,
Soma;
distinguished:i)
gods may
Agni,
Maruts, Varuna; 3) Usas, Savitr,Brhaspati,Surya, Piisan; 4) Vayu, Dyavastatistical standard
can
prthivl,Visnu, Rudra; 5) Yama, Parjanya22. The
of course
be only a partialguide. For Varuna
is celebrated
(mostlytogether
with Mitra) in only about
thirtyhymns, his name
being mentioned
altogether
about
and
the
named
while
Asvins
claim
can
over
are
times,
hymns
250
50
in
times.
Yet
be
Varuna
said
cannot
to
over
they
approach
400
greatness.

bined

classes

five

Their
the

the

relative

sacrifice

is due

Such

an

as

an

names

be

prominence
deities of

estimate

estimate

of

involves

is doubtless

owing to their closer connexion


morning light.Again, the importance of the

their association

to

into

enter

frequency

of

with

Indra.

Similar considerations

would

with
Maruts
have

to

relative greatness of other deities in the list.


considerable difficultiesand doubts.
A classification

according to gradationsof

the

would

basis
a satisfactory
gods.
Another
but stillless satisfactory
classification,
might take as its basis
the relative age
of the mythologicalconception,according as
it dates from
the period of separate national
the Indo-Iranian, or
Indian existence,from
the Indo-European epoch.
Thus
be considered
Brhaspati,Rudra, Visnu may
the creations of purely Indian
adequate
mythology; at least there is no
evidence
It has already been
to show
that they go back
earlier age.
to an
indicated (" 5) that a number
of mythologicalfigures date
the
from
IndoIranian period. But as to whether
of
Vedic
the
besides
Dyaus may
gods
any
be traced
back
doubt
is justified.
to the Indo-European
period, considerable

for

an

account

of

the

Vedic

rank

therefore not

afford

GODS.

CELESTIAL

DYAUS.

1 1

classification according

fore

rest

furnish
line

basis

possible

the

jection,is

founded

is,and

risk

the

on

task

this method

would

there

represent,, might

drawing

of

clear

difficulties.

many

natural

deities

the

deities least

Vedic
which

bases

they represent.

what
there
be a doubt
the
to
as
may
is therefore
involved
of describinga

cases

some

too

But

classification of the

the

whole,

that

involve

various

the

classification.

of

would

demarcation

of

mythologicalcreation

the

of
age
foundation.

which
personification

of

stage

On

in

too

on

The

the

to

uncertain

ob

to

open
For

physicalsubstrate
particular deity

though
really
in

the

deities of

the advantage of bringing together


been
facilitating
comparison. It has therefore
cognate
various
in
The
the
have
been
phenomena
grouped
adopted
followingpages.
itself and
adhered
to
according to the tripledivision suggested by the RV.

place,

wrong

by

its oldest

thus

commentator.

OST.

offers

and

character

BRI.

5, 219;

26; BDA.

OST.

iSoff.;

PhR.

52;

in the

Henotheism

1894),75"83;

ORV.
13

ORV.

347.
BRV.

97"

Sayana
Cp. HRI.
94"8.
the

on

account

GRV.

3, 203"4.
; 281

101

RV.

i,
i9

"

HRI.

21

given

5,

357"8.

"

HRI.

139".

'Indra

"

(2,421"3), and

22

These

AUFRECHT'S

A.

THE

far

the

93.

138"40.

Vayu
sons

classes

RV.

"

ORV.

are

of
and

based

ORV.

of H.

"

101;

MM.,

223;

14i.
7, 6. 7.
5, 18.

OST.

MUIR,
SB.

4)

"

"

16

i,

WC.

York

JRAS.
7, 31;
9.

"

238.

ORV.

"

"

282.

HOPKINS,

(New

Drisler

32, 300."

NIRUKTA

"

is

"

and
are

single gods,

"

KATYAYANA,

17

Agni, Vayu, Surya


90.
of the

ORV.

3, 199.
"

l6

"

187.

10

BRV.

"

honour

cp. ZDMG.
3,
cp. AV.

HRI.

"

1881;

Oct.

in

134;

14-17;

7.293"301.

"

studies

SVL.

i3; 6, 5, 31;

353. 355.

89.
"

i, 7,

54"8;

4,

6, 208; TS.

Classical

in

"c."

139

PADS.,

WHITNEY,

"

Rigveda,

HRI.

OST.

20,41"5;
AB.

"

100.

f.; KRV.
3, XXVII
33;
und
26.
Mitra, 105; BRI.

ORV.

12"14;

266. 285. 298 f. 312 ff.; Science


of Religion
i, 28; OCR.
LRV.
OO.
00.3,449;
BUHLER,
5. 6 f 12 f. 125;
1,227;
note
Varuna
ZIMMER, ZDA.
19(7),175; HILLEBRANDT,
113;

526. 532. 546; Chips

ASL.

OST.

SarvanukramanT,

5, 18"20;
Introd. "2, 8;

are
closely allied' (TS. 6, 6, 83).
20
QRV.
Prajapati(MS. 4, 212).
"

the
on

statistics fournished
data

derived

from

below

LRV.,

in

GW.,

II2, 668"71.

CELESTIAL

GODS.

of the word
most
frequent use
dyaus is as
it occurs
sense
at least
'sky', in which
500
times
in the RV.
It also means
When
'day'1 about
personified
50 times.
the god
of heaven, Dyaus
is generally coupled with Earth
in the
dual
as
No
of the RV.
compound
dydvdprthivi^ the universal parents.
single hymn
is addressed
When
he is mentioned
to
Dyaus alone.
separately the per
sonification
is limited
almost
idea
the
of
to
entirely
paternity. The
name
then
in
the
nominative
The
latter
nearly always appears
or
genitive case.
occurringabout 50 times, is more
case,
frequent than all the other cases
with the name
of some
other
together. The
genitive is regularly connected
is called
the
of
about
or
In
three-fourths
deity who
son
daughter
Dyaus.
instances
of these
is his daughter, while
Usas
in the remainder
the Asvins
his offspring(napata), Agni is his son
are
(sunu) or child (si's'u),
Parjanya,
his sons
Surya, the Adityas,the Maruts, and the Aiigirasesare
(putra).
Out
of its thirtyoccurrences
in the nominative
the name
only eight
appears
times alone, being otherwise
with Prthivl or
mentioned
generally associated
with various
deities mostly includingPrthivT.
In these
is
he
eight passages
three times
the father
styled a father (i, 907. 16433; 4) i '"), once
of Indra
he is spoken of as rich in seed (suretah)and as having generated
(4, 72 3), once
Agni (4, 174)- in the remainingthree he is a bull (5, 365) or a red bull that
bellows
downwards
(5, 586), and is said to have approved when
Vrtra
was
slain (6, 723). In the dative the name
is found
times.
In
these passages
eight

"

ii.

Dyaus.

designationof

"

the

By

concrete

III. RELIGION,

22

is mentioned

he

the~~four

PrthivT, once

said

is

Agni

(i, 3 14)
that

is seldom

with

The

Dyaus
ninety passages

much

as

with

of

roar

steed

for

called

the

in

it

Thus

man.

like

looks

Such

touch

appears

only one-sixth of over


impliedby association

touch

of

with

earth.

inas

Dyaus

pearls (10, 68"), an


Dyaus is furnished

that

statement

of

theriomorphism

that fertilizesthe

decked
The

sky.

nocturnal

the

have

we

black

smilingthrough

as

him

roaring animal

sky2.
lightening

the

few

as

with

(asanimat)

bolt

spoken
to

is conceived

allusion to

obvious

being
the

expressly stated or
of the
personificationin the RV.
Dyaus is called a bull (i, 160^passages

paternitynot

(5,586).Here

compared

once

once

only essential feature

bellows

he

MYTHOLOGY.

once

an(*

independently and

mentioned

paternity.In

his

5,365) that

any
made

have

to

is his

Prthivl.

is in fact

without

VEDIC

'lofty abode' 1^47 7)the accusative


with
Dyaus is mentioned
distinctive statement
and
(i, i;43),
once

in

occurrences

and

alone

A.

quite alone,

'lofty'(i, 543),

once

TrT~tWoof

KUNST.

u.

times

three

only

(1,715)^

father'

is

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

anthropomorphism.

is also

He

(2, 46), the allusion being doubtless


however, quite isolated,the con
are,

clouds

the

passages

free from
theriomorphism and anthropo
ception of Dyaus being practically
usually
morphism, excepting the notion of paternity. As a father he is most
This
Earth
mother
with
3.
is
indicated
combination
in
of
a
as
by
thought
the

his

that

fact

with

dual

compound
singular(" 44),

forms

name

that

Prthivl

of

oftener

that in a large proportion of


the
of Prthivl,
singularit is accompanied by the name
is
individualized
he
not
and
that when
to have
sufficiently
regarded separately
with
he
is
his
in
Prthivl
to
praise,though
conjunction
a
hymn dedicated
in six. Like
celebrated
nearly all the greater gods4 Dyaus is sometimes
in

occurrences

called

in

alone

it is used

than

its

the

(i, 122

asura^

and

x; 8, 20*')

x. 131

he

is

(6, 51$) invoked

once

with

'Mother

in

Earth'

(dyaus pitar) along


the word
dyaus is feminine, some
when
times
even
pointed out (" 6) goes
personified6.
Dyaus, as has been
that the
is no
back
to assume
reason
to the Indo-European
period. There
the RV.
in
of
that
that
advanced
and
a
more
personification
period was
type
has in this case
primitivestage. On the contrary there
relapsed to a more
Whatever
the case.
is every
to be
higher
ground for supposing the reverse
in
of
that
have
been
have
existed
must
remote
a
considerably
gods may
age
more
hardly in any instance have been conceived
rudimentary type and can
vocative

the

'Father

as

embraced

all

passages

20

objects7. As the Universal Father


deified objects and
phenomena,

deified natural

apart from
Earth

about

In

(prthivi mdtar}.

Heaven'

other

deities of

who

with

he

would

chaotic

But

Mother
have

polytheism.
speak
is misleading,because
age
for an
this suggests a
and
the type of Zeus
an
incipientmonotheism
had
been
of
neither
these
extremely remote
conceptions
period, though
arrived at in the earlier Rigvedic times.
The
word
the
is derived
from
root
div, to shine, thus meaning 'the
brightone' and being allied to deva, god8.
been
of

the

him

the

greatest among
the

as

v.

171.
IF. 5,
"

SCHRODER.
4

BDA.

286,

n.

"

111.

"

OST.5,2i" 3;OGR.2o9;LRV.3,3i2"
S

Indra,
to

his

dozen

12.

Varun

the

greatest of

a.

praise is
hymns

he would

rank

not

Varuna,

"

the

only

gods

6
"

BDA.

114;

him

cf. GW.

s.

v.

"

HRL

div\ OSTHOFF,

Cp. KZ. 27, 187; BB. 15, 17; IF. 3, 301.


3;BRV. 1,4" 5;Sp.AP.i6o;JAOS. i6,cxLV.

has

been

of the RV.

shown
The

by the side of
hymns dedicated
character.
Hardly a
is

(p. 20),
number

exclusively.Judged by
deity;and even

third class

46, 205.

SEE.

i, ill;

sufficient criterion of his exalted

celebrate
as

as

PVS.

"

86.

BDA.

to

Indo-European

8, 126"7.

\VZKM.
119"23.
7 BDA.

"

the

of

god

supreme
ruler of

the

of

statistical standard

if the

two

dozen

hymns

CELESTIAL

he

would

only

Asvins

the

is invoked

he

in which

and

come

about

with

along
fifth in
on

an

GODS.

12.

his

order

double

of

on

eats

an

and

hands,
eye, arms,
drinks.
The
poet

are

taken

into account,

priority,ranking considerably below


the Maruts
(cp. p. 20).
personality is more
fully developed
The
and
descriptions of his person

anthropomorphism of Varuna's
than
the physicalside.
the moral
stress
are
scanty, more
being
equipment

face,

Mitra

23

equality with

The

his

VARUNA.

and

feet.

regards

He
the

moves

face

laid

on

his

his arms,

(ariikaui)of

activity.He

has

walks, drives, sits,


Varuna

as

that

of

and
of Mitra
is the sun
Varuna
(i, 115 x;
eye
cp. 87 6). The
this
The
is
fact
that
6ix.
mentioned
in the
63 x; 10, 37 x).
always
6, 51 x; 7,
it
is
that
the
of
first
ideas
of
that
first verse
when
one
a
hymn, suggests
occur

Agni (7, 88

with
which
is said
Varuna
in
are
thought of. The
eye
mankind, is undoubtedly the sun.
Surya (i, 5o6) to observe
Mitra
and
with Aryaman,
Varuna
called
are
sun-eyed (7, 66 10),a
is
other
also.
Varuna
term
far-sighted(i, 255-16; 8, 90 2)
gods
applied to
and
Varuna
stretch
their
and
out
thousand-eyed (7, 34'"). Mitra
arms
(8, 90 2).
(5, 64 2; 7, 62 5) and they drive with the rays of the sun as with arms
beautiful-handed
Like
Tvastr
Savitr and
(supani). Mitra and Va
they are
with
and
feet
Varuna
treads
down
their
hasten
wiles with
runa
(5, 64 7),
up
sits on
the strewn
sacrifice (i, 264;
at the
shining foot (8, 41 8). He
grass
3 "c.).
Mitra
drink
he
and
other
Soma
and
like
Varuna
(4,
gods
722),
41
5,
and
mantle
robe
on
a
(drdpi)
shining
(i,
wears
a
golden
251-3). But
puts
he and Mitra are
clothed
of ghee with which
62
the shining robe
(5,
4; 7, 64')
allusion
the sacrificial offering of melted
is only a figurative
butter.
to
The
the same
(i, I521) probably mean
glisteninggarments which
they wear
thing.
is represented as
In the SB.
a
fair,bald, yellow-eyed old
(13, 3, 65) Varuna
which
is at all prominent is
Varuna's
The
of
man1.
equipment
only part
like
described
the
It is
his car.
sun
(i, I2215), as having thongs
as
shining
and
for a pole (ibid.),
car-seat
a
a
whip (5,62?), and as drawn by well-yoked
their car
in the
and
steeds
Varuna
mount
(5, 62 4). Mitra
highest heaven
that
Varuna's
he
the
The
earth
see
car
on
(i, 25 l3).
(5; 63 x).
poet prays
may
is golden and
situated
abode
in heaven
Mitra
and
Varuna's
(5, 67 2;
sits in his mansions
Varuna
(j"astydsU)
looking on all deeds
i, i362) and
(i, 2510-11). His and Mitra's seat (sadas) is great, very lofty,firm with a
their house
thousand
columns
has
thousand
doors
(5, 68 5; 2, 415) and
a
his
(7,88 5). The
abode, goes to the dwellingsof
all-seeingsun
risingfrom
Mitra
of men
and
Variina
to
their
(7, 60 I"3), and
enters
report the deeds
that the Fathers
dear dwelling (i, 1524). It is in the highest heaven
behold
Varuna
the
(10, i48). According to the SB. (n, 6, i) Varuna, conceived
as
lord of the Universe, is seated in the midst
of heaven, from
which
he surveys
him1.
the places of punishment situated
all around
The
sometimes
mentioned.
are
spies (spasaJi)of Varuna
They sit down
around
him
the two
worlds; acquainted with sacrifice
(i, 24 13). They behold
(7, 873). Mitra's and Varuna's
they stimulate prayer
spies whom
they send
and
wise
undeceived
(7, 6i3), are
separately into houses
(6, 67 5). In the
AV.
(4, i64) it is said that Varuna's
descending from
heaven,
messengers
the world; thousand-eyed they look
the
traverse
whole
world.
The
across
natural
basis of these
is
assumed
be
the
to
but
RV.
the
spies
usually
stars;
in
evidence
of this view.
The
there
stars
said
yields no
are
never
support
with night. The
the spies connected
to watch, nor
are
conception may very
well have
strict ruler on
been
earth
is
a
suggested by the spies with whom
surrounded2.
and
Nor
Varuna
for
to
also
are
Mitra,
spies peculiar
they are
attributed to Agni (4, 43), to Soma
(9, 734'7. here perhaps suggested by the
Mitra

and

hymn
Together
a

Varuna

to

RELIGION,

HI.

24

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

KUNST.

u.

combated
previous mention of Varuna), to demons
In
one
in
io8).
(io,
the
passage
general
to
gods
That
from
like
(8,
IX).
a
down
height
look
47
spies

(spas)

in

as

and

gods

both

or

6).

Mitra,

with

in association

Agni

applied to

is also

in which

passages
with Varuna

eight or

attribute

The

Much
is called

Mitra

often

be

considered

the

name

Varuna

sun.

called
He

king (rdjd),
king of all,
(5,85^), and of
a

is

alone

and

oftener

with

Indra.

only

to
so

mostly

or

called, it is connected

Considering that
is dedicated

one

term

(samrdj). This term


Indra.
Counting the

monarch

for

Varuna

to

peculiarlyappropriateto
in a predominant

sovereignty(ksatra] is

of

that the

by the same
(dutd) of

frequently Varuna,

together are

to

primarily

fact

ruler (2, 28 J), a


self-dependent

universal

times

few
and

more

as
as
nearly
hymns celebratingIndra

epithetmay

the

RV.,

Varuna
twice

ten

from

(i, 247- "c.)4.


10),of the whole world

27
is also

said

are

spies were

Yama

2,

Varuna

Indra.

generallyapplied to

these

inferred

be

(i, 33 8), and

Adityas

moreover,
are,
spies,who
The
golden-winged messenger
the
RV.
(io, I236), is doubtless
is
often
with
Mitra,
conjointly

do, I324;

men

exists (7, 87

all that

the

called

leading deities and

other

the

is to

Varuna

MYTHOLOGY.

Indra

by

3.

in the

alone,

Varuna
like

Veda

the

mentioned

once

has

also

Mithra

Iranian

and

Mitra

with

connected

VEDIC

A.

every
in the

Varuna.
manner

appro

priatedto Varuna, generallywith Mitra and twice with Aryaman also. Other
the Asvins.
wise it is applied only once
to Agni, Brhaspati,and
respectively
refers to
Similarlythe term 'ruler' (ksatriyd)in four of its five occurrences
in
and
The
the
the
Varuna
to
once
or
only
epithet
gods
Adityas
general.
alone
with Varuna,
or
asura
accompanied by Mitra,
(" 67) is connected
of the proportion of
than
with Indra
and Agni; and, taking account
oftener
Mitra and
be
said to be
speciallyapplicableto Varuna5.
hymns, it may
lords
called
and
also
the
noble
Varuna
(asurd
are
mysterious
arya) among
the gods (7,652).
divine

The

mdyd6.

word

dominion

This

term

of Varuna

is often

Mitra

and

occult
signifies

referred

applicable in

power,

to

with

the

good sense
parallelin

demons.
almost
It has
exact
an
to
gods or in a bad sense
'occult power,
the English word
meant
'craft*,which in its old signification
the one
hand
art' on
and 'deceitful skill,wile' on
magic', then 'skilfulness,
like that
the other.
of mdyd,
of asura
The
(which might be
good sense
Varuna
with
and Mitra,
rendered
connected
is
by 'mysteriousbeing') mainly
while its bad
for demons.
is reserved
sense
standing
By occult power Varuna
with a measure
in the air measures
the earth with the sun
out
as
(5,855),
Varuna
and
the sky
the dawns
the
Mitra send
to cross
sun
(3, 6i7), make
it with cloud
and
obscure
honied
fall
and
(5,634);
rain, while the
drops
3heaven
or
to rain and
(ibid.
7) they cause
they uphold the ordinances by
the occult power
the
of the Asura
so
(here
Dyaus or Parjanya)?. And
Varuna
is
the
to
48
epithetmdyin, 'crafty', chieflyapplied
I4;
gods (6,
among

to

7,

284;
In

while

marked

much

order.

and

io, 99 I0.

i475).

contrast

is said about

Varuna

is

with
him

Indra, Varuna
(and Mitra)

great lord

of

the laws

has
as

of

no

myths

upholder
nature.

of
He

related

of

physicaland

him,
moral

established heaven

and the
(8, 42 '). The three heavens
the
three earths are
deposited within him (7, 875). He and Mitra rule over
whole
the
world
the two
worlds
are
(5,63 7) or encompass
(7,6i4). They
4
heaven
the
of
Varuna
law
guardians of the whole world
(2, 27 "c.)'. By
and
earth are
held apart (6, 70 '; 7, 86 *; 8, 41 10). With
Mitra he supports
earth and
heaven
(5,62 3), or heaven, earth, and air (5,69 T-4). He made
the golden swing (the sun) to shine in heaven
(7, 875). He
placed fire in
earth

and

dwells

in all the

worlds

CELESTIAL

the

the

waters,

wide

the

paths for

the

(i, 24s;
(7, 6o4). The
of

the

sun

air is Varuna'

VARUNA.

12.

Soma

sky,

sun

sun

steeds

the

where

the

for

path

in

sun

GODS.

the

on

25

(5, 852).
Mitra, and

rock

Varuna,
7, 87*).
order (rta) of Mitra

are

and

(5, 621).

loosed

has

He

Aryaman

open
is established

Varuna

which

wind

The

made

resounds

(7, 8j2).
at
(vratani) the moon
shiningbrightly moves
and
the
but
at
stars
are
seen
on
high
day
placed
night
by
disappear
night,
up
has embraced
(8, 4i3) it is said that Varuna
(i, 2410). In another
passage
has establishedthe mornings
(pan sasvaje) the nights, and by his occult power
with night than
hardly indicate a closer connexion
or
days (usrah). This can
divides
it is the sun
66
and
In
fact
that he regulates or
(cp.
day
IT).
night
7,
with him, and
the
that is usually mentioned
not
moon
or
night. Thus in the
is the lord of lightboth by day and by night,
while Mitra, as
Varuna
oldest Veda
be judged, appears
the god of the celestial light of day only.
far as
as
can
Varuna
In the later Vedic
to be specially
comes
period of the Brahmanas
through
By

the

Varuna's

with

connected

and

day

the
Mitra
from

with

the

desire

Varuna

Varuna

to

Mitra,

contrast

to

natural

whose

basis

4,

(TS.

2,

who

was

was

Mitra

Thus

night (TS. 6,

the

night

the

heaven8.

nocturnal

Varuna

and

breath

ordinances

83); and
i, 74)9.

is said
the
This

still felt

view
be

to

belong

to

to

antithesis

to

arisen

have

may
related

The

obscure.

more

is said

day

produced

have

to

the

sun,

between

the

is

two

is

this world

differentlyexpressed by the SB. (12, 9, 2T2);


is Varuna.
world
Mitra, that (the celestial)
is sometimes

Varuna
the

referred

(i, 258)10;and

months

to

as

regulatingthe

which

that

asserts

knows

He

seasons.

kings Mitra, Varuna, and Aryaman are


month, day and night (7, 66 !I).
in the RV.
is often spoken of as
Even
Varuna
a
regulator of the waters.
caused
the rivers to flow; they stream
He
unceasingly according to his ord
inance
the rivers swiftlypouring into the ocean
(2, 284). By his occult power
twelve

said

do

to

not

Varuna

disposed

have

water

is

found

oceanic
in

with

unimportance

in

as

is

said

to

as

those

into

with
The

(i, i6iT4)".

of Varuna

the

connected

is contrasted

waters

air

its

the

autumn,

(5,856J. Varuna

fill it with

already
perhaps owing to
Vata

the

Mitra

and
the
that

RV.,

collection.

the Maruts

statement

in

that

the

the

of rivers (7,642).

lords

are

in the

sea

but

sky, Agni
rivers

seven

very

going

Varuna
on

rarely,
in

the

earth, and

flow

into

the

surging abyss (8, 5812), may


into
the
sea
(7, 87")13.
(sindhum) like Dyaus
It is rather
aerial waters
that he is ordinarilyconnected
the
with.
Varuna
ascends
hidden
heaven
to
as
a
ocean
(8, 4i8). Beholding the truth and
falsehood
in the
of men,
he
midst
which
of
the
waters
moves
drop
and
sweetness
clear
himself
in the
clothes
waters
(7, 493). Varuna
are
Mitra
and
the gods most
(9, 9o2 cp. 8, 69"' I2). He
are
frequently
among
of rain.
the in
makes
Varuna
thought of and
prayed to as bestowers
verted
cask
the
its
and
to
waters
(of
air,
cloud)
on
heaven, earth,
pour
and
moisten
to
the ground, the
mountains
then
being enveloped in cloud
and
kine
Varuna
have
and
streams
(5" 853'4)- Mitra
yielding refreshment
skies
and
flowing with honey (5, 6g2). They have
streaming waters
rainy
bedew
the
with
(5, 685). They
pasturage
ghee (= rain) and the spaces
with honey (3, 62 l6).They send
rain and
refreshment
from
the sky (7, 642).
Rain
from
them
abounding in heavenly water
comes
(8, 256). Indeed, one
entire hymn
of bestowing rain. It is probably
(5, 63) dwells on their powers
with the waters
and
owing to his connexion
rain, that in the fifth chapter of
the Naighantuka Varuna
is enumerated
the deities of the atmospheric
among

jaws

Varuna

as
are

well
also

gods

refer

the

to

ocean12.

descend

of

the

of rain14.

celestial
In

world.

the AV.

In
Varuna

the

Brahmanas
appears

Mitra-

divested

and

Varuna

of his powers

III. RELIGION,

26

as

divine

in the

wives

are

of

with

(AV.

of Varuna

(TS.

A.

the
the

MYTHOLOGY.

YEDIC

department of waters.
(AV. 3, 33).

mountains

golden house
4, i5I2J. His
of waters, he and
Mitra

overlord

7, 83').
he is
5, 24^- sj. jn the YV.
his abode
within the most

(AV.

making

waters

rain-waters
is the

control
Soma

as

He

rain (AV.

of waters,
The

waters

sheds

he

father

waters

of

lords

the

with

is connected

As

KUNST.

u.

ruler, retainingonly the

universal

He

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

spoken of
motherly

5, 41). Mitra

5,

the

as

are

child (s'isu)

(VS.

waters

and

is

Varuna

10,

are

7).
the

(TS. 6, 4, 32j.
Varuna's
ordinances
are
constantly said to be fixed, the epithetdhrtavrata
conjointlywith Mitra.
being preeminentlyapplicableto him, sometimes
Varuna's
those of Varuna,
ordinances
follow
themselves
The
or
(8,
4i7)
gods
immortal
the
Even
obstruct
Savitr
and
the
cannot
gods
(10, 36 13).
Mitra,
Mitra
and
Varuna
and
Varuna
fixed ordinances
of Mitra
(5, 69* cp. 5, 63").
of order are
the upholders
lords of order
are
(rta) and light,who by means
and some
of order (1,235). The
latter epithetis mostly applied either to them
in
the
cherishers
of order
times the Adityas or
to
general. They are
gods
called
sometimes
the Adityas are
or
or
guardians of
right(i, 2s). Varuna
of waters

leaders

order

times

several

Varuna's

rivers
wrath
the

is

power

they flow, can


(i, 24"). Neither

godhead

abodes

with

as

of Mitra

great

so

and

the
skies

that

neither

the

rivers have

(i, i5i9).

Varuna

birds

the

Soma.

of

The

is also

Agni,

He

they fly nor

as

limit of his dominion,


nor

and

used

Mitra.

and

Varuna

reach
the

applied to Agni

(rtdvari\, predominantly

order'

connected

is also

this term

but

(rtasyagopa],
epithet 'observer of

his

might,

the

his

(the limit of)

reached

embraces

and

the

All

and

the

and
the three
earths are
beings (8, 4iI"7j. The three heavens
knows
He
the flight
is omniscient.
of
(7,875). Varuna
birds in the sky, the path of ships in the ocean,
the course
of the farall the secret
wind, and beholds
travelling
things that have been or shall be
falsehood
truth
and
done
(i, 257-9-"j. He witnesses men's
(7,49'). No
of
creature
him
wink without
men's
can
even
(2, 286). The
winkings
eyes
all
and
whatever
numbered
are
man
does, thinks, or devises,
by Varuna,
Varuna
and
knows
(AV. 4, i62-5). He perceives all that exists within heaven
of

all

deposited in

earth, and

him

all that

is beyond:

could

man

not

escape

from

fleeing far beyond the sky (AV. 4, i64' 5). That Varuna's
typicalis indicated by the fact that Agni is compared with him

Varuna

by

omniscience

is

in this respect

(10, iixj.
As

moral

is roused

wrath

governor
by sin, the

punishes (7, 863" 4).


often

The

Varuna

stands

far

infringementof

his

(pasah)

with

fetters

mentioned
(i,2415.25"; 6, 744;
who
threefold,ensnaring the man

above

any

other

ordinances, which
which

binds

he

deity.

His

he

severely
sinners, are

sevenfold
cast
8524). They are
lies,passing by him who
speaks
truth (AV.4,i66j. Mitra and
with
Varuna
furnished
are
barriers,
fetters,
many
againstfalsehood (7, 653). Once Varuna, coupled with Indra, is said to tie
with bonds
formed
used
of rope
not
term
(7, 842). The
pdsa is only once
and

in

connexion

of

his

to

BERGAIGNE

with

another

god, Agni,

10,

tells

who

is

implored

to

loosen

the

fetters

worshippers (5, 27).


According
the tying up of
fetters is based
the conception of Varuna's
on
the waters, according to HILLEBRANDT
the fetters of night15.But is seems
on
to
be sufficiently
accounted
for by the figurative
applicationof the fetters of
criminals to moral
is said to be a disVaruna
with
Mitra,
guilt. Together
and
peller,hater,
punisher of falsehood (i, 152'; 7, 60?. 6613). They afflict
with disease16 those who
neglect their worship (i, 1229). On the other hand,
Varuna
is gracious to the penitent. He
and
sin
unties like a rope
removes
It

is therefore

distinctive of Varuna.

III. RELIGION,

28

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

gathers the clouds,

who

heightsof heaven,

KUNST.

u.

with which
the
phenomena
accounts
largely
originallyconnected,
Varuna

with

concerned

as

is the

upholder of

supreme

character

afforded

such

as

the thunderbolt, and

for

difference

the

of

in

the

regularlyrecurringphenomena

law

in the moral

no

for

scope
strife of the

as

well

as

the

their

RV.

were

personality.

of celestial light,

the

His
physical world.
Indra
of myths.
conceived
by the militant

development

the

Indian

nexion

irregularin time
hand

than

myths

more

of Indra on the one


diversified in feature,the character
the centre
capriciousness,while on the other he becomes
of
the
RV.
The
other
of
ROTH
to
as
deity
theory
any
Varuna
in the Rigvedic period, is dealt with
by Indra

and

traits of

shows

supersessionof

the
below

(" 22).
With

the

deity,
conception of Prajapati(" 39) as a supreme
as
a
sovereigngod naturallyfaded away, and
of the waters, only a part of his original
sphere, alone remained
he
in post-Vedic mythology an
Indian
ultimatelybecame

dominion
him.

of the

growth

characteristics

the

to

wields

who

MYTHOLOGY.

elements, was
god fightingin the
the
warrior
of
a
as
sovereign
type. Owing to his close con
of the thunderstorm, which are
with the meteorologicalphenomena
so

the

Vedic

the

VEDIC

greatest gods

two

The

of

A.

will is law.

whose

as

Thus

of Varuna

Neptune, god of the Sea.


The
that Varuna
hypothesisrecentlyadvanced
by OLDENBERGIS
primarily
be passed over
here.
cannot
representedthe moon,
Startingfrom the assertion
that the characteristic number
of the Adityas was
and that their identity
seven
with

the

Varuna
the

Amesaspentas
and

five

astronomy

than

further

have

must

the

the

were

planets, and
during the

borrowed
in

Mitra

of

that

and

moon

they

Indo-Iranian

the

an

sun,

the

believes

fact, he

assured

lesser

that

Adityas representing

deities,but were
Indo-European
skilled
from
Semitic
a
people more
period
not

were

The

Aryans.

lost much

is

Avesta

its

of

character

of

borrowed

when

Varuna

and
originalsignificance

have

already

lunar deitycould
possessed a highly ethical aspect. For otherwise a distinctly
thrown
who
into
the sun,
understood
hardly have
Mitra,
to be
was
clearly
the

in the

shade
character

in

Mazda
to

seem

It also

to

as

the

Indo-Iranian
account

Avesta

account

It has

and

of

at all well

requiresthe

period,

or

for the

absolute

supreme
Varuna
in

for

the

developed so highly abstract


as
a moral
ruler,of Ahura
position,
the Veda.
not
This hypothesisdoes
have

rejectionof

already been mentioned


period (" 5), for the Ahura Mazda

in the RV.

characteristics of Varuna

actual

any

that Varuna
of the Avesta

connection

goes
agrees

between

back
with

to

Varuna

and

the Indo-Iranian

him

in character20

The
be
though not in name.
of Varuna
name
even
Indo-European.
may
At least,the long accepted identification of the word
with the Greek
oopavoc,
has not
though presentingphonetic difficulties,
recent
been
rejected by some
authorities on
comparative philology21.
But

whether

the word
is Indo-European or
of a later
the formation
probably derived from the root var, to cover23, thus meaning
'the encompasser'. Sayana (on RV.
it with this root in the
i, 89^) connects
of enveloping or
sense
confiningthe wicked with his bonds24, or commen
ting on TS. i, 8, i6x, in that of enveloping 'like darkness' (cp.TS. 2, i, 7*).
If the word
is Indo-European, it
have
been
attribute of dyaus, the
an
may
of 'sky',
ordinaryname
later becoming the regularappellative
of sky in Greece,
but an
exalted god of the sky in India 2^.

period22,it

is

ZDMG.
WEBER,
2
QRV.
18, 268.
286, n. 2,
9, 242;
6, 72; EGGERS, Mitra 54"7;
ZDMG.
OLDENBERG,
50,48.
"

ZDMG.

"

--

Cp. ROTH,
OST.

5,60,

GODS.

CELESTIAL

BDA.

"

BRV.
RV.

i,

893;

ID
"

ORV-

203

ZDMG.

in

61.

"

9,

ROTII,

I2

119.

8, i6t.

i,

29

ZDMG.
48, 499"
BRADKE,
501
PW.
Varuna;
s. v.
5, 70; ROTH,
I, 7, id;
Sayana on
9 Cf. TB.
10
1894, p. 38.
Cp. WVB.

v.

"

Cp. ROTH,
68.
T5 Cp. HRI.
67, note.
f.
and
63
by HILLEBRANDT,
p.
J7 Cp. OLDENBERG,
3, 155.

Erl.

Mitra

70"1.

dropsy is traced
the
opposed by BRV.
RV., a view
l8
J9 Cp. v. SCHROEDER,
ORV.
285"98.

"

WZKM.

"

"

*3

"

-with

connexion

Nirukta,
und

Varuna

HILLEBRANDT,

I4

later

even

50,

TS.

-3, 81 ;
"
OST.

BRV.

60.

WZKM.

SCHROEDER,
7, 871;
OO.
2, 467.
v.

"

6
"

55.

388;

2,

6, 73.
Varuna' s

ZDMG.

Cf. BDA.

"

BOLLENSEN,

ii

163.

ORV.

120"1;

163. 294.
3, ii6ff.;

)RV.

'

MITRA.

13.

9,

116

"

28;

20
ZDMG.
6, 69 ff. (cp. OST.
ROTH,
5, 72);
JRAS.
27, 947"9(ZoroastrischeStudien
WHITNEY,
JAOS. 3, 327; but WINDISCHMANN
p. 122) held
be
Mazda
no
to
Ahura
3, introd. iii.,sees
purely Iranian, and SPIEGEL, Av. Transl.
18 1.
2I
and
Mazda
Ahura
BRUGMANN,
Varuna;
cp. Sp.AP.
similarity between
22
d. gr. Spr.
Cp. v. SCHROE
Grundriss
Etym. Worterbuch
2,
154; PRELLWITZ,

MACDONELL,

"

"

WZKM.
v.
SCHROEDER,
9"14;
9, 118,
KZ.
ZDMG.
SONNE,
12,364"6;
32, 7i6f.;
BB.
ZDMG.
MM.,
Chips 42, xxiii f.
11, 329;
BOLLENSEN,
41,
504 f.; GELDNER,
ZDMG.
25 MACDONELL,
JRAS. 26, 628.
OLDENBERG,
50, 60.
*\ Cp. GVS.
2, 22, note;
IS. 17, 212
ZDMG.
f.; OST.
WEBER,
6, 70"4;
ROTH,
7, 607; JAOS. 3, 341"2.
und
Varuna
Breslau
GRV.
LRV.
Mitra,
HILLEBRANDT,
i,
314"6;
58
3,
34;
75;
5,
BRL
GPVS.
BRV.
16"9;
I, 142. 188;
-MM-" India 197"200;
1877;
3, 110"49;
Der
Varuna
WC.
e
gli Aditya, Napoli 1889; BOHNENBERGER,
KERBAKER,
98
103;
Gott Varuna,
altindische
189"95- 202"3.
293"8. 336,11. i;
Tubingen 1893; ORV.
HRI.
ZDMG.
61"72;
JAOS. 16, cxLviiiff.; 17, 81, note; FOY, Die
50, 43"68;

WZKM.

DER,

HRI.

i;

n.

9,

127.

66,

note;

23

--

70;

HILLEBRANDT
also

cp.

"

"

"

Leipzig 1895,

konigliche Gewalt,

P-

association

80

"

(Die Spaher Varuna's).

of Mitra

with Varuna

is

so
predominant
of the RV.
alone.
to him
(3, 59) is addressed
single hymn
only one
but the first verse
least
at
The
praise of the god is there rather indefinite,
him.
contains
Uttering his voice (bruvanah) he
something distinctive about
the tillers with
watches
unwinking eye
brings men
together (yatayati) and

" 13. Mitra.

The

"

that

(animisd,said
another

In
who

'brings men

here

called

to

Mitra's

it is said

'a
solar

that

also

of

Mitra- Varuna

in

7,

6o6).

(7,362) almost the same


together,uttering his voice', in
mighty, infallible guide'.This seems
passage

character, if
the

sun-god

we

Savitr
the

compare
'causes

with

words
contrast

with

applied to Mitra
Varuna

who

is

tolerablyclear reference
it another
verse
(5, 829) where
a

all creatures
Mitra

are

the

to

hear
is

him

and

impels

god
spoken of as the
This
epithet (yatayaj-jana) is found
great Aditya 'bringingmen
it is applied to
in only three
RV.
In one
of these
other
of the
passages
Mitra- Varuna
in the dual
and Aryaman
to Mitra, Varuna,
(5,722), in another
men
(i, i363), and in the third (8,9i12) to Agni, who 'brings
together like Mitra'.
The
attribute therefore
have
The
to
seems
properly belonged to Mitra.
hymn
and
further adds
that he supports heaven
to Mitra
earth, that the five tribes
of men
obey him, and that he sustains all the gods. Savitr is once
(5,8i4)
identified with Mitra
elsewhere
is
because
of his laws, and
(Val. 43) Visnu
said to take his three
Mitra.
These
two
steps by the laws of
passages
appear
indicate
that Mitra
of the sun.
to
regulates the course
Agni who goes at
the head
of the dawns
produces Mitra for himself (10,84);Agni when kindled
is Mitra
is Varuna, when
kindled is Mitra1
born
(3, 5 4); Agni when
(5, 31).
In the AV.
in the evening,
(i3,313) Mitra at sunrise is contrasted with Varuna
and
in the morning what
has been
to
(AV. 9, 3l8) Mitra is asked
uncover
covered
Varuna2.
These
the
to
by
point
beginning of the view
up
passages
in
the
with
that
Mitra
is
connected
prevailing
Brahmanas,
day and Varuna
with night. That
view
have
arisen from Mitra having been
must
predominantly
conceived
allied to the sun, Varuna
as
by antithesis becoming god of night3.
The
Mitra
between
contrast
same
as
god of day and Varuna
as
god of night
is implied in the ritual literature,
when
it is prescribed that Mitra
should
them'.

In

the

fifth

verse

of

hymn
together'.

to

III. RELIGION,

30

receive

and

white

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

Varuna

victim

dark

KUNST.

u.

at

VEDIC

IA.

sacrificial post

the

of
somewhat
scanty evidence
91; MS. 2, 57.)4. The
is a solar deity, is corroborated
Mitra
by the Avesta

often

referred
i,

'friend'

means

in

to

84)7, while

the

and

in

sun-god

the

is uncertain6.

name

RV.

and

Mitra

even

the

Veda,

the
in

the

of

etymology

The

undoubtedly

(TS. 2, i, 7*.
showing that
and
Persian religionin
god of lightspecially

the

or

Veda

sun5.

the

with

connected

is

Mithra

Here

general.

MYTHOLOGY.

is

ethical

the

on

have
it must
guardian of faithfulness8,
been
have
applied to the sun-god in

the

as

of
kindly nature
as
a
god
appearing

Mithra

Avesta

However,

the

the
of

side of

word

(TS. 2,
peace
his character

or
originally
signified
'ally'

his

aspect of

also

is often

god

beneficent

'friend'
of

power

nature.
i

16

EGGERS

"

HILLEBRANDT
KHF.

192,

ROTH,

13;

with

2;

"

70.

ZDMG.

"

190

"

s.
Mithra, Leipzig 1859; GW.
BRV.
BOLLENSEN,
29;
3, no

ORV.

night

'note.

EGGERS

113"4;

v.

v. SCHROEDER,
(Dissertation);

is

ZDA1G.

Sp.AP. 183;

"

EGGERS

OLDENBERG

"

old:

3.

"

ZDMG.

WZKM.

9,118; HRI.

arische
71

5.
EGGERS
190;
EGGERS
53
"

IS.
Gott

the

HILLE

6"13.
"

6.

WINDISCHMANN,
Mitra

17, 212;

Mitra,

OLDENBERG,

that
4

"

5, 69"71;
Varuna
und

WEBER,

41,

503"4;
A. EGGERS,
Der

48.
"

thinks

64

50,

ORV.

42

OST.
6, 70 ff.; PW.;
Mitra; HILLEBRANDT,

85;

BOHNENBERGER

67.

HILLEBRANDT

"

Varuna

ORV.

67. 90;

BRANDT
u

19.
of

special connexion

SEE.

111"36;
BRI.

17;

Dorpat 1894
46, 241. 287.

hymns of the RV. may be said to be de


the
of Surya specifically.
It is impossibleto say how
voted
celebration
to
it being in many
of the god occurs,
often the name
doubtful whether
cases
is
its
natural
the
Since his name
meant
or
personification.
phenomenon
only
of the solar
designatesthe orb of the sun as well, Surya is the most concrete
with the
deities,his connexion
being lost sight of. The
luminary never
adorable
light of Surya in the sky is as the face (amka) of great Agni
several
times (5, 4o8 "c.), but he
do, 7 3). The
eye of Surya is mentioned
is himself
equally often called the eye of Mitra and Varuna
(p. 23) or of
is said to bring the eye of
(7, 773) Dawn
Agni as well (i, us1); and once
the
gods. The
affinityof the eye and the sun is indicated in a passage
where
the eye of the dead
is conceived
as
man
going to Surya (10, i63 cp.
he is called the 'lord of eyes' (AV. 5, 249) and is
9o3. I583- 4). In the AV.
said to be the one
of created
beings and to see beyond the sky, the
eye
and
the
is far-seeing(7, 358; 10, 37*), allwaters
(AV. 13, i*5). He
earth,
seeing (i, 5o2), is the spy (spas) of the whole world (4, i33),beholds all
beings and the good and bad deeds of mortals (i,50?; 6, 5i2; 7, 6o2. 6ix.
their objects and
63 I"4). Aroused
by Surya men
perform their work
pursue
"

14.

Surya.

(7, 634). Common

Ten

entire

(7, 63*- 3). He is the


soul or
the guardian
is stationary(i, 115*; 7, 6o2).He
or
has
which
is drawn
car
a
by one
steed, called etasa (7, 632), or by an in
definite number
of steeds (i,ii53;10,373. 497) or
mares
(5,298)or by seven
horses (5,459) or
swift
called
haritah
mares
(i, 5o8-9; 7, 6o3) or by seven
mares
(4, 133).
(i, 248; 7, 871) or by the
Surya's path is prepared for him by Varuna
is his messenger
Pusan
Adityas Mitra, Varuna, Aryaman
(6, 583).
(7, 60^).
The

Dawn

fice

(7, 8o2. 783).

to

all men,
he rises
of all that moves

as

their

rouser

produce Surya as well as Agni and the sacri


from
the lap of the dawns
(7, 633). But
from
another point of view Dawn
wife
(7, 755).
Surya's
is_
_He also bears the metronymic Aditya, son of Aditi (i,5o12.i9i9; 8,90")
the Adityas
or
Aditeya (10,88"), but he is elsewhere distinguishedfrom
The
(8" 3513-15)- His father is Dyaus (10, 371). He is god-born (ibid.).
gods
raised him
of
form
who
had been
hidden
in the ocean
As
a
Agni
(10, 727).
or

Dawns

reveal

He

or

shines

forth

CELESTIAL

he

was

of

ideas

placed by
he

(io,90^).

In

from
sprung
Various

is

the

said

the AV.

gods
to

GODS.

in heaven

have

(4, io5)

arisen
the

31

(10, 8811). According


from

sun

SURYA.

14.

the

of

eye

(divakara}is

the

even

to

another

order

world-giant Purusa
as
having

described

Vrtra.
individual

gods

are

said

to

have

produced

the

sun.

Indra

heaven
him
shine
raised him
to
to
or
(2, i24 "c.), caused
him
Visnu
IndraIndra-Soma
brought
787).
(7,
99'4).
generated
8,
442;
up
(3,
raised him to heaven
(7, 82 3). MitraSurya with light (6, 722); Indra- Varuna

generated him

(4, i32; 5, 63*- 7). Soma


placed light
placed him in heaven
him
to
in the Sun
(6, 442j; 9, 9741), generated Surya (9, 965. no5), caused
him
in heaven
raised
shine
(9, 1077). Agni establishes the
(9, 637), or
him
ascend
heaven
to
to
on
high (io, 32) and caused
brightness of the sun
fashioned
the
the sun
well as the moon
(io,
as
(io, i564). Dhatr,
creator,
him
ascend
the sky (io, 623).
to
1903). The Angirases by their rites caused
In all these
referringto the generation of Surya the notion of the
passages
doubtless
predominates.
simple luminary
bird traversing space.
He
In various
a
as
Surya is conceived
passages
is a bird (io, 177*- 2), or
a
ruddy bird (5, 47 J), is represented as flying(i,
with
to be
a
directly
flying eagle (7, 635) and seems
igi9), is compared
is
in
called
bull
well
He
called
a
a
as
one
as
an
eagle (5, 459)1.
passage
is once
in another
bird (5, 473) and
bull2 (io, I891 cp. 5, 473). He
a mottled
white
and
brilliant steed3
alluded
to as
a
brought by Usas (7, 773). Surya's
his
in number:
horses
are
seven
(which
8, 6il6),for the latter
represent
rays
him.
called
i
t
is
His
the
mares
seven
are
said, bring (vahanti)
(ketavati),
daughters of his car (i, 50$).
Elsewhere
Surya is occasionally spoken of as an inanimate object He
is alluded
the variegated
of the sky (7, 634 cp. 6, 51') and
to
is a gem
as
in
midst
the
of heaven
stone
(5, 473 cp. SB. 6, i, 23). He is a brilliant
placed
rain (5, 631),
with cloud
conceal
and
(ayudha) which Mitra- Varuna
weapon
Mitrabrilliant
of
Varuna
he is the
or
a
car
(pavi)
placed in
62*),
felly
(5,
Mitrais
wheel
Varuna
The
also
called
heaven
sun
a
(5, 637).
(i, i754;
by
of the sun' is spoken of (4, 282; 5, 2910).
the 'wheel
4, 3o4) or
and
(7, 631), for men
gods (i, 50$). He
Surya shines for all the world
with
his
darkness
rolls
the
He
a
as
(io,
light
dispels
37+).
up the darkness
skin
into
skin (7, 631). His
throw
off
the
darkness
the waters
a
as
rays
witches
and
triumphs over
(i, I9i8"9 cp.
(4, i34). He
beings of darkness
allusions to the sun's burning heat
three
are
or
only two
7, ic"424). There
in
RV.
is not
maleficent
for
the
the
(7? 34I9j 9) I0720);
sun
a
power4, and
this
for
and the literature
from
the AV.
aspect of the luminary only passages
of the Brahmanas
be quoted5.
can
the days (i,5o7) and
Surya measures
prolongs the days of life (8,487).
drives away
He
and
evil dream
sickness,disease,
(io, 374). To live is
every
rise
the Sun
to see
(4,25*; 6,52s). All creatures
depend on Surya (i,i6414).
and
the
sky is upheld by him (io, 851). The
epithet 'all-creating'
(visvakarmari) is also applied to him (io, 170^; cp. " 39). By his greatness he
is the divine priest (asuryah purohitatj) of the gods (8, 9o12). At his rising
he is prayed to declare
sinless to Mitra- Varuna
and
other
men
gods (7, 6oT.
622). He is said, when
rising,to go to the Vrtra-slayerIndra and is even
with Indra
invoked
styled a Vrtra-slayerhimself when
(8, 82*4).
The
told
about
is
that Indra vanquished him
(io, 435)
only myth
Surya
and
stole his wheel
allude
the obscuration
of
to
(i, i754; 4, 30*). This may
the sun
by a thunderstorm.
In the Avesta, the sun, hvare
of which
(= Vedic
surya6 is a desvar,
Varuna

raised

or

2-

III. RELIGION,

32

rivative and
the

is called
i

2,

J.

which

to

eye

Cp. ZDMG.

26, 9.

"

12,

BRV.

I, 7;

MYTHOLOGY.

swift horses, like

HVM.

Otherwise

6; 2, 2.
BRUGMANN,

I, 345,

Yama

EHM,

"

3.

134.

Surya, and

"

HVM.

Cp.

"

"

"

i, 218.

Grundriss

note

KZ.

Sp.AP.

50, 49.
BRI.
GKR.
OST.
55"6;
20;
5, 151"61;
ORV.
HRI.
240"1;
29"30;
I, 45; HVBP.

14"16;

Nirukta

"

I,

ZDMG.

OLDENBERG,

145;

BRV.

YEDIC

i A.

Mazda8.

475"6.

7,
"

KUNST.

u.

is allied)has
TjsXios?

Gk.
Ahura

of

223; 7, 82.
KZ.
SCHMIDT,

cp.

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

ZDMG.

358;

12,
i,

KRV.

190

"

i;

54"5.

40"6.

whole
in eleven
Savitr is celebrated
hymns of the RV.
" 15. Savitr.
about
mentioned
his
of
name
170 times. Eight or
being
others,
parts
"

in

and

family books, while all but three of those to Surya


Savitr is preeminentlya golden deity, nearly all
tenth.
in the first and
are
He
is goldenand his equipment being described by that epithet.
his members
all these
(i,
(6,71^
golden-tongued
359' 10)"
eyed (i, 358), golden-handed
He
has
him.
arms
(6, 71*- 5; 7, 452), and
golden
epithetsbeing peculiarto
is broad-handed
(3,336j. He is also pleasant(2, 38*) or beautiful-handed
called iron-jawed
(3, 5411),and is once
tongued (6, 7i4) or beautiful-tongued
of
attribute
also.
and Indra
He
is
an
(10,
Agni
I391),
(6, 7i4).
yellow-haired
with
He
has
He
car
a
a
a
golden
golden
tawny garment (4, 532).
puts on
all
(i, 3 5 3), just as he himself assumes
pole (i, 352- 5), which is omniform
is drawn
forms (5, Si2). His car
by two radiant steeds or by two or more
brown, white-footed horses (i, 352" 5; 7" 451)attributed to Savitr,and mighty
Mighty splendour (amati) is preeminently
him
only (3, 388; 7, 381). This splendour he stretches
golden splendour to
of

nine

out

of

these

in

are

illumines

diffuses. He

or

earth, the

the

aloft his strong


and which extend

raisingof

his

the

golden

which

he

blesses

and

spaces

raises

all

beings
(2,382;4, 533'4;6,'ji*-5;
7,452). The
for the action of other gods is compared
characteristic,

is

arms

and earth, the world, the


air,heaven
(i,357' 8; 4, i42. 534; 5, 8i2). He

with

arms,

ends

the

to

the

heaven

of

vault

of the

arouses

earth

raise his arms


extend
like Savitr (i, 95'); the dawns
is
and
raise
to
(7,
Brhaspati implored
light
792),
hymns of
He
his
in his golden car, seeing all
arms
moves
(i, i9"D3).
praiseas Savitr
and
downward
an
a
upward path (i, 352- 3). He impels the
creatures, on
of the Asvins
shines
after the
before dawn
car
(i,3410). He
path of the
with

it.
as

is said

Agni

Savitr his

dawn

(5,8 12). He
bright realms of

The

only time

the

'Shiningwith
lightcontinuallyfrom
His

the

spaces,

ancient

measured

has

heaven

Savitr:

three

to

arms

out

the

is united

the
the

the

air

are

of

the

is used

rays of the sun,


east' (10, I391)-

bright realms

he

earthlyspaces,
with

epithetsurya-rasmi

three

paths in

and

rays

of

goes

the

in the RV.

to

the three

(5,8i3" 4).
applied to

sun

it is

yellow-haired, Savitr raises


thrice surrounds

He
heaven

dustless and

easy

(4, 535:
to

cp.

traverse,

the

up

his

air,the

Visnu, " 17).


on

them

he

is

besought to protect his worshippers (i, 3511). He is prayed to convey the


immort
departed spiritto where the righteousdwell (10, i74). He bestows
the
well
of
life
He
also
bestowed
alityon
as
on
man
gods as
(4, 542j.
length
immortalityon the Rbhus, who by the greatness of their deeds went to his
house
evil dreams
(i, no23). Like Surya,he is implored to remove
(5,824)
and
sinless (4, 543). He
to make
drives away
evil spirits
and sorcerers
men
(i, 35'";
Like

7,

387).

other
observes fixed
(4, 53*). He
gods Savitr is called asura
and
the wind
(4, 534; 10, 348. I393). The waters
are
subject to his or
dinance (2, 38*). He leads the waters
and by his propulsionthey flow broadly
other
(3) 336 cp. Nir. 2, 26). The
gods follow his lead (5,8i3). No being, not
even
Indra,Varuna, Mitra, Aryaman, Rudra, can resist his will and independent

laws

many

CELESTIAL

GODS.

SAVITR.

15.

33

by the Vasus, Aditi,


(2, 387. 9; 5, 82 2). His praisesare celebrated
Like
and
Pusan
and
Surya, he is lord of
Aryaman (7,38^- 4).
Varuna,
is
He
lord
of
all desirable things,
and
is
which
moves
that
stationary(4,536).
sends
and
blessings from heaven, air, earth (if 243; 2, 38"). He is twice
spoken of as 'domestic' (damunas), an epithet other
(i, i233; 6, 7 14) even
other
almost
wise
gods, he is a supporter
entirely limited to Agni. Like
He
the
whole
world
the
of
(4, 544). He
sky (4, 53*; 10, I494).
supports
in
made
and
firm
the
with
bonds
the
rafterless space
earth
fixed
the
sky
(10, I491).
(i, 226) called 'child of Waters'
Savitr is at least once
(apdm napdt],
is
It
otherwise
to
exclusively
probably also applied
belonging Agni.
an
epithet
Yaska
2.
in
him
(Nir.10, 32) commenting on this verse
to
regards
10, i^g2
Savitr here
he
as
region (or atmosphere) because
belonging to the middle
(Aditya, who is in heaven) is also called
causes
rain, adding that the sun
Savitr's paths are
Savitr3. It is probably owing to this epithet and because
in
the
said
that
this
be
the
to
once
atmosphere,
deityoccurs
(i, 35")
among
dominion

Mitra

of

gods

middle

the

region

ghantuka. Savitr is once


(12, 3, 51) people are
(i,6, 41) it is stated
Savitr

is

becomes

beings as

called
said

to

well

as

among

those

lord

of

in the

Nai-

prajapati of the world (4, 532). In the SB.


identifySavitr with Prajapatij and in the TB.

that

of

of

heaven

the

Prajapatibecoming Savitr
and
by his
vivifyingpower
Pusan
Pusan
(5, 825). in his vivifying
power
a
guardian (10, I391). In two consecutive
alone

Savitr

and

as

connected.

In

the

livingbeings4.
(yamabhih]
marches, beholding all
created

movements

verses

(3,629-I0) Pusan

first the favour

of Pusan
who
thought
and
is
is
the
in
Savitr
sees
invoked,
second,
besought to stimultae
beings
desire to think
of the
(cp. Pusan, p. 36) the thoughts of worshipperswho
is the celebrated
brilliance of god Savitr.
The
excellent
latter verse
Savitrl,
are

as

all

with

which

Savitr

Savitr

is also

in later times invoked

was

said

to

become

Mitra

by

at the

reason

of

beginningof
his

Vedic

study5.

(5,8i4). Savitr
Bhaga also, unless
of Bhaga (the
name

laws

(5, 82'- 3; 7, 38*- 6) to be


only an epithetof Savitr. The
is indeed
often added
to that of Savitr so
benefits)
bestowing
as
good god
form
the singleexpressionSavitd
Savitd6.
to
other
In
Bhagah or Bhagah
from
Mitra, Pusan, and Bhaga. In
texts, however, Savitr is distinguished
several
Savitr and
be spoken of indiscriminately
to
Surya appear
passages
denote
the same
Savitr has
'God
to
raised aloft
a
deity. Thus
poet says:
his brilliance,
for
the
whole
making light
world; Surya shiningbrightlyhas
and
air with his rays' (4, 14*). In another
and
filled heaven
earth
hymn
of in terms
(7" 63) Surya is (in verses
i. 2. 4) spoken
(e. g. prasavitr, viviSavitr is apparently
fier) usually applied to Savitr, and in the third verse
mentioned
the
as
same
god. In other hymns also (10, I581"4; i, 351"11.
I241) it is hardly possible to keep the two deities apart. In passages such as
the following,Savitr is, however, distinguished
from
Surya. 'Savitr moves
between
both
heaven
and
earth, drives away
disease,impels (veti)the sun'
sinless to
the
C1* 359)- Savitr declares men
sun
(i, 123^). He combines
with the rays of the sun
shines
with
the
(5,81*)or
(10,139*
rays of the sun
cp. i8i3; i, 157^
7, 358-I0). With Mitra, Aryaman, Bhaga, Savitr is besought
the sun
has risen (7, 664).
to vivifythe worshipper when
is
According to Yaska
(Nir.12, 12), the time of Savitr's appearance
when
darkness
has been
removed.
RV.
remarks
that
be
Sayana (on
5, 81*)
fore his risingthe sun
is called Savitr,
but from his rising
to his setting,
Surya.
But Savitr is also sometimes
and
spoken of as sendingto sleep (4,536;7,45I),
therefore be connected
must
with evening as well as morning. He is,indeed,

seems

the

identified with

sometimes

latter word

Indo-arische

is here

Philologie.

III. 1

A.

III. RELIGION,

34

extolled
that
an

web
her
up
the west
Later

and

Agni

The

only is

the

has

This

7, 45

man

and

assigned to

either

all

the

morning
beings

four-footed

1).

He

(SB.

his

unyokes
the

his unfinished
him

indications

are

night comes;

lays down

is borne

other

verb

connexion

with

appearance
by the fact

out

work

or

to

steeds,
rolls

weaver

(2,38^ 4).

3l8),as

3, 2,

of
that

being

the east

word

the root

also

derivatives

several

of

sfi, from
which
is

along with it in a manner


would
nearly always be used
other
god. In the case
any

itself used, but

root

533;

be

continuallyused

in

4,

there

for

meant

are

two-footed

MYTHOLOGY.

to

Soma.

to

Some

action

same

to

cp.

and

(2, 38);

him

to

VEDIC

A.

his command

at

skilful

Savitr

name

RV.

rest;

wont

south

it is derived, is
in the

the

was

formation.

Indian

to

and

the

(6, ;i2

KUNST.

hymn

one

brings all

He

them

wanderer

brings the

u.

addressed

hymns

sacrifice7.

awakens

and

rest

the

of

most

evening

in

settingsun

the

as

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

to

(such

purely
which

unique

the
express
of Savitr not

prasavitr

as

These
a
perpetual play on the name8.
prasavd) constituting
frequent
the
has
that
of
show
combinations
the
root
sense
clearly
stimulating,
arousing,
vivifying.A few examples may here be given in illustration of this peculiar
aroused
'God
Savitr has
(prasavlt)each
moving thing'(i, I571).
usage.
'Thou
alone
art the lord of stimulation' (prasavasya:5, 8i5). 'Savitr bestowed
(dsuvai) that immortalityon you' (i,uo3). 'God Savitr has arisen to arouse
boons from
(savaya) us' (2,381). 'Thrice a day Savitr sends down
(sosaviti)
the sky' (3, $66). 'Do
thou, o Savitr,constitute (suvatdf]us sinless' (4, 54^).
Aditi through the influence (save)of Savitr
being sinless towards
'May we
'Send
all
boons'
(para sava) evil dream, send away
(5,826).
possess
away
all calamities,bestow
(asuvd) what is good (ib.4* 5). 'May Savitr remove
(apa savisat) sickness' (10, ioo8). With this verb Savitr is speciallyoften
of su
wealth (2,566 "c.). This use
is almost
besought to bestow
peculiarto
Savitr;but it is two or three times applied to Surya (7,6$2- 4; 10, 37*). It
also occurs
with lisas (7;77I)) with Varuna
(2,289),with the Adityas(8,i8T),
with Mitra, Aryaman
and
with
Savitr
(7, 664). This employment
coupled
Yaska
defines
(Nir.
Savitr as sarvasya
being so frequent,
prasavita,
10, 31)
'the stimulator of everything'.
fact that in nearly half its occurrences
is accompanied by
The
the name
show
is
has
of an
that
lost
the
nature
to
not
seems
deva, god,
epithet,
yet
'the
At
stimulator god'.
to be an
meaning
epithet
rate, the word
any
appears
of Tvastr
of the
in two
the juxtaposition
(3,5519; 10, io5),where
passages
and

words
that

devas

vih'arupa and

savitd

tiastd

Savitr is here

identical with

collocation

the

with

indicate

deva

Tvastr.

therefore
conclude
that Savitr was
We
an
originally
epithetof Indian
may
in
the
motion
as
origin applied to the sun
great stimulator of life and
the world, representingthe most
all
dominates
which
movement
important
in the universe, but
others
differentiated from
that as
Surya he is a more
of the Vedic
of
abstract deity. He
is in the eyes
poets the divine power
the sun
while Surya is the more
concrete
personified,
deity,in the conception
of whom
of the sun-body is never
the outward
form
absent
owing to the
with that of the orb (cp. i,359. I241).
identityof his name
of development generallyrecognized,
OLDENBERG9, reversingthe order

thinks
that

that

Savitr

notion

the

secondary in
1

WHITNEY

the

abstraction

an

of

or

sun,

the

sun

of

in

the

idea

of stimulation

direction,is
particular

and

only

his character10.

HRI.

Nirukta

represents

of

Erl.

44.

a
-

OST.

cp.

143;
COLEBROOKE'S

in

4,

v.

BRADKE,

96.

in.

"

essays,

ZDMG.
4
rev.

40.

WEBER,
ed.

2,

355;
Omina
in.

"

HRL
und
6

48.

--

Portenta
BRV.

Cp. ROTH,

386. 392.

3, 39.

"

"

HRI.

111. RELIGION,

36

epithetis applied to
called

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

in

him

'deliverer'.

vimocana,

KUNST.

u.

i A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

(6,55T)and he is twice (8,415"l6)


passage
vimuco
from
to deliver
napdt he is invoked

another
As

the paths
is prayed to
disperse foes and make
(AV. 6, ii23). Pusan
the paths good, and to lead
foes, to make
lead to booty (6,534),to remove
from
He
is
invoked
harm
his path
to
8).
on
(i,
to
427protect
good pasture
is
He
the
and
to
an
path
(10,
auspicious
597J.
guardian of
(6, 549)
grant
lord
of
road
He
is
and
the
a
(6,531).
guide (prapathya]
path (6, 49*)
every
is starting
roads
on
(VS. 22, 20). So in the Sutras, whoever
a
journey
on
makes
an
offeringto Pusan, the road-maker, while recitingRV. 6, 53; and
whoever
loses his way,
turns
to Pusan
(AGS. 3, 78-9; SSS. 3, 49). Moreover,
in the morning and
t
o
evening offerings all gods and beings,Pusan the roadof the house
the threshold
maker
receives his on
(SGS. 2, 149).
sin'

knower

As

of

he
ways
is in one

make

can

hidden

(i, 23^-

goods
J5

manifest

and

easy

passage
Cp.
3, 3, 91) said to
in secret
lost and
hidden
found
the king who
have
was
(probablySoma), and
in
So
the
him
like
lost
beast.
is sacrificed
asked
to
a
Sutras, Pusan
bring
it is characteristic of
when
to
anything lost is sought (AGS. 3, 79). Similarly,
that he follows
and protects cattle (6, 545- 6- I0. 58" cp. 10, 263). He
Pusan
from
unhurt,
them
home
injuryby fallinginto a pit, brings them
preserves
His
back
the
lost
directs
cattle
and
drives
goad
(6, 547- 10).
(6,539).
straight
of guiding straightis the notion that he
with the idea
Perhaps connected
also protects horses
directs the furrow
(4,577). Pusan
(6, 545) and weaves
and
of
Hence
smooths
the
said to be
beasts
(10,
266).
are
sheep
clothing
and
is
called
sacred
he
the
cattle
Pusan
of
to
(i, 51'2),
(MS. 4, 37;
producer
to

nnd

(6,48*5).

He

TS.

prescribedto be recited
9).
pasture
3,
with
Pusan
has various attributes in common
other
gods. He is called
is
He
asura
(5, 51").
(6, 5 48),
strong (5, 439)" vigorous (8, 415),nimble
powerful (i, I381), resistless (6, 48*5). He transcends mortals and is equal
is a ruler of heroes
to the gods in glory (6,48 19). He
(i, io64),an uncon
and
and
assists
in
battle
defender
(i,
895),
querable protector
(6,48 19). He
He
is a protector of the world
is
a
(10, 173 cp. 2, 40').
seer, a protecting
of old, of every suppliant(10,
friend of the priest,
friend born
the unshaken
liberal5 (2,31^). His bounty is particularly
265- 8). He
is wise (i, 425) and
often mentioned.
He
all
wealth (i,896),abounds
in wealth
(8,415),
possesses
of
wealth
is
increase
bountiful
beneficent
gives
(6, 584;
(i,895),
(i,I382),
bestows
all blessings (i,426). He
is the strong friend of
8, 4l8), and
abundance, the strong lord and increaser of nourishment
(10, 267- 8). The
distinctive of the Asvins, is a few times (1,42*;
term
dasra, 'wonder-working',
6, 56^) applied to him, as well as dasma, 'wondrous'
(i,42 10. I384) and
dasma-varcaS)'of wondrous
splendour'(6, 584),usuallysaid of Agni and Indra.
is also twice (i, io64; 10, 643) called
He
Narasamsa
'praisedof men', an
is
l
imited
He
otherwise
to
once
epithet
Agni.
exclusively
spoken of as 'allis
termed
He
pervading'(2,4o6).
'devotion-stimulating'
(9,883),is invoked
to quicken devotion
(2,4o6), and his awl is spoken of as 'prayer-instigating'
(6,538; cp. Savitr,p. 33).
connected
with Pusan
The
are
epithetsexclusively
dghrni, ajds'va,vimovimuco
and
anastaonce
"tw3\pustimbhara, 'bringing
prosperity',
napdt,
cana,
no
cattle',anastavedas, 'losingno goods', karambhdd,
'eating
pasu, 'losing
been
for despisingPusan
to have
gruel'. The latter attribute seems
a
cause
mentioned
three times in the RV.,
by some
(cp.6, 56*; i, i384)6. Karambha,
is Pusan' s
Indra's
distinctive food, being contrasted
with Soma
as
(6,572).
it
in
shares
the
Indra, however,
(3,527),and
only two passages in which the

TB.

when

i, 7,
cows

24).
are

In

the

driven

Sutras

to

verses

or

to

Pusan

stray (SGS.

are

GODS.

CELESTIAL

VISNU.

17.

37

with

it appliesto the libation of


gruel' occurs,
receives
the
the
(3, 52'; 8, So2).
only god who
epithet
cattle'
in
(6, 582) directly(and not
comparisons).
pasupa, 'protector of
is invoked
Pusan
The
conjointlyin the dual are
only deities with whom
brother
he is once
called
Indra
Soma
(6, 57), whose
(6, 558).
(2, 40) and
is
addressed
with
these
Pusan
most
Next
frequently
to
Bhaga (i, Qo4;
two,
SB. u,
(1,90^;
4, 3^; KSS.
5, 13') and Visnu
4, 3o24; 5, 41*. 462; 10, 125"; cp.
in all these
RV.
of
the
name
i o, 66s), his
46^;
6,
2i9;
441;
7,
passages
5,
with various
being in juxtapositionwith theirs. He is occasionallyaddressed
'mixed

adjectivekarambhin

other

is

Piisan

Indra

deities also.
adduced

evidence

The

does

show

not

clearly that

Pusan

represents

of passages
large number
quoted at the
with the sun.
Yaska, too,
beginning point to his being closely connected
'the
the
Pusan
be
all beings',
of
to
sun
(Aditya),
explains
9)
(Nir.7,
preserver
the sun.
in post-Vedic literature Pusan
of
and
occasionally occurs
as
a name
of

phenomenon

The

of

path

But

nature.

the

which

sun

leads

earth

from

to

heaven,

the

abode

of

the

for a solar deity being both a con


pious dead, might account
of departed souls
ductor
a
(likeSavitr) and
guardian of paths in general.
would
latter aspect of his character
The
explain his special bucolic features
which
form
a
a
guide and protector of cattle,
as
part of his general nature
as
a
promoter of prosperity. Mithra, the solar deity of the Avesta, has the
traits of increasing cattle and
bucolic
bringing back beasts that have strayed7.
word
the
means
Etymologically
'prospered as derived from the root/z/f,
thrive'.
This
side
in his
is conspicuous both
'to cause
of his character
to
epithets visvavedas, anastavedas, puruvasu,
pustimbhara, and in the frequent
invocations
wealth
and
to bestow
to him
protection (6, 4815 "c.). He is lord
of wealth, a heap of riches
of great wealth, a
stream
(6, 55- 3). But the
is
in
the
the
of Indra, Parjanya, and
case
prosperitiyhe confers
not, as
with
is emphasized by his ex
rain, but with light,which
Maruts, connected
clusive
which
bestows
results
from
the
welfare
he
epithet 'glowing'. The
he
and
his
extends
from
and
cattle
to
men
protection
on
earth,
guidance of
bliss
in
the
abodes
of
the
world.
Thus
the
to
men
next
conception which

gods

and

the

underlie

to

seems

manifested

the

chieflyas
KRV.

GW.

175;

note

4,

the

cloud':

HILLEBRANDT,
7 Sp.AP. 184.
WHITNEY,
420"30;
9,

der

\VZKM.

JAOS.
55;

252); PERRY,

"

is. 5, 186.

HVBP.

444;

Sayana

KRV.

of Pusan,

is the

beneficent

of

power

the

sun

pastoral deity.

120.

; LRV.

'Sohn
differently);
of

character
a

Einkehr'
and
3,

34,

on

192"3,

means

Memorial

241

"

1889, p. 8.

GGA.

(who explains the

BRV.

FW.

unyoking): ROTH,

GRIFFITH

OST.
3, 325;
PVS.
i, ii ; HVM.

Drisler

190.

and

5,

RV.

I, 421.

und

GVBERNATIS,
171"80;
456; HVBP.
34; ORV.
3;

HRI.

ORV.

Puramdhi

'active, zealous'.

i,
"

--

OST.

5,

originalmeaning

"

Letture

230"3

'Son

232;

according
o

I-1RI.

51.

82; BRY.

to
"

2,

(cp.WZKM.

50"3.

Visnu, though a deity of capitalimportance in the mytho


His
Brahmanas,
logy
position in the RV.
occupies but a subordinate
time
personality is at the same
more
important there than would appear from
the statistical standard
be a deity only
alone.
According to that he would
of the fourth rank, for he is celebrated
five whole
in not
than
hymns
more
times
and
in part of another, while
alto
about
his name
100
occurs
only
fre
in
Visnu
the
the RV.
The
are
gether
only anthropomorphic traits of
strides which
he takes, and his being a youth vast in body,
quently mentioned
who
is no
is
of his character
essential feature
longer a child (i, I556). The
that he takes (generallyexpressed by Ti-krani)three strides,which
referred
are
about
times.
to
dozen
His
and
a
urukrama,
epithets uritgaya, 'wide-going'
"17.

of the

Visnu.

"

38

III. RELIGION,

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

also

which
'wide-striding',

With' these

action.

three

u.

KUNST.

about

occur

steps Visnu

dozen

is described

VEDIC

A.

MYTHOLOGY.

times,allude to
as
traversingthe

the

same

earth

or

visible to men,
Two
of these
are
but
steps or spaces
the terrestrial spaces.
of
the
birds
mortal
ken
is
or
flight
beyond
(i,i555;
the third or
higheststep
notion
seems
to be
same
mysticallyexpressed (i, I553) when
992). The

7,
he

in the

The
brightrealm of heaven.
highest
the
of
place
highest
regarded
Agni, for
place
of
and
the
third
the
Visnu
place
Agni (10, i3)
Agni with the
highest,
guards
Visnu
the
clouds:
mysterious cows
(probably
loftiest station of
guards
Visnu
of
the
is
liberal
like
in
fixed
The
seen
an
by
highest
step
eye
5, 33).
is
where
and
his
dear
It
where
men
abode,
pious
rejoice
heaven
2220).
(i,
the gods rejoice(8, 297;.
of honey
is a well
(i, I545), and where
there
and
is the dwellingof Indra and Visnu,
shines down
This higheststep
brightly
the many-horned swiftly
where
are
moving cows2
(probably
clouds),and
these three footstepsall
the singer desires to attain (i, i546). Within
which
beings dwell (x, I542),and they are full of honey (i,i544),probably because
most
the third and
important is full of it3. Visnu guards the highestabode
his favourite dwelling-place(3, 5510) and
is else
which
implies
(pdthas)^,
In
another
be
stated
to
so
where
(i,
(7, ioo5)
expressly
15 4s).
passage
said to dwell far from
this space. He
is once
Visnu is less definitely
spoken
of (i,i565) as having three abodes, trisadhastha,an
epithetprimarilyappro
priateto Agni ($ 35).
of the sun
is
The
opinion that Visnu's three steps refer to the course
But
what
did they originallyrepresent? The
unanimous.
almost
purely
favoured
naturalistic interpretation
by most European scholars5 and by Yaska's
the rising,
(Nir.12, 19) takes the three steps to mean
predecessorAurnavabha
The
of
the
and
alternative
which
sun.
view,
setting
prevails
culminating,
Vedas, the Brahmanas, as well as post-Vedic litera
throughout the younger
supported by Yaska's predecessorSakapuni and is favoured by
ture, and was
and
the present writer8,interprets
the three steps as the course
BERGAIGNE
of
the former
With
the solar deitythrough the three divisions of the universe.
is at variance the fact that the third step of Visnu shows
no
trace
interpretation
the contrary is identical with the
with sunset, but
of being connected
on
higheststep. The alternative view does not conflict with what evidence the
RV.
is supported by the practically
itself supplies,and
unvarying tradition
in India beginning with the later Vedas.

his third

bear

is said to

of Visnu

is

name
as

identical with

idea

the

That

expressions besides

motion

of

the

three

is characteristic

steps.

The

of

Visnu

is shown

by other

epithets'wide-going'and

Svide-

entirelylimited to Visnu, as well as the verb vi-kram.


employed in allusion to the sun, spoken of as the varie
gated stone placed in the midst of heaven, which took strides (5,47 3). Visnu
is also swift esa
of Brhaspati)or 'swift-going*
(otherwisesaid only once
evaya,
(otherwiseconnected
only with the Maruts). Coupled with the con
evayavan
idea
of swift and
stant
far-extendingmotion is that of regularity.In taking
his three strides Visnu
observes
laws
(i, 22l8). Like other deities typicalof
of
regular recurrence
(Agni, Soma, Surya, Usas), Visnu is the 'ancient germ
order', and an
(like Agni, Surya, Usas) is both ancient and
ordainer, who
the sun-god Savitr (5, 8i3), he is
words
recent
as
(i,i$62~*). In the same
said (i, I541; 6, 4913) to have
this
the earthlyspaces.
With
measured
out
almost

striding'are

The

may
with

also
the

scribed
with

is also

latter

be
sun

as

their four

the

compared

(p. n).
settingin
names

Visnu

motion

(=

that Varuna

statement

is in
like

one

passage

measured

(i, I556

cp.

revolvingwheel his 90
seasons). This can
hardly refer
a

the

out
i,

(= days)
anything but

steeds
to

spaces

164*- 4b) de

CELESTIAL

the

solar

heat

on

of 360
year
the sacrifice.

days.
In

the

In

GODS.

the

AV.

17.

VISNU.

39

(5,26?) Visnu
Visnu's

Brahmanas

is

head

besought

when

cut

to

bestow

off becomes

of Visnu's
is a rollingwheel8
post-Vedic literature one
weapons
which is represented like the sun
(cp.RV. 5, 63*), and his vehicle is Garuda,
is of brilliant lustre like Agni, and is also called garutmat
chief of birds, who
terms
and suparna, two
already applied to the sun-bird in the RV.
Finally
has been
the post-Vedic kaustubha
or
breast-jewelof Visnu
explained as the
is no
Thus
with
though Visnu
longer clearly connected
sun
by KUHN?.
a
evidence
the
natural
that he
to justifythe inference
phenomenon,
appears
in his general character, but as the
conceived
the sun,
not
as
was
originally
the whole
personifiedswiftlymoving luminary, which with vast strides traverses
This
universe.
would
be
borne
derivation
the
from
the
out
by
explanation
which
in
is
the
used
often
RV.
and
'to
root
z'/V10,
tolerably
primarilymeans
would
be the 'active one'
be active' (PW.). According to this,Visnu
as
re
OLDENBERG, however, thinks that every definite trace
presentingsolar motion.
is lacking in Visnu, that he was
from
of solar character
the beginning con
of wide
and
ceived only as a traverser
that
natural
concrete
no
con
space,
the
three
The
number
of
the
ception corresponded to
steps.
steps he attri
butes
for triads in mythology.
simply to the fondness
Visnu's
highest step, as has been indicated, is conceived as his distinctive
The
abode.
would
sun
naturally be thought of as stationary in the meridian
rather than
find the name
in Yaska
else.
So we
of the zenith
to
anywhere
be vimupada, the step or
connected
of
the
Visnu.
with
place
same
Probably
of ideas
the
are
(giriksit)and 'mountainepithets'mountain-dwelling'
range
abiding' (giristha)
hymn (i, i542' 3); for in the
applied to Visnu in the same
called 'the two
next
undeceivable
hymn (i,155') Visnu and Indra are conjointly
who
summit
have
stood
with
the
of
the
(sanuni)
mountains, as it were
on
ones,
the

sun.

In

unerring steed'.
height of the cloud

an

expressions in
4,

the

RV.

This

would

mountains12
that

Visnu

allude

to

the

(cp.5, S;4).
is later

sun

It is

called

from
looking down
probably owing to

'lord

of

mountains'

the
such

(TS.

3,

5')The

secondary trait. He
distress (6, 49 13);he traversed
for man
earth
the
the
it on
bestow
for a dwelling (7, ioo4); he traversed
to
man
earthly spaces for wide-steppingexistence (i, i554); with Indra he took vast
strides
and
existence
stretched
the worlds
for our
out
(6, 69$- 6). To this
in the RV.
Visnu's
feature
dwarf
in
traced
the
of
be
myth
ultimately
may
intermediate
carnation which
The
stage
in,the Epic and the Puranas.
appears
is found in the Brahmanas
(SB. i, 2, $$; TS. 2, i, 31; TB. i, 6, i"),where Visnu
the
of a
the form
already assumes
by artifice to recover
dwarf, in order
earth for the gods from
strides
his
three
I3.
the Asuras
by taking
The
most
prominent secondary characteristic of Visnu is his friendship
for Indra, with whom
This
is
he is frequently allied in the fight with Vrtra.
indicated
the two
to
whole
by the fact that one
hymn (6, 69) is dedicated
in the
deities conjointly,
is coupled with that of Visnu
and
that Indra's
name
dual
the
with
the
of
latter
often
that
of
as
name
occurs
as
Soma, though
is also indicated
of their alliance
The
closeness
vastly oftener in the RV.
the
is
fact that in hymns extollingVisnu
the only other deity
by
alone, Indra
associated
with
him
either
incidentally
explicitly(7, 995" 6; i, i552) or im
his three
strode
(7, 99*; i, i546. i55T; cp. i, 6i?)14. Visnu
plicitly
steps by
tha energy
is described
in the preceding verse
(ojasd) of Indra (8, i227), who
as
slayingVrtra, or for Indra (Val.43). Indra about to slay Vrtra says, 'friend
with
Visnu, stride out vastly'(4, i811). In company
Visnu, Indra slew Vrtra
thrice

reason

traversed

why Visnu took


the earthly spaces

his

three

steps is

in

RELIGION,

III.

40

and

castles

bara's

Indra

and

Visnu

(6, 2o2).

99
intimate

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

KUNST.

u.

togethertriumphed
hosts

conquered the
(i, 2 2 J9).Visnu

the

over

of

VEDIC

A.

MYTHOLOGY.

Dasa, destroyedSam(7, 994" 5). Visnu is

Varcin

accompanied by his friend opens the


(i, 1564).
(5,5, 51) Indra is described as shooting
him
while
Visnu
follows
the thunderbolt
at Vrtra,
(cp.TS. 6, 5, i1). Visnu is
with Indra
in various singleverses
also invoked
(4, 24. 554; 8, io2; 10, 664).
Visnu
dual
shares
When
associated with Indra
Indra's powers
as
a
divinity,
his
well
Indra
victories
of drinkingSoma
as
as
(7,994~6),
(6,69)
conversely
of striding(6, 69$; 7, 996). To
in Visnu's
both conjointly
participating
power
air and
of spreading out
action
of creating the wide
is attributed the
the
and
of
and
(6,
Surya,
lisas,
Agni
(7,994).
695)
producing
Owing
spaces
this friendshipIndra
drinks Soma
beside Visnu
to
(8, 3*. i2l6) and thereby
drank
the Soma
his strength (8, 38; io, H32).
increases
Indra
pressed by
Indra's
cows'

stall

Visnu

in

(2, 22

cups

SB.

ATaruna, and

and

brew

also

Visnu's

recall

(8, 66TO

cp.

three

footsteps
(6,17")
with
Mitra,
6i7). Along

for Indra

cooks

milk

of

Visnu

which

17"),

cp. 6,

honey (i;i544). Visnu

buffaloes

100

the

In

three

filled with
or

friend

buffaloes

100

i,

with

(8,i59).
songs
the Maruts, are
also drawn
Vrtra-fight,
into association with Visnu.
the exhilerating
When
Visnu favoured
Soma, the
Maruts
The
like birds sat down
beloved
altar
their
Maruts
are
on
(i,857)15.
invoked
of the swift Visnu
at the offering
(2, 34" cp. 7, 405). They are the
bountiful ones
of the swift Visnu (8,2o3).The
Maruts
supported Indra, while
Pusan
is the ordainer
Visnu
cooked
Visnu
buffaloe?
for him
100
I711)(6,
associated with the Maruts
will
the
w
hose
Varuna
Asvins follow
and
(mart/fa),
4(i, i564). Throughout one
verses
5) he is associated
hymn (5,87, especially
with the Maruts, with whom,
when
he starts, he speeds along16.
in the RV.
be mentioned
to Visnu
one
Among
stray references
may
in
'Do
which
forms
of:
of Visnu
conceal
different
(7, ioo6)
not
are
spoken
the

Indra's

from

Maruts,

this form,

us

further said to

be

in

attendants

constant

since thou

the

didst

(7,36$) and

place in the
another, a

womb

Other
ficent

with

traits of Visnu

(i, 1565),

child with

male

child

male

to

Visnu's

sustains

and

fastened

In

the

Brahmanas

heaven

Visnu

(SB.

who
sacrificer,
with

(SB.

9, 310- I5). The

the

i,

sphere

heaven19,
of

the

special feature

with

the

takes
for

is the

steps

Visnu

are

Brahrnanas

Indra
the

is the

as

with Visnu,
myths connected
RV., are further developed in the

is in

gods
in

safe

three

generous
and earth,

steps in earth,
imitated

are

beginning with
refuge,which

in the

(7,993).

pegs

strides

taken

from

earth

and

is the

sun

earth

to

ritual of the Avesta20.


identification of Visnu

constant

sacrifice.

Two

the

three

Amsaspands

similarlyimitated

with

all about

strides

the

and

(world),heaven

These

goal, the
of

according
prayed for18.

innoxious

an

taking his

as

27).

3, i,

three

that

three

sun,
of the

world

the

is

gods in general. He is bene


(8, 2512), liberal (7, 40$),

the threefold

is conceived

i, 9, 3?-, TB.

ending

the

and
(i,22l8),

deliverer

air, and
by the

beautiful form

bountiful

and

is undeceivable

(i,i554).He alone
all beings (i,i544). He
is an
ordainer (i,I564).

beautiful form, or,

most

most

applicableto

are

is innocuous

guardian (3,5510),who

to

is

He

along with

is invoked

embryos
protector
of the
conception (io, 184'). In the third verse
promote
after io, i8417, Visnu
to
is, according to one
reading, called upon

Khila

in battle'.

form

another

assume

of

deities to

other

He

Indra

celebrates

and

the

RV.

demons

described

as

the

of

source

Brahmanas.

vanquishing demons.

commonly
appear
the RV., uniformly victorious,but

as

two

often

which
Visnu
In

can

be

traced

in alliance with
the

Brahmanas

hostile hosts, the former


worsted.

They

therefore

not,
have

CELESTIAL

in
artifice,

to

recourse

it is related
with

latter

the

order

Indra

that

that

and

to

17.
the

recover

VISKU.

41

In

supremacy.

the

(6, 15}

AB.

Visnu, engaged in conflict with the Asuras, agreed

much

as

GODS.

Visnu

as

could

stride

in

over

steps should
these
worlds, the

three

Visnu

deities.

two
accordingly strode over
belong to
the Asuras
SB. (i, 2, 5) tells how
Vedas, and speech. The
having overcome
The
the gods began dividingthe earth.
gods placing Visnu, the sacrifice,at
in the earth. The
and
asked
for a share
their head, came
Asuras
agreed to
lie
much
who
could
Then
the gods
as
a
was
on.
Visnu,
dwarf,
give up as
with Visnu, who
was
equal in size to sacrifice,
gained the whole
by sacrificing
three
mentioned
The
earth.
not
here, but in another passage
(SB.
steps are
Visnu
is
said
for
the
have
the
to
1
acquired
gods
all-pervadingpower
9? 3")?
which
It is further
they now
by stridingthrough the three worlds.
possess,
stated in TS. 2, i, 3T, that Visnu, by assuming the form
of a dwarf
whom
he
the
worlds
three
TB.
had
introduction
The
of
6,
conquered
(cp.
i5).
seen,
i,
Visnu
is
dwarf
of
the
be
accounted
to
for
as
a
a
disguise
as
naturally

the

"

stratagem

to

transition

the

the

avert

suspicionof

the

to

Asuras21.

Visnu's

of

myth

the

Dwarf

This

Brahmana

Incarnation

story forms
in

post-Vedic

literature 22.
has
its originin two
of the
myth of the Brahmanas
passages
Their
is
Visnu
that
drunk
and
Soma
(i, 6 1 7; 8, 6610).
having
purport
buffaloes
and a brew
of milk belonging
being urged by Indra, carried off 100
the
boar
the (cloud) mountain,
to
(= Vrtra), while Indra
shooting across
This
is
slew the fierce (emusam) boar.
in
TS.
the
(6, 2, 42- 3) developed
myth
follows.
A
as
boar, the plunderer of wealth, kept the goods of the Asuras
hills. Indra
side of seven
the other
of kusa
on
plucking up a bunch
grass
and
these
slew
the
the
boar.
carried
hills,
sacrifice,
through
Visnu,
piercing
the goods of
the boar
off as a sacrifice for the gods. So
the gods obtained
In
the Asuras.
the
of the Kiithaka
corresponding passage
(IS.XL
p. 161)
is called
Emusa.
is told in
the boar
The
same
story with slightvariations
the Caraka
Brahmana
(quoted by Sayana on RV. 8,6610). This boar appears
in a
in the SB. (14, i, 211) where
under
character
the name
of
cosmogonic
Another

RV.

have

raised

(?" T5 51) this cosmogonic

boar,

Emusa

is stated

he

is described

waters,

is further

and

Avatars

The
manas,

germs
but
not

the

the

of the
Prajapati. This modification
the
In
(i,i,35).
post-Vedic mythology

TB.

Puranas,

the earth
from
the waters.
In the TS.
up
which
raised
the earth
from
the primeval

of

form

as

in

expanded

Ramayana
of the

to

the

boar

which

raises the

myth
of

earth, has become

the
one

Visnu.

of
of

as

two

yet

other

Avatars

connected

of Visnu
with

Visnu.

are

to

The

found

be

fish which

in

the
in

Brah

the

SB.

from
the flood, Jipjsears in the Mahabharata
a
(i, 8, i1).^deliversMann
as
incarnation
in the Puranas
of Visnu.
of Prajapati,becoming
In the
an
SB. (7, 5, i5, cp. 11A. i, 233) JPrajapatiabout
to
create
a
offspringbecomes
tortoise
in
this
tortoise
is
Puranas
In
the
the
an
moving
primeval waters.
various
Avatar
of Visnu, who
this form
to
recover
assumes
objects lost in the
deluge 23.
The
SB. (14, i, i) tells a
Visnu, the sacrifice,by first
myth of how
issue
eminent
the most
the
of
the
became
comprehending
sacrifice,
among
the gods, and
his head, by his bow
how
off and
cut
startingasunder, was
became
this story the TA.
the sun
(adityd). To
(5, i, i
7) adds the trait
that the Asvins
of the sacrifice and
that the
as
physicians replaced the head
in
offer
it
able
its
form
heaven
to
gods now
(cp. PB.
conquered
complete
form

"

7,

56)In

the

AB.

(i, i) Visnu

as

the

locallyhighest

of

the

gods

is contrasted

42

III. RELIGION,

with

Agni

lowest, all the

the

by

The

others.

MAX

WHITNEY,

2,414"5.

33.
Otherwise

27, 170"5.
in ORV.
229, HRI.

"

KHF.

The

to

PW.,

HVBP.

and

(Leipzig 1896),97

FaW.

and

DEUSSEN,
8

JRAS.

according

in

SIEG

them.

'Visnu

accompanied
doorkeeper of the gods.

is the
Stars

"

MYTHOLOGY.

between

where

1561,

KAEGI,

HAUG,

VEDIC

A.

being placed

i,

HVBP.
"

MULLER,

MACDONELL,

"

RV.

quoting

BRV.

Cp.

deities

other

according to
2, 416.

moon

"

KUNST.

u.

stall',states that Visnu

the

friend opens

his

in

(i, 30)

BiTihmana

same

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

222.

others.
9

"

100.

"

BRV.

"

Entwicklungsstufen,

"
ORV580, BB. 21,205.
228"30.
note
13
2.
MACDONELL,
JRAS. 27, 188"9.
JRAS. 27, p. 174,
2;
230,
l6 MM.,
SEE. 32, p. 127. 133"7.
u
15 BERGAIGNE,
Ibid. 184.
JA. 1884, p. 472."
*8
19 HlLLEBRANDT,
RV. II2, 687.
WiNTERNlTZ,
JRAS. 27, 150"!.
i? AUFRECHT,
20
of the Avesta
French
Tr.
f.
und
DAKMESTETER,
XeuVollmondsopfer, 171
2r
A. KUHN,
Otherwise
ORV.
Entwicklungsstufender Mythenbildung,
227.
I, 401;

!6.

J2

Other

10

derivations

Cp. ORV.

"

note

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

12g.

27, 168

JRAS.

22

"

"

WHITNEY,

JAOS.

3,325;

und

Portenta

338;

Omina

"

166"8.

Ibid.

23

IStr. 2,
298; WEBER,
087.4,63-98.
121"9.
PAOS.
BRV.
8; ORV.
227
2, 414"
30; HOPKINS,

226

1894,

"

56 f.

HRI.

cXLViif.;

177.

is not

in any

singlehymn of the
about
there
occurs
thirtytimes, generallyas Vivasvat, five
RV., but his name
is the father of the Asvins (10, i72) and of Yama
also as Vivasvat.
He
times
(10, 1 4s. 17 T). As in post-Vedic literature he is already also in the Vedas
"

8. Vivas

father

the

Vivas vat

"

Manu

of

(" 50),

Vivasvat

called

(Val. 41)

(=

the

celebrated

of

ancestor

Vaivasvata,

Men
are
AV._and the SB.
Vivasvan
Adityah (TS. 6, 5, 62; SB.

of

also
3, i,

is

who

race,

receives

and

12)

p.

human

the

in the

Vaivasvata
progeny

vat.

once

patronymic

the

directlystated to be
34J. The
gods are

the
also

(10, 63'). Vivasvat's


spoken of as the offspring(janima) of Vivasvat
wife is Saranyu, daughter of Tvastr
(10, ij1-2).
It was
well as Matarisvan that Agni was
first manifested
to Vivasvat
as
is once
(i, 31"). Vivasvat's messenger
(6,S4) stated to be Matarisvan, but
said to be
is otherwise Agni (i,58 x; 4, 7^; 8, 39 3; 10, 2i5). Agni is once
his
from
the
of
Vivasvat
as
(5, ii3).
produced
parents (the fire-sticks)
sage
The
is
of
The
five
Vivasvat
mentioned
times.
seat (sadana)
gods (10, 12 7)
and Indra delightin it (3,5i3) and
there
singersextol the greatness oflndra
is
notion
(10, 75 l). Perhaps the same
(*"53l" 3" 347) or of the waters
referred
is
in
Vivasvat
be
said
to when
to
new
as
a
hymn
(i, I391)
placed
a
centre
(iiabha).
with Vivasvat in several passages
Indra is connected
oftheRV.
He
rejoices
in the prayer
of Vivasvat
beside
Vivasvat
his
and
treasure
(2,
(8,639)
placed
With
the
from
heaven
o
f
Indra
the
Vivasvat
ten1
out
I36)(fingers)
pail
pours
of Vi
(8, 6i8, cp. 5, 536). Indra being so closely associated with the abode
And
Soma
indeed
is in the ninth book
vasvat, Soina is likelyto be there.
dwells with Vivasvat (9,264)
brought into intimate relation to Vivasvat. Soma
and is cleansed by the daughters(= fingers)
of Vivasvat
(9, 14 5). The prayers
of Vivasvat urge the tawny Soma
sisters (= waters)
to flow (9,99 2). The
seven
once

wise

the

urge

Soma

flow

the

At

two

10, 5,

Vivasvat
of

the

streams
(9, 66 8). The
of
Vivasvat
(the blessing)
(9, ioS).

who

dwell

the

with Vivasvat

besought

are

yoking
bright days (probably day
of

of

Vivasvat

of

obtained

through
having
blessing(bhagani) of dawn

cp. SB.

course

sieve

the

Asvins

The

(i, 46 13j.

the

on

the

producing

and

Soma

the Asvins'

the

car

to

come

daughter

night) of

and

of

the

to

and

offering

sky is born

the

Vivasvat

(10,39 12;

24).
is also

mentioned

along with

one
worship (10,656).
passage
worshippers of the Adityaspray

In

Varuna

Vivasvat
that

the

and
shows

the
a

missile,the

gods

as

an

object

hostile trait,when
well- wrought

arrow

44

HI.

are

identified

with

in RV.

tioned
is

in the

times

few

in the

sun

Aditya, identified with

gods

post-Vedic

literature

the

an

is said to

Savitr is also

months,

later.

have

Under

been

mentioned

once

are

Vismi

six

and

Brahmanas

they

Adityas men
Aditya (p. 30), which

to

termed

Agni, Surya

8811).
sky_(io,

MYTHOLOGY.

with the twelve

addition

In

VEDIC

A.

In

greatest2.

the

for

name

of

the

the

27*, Surya is

2,

common

name

and

of them

one

KUNST.

months.

twelve

the

u.

sun-gods,evidentlyconnected

regularlytwelve
being

WISSENSCH.

.RELIGION,,WELTL.

the

placed by

in

enumer

an

AdityasBhaga, Varuna, Mitra, Aryaman (8,iS3).


the
Adityas was
regarded by the poets of the RV. to
the
have
been
the seventh, the eighth
been
have
must
sun
definitely
seven,
and
Aditi throws
back
whom
Martanda
(10, 728-9) probably
brings
away
being the settingsun.
Injthe AV. (13,29-37) the sun is called the son of
and
moon
Aditi, the sun
Adityas (8, 2 I5),and_Visnuis invoked in an enu
meration
containinggods who in the RV. are Adityas: Varuna, Mitra,Visnu,
of the Adityas is here
besides Vivasvat
mother
(n, 62). The
Bhaga, Amsa
the
be
but
said
Aditi
not
to
(9, i 4)
once
golden-hued Madhukasa, daughter
with

ation

fore

of

If there

of

Vasus.

is,however, in

Indra

with

four

number

the

the

the

Varuna

the_RV. once

chief of the

the

coupled

in

the

dual

as

an

47

he

is

in Val.

Adityas (7, 854), and

Aditya
directly

Indra
of Aditi, but in
is a son
Aditya. In MS. 2, i
from
the 12 Adityas. When
the SB.
one
(n, 6, 35) he is distinguished
god
is mentioned
alone
as
an
Aditya, it is generallyVaruna, their chief; but in
the
alone
hymn in which Mitra is celebrated
(3,59), that deity is called an
well
and
When
two
as
are
Aditya, as
mentioned, they are Varuna
Surya.
invoked

the

as

fourth

I2

Varuna
and
Mitra, once
Indra; when
three, Varuna, Mitra, and Aryaman :\:
when
the case,
the same
three
five,which is only once
together with Savitr
and
Daksa
the
six
above.
in
mentioned
enumeration
of
occurs
Bhaga.
only
The

Adityasare

invoked

often

as

the

group,

of

names

Mitra

and

Varuna

the same
time.
at
being generallymentioned
frequently
They also appear
(" 45) Vasus, Rudras, Maruts, Angirases, Rbhus.
along with other groups
Visvedevas.
The
in a wider
used
term
not
to be
Adityas seems
infrequently
for
the
Their
class in.
as
an
nature
as
a
equivalent
sense,
gods generally4.
fact resembles
that of the gods in general,not being specifically
characterized
like

that

are

the

of

that

of

chiefs,Mitra

of celestial

gods
light,such

OLDENBERG

planets,is
Daksa) and
is also

their two

the

that
based

the
on

the
number

as

and

light,without

sun,

Varuna.

In

representing
any
and

moon,

stars,

or

Adityas originally
represented
their

abstract

suppositionthat
of the

the

nature

and

sun,

The

number

Amesaspentas6.It

is here

hypothesisof
and

moon,

(such

names

they

sense

manifestation
particular

dawn.

their characteristic

Iranian

aggregate

as

the

is seven5,
to

five

Bhaga. Amsa,
be

which

noted

that

the

have
in common,
two
Mithra
not
a
not
even
singlename
being
groups
in number
Amesaspenta; that the belief in the Adityas being seven
_isnot
characteristic and
old 7; and
that though the identityof the Adityas
distinctly
and
Amesaspentas has been
generally accepted since ROTH'S
essay8,it isAvestan
scholars9.
rejected by some
distinguished
In some
of the hymns of the RV.
in which
the Adityas are
celebrated
in 2, 27), only the three most
mentioned
(especially
together,Mitra,
frequently
is distant is near
What
to be
Varuna, and Aryaman, seem
meant.
to them:
is stationary,
and
they support all that moves
as
gods who protect the uni
verse
and
what
is good
hearts
and
evil in men's
(2,273-4). They see

an

the
distinguish
are

haters

are

besought

of

honest
falsehood

to

man

and

from

the

punish

forgivesin (2, 2714.

deceitful

sin (2, 274;


29

5),

to

avert

(2, 27^;
7,

They
13). They

8, i815).

52 2. 6o5.

66

its consequences

or

to

CELESTIAL

GODS.

19.

ADITYAS.

45

Trita Aptya (5, 52 2; 8, 47 8). They spread fetters for their


to
(2, 27l6), but protect their worshippers as birds spread their wings
their young
(8, 47 2). Their servants
are
so
protected as with armour,
over
?"
strike
them
distress
shaft
ward
and
off sickness
can
that no
(ib. 8). They
various boons
such as light,
long life,offspring;
guidance
(8, i810), and bestow
(", 27; 8, i822. 56'5-20).
them
The
are
: bright(s'uci),
epithets which describe
golden (Jiiranyayd),
many-eyed (bhuryaksa), unwinking (animisd),sleepless(asvapnaj),
far-observing
kings, mighty (ksatriyd),vast (uru\ deep (gabhira),
(dirghadht). They are
inviolable (arista),having fixed ordinances
(dhrtavrata),blameless
(anavadya),
sinless (avrjina\ pure
(rtdvan).
(dhdraputa),holy
is clearly a metronymic formation
The
from
that of their mother
name
This
is also one
of the
they are naturally often invoked.
Aditi, with whom
three derivations given by Yaska
(Nir.2, 13, cp. TA. i, I41).
have
The
dealt with
already been
greater gods belonging to the group
the
but
lesser
best
Adityas having hardly any individuality
separately,
may

transfer

them

enemies

described

be

here

in

succession.

about
times in the RV. is so destitute
100
though mentioned
Aryaman10
in
that
the
in the
of individual
characteristics,
Naighantuka he is passed over
is
in
he
mentioned
with
list of gods.
two
other
Except
always
passages,
with Mitra
and
Varuna.
In less than
deities,in the great majority of cases
the word
has only the appellative senses
dozen
of 'comrade'
and
a
passages
which
connected
with
also
Thus
the
are
occasionally
'groomsman',
god.
Agni
with the words:
addressed
'Thou
when
is once
art
(the wooer) of
Aryaman
derivative
maidens'
(5, 32). The
adjective aryamya,
'relatingto a comrade',
a
as
once
occurs
parallel to mitrya, 'relatingto a friend' (5,85 7). Thus
the conception of Aryaman
that of the
differed but little from
to have
seems
The
back
to the Indo-Iranian
name
greater Aditya Mitra, 'the Friend'.
goes
in the Avesta.
period, as it occurs
One
chieflyto the praise of Bhaga11,
hymn of the RV. (7, 41) is devoted
it
other
deities
invoked
in
of the
are
as
though some
well; and the name
The
word
over
means
god occurs
sixty times.
'dispenser,giver'and appears
in this sense
in several
be used
than
of times attributively,
to
more
a
score
is
conceived
in the
with the name
The
of Savitr12.
also
cases
god
regularly
Vedic
distributor
with
of wealth, comparisons
hymns as a
Bhaga being generally
intended
to
glorificationof India's and Agni's bounty. The word
express
with the sense
about
of 'bounty,
bhaga also occurs
twenty times in the RV.
is
sometimes
in one
and
the
Thus
wealth, fortune',
ambiguity
played upon.
where
distributor
is
it
stated
(7, 41 2)
Bhaga is called the
(vidharta),
passage
that men
say of the god, 'May I share in Bhaga' (bhagam bhakst). In another
from
he is termed
the 'dispenser'(vibhaktd, derived
verse
(5, 46 6) in which
the same
is
he
full
of
be
invoked
root
to
bhaj),
bounty (bhagavdn) to his
worshippers.
Dawn
is Bhaga's sister (i, 1235).
with rays
Bhaga's eye is adorned
(i, is62), and hymns rise up to Visnu as on Bhaga's path (3, 54 14). Yaska
describes Bhaga
Iranian
the forenoon
as
(Nir. 12, 13). The
presiding over
form
of the name
is bagha, 'god',which
an
occurs
as
epithetof Ahura Mazda.
The

word

bogu

as

any
a

is
in the

individual

more

merely
The

Indo-European13, since

even
sense

god

of
in

'god'. There is no
the Indo-European

than
specializedsense
giver'.

it

in

occurs

to

reason

suppose

period, for it
'bountiful god', if indeed

Church

Slavonic

that it

designated

Old

have

cannot

it meant

more

attained
than

'bountiful
word

Amsa,

which

occurs

less

than

dozen

times

in

the

RV.,

is

RELIGION,

III.

46

VEDIC

A.

MYTHOLOGY.

with

synonymous

of

that

portion*and
of

KUNST.

u.

of 'share,
sense
bhaga, expressingboth the concrete
'apportioned. It is found but three times as the name
of these
statinganything about him besides
a
passages
god14, only one
said
be
is
here
to
Amsa,, a bountiful (bhdjayii)
god at the
name.
Agni

almost

his

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

(2, 1 4).

feast'

mentioned

is

Daksa15

hardly

than

more

word

The

half

dozen

times

in the

as
adjective
god.
frequently
applied to Agni (3,147) and
meaning 'dexterous,strong, clever, intelligent',
of 'dexterity,
Soma
(9, 6il8 "c.), or as a substantive in the sense
strength,
of the personification
therefore
name
cleverness, understanding'.The
appears
'clever' god.
the 'dexterous' or
mean
to
Excepting the verse
(2,27*) which
the six Adityas,he is mentioned
enumerates
only in the first and tenth books.
he
referred
in another
is
to with other Adityas,and
In one
(i, 89 3)
passage
(10, 64 5) with Mitra, Varuna, and Aryaman, Aditi also being spoken of in
his birth.
with
In a cosmogonic hymn
is said
connexion
(10,72^5) Daksa
when
added
it
is
from
Aditi
that
have
Aditi,
to
immediately
sprung
sprang
is his daughter,the gods being born
and
In another
afterwards.
him
from
in the womb
verse
(10, 5?) it is stated that the existent and non-existent were

the

RV.

of

Aditi, in

the

Aditi

and

regard
ducing

of

name

their

birthplace of
Daksa

as

Daksa.

the

The

the

shown

last

(p. 12)

in which

JAOS. 15, 176

BLOOMFIELD,
ZDMG.

LENSEN,

WZKM.

9,

122.

"

vSPH.

f. ; BARTHOLOMAE,

ZDMG.

note;

Cp. GW.,
503.
41,
" On
the Amesaspentas
"

(Paris1875),i

9 Sp.AP.
6, 69 f.
ibid. 41, 503;
BOLLENSEN,

manner

"

AF.

31.
s.

two

be

to

to

pro

unfamiliar

not

to

"

v.

be

to

came

OST.

Aditya.

117

4,
-

21.

"

Cp.

v.

Haurvatat

DARMESTETER,

see

"

BOL-

SCHROEDER,
et

Ameretat

Cp. MACDONELL, JRAS. 27, 948.


6, 74;
"ROTH, ZDMG.
JA. 1878(11),
129 ff.

3, 26.

199; HARLEZ,
HVBP.
55"6.

it

an

seem
passages
of
children
paradox

The

parents.

been

as

applied in this
poets
follows.
be
The
to
seems
as
case
are
Adityas
spoken of as 'gods
particular
father'
for
the
their
who
have
(6, 5o2),
intelligence
epithet(daksapitard)being
in the same
also appliedto Mitra- Varuna, who
verse
(7,66 2) are called 'very
clearer
(sudaksa). The
expression is made
intelligent'
by another
passage
termed
Varuna
'sons
where
of
Mitra(sunu daksasya)
are
intelligence'
(8,255),
well as
'children of great might'(napata savaso
as
mahaJi). The juxtaposition
is here not
that daksa
but
the
of the latter epithetsshows
a
personification
in Agni'sepithets
used
'father of skill' (daksasyapitr: 3, 2 7 9)
abstract word
as
'son of strength'
or
("" 8, 35). This conclusion is confirmed
by the fact that
called
sacrificers
are
daksdpitarah,'havingskill for their father"
ordinary human
of
the
(8, 5210). Such
expressionsprobably brought about
personification
his association
the father of the Adityas and
Daksa
In the
with Aditi.
as
in the SB. (2,4, 42)
TS.
the
called daksapitarah,and
gods in general are
Daksa
is identified with the creator
Prajapati.
of

the

RV.

more

Thus

universal

parents has

own

occurs

"

"

"

"

"

ROTH,

1. c.;

WC.

11

"

12;

BAYNES,

of the 8th
Oriental Congress, II, I, 85
Bhaga. Transactions
Biography
9;
12
HRI.
13 v.
s. v.
53"6.
bhaga.
SCHROEDER, WZKM.
Cp. GW.
9, 127.
ZDMG.
J5 OST.
BRV.
M
ROTH,
6, 75; BRI. 19.
5, 51"2;
3, 93. 99; W7C. 45.
OST.
MM., SBE. 32, 252" 4; ORV.
185"9.
WHITNEY, JAOS. 3, 323"6;
5, 54"7;
286"
7; ZDMG.
50, 50" 4; SBE. 48, 1 90; HOPKINS, JAOS. 17, 28; IF. 6, n 6.
49, 177"8;
The

of

"

"

"

"

S
of

the

20.

RV.

Us

as.

and

"

Usas, goddess
mentioned

more

of

Dawn,

is celebrated

in

about

times.
Owing to
300
the
physicalphenomenon
slight,

than

the

20

hymns

identityof

the
of dawn
is but
personification
the
being absent from the poet's mind, when
goddess is addressed.
Usas
is the most
graceful creation of Vedic poetry and there is no more
in
the
charming figure
descriptivereligiouslyricsof any other literature. The
brightness of her form has not been obscured
by priestlyspeculationnor
has the imagery as a rule been
marred
by references to the sacrifice. Arraying
name,
never

GODS.

CELESTIAL

herself in gay
maiden
Like
a

attire,like

dancer,

she

mother

20.

USAS.

displaysher
she

47

bosom

shows

(i,92 4, cp. 6, 642).


(i, I2311). Clothed
charms
(i, I243-4).

decked
her form
by her
in the east, and
unveils
her
light the maiden
appears
withholds
she
from
in
her
neither small
nor
light
beauty
peerless
Effulgent
she
from
charms
her
a
bath, showing
great (ib.6). Rising resplendent as
the darkness
with light,driving away
(5,80 s-6). She is young, being
comes
uniform
hue, she
born
again and again, though ancient; shining with an
she
in
mortals
has
life
of
As
shone
former
the
(i,
I0).
days,
wastes
92
away
in
immortal
will
shine
shines
and
she
future, never
aging,
(i,ii313-15).
now
so
before
all the
world
maiden
The
(i, i232). Ever
coming again awakes
she shines
that have
forth, the last of the dawns
shortening the ages of men,
Like
she
revolves
come1
of
those
wheel
the
first
a
to
(i,
I242).
always gone,
awakens
have
and
She
that
feet
makes
the
creatures
anew
(3, 6i3).
ever
s
life of everything (i, 48
she is the breath
and
birds to fly up:
49 3). She
motion
waken
The
Dawns
awakens
to
(i,
y;1).
being
929;
living
7,
every
in

I0-

the

sleeping and

urge
When

the

living,the
shines

two-footed

and

the

four-footed,

birds

to

forth, the
fly up from their nests,
nourishment
waken
seek
and
(i, I2412). She reveals the paths of men,
men
manifests
tribes
life
She
and
all
bestows
the
five
new
79')(7,
beings
ing
'""
drives
evil
Trita
She
dreams
She
to
10).
(7,So1-2).
Aptya (8, 47
away
the black
of night(i, ii314). She dispels
robe
the darkness
removes
(6, 643.
dis
evil
and
hated
darkness
wards
off
the
She
She
(7,
T).
2).
spirits
65
75
concealed
darkness
and
them
distributes
closes the treasures
bountifully
by
awakes
she
(i, 92").
(i, i234'6). She illumines the ends of the sky when
15.
She
doors
of
of
the
She
the
heaven
(i,
H34).
48
gates
opens
opens
their stall (i, 924). Her
like
radiant
beams
darkness
the
cows
as
appear
is visible afar, spreading out
herds
cattle (j"asuri)
of cattle (4, 522~4). She
it were
(i, 92 12). The
as
ruddy beams
fly up, the ruddy cows
yoke them
their web
weave
(of light)as of old (ib.2). Thus
selves, the ruddy dawns
'mother
called
of kine'2
Usas
to be
(4, 52
comes
3; 7, 772).
Day by day appearing at the appointed place, she never
infringesthe
and
of order
of the gods (i, 92 I2. I239. i242; 7, 765); she goes
ordinance
loses her direc
along the path of order, knowing the way she never
straight
tion (5, 80 4). She
service
the
renders
to
good
gods by causing all wor
kindled
and
the sacrificial fires to be
(i, ii39). She is
shippers to awake
liberal worshipper, leaving the un
and
besought to arouse
only the devout
however
(i, I2410; 4, 51 3). Worshippers are
godly niggard to sleep on
instead
of being awakened
sometimes
spoken of as wakening her
by her
claim
with their
have
her
first wakened
(4, 52 4 "c.), and the Vasisthas
to
is once
asked
not
not
to
hymns (7, So1). She
delay, that the sun
may
is
scorch
her
thief
She
a
an
or
as
(5, 799).
besought to bring the
enemy
gods to drink Soma
(i, 48 T2). Hence
probably, the gods are often described
as
'waking with Usas' (i, i49 "c.).
which
Usas
is borne
is shining (7,78*), brilliant (1,237),
on
a
car
well-adorned
(i,49 2),all-adorning
"c.),
(7, 75"),massive (i,48
bright(3, 6 1 2),
and
spontaneously-yoked (7, 784). She is also said to arrive on a hundred
chariots
(i, 48 7). She is drawn
are
by steeds which
ruddy (7, 75 6 "c.)"
easilyguided (3, 6i2), regularly-yoked (4, 5i5), or is said to be resplendent
with steeds
as
(5,79 1~I"). She is also described
being drawn
by ruddy
kine
bulls (go: i, 92 2. 124";
Both
the
horses
and
the
or
cows
5, So3).
probably represent the ruddy rays of morning light3; but the cows
are
generally
distance
in
The
the dawns
explained as the red morning clouds.
traverse
is
a
day
30 yojanas (i, I238).
motion

(4, 5 1 5).

lisas

2"

10

48

III. RELIGION,

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

is closely associated with the sun.


She has
She
the
of
the
H3l6).
(i,
brings
gods
eye
opened paths
She
shines
white
with
the
horse
beautiful
the
773).
(7,
leads
and
on
light
of the sun
(i, ii$9), with the lightof her lover (i;92"). Savitr shines after
maiden
man
a
the
path of Usas (5, 8i2). Surya follows her as a young
desires her (i, i2310). She
the god who
is the wife
(i, i is2). She meets
the wives
of the Sun
are
of Surya (7,755); the Dawns
(4,5 X3). Thus
as
his
she
conceived
wife
is
mistress.
But
in
the
as
or
followed
by
sun,
space
As

is to

be

expected, Usas

for

Surya

to

travel

in time
she is occasionallythought of as his mother
preceding the sun
has
She
Surya, sacrifice,
generated
Agni (7, 7 8 3). She has been
35).
(cp. p.
of Savitr,and
arrives with a
for
the
(savdya)
production
produced (prasutd)
the
Usas
the
of
sister
is
Aditya Bhaga (i, i235;
bright child (i, H3I"2).
the kinswoman
(i, I235). She is also the
(jdmi) of Varuna
cp. p. 45) and
the elder sister (i, I248) of Night; and
the
sister (i, ii32-3;
10, 127 3) or
dual
and
often
as
of Dawn
are
a
(usdsdnames
conjoined
compound
Night
in the sky (7,75*); and
the place of
is born
naktd
or
naktosasa}. Usas
in the RV. : she
most
her birth suggests the relationship
frequentlymentioned
also
is constantly called the daughter of heaven
(i,30
"c.)4. She is once
beloved
heaven
of
the
of
as
T).
(i,46
(priya)
spoken
sacrificial fire being regularlykindled
The
at
dawn, Agni is naturally
without a sidewith Usas
in this connexion, sometimes
often associated
not
of
manifestation
which
with
the
the
at
Agni
simultaneously
glance
sun,
appears
with
the kindling of the sacrificial fire (i, 124'or
"c.)5. Agni appears
the Dawn.
before
Usas
causes
Agni to be kindled (1,1139). He is thus
called her lover
sometimes
like the sun
(i,69 x; 7, lo1, cp. 10, 3 3). He goes
she comes,
the shiningUsas
to
as
meet
asking her for fair riches (3,6i6).
is naturally also often connected
with the twin gods of the earlymorning,
Usas
the Asvins
her
(i, 44
"c.). They accompany
(i,i832) and she is their
them
friend (4, 522-3j. She is invoked
to arouse
(8, 9 17j, and her hymn is
is yoked, the
awakened
Asvins'
said to have
them
When
the
car
(3,581).
with the
the
born
of
associated
is
is
(10, 39 12). Usas
once
"daughter
sky
before
the dawns
which
anew
as
harbinger of
being born ever
moon,
goes
day (10,85'9).
Various
gods are described as having produced or discovered the dawns.
is characteristically
Indra
who
of light,is said to have
winner
a
generated
7
also hostile to her,
or
"c.). But he is sometimes
lightedup Usas (2, 12
made
the dawns
being described as shatteringher wain (" 22). Soma
bright
the
constituted them
at their birth (6, 39 3) and
wives of a good husband
the Dawn,
the sky
(6, 44 23), as Agni does
(7, 65). Brhaspati discovered
with light(10, 68 9). The
ancient
(svar), and Agni, repellingthe darkness
Fathers, companions of the gods, by efficacious hymns discovered the hidden
lightand generated Usas (7, 764).
The
the worshipper or
on
goddess is often implored to dawn
bring to
him wealth
and children,to bestow
protectionand long life (i, 30". 48 "c.),
of the poet (5,79",
and glory on all the liberal benefactors
to confer
renown
ask
Her
from
her
her
riches
be
adorers
desire
and
to
as
to
cp. i, 48 4).
soul of the dead man
to a mother
and
sons
to the sun
(7, Si4). The
goes
Usas
to
in whose
(10, 58s),and by the ruddy ones
lap the Fathers are said
be seated, the Dawns
to
doubtless meant
are
(10,15?).
Besides
the
in the
sixteen enumerated
has
Naighantuka (i,8) Usas
other epithets.She is resplendent, shining,
many
bright,white, ruddy, goldenas

22

IX

hued,
She

is

of

brilliant bounty, born

bountiful
characteristically

in

law,

most

Indra-like, divine, immortal6.


50, 440).

(inaghonr.ZDMG.

CELESTIAL

The

of

name

GVS.

5, 190;

"

Asvins.

21.

Asvins

the

they

hymns

times.

400

in

and

"

the

are

which

with

of

rays

21.

p.

BRV.

52"4;

are

parts

Though

the

Cp. KUHN,
5

"

shine

to

vas

Entwicklungsstufen, 131.
are
compared with cattle

191.

OST.

Ibid.

"

5, 181"98;
Usas

BRANDES,

i, 241"50;

and

is

See

the

radically

193

4.

"

MM.,

"

LSL.

or

cows.

"

passages
4 OST.

KZ.

SONNE,

10,416.

GKR.
583"4;
35"6;
(Copenhagen 1879, pp. 123).
2,

Indra, Agni, and Soma, the twin deities named


prominent in the RV. judged by the frequency
invoked.
in more
than
They are celebrated
fiftyentire
Next

to

most

of

others, while

several

they

hold

distinct

their appellationis Indian, their

and

root

49

"

dawn

Ibid.

JAOS. 3, 321"2;

WHITNEY,
KRV.

2
"

the

where

above

cp.

from

AS'VINS.

'Hu"? (p. 8)7.

and

265"6.

i,

quoted above,

21.

is derived

Usas

Aurora

to

cognate

GODS.

their

name

occurs

positionamong

connexion

with

any

than

more

deities of light

the

definite phenomenon

has been
nature
a
lightis so obscure, that their original
puzzle to Vedic
earliest
times.
This
it
makes
from
the
interpreters
probable that
obscurity
is
in
of
be
Vedic
these
the origin
to
a
sought
period. They are
gods
pretwins
sole
of one
(3, 39 3; 10, i;2) and inseparable. The
hymn
purpose
with different twin objects such
them
as
hands,
(2, 39) is to compare
eyes,,
birds going in pairs,such as dogs and goats
and
feet,wings, or with animals
9and
swans
or
3; 8, 35 7
eagles (cp. 5, 78*
I0). There
I0, io62
are,
which
however, a few passages
perhaps point to their originallyhaving
may
been
they are spoken of as born separately (ndnd: 5, 734)
separate. Thus
here
and
there (ihehd), one
and
born
as
being called a victorious prince,
and
the son
of heaven
the other
also quotes a passage
(i, i8i4). Yaska
is
the
called
of night, the other
the son
of dawn'
son
statingthat 'one
(Nir.
in another
'the
alone
RV., moreover,
(4, 36) mentions
12, 2). The
passage
encompassing Nasatya', a frequent epithet otherwise
only designatingboth

of

"

Asvins

in the

The
the

"

"

dual.

Asvins

are

of

(7, 67 I0), the TS.


young
the gods. They are
at

(7, 2,
the

them
describing

7 2) even
time

ancient

(7, 62 5).
of
6),
golden
10, 93
brilliancy
and
forms
honey-hued (8, 266). They possess many
(i, ii79). They
beautiful (6, 62 5. 63 x) and
are
wear
lotus-garlands(10, i842; AV. 3, 22*;
SB. 4, i, 516). They are
agile(6, 63 5J, fleet as thought (8, 22l6), or as an
eagle (5,784). They are
are
strong (10, 244), very mighty (6, 62 5), and
several times
called 'red'
wis
(rudrd, 5, 753"c.). They possess
profound
dom
distinctive
most
two
(8, 82) and occult power
(6, 63s; 10, 937). The
and
is almost
frequent epithets of the Asvins
are
dasra, 'wondrous'., which
limited to them, and
is generally explained to mean
entirely
nasatya, which
as

They are
(8, 82j,

youngest

bright(7, 68 x), lords

of lustre

same

(8, 2214;

'not untrue'

but
(na-asatyd),

been

other

proposed.
Avesta', which, however,

sheds

in later

separate

bute

The

times

became

rudravartani

latter

the

word

etymologies2,such
occurs

no

further

proper
path'5 is

as

the

of

name

lighton
names

'the

as

it.

of the

savers'

demon

These

two

Asvins4.

have
in

the

epithets
The

attri

peculiarto them, and they are the


'havinga red
(
hiranyavartani),
an
epithet otherwise
'golden-pathed'
only

only gods called


(twice) of rivers.6
Of
all the gods7 the Asvins
with
most
are
closely connected
honey
in many
(madhti),with which
have
they are mentioned
a
They
passages.
skin filled with honey, and
the birds which draw
in it (4,45 3"4).
them
abound
They poured out 100
jars of honey (i, n76). Their honey-goad (x,122 3.
with
which
the sacrifice and
the worshipper8,is peculiar
i574)
they bestrew
them.
to
is described
of the Asvins
Only the car
as
honey-hued (madhuvarnd) or 'honey-bearing'
said to be fond
(madhu-vdhana). They only are

used

Indo-arische

Philologie. III.

IA.

III. RELIGION,

50

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

KUNST.

u.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

priestto
(inadhuyu, mddhvi) or drinkers of it (tnadhupa). The
is called honey-handed (10, 41 3). They give
invited
to
come
are
\vhom
they
compared with bees (10,io610).
cp. 10, 4o6) and are
honey to the bee (i, 112
fond
of
like
other
Soma
(3,587"9"c.) and are
gods,
They are, however,
and
HILLEBRANDT
with
Usas
Surya (8,35').
(VM. 1,241),
invited to drink it
of honey

2I

Asvins

traces
showing that the
Soma-worshipped gods.

finds

however,

circle of the
The

its parts, such

wheels, axle,

as

(8,82)

is sun-like

Asvins

the

of

car

reins
fellies,

at

were

are

first excluded

from

the

(4,444" 5), and all


golden (i, 180'; 8, 529. 22s).
(8,8"- I4). It is peculiarin

or

golden

(i,119') or ornaments
threefold,
having three wheels, three fellies,and some
construction, being
nS1-2
other
"c.). It moves
lightly(8,Q8), is swifter than
parts triple(i,
the
than
twinkling of an
(8,62 2). It was
eye
thought (i;ii72"c.) or
which
fashioned by the Rbhus
(10, 39 I2). The Asvins' car is the only one

It has

thousand

rays

Asvins

to

came

the

Asvins'

The

evidence

name

to

have

been

lost

when

the

wedding
Surya (10, 85 15; cp. " 37).
impliesonly the possession of horses, there being
of

that

show

to

is said

its wheels

of

One

is three-wheeled.

they

are

so

called

because

they ride

on

no

horses10.

(i, ii72"c.), more


commonly by birds (pi,
(4,45 4),eagles(i, n84), bird steeds
6, 63 "c. or patatrin,10, i435), swans
described
drawn
as
by a
(6, 63 7) or eagle steeds (8,5'). It is sometimes
buffalo
(kakuha) or buffaloes (5,73 7; i, i843 "c.) or by a singleass (rdsabha: i, 34". n62;
9) the Asvins are said at the
8, 747). In the AB. (4, 7
have
in a car
drawn
and
Soma
race
won
a
Surya to
by asses11
marriage of
and Sayana'scomm.). Their car touches the ends of heaven
(cp.RV. i, n67
the five countries
round
heaven
extends
and
over
(7,63 2"3). It moves
heaven
earth
and
in
It
traverses
a
single day (3,588), as the
(i,i8o10).
and
of
Usas
that
of the sun
(4,5i5) are also said to do. It
(i,us3)
car

Their

is drawn

car

by

horses

"

round

goes
made

the

in the

sun

distance

(i, ii2I3j.

Frequent

mention

is also

which
word
with one
a
(vartis],
exception is applicable
The
several
word
is
round'
times connected
to them
parijman, 'going
only.
with the Asvins or their car, as it is also with Vata, Agni, and
Surya.
afar
from
The
They come
localityof the Asvins is variouslydescribed.
and
heaven
from
heaven
heaven
and
from
earth
(8,87),
(i,44 5),
(8,53"),
the
and
from
from
air
air (8, 84. 92),
ocean
(8,lo1),
(8,83), earth, heaven,
air, from far and near
(5,73 J). They abide in the sea of heaven (8,26 17),
in the floods of heaven, plants, houses, the mountain
top (7,7o3). They
above
their locality
Sometimes
from
come
behind, before, below,
(7,725).
about
if unknown72
is inquired
as
(5,74 2'3; 6, 63 T; 8, 62 4). They are once
three
invoked
(8,823) said to have three places (j"adant),
possibly because
times a day.
is often said to be the earlydawn13, when
The
time of their appearance
the
'darkness still stands
ruddy cows' (10,6i4) and they yoke their
among
and
receive the offerings
of worshippers(i,22
to descend
to earth
car
"c.).
them
Usas awakes
(8,917). They follow after Usas in their car (8,52). At
the
their relative time
yoking of their car Usas is born (10, 39 T2). Thus
of their

course

to

seems

set

of

their
the

sunrise
are

have
car

between
before

dawn
the dawn

seem

to
to

be
come

evening (8,2214)

appearance

of

the

and

sunrise.

But

Savitr

is

once

said to

(i,34 10). Occasionallythe

appearance
of dawn, and
sacrificial fire,the break
spoken of as simultaneous (i,157*; 7, 724). The Asvins
to the offering
not
only at their natural time, but also

Asvins14, the kindling of

invoked

in the

been

in motion

Asvins

or

at

at

the

the

and
morning, noon,
three daily sacrifices

sunset

may

(5,763).
have

been

The

the

III. RELIGION,

52

from

his

youth, rendered

him

they released
to

(i, n610"c.
to
youth by

maidens
restored
taken

had

to

been

have

of

of

son

in

spouse

animal,

lost

ii77;
story

of

who

Purumitra

to

the

in

home

water-tightships,which
winged boat,

nightsand
out

which

ocean

ship. They

one

rescued

in

passage
the

midst

of the

him

four

is

Bhujyu

darkness
is without

air, with

the

(sam-

in

about

of

rescue

ocean

three

ships,

hundred

their

well-

described

waves22.

The

in the

malignant,overwhelmed

days,abandoned

nine

Soma

as

the

In

the

of

tossed

commentator

the

flying cars
having
headlong flying steeds, with

a
support
log (vrksd]
Rebha, stabbed, bound, hidden by the

drawn

of

traversed

with

for

for ten

the

midst

397). They

10,

is that

to

who

he

worshipper Visvaka,

according to
the

also

when

the youthful Vimada


(10, 65 12),who
seems

(i. n;20;

hundred-oared

chariot

yoked
clingingto

and

(udameghe)
youthful heroes.

their
six horses, with
swift as
thought. In

and

in

abandoned

him

of
was

to

sightof their

referred

often

husband

Cyavana

befriended

car

of

the

him

(4, i, 5)21. They

SB.

Kamadyu

6512),who

10,

most
was

the

him

animated

an

in the

named

(i, n6T)

him

story of how

and

water-cloud

aid

animated,

feet

wife

Tugra,

support they took


with

MYTHOLOGY.

his life,restored

made

detailed

given

is

and

wife

Kali

the

The

the

the

invoked

his

to

5, 143).

Asvins

the

of

(i, n623.

father.

Bhujyu,
udre] or

witli

desirable
OST.

beautiful

the

Krsna

his

was

or

VEDIC

A.

decrepitbody; they prolonged

Visnapu, like

restored
son

wife

(i, ii219)

wives

KUNST.

u.

(10, 398)
aged
(i, ii215). They brought on a

youth

the

renewed

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

as

sage
waters

dead, was by the Asvins revived and


from
They delivered Vandana
ii25.
116".
the lightof the sun
(i,
ny5. n86),

with

is raised

as

ladle 2^.

calamity and restored him to


raisinghim up from a pit in which he lay hidden away as one dead (io,398)
the sage
or
restoringhim from decrepitude (i, ii96-7)24. They succoured
in
his
Atri Saptavadhri who
with
a
companions was
along
plunged
burning
pit by the wiles of a demon.
They brought him a cooling and refreshing
draught,protected him from the flames, and finallyreleased him in youthful
also
from
darkness.
said to have
delivered him
When
strength. They are
is
rescued
of
the
Atri
from
heat
as
(10, 30^)^
Agni
having
spoken
meaning
probably is that Agni spared him through the intervention of the Asvins 2s. The
Asvins

and

rescued

even

To

sheep

one

eyesightat
of blindness
battle

from

like

the

had

Rijrasvawho
and

to

quail which

invoked

their aid26.

hundred
one
by his father for killing
his
she-wolf to devour, they restored

(i, u6l6. ny1?- l8);and cured Paravrj


(i, ii28). When
Vispala'sleg had been cut off in

of
prayer
and
lameness

the

of

wing

wolf

blinded

giving them

the

the

of

jaws

been

she-wolf

Asvins

bird, the

her

gave

an

iron

instead27.

one

she was
They befriended Ghosa when
growing old in her father's house by
6. 40$). To
the wife of a eunuch
giving her a husband
(i, n;7; 10, 39
called Hiranyahasta (i, n6T3.
they gave a son
n;24; 65/627; 10, 397); who
called
The
had left
of Sayu, which
is, however, once
cow
Syava (10, 6512).
off bearing they caused
to give milk
(i, n622"c.).
a
They gave to Pedu
swift,strong, white, incomparable, dragon-slaying steed impelled by Indra,
which
unbounded
him
of the family
won
spoils (i, 116" ".). To Kaksivat
of Pajra they granted blessingsin abundance,, causing a hundred
jars of wine
sieve
(surd) or of honey to flow from
a
a
strong horse's hoof, as from
"

(i,n67. ii76)28.Another
mead.
They placed

or

then

told

them

where

the

referred
persons
coured
befriended
or

be

largely the

names

miraculous
a

the

was

to

by

of

mead

on

others

Asvins

in RV.

actual

of

theirs is connected

Dadhyanc,

(madhti) of

many

above,
the

deed

head

horse's

persons

are

i,

who

of

son

and

112
were

Atharvan,

(" 53) 2Q.

Tvastr

mentioned

with honey

116
saved

Besides

having been

as
"

19.
or

who

These
cured

suc

may

in

CELESTIAL

remarkable

Their

manner.

rescue

GODS.

or

cure

21.

would

ASVINS.

53

easilyhave

been

attributed

Asvins, who
having acquired the character of divine deliverers and
with such mira
all stories connected
healers, naturallyattracted to themselves
The
of
BERGAIGNE
and
others
the
culous
that
various
miracles
opinion
powers.
attributed to the Asvins
of solar phenomena
are
anthropomorphized forms
thus
from
man
meaning the release of the sun
(the healing of the blind
lack probability
-5". At
the same
time
the legend of Atri
to
darkness), seems
be a reminiscence
of a myth explainingthe restoration of the
(cp. " 56) may
to

the

vanished

sun.

the physical basis of the Asvins, the language of the Rsis is so


themselves
do not
understood
to have
what
seem
they
phenomenon
vague
deities
The
other
of
the
these
represented.
gods
morning, the night-dispelling
more
Agni, the man-waking Usas, and the risingSurya are much
vividly ad
called
dressed.
be
because
of
the
latter are
horses,
They may
possessors
of
of
the
sun's.
But
what
light,especially
symbolical
rays
they actually re
the oldest commentators
mentioned
That
presented puzzled even
by Yaska.
remarks
scholar
Earth
and
Heaven
(Nir.12, i) that some
as
regarded them
(as does also the SB. 4, i, 5l6),others, as Day and Night, others, as sun and
while
the 'legendary writers' took
'two kings, performers of
them
to be
moon,
acts'.
holy
thinks
Yaska's
ROTH
he means
Indra
and
the
own
opinion is obscure.
he
that
the
from
darkness
transition
which
GoLDSTtiCKER,
to
means
light,
sun,
inseparable dualitycorresponding to their twin nature, and agrees
represents an
This is also the opinion of MYRIANTHEUS
with this view.
well as of HOPKINS,
as
considers
it probable that the inseparable twins represent the twin-lights
who
of them
could
be
or
twilightbefore dawn, half dark, half light,so that one
of
alone
the
of
Other
the
scholars*1
favour
as
son
spoken
Dyaus,
bright sky.
As

to

that

the

identification
and

of

the

Asvins

BOLLENSEN

with

sun

and

moon.

OLDENBERG

following

believes
the
natural
basis
(ZDMG.
41, 496)
of the Asvins
be the morning star, that being the
must
only morning light
beside fire,dawn, and sun.
The
the course
of
time, the luminous
nature, and
the Asvins
round
the heavens
suit,but not their duality.
The
indeed
morning star would
naturally be thought of in connexion
with the evening star, but
they are
eternallyseparate, while the Asvins are
of the RV.
two
joined. The latter are, however, in one
or
spoken
passages
of separately; and
though the morning in Vedic
worship is so important,
while
sunset
nevertheless
sometimes
plays no
are
part (5, yy2), the Asvins
invoked
The
and
(8, 22*4; 10, 391. 404)
of
Asvins, sons
evening^.
morning
drive across
the sky with their steeds
and
have
Dyaus, who
a sister,
possess
famous
horsemen
of Greek
a
of Zeus
parallel in the two
mythology, sons
(Aid? xoupoi)34j brothers
Lettic God's
of Helena, and
in the two
who
sons
their
steeds
come
the daughter of the sun,
either for them
to
riding on
woo
selves
the
In the
Lettic
or
moon.
myth the morning star is said to have
the daughter of the sun
Asvins
come
to look
at
35. As
the two
wed
the one
Lettic
wed
the
of
the
Surya, so the two
one
daughter
god-sons
they
sun;
too
the ocean,
are
from
the daughter
(like the Aiooxoupoi)rescuers
delivering
of the sun
himself*6.
the sun
character
If this theory is correct, the
or
of
the Asvins
idea
have
as
derived
from
the
of
the
been
rescuers
morning
may
star
being a harbinger of deliverance from the distress of darkness.
WEBER
is also of opinion that the Asvins
stars, the twin constellation
represent two
of
the
Gemini
37.
thinks that the Asvins
do not
Finally GELDNER
represent
natural
but
saints
of
phenomenon,
any
are
simply succouring
(Notheilige)
purely Indian origin38.
MANNHARDT^2

RELIGION,

III.

54

twilightand

The

note.

According

to

172.

Asvins.

ZDMG.

269"71.
15

"

168"70.
83.
OO.
3, 1 60;

HVBP.

208.

18

WEBER,

"

OST.

5,

IS.

78

THEUS

of

name

81.

27

"

OST.

of the

"

Asvins

"

SEE.
set

23

--

(Atri

10,335"6;

5,

246; BENFEY,

sun);

2S

"

OO.

3,

.ibid.
BAUNACK,
OST,
5, 247;
cp.

OST.

5,

PVS.

100"12;

BENFEY,

24

"

2,525"6;

MYRIANTHEUS

9, 131;

273 ff;BENFEY,
in the morning);

KZ.

OST.

50, 264"6.

"

WZKM.

XXVI,

restored

SOXNE,

5, 244"5;
112.

SCHRSDER,

v.

Vispala is variouslyinterpreted.

racing mare).

*7

"

HVBP.

5, 245;

3, 193.

cp. HOPKINS,
82.
HRI.
H
BRV.
5, 238"9;
Cp. IS. 5, 183. 187; EHNI, ZDMG.

174;

"

"

(=

158;

BOR.

OST.

"

OST.

in

*3

"

19
227. 234.
OST.
5, 250"3;
has
which
sun

21

"

COLIXET,

207;

steeds

and

ZDMG.
BAUNACK,
KZ.
Ibid. 268; SONNE,
25
331
10,
26 MM,
LSL.
ZDMG.
4.
45, 482

BRADKE,

Indo-European

PVS.

car

83.

5.218.

p. 93

3, 159;
164; MYRIANTHEUS

263"4.

HRI.

References

22

"

In

"

the
105.

2,

248"9.

MYRIANTHEUS

H2.

"

On

16

"

MYRIANTHEUS

162.

v.

ORV.

20

"

the

56"7, gives a list of the epithets


8 According
to
this refers to
OLDENBERG,
IQ
GGA.
1875, p. 93.
HAUG,
BOLLENSEN,

"

pvS.

12

"

probable.

most

date from

Sp.AP.

"

"

I, 237.

"

15,

33,
HRI.

OO.

83.
55.

I,

HVM.

the

seem

MYTHOLOGY.

name.

HRI.

434;
PVS.

2, 433.
cp. BRV.
ii
80.
496; HRI.

41,

2, 432.

2,
"

"

theory

star

VEDIC

i A.

variously interpreted by others; cp. BRV.


I, 56"8;
3, 38
in Gothic
from
nasyan),Vom Aral bis zur
1/~nas
('savers'

dew;

morning

JAOS.

PVS.

BRV.

note

in

not

BRUNNHOFER,

KRV.

of the

not

though

"

KUNST.

u.

unlikelythat the Asvins

character

Ganga, p. 99;
4

morning

the

it appears

case,

any

period in

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

248; MYRIAN

i, 171

"

(Vispala,

MYRIANTHEUS

149 f

HVBP.
OO.
29 BENFEY,
185.
142"3;
2, 245; MYRIANTHEUS
113.
HVM.
H2.
3" OST.
31 LRV.
i, 535 (againstZLMMER,
5, 248; HVBP.
3, 334;
f. slav. Philol. 2, 669 ff.);HVBP.
32 Zft. f. Ethnologic
Archiv
7, 312 f.
47"9212
35 ORV.
34 HRI.
33 BRV.
n.
78. 80; JRAS. 27, 953"4.
2, 500.
3.
KRV.

note

"

"

"

"

36

v.

SCHRODER,

38 GVS.

WZKM.

31

2,

cp.

i.

9, 133"1.
xxvii.

ROTH,
ZDMG,
4, 425;
OO.
OST.
BENFEY,
2, 245;
Die Asvins
MYRIANTHEUS,
KRV.

"510;
HRI.

"22.

Indra.

171. 179.

THE

Indra

"

is

MAX

3,322;

180; HVBP.

Rajasflya100.

5, 234;

MULLER,

LSL,

2,

GRV.
ibid. 255"7;
Miinchen
1876; BRV.

GOLDSTUCKER,
Dioskuren,
47"

49. 111"13;

ORV.

607"9:
i, 150;
2, 431

209"

15;

than

more

by

the total number

which

he

is

praised or

in

the

devoted

those

of

GODS.

ATMOSPHERIC

is the favourite national

indicated

fourth

"into

JAOS.

5, 234"54:
oder
Arischen

IS.

WEBER,

80-6.

importance

greatness,

37

WHITNEY,

notes

49"52,

B.

His

"

"

of

hymns

which
is

he

fact
to

in

that

about

other
any
the RV.

god

hymns

^250

god

and

very

Indians.

celebrate

nearly

his
one-

hymns in parts of
other
gods, are taken

If the

with

is associated

of the Vedic

the name,
As
least 300.
brought up
of
uncertain meaning, does
the Indo-Iranian
period and is
.not
designate any phenomenon of nature, the figure of Indra has become
surrounded
anthropomorphic and much
by mythologicalimagery, more
very
of his
indeed than that of any
The
other god in the Veda.
so
significance
-character is,however, sufficiently
clear. He
is primarilythe thunder-god,the
of drought or darkness and the consequent liberation
conquest of the demons
'Of the waters
Se
the winning of lightforming his mythologicalessence.
or
condarily |Tndrais the god of battle, who aids the victorious Aryan in the
conquest of the aboriginalinhabitants of India. ]
is the dominant
He
deity of the middle region. He pervades the air
He
the
occurs
(i, 5 12).
gods of the air alone in the Naighantuka
among
of the air in the triad Agni, Indra
(or Vayu),
(5,4), and is the representative

-which

the

account,
dates from

aggregate

to

at

"

"

"

Surya.
Many
head, arms,
"

connexion

of

with

has a body, a
He
mentioned.
physical features are
is
often
His
(2, i62; 8, 853).
spoken of in
belly
is compared
It
of
(2, i62 "c.).
drinking Soma
powers

Indra's

and

hands
his

ATMOSPHERIC

full of

when

sipra)

Soma

to

often

are

lipped',being
(8j65'"). His

22.

(3, 36s).

lake

GODS.

His

INDRA.

lips (the probable meaning

referred

to, the frequent attributes


peculiar to him. He agitateshis

almost

55

of

siprin,'fair-

susipra or
jaws after drinkingSoma

is violently agitated when


is exhilerated
he
or
puts
is tawny-haired (10, 96s- 8) and
(2, n17; 10, 231). He
is tawny, the changes being
tawny-bearded (10, 23*). His whole
appearance
that
word
in
entire hymn
of
on
(Jiari)
(10, 96) with
verse
an
rung
every
Indra.
reference
is a few times
to
He
described
as
golden (i, y2; 8, 5 5 3),
attribute
distinctive of Savitr (p. 32), as
an
(7, 34*), and as
golden-armed
iron-like (i, 563; 10, 96*- 8). His arms
the
thunderbolt
are
men
as
wielding
tioned particularlyoften. They are
long, far-extended, great (6, 19^; 8. 3210.
beautiful
the most
701),strong and well-shaped (SV. 2, 1219). Indra assumes
and
the ruddy brightnessof the sun
forms
different
(10,ii23) and takes many
in

himself

forms

at

will

The

beard

motion

(3,48*. 538; 6,

thunderbolt

47 l8).
is the weapon
of the
name

(vajra)
regular mythological
fashioned
as
generally described
I

It is the

is

Usana
In

the

said

(4, i)

AB.

have

to

it is

him

for

it and

made

said to have
are
gods who
provided Indra with
ocean
(8,899). Its place is below
enveloped in water
that
of the
sun
(10, 2721). It is generally described as dyasa or metallic
(i, 52* "c.), but sometimes
as
golden (i, "72 "c.), tawny (3, 44*; 10, 963)
It
is
or
bright(3,44s).
four-angled (4,222),hundred-angled (4,i710), hundredand
jointed (8,66"c.);
thousand-pointed(i,8o12"c.). It is sharp (7,i8l8"c.).
it like a knife or
Indra
whets
bull his horns2
as
(i,130*. 55'). It is spoken
a
of as a stone
(as'man)or rock (parvata-. 7, io419). The bolt in Indra' s hand
is compared
with the sun
in the sky (8,59 2).Epithets derived
from
comor
with
of which
pounded
vajra, some
are
frequent, are almost
entirely
very
limited to Indra.
Vajrabhrt, 'bearingthe bolt',vajrivat,'armed with the bolt',
and
vajradaksina^'holding the bolt in his righthand' are applied to him
while vajrabdhu or -hasta, 'holdingthe bolt in his arm
exclusively,
or
hand',
and
the commonest
derivative vajrin, 'armed
with the bolt',otherwise
occur
attributes of Rudra, the Maruts, and
each
as
Manyu only once
respectively.
Indra
is sometimes
said to be armed
with a bow
and
arrows
(8, 454.
666" "; 10, io32" 3). The
latter
and
are
golden, hundred-pointed,
winged
with
thousand
feathers
a
also carries a hook
(ankusa) with
(8, 667- "). He
which
he bestows
wealth
he uses
(8, i710; AV. 6, 82 3) or which
as
a weapon
(10, 449). A net with which he overwhelms
all his foes is also attributed
to
his bolt.

"

also

exclusivelyappropriate to Indra.
lightningstroke (cp.p. 59). It is
(i, 32" "c.), but Kavya
by Tvastr
him
it
to
(i, i2i12; 5, 342).
given

him

It lies in

the

the

(AV. 8, 85~8).
Indra

is borne

on

thought (10, ii22).


priated to Indra. His
and
frequently used
horses.

In

few

car

The

is

golden (6,292"c.)

is swifter than

and

epithet 'car-fighter'
(rathestha)is exclusivelyappro
is drawn
two
by
tawny steeds (/ian)*, a term
very
the
referringto Indra's
great majority of instances

car

in

passages
eleven
or

thousand

which

greater number

than

two,

up

to

hundred

and

mentioned
hundred
are
(2, 18*-?; 4. 463; 6,47**;
sun-eyed (i,i6T-2).They snort and neigh (i,3ol6).
They have flowing manes
(i, io3 "c.) or golden manes
(8,3229.8224). Their
hair is like peacocks' feathers or
tails (3, 45'; 8, i25). They
swiftlytraverse
distances and
vast
Indra
is transported by them
an
as
eagle is borne
by its
wings (2, i63; 8, 349). They are yoked by prayer (2, i83 "c.), which doubt
even

8, i9-24).These

steeds

less

means

invocations

said

to

that
be

22*~6), and

drawn

Vayu

by
has

are

the

bring Indra

horses

Indra

for

of
his

to

the

sacrifice.

is

Indra

Surya (10, 497) or by


charioteer (4, 462. 482)

those

or

few

of Vata
his

times

(10,

car-corn-

RELIGION,

III.

56

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

panion (7, 9i6). India's


is
in1;
5? 3l4)- Indra
8,

his

and

car

u.

said

once

KUNST.

steeds
be

to

VEDIC

A.

fashioned

were

provided

with

MYTHOLOGY.

by the Rbhus
(i,
golden goad (kasd:

33")-'

Though the gods in general are fond


preeminentlyaddicted to it (i,io49"c.). He
44). He

is the

(8, 2lS. 58"), Indra

Soma

of

stole it in order

even

Soma-drinker

gods

and

to

is

drink

(8,24),

among
(3, 484; 8,
him in this respect4. It is his favourite
only Vayu, his companion, coming near
nutriment
(soma-pa,-pavari)is
frequent epithet 'Soma-drinker'
(8, 4"). The
characteristic of him, being otherwise only applied a few times to Agni and
besides to Vayu alone.
associated with Indra, and once
Brhaspatiwhen

it

is

Soma

actions
But

it

such

as

gave

said

stimulate

to

and

supporting earth

(6, 27;
it to

7,
him

or

drank

it

or

to

essential
on

the

carry

to

very

day

his warlike

out

is Soma

the slaughter of Vrtra


6, 4o2; 7, 983). For
and
said to
is even
ne
6,
i7")"
(5,2Q7 cp.

men

perform great cosmic


spreading out the earth (2,i52).

Indra

(2,I51. ig2; 6, 47

dragon or Vrtra
222; 8, 8i6). So
he

sky
him

exhilarates
characteristically

slaughterof the
foes

sometimes

one

'"

2)

his birth

drank

he

(3,482"3" 329-10;
lakes5

three

drunk

deeds, the
conquest of

that his mother

Indra

to

of

the

or

of

Soma

singledraught
entire
lakes
the
One
of
beverage (8,66*).
hymn (10,119) consists of
thirty
his
Indra
describes
sensations
in
which
after a draught of Soma.
a
monologue
much
Soma
is said to produce disease in men,
Indra him
But just as
too
so
from
excessive indulgence in it and
self is described
as
having to be
suffering
cured
ceremony6. Indra also drinks milk
by the gods with the Sautramani
7
with honey
mixed
(8,48).
time eats the flesh of bulls (10,283),of one
He
at the same
(10,272),
of twenty
buffaloes (6, 17"; 8, 6610), or 300
(10, 8614), or of a hundred
buffaloes
roasted by Agni (5,297). At the sacrifice he also eats an offering
of cake (3, 527- 8),as well as of grain (3,35^. 434; i, i62),and the latter his
steeds
are
supposed to eat as well (3,357. 52?).
Indra
is often spoken of as having been
Two
whole hymns (3,48;
born.
the
with
of
his
birth.
deal
Once
iS12) he is represented
(4,
4, 1 8)
subject
in
the
unnatural
side of his mother8.
as
an
wishing to be born
through
way
This trait may
breaking from
possiblybe derived from the notion of lightning
the
born
the side of the storm-cloud.
illuminates
On
he
being
sky (3, 444).
bom
he
in
the
wheel
of
the
motion
set
a
sun
Scarcely
(i,130"). He was
warrior as soon
irre
born
as
(3, 5i8; 5, 3o5; 8, 454. 661; 10, ii34) and was
sistible from
birth (i, io28; 10, I332). Through fear of him when
he is born,
the
firm
and
earth
At
his birth
are
mountains, heaven
6i14).
agitated(i;
heaven
and
earth
trembled
all the
fear
of
wrath
his
and
(4,1 7 2)
through
3
feared
him
gods
(5,305)9. His mother is often mentioned
(3, 48'- "c.)10.
She is once
he being her calf; and he
(4, i810) spoken of as a cow
(grsti),
is spoken (10, n i2) of as a bull, the offspringof a cow
(gdrsteyd).He is
called
the
of
whom
once
(10,101^)
son
NistigrI,
Sayana regards as synony
with Aditi (cp." 41). According to the AV.
mous
(3, io12- '-)Indra's (and
is Ekastaka, daughter of Prajapati.Indra
has the same
father
Agni's)mother
as
Agni (6,592),who is the son of Dyaus and Prthivi (" 35). According to
in a hymn
of a verse
one
interpretation
(4,i74) in which his father is twice
mentioned,
in

the

latter is Dyaus.

similar

have

inference

Indra

hymn (io,120') where it is said


that was
the highest from
which
this fierce (god) was
other
(cp. 6, 30$; 8, 364 with io, 543, and
passages
verse

His

an

father is said to

generally described

have
as

made
fashioned

his thunderbolt

by

Tvastr

at

may
that

drawn

be

'among

born', and
io,

I386

(" 38).

Indra

from

with

(2, i76), which

from

the

i,

worlds
a

few

164").

is elsewhere

drank

Soma

in

GODS.

ATMOSPHERIC

his

house

of

He

drank

Soma

in

Tvastr

and

overcome

his

seizing

Indra

the

house

father

stolen
the

by
his

given

was

the

inferred

that

crushed
widow

his

Indra

mother

having

it in

clearly

different

few

be

to

accounts

these

passages

given

are

of the

he

originof

Indra.

is said

He

destroyer of fiends (3, 49 T), but


is
doubt
in
here
the figurativesense
of 'to con
the verb
fan
no
is
Soma
the
stitute' (cp. 2, i35; 3, 5 18).
once
spoken of as
generator of Indra
other
and
some
gods (9,965). In the Purusa
hymn Indra and Agni are said
mouth
from
the
of
the
have
to
(10, 9o13). According to
world-giant
sprung
the SB. (u, i, 614) Indra, as well as Agni, Soma, and Paramesthin, is said to
created
from
TB.
that Prajapati
been
have
Prajapati. The
(2, 2, io:) states
last of the gods.
created Indra
(6,592)and Pusan is also his brother (6.555).
Agni is Indra's twin brother

to

have

The

by

generated by

been

Indra's

of

sons

the

whom

birth

the -cups
(3, 48*).
in the
he is asked

him, and
(4, i812). From

father

(3, 48 2).
his

at

slays in order to
is Tvastr11
obtain the Soma,
(cp. i, So1*). The
hostilityof the gods, who in
said
have
to
(4, 30^) are
fought againsthim, is perhaps con
one
passage
notion
his
the
of
with
nected
trying to obtain Soma
forcibly.12.
it is

Indra's

57

by

drank

Soma,

foot

mother

him

to

(4, i83),

of Tvastr

having

made

who

verse

same

it

father, where

the

INDRA.

22.

brother

gods as
only used

-are

mentioned

once

(io,551),but

who

meant

are

is uncertain.

them

times

is several

wife

Indra's

is Indrani

in

referred
in

to

which

(i, 82$- 6; 3, 534- 6; 10, 869- 10).


is represented as
conversing

she

hymn
in a
contain
few
other
which
occurs
(10, 86"- I2) and
passages
of goddesses (i, 2212; 2, 328; 5, 468). The
SB. expressly states
enumerations
wife (14, 2, i8). The
be Indra's
AB.
Indrani
to
(3, 227), however, mentions

Her

with

name

Indra

and

Prasaha

Sena

(TB. 2, 4, 27- 8;
the Proper name
The

ture15.
from

assuming
Indra

the

Indra's

wife

Danavl

form

of

is associated

named
a

These

*3.

two

in

the

to

an

RV.
Asura

as

identified

are

(VS.

PISCHEL

12') '4-

4,

(7, 382) refers


gods; and the

the
of

8";

3,

of

AV.

among

amoured

MS.

wives

Indra's

as

2,

well

female

Kathaka

52)
in

as

who

with

Indrani

thinks 'that

post-Vedic
drew

(IS.3, 479) states


live among
to
Vilistenga, went

litera
down

Indra
that

Indra

the

is

Saci

en

Asuras,

female
with

females
and
of a male
males.
among
among
various
other
His
chief
friends
allies
and
gods.

in innumerable
described
are
as
assistinghim
Maruts, who
passages
in his warlike
with these deities is so close that
exploits (" 29). His connexion
the epithet marutvat,
'accompanied by the Maruts', though sometimes
applied
other gods, is characteristic
of Indra, this epithet,as
to
well as
marudgana
'attended
host', being sufficient to designatehim (5,426;9,6510).
by the Marut
With
Agni Indra is more
frequently coupled as a dual divinitythan with any
is natural, as
other god (" 44) l6. This
lightningis a form of fire. Indra is
said
also
between
have
two
to
stones
produced Agni
(2, 12^) or to have
found
is further often coupled
in the waters
(10, 32fc). Indra
Agni hidden
with Varuna
and
Vayu, less frequently with Soma, Brhaspati, Pusan, and
Visnu
attends
(" 44). The latter is a faithful friend of Indra and sometimes
him
in his conflict with the demons
I7.
("" 17. 44)
Indra
is in three
four passages
less distinctly
identified with
or
more
or
Surya18.Speaking in the first person
(4, 26') Indra asserts that he was
once
Manu
and
Surya. He is once
directlycalled Surya (10, 89*); and Surya and
Indra
both
in another
invoked
the same
are
verse
(8, 824) as if they were
receives
In one
Indra
the epithetSavitr (2,30*). The
SB.
person.
passage
with the sun, Vrtra
identifies Indra
(i, 6, 4l8),too, once
being the moon.
are

the

The

giganticsize

of

Indra

is dwelt

upon

in many

passages.

When

Indra

III.

58

RELIGION,

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

KUNST.

u.

VEDIC

A.

MYTHOLOGY.

but a handful
to him
worlds, they were
(3, 3o5).
air
and
The
worlds
two
earth,
(3,46^).
greatness heaven,
surpasses
him
half
of
Heaven
and
earth
do
the
but
(6, 30 T; 10, 119')are
equal to
earth were
times as large,
suffice for his girdle (i, I736). If the
ten
not
had
hundred
heavens
and
be equal to it (i, 52"). If Indra
would
Indra
a
him
thousand
would
both
worlds
not
hundred
suns
nor
equal
a
earths,
a
(8, 59s).

grasped

the

boundless

two

in

He

greatness and

His

parallelamong

no

has
terrestrial,

been

bora

nor

recent

nor

waters

have

or

man,

attained

to

unstinted

most

No

(4, i84).

born

He

terms.

has

celestial

one,

or

born, like to him (7, 322J). No one,


equals him (6,3o4). Neither former, later,

shall

either surpasses
or
have
attained
beings

god

be

to

or

or

in the

lauded

are

power
those
born

to

the

be

his valour

limit of his

(5,426). Neither gods


might (i, loo1*). No

nor

men

like

one

rival him
born, past or present, can
gods; no one
among
All
the
him
the
in
He
to
1
(3,
(i, 659).
46$).
gods yield
gods
surpasses
and
Even
the
former
subordinated
their
gods
might
strength(8,5i7).
powers
to his divine glory and
to
kingly dignity(7, 2i7). All the gods are unable
and
counsels
Varuna
frustrate his deeds
and Surya are
sub
(2, 324). Even
(i, ioi3 cp. 2, 389 p. 16). He is besought to destroy
ject to his command
of Mitra, Aryaman,
foes
Varuna
and
the
(10, 89"-9) and is said to have
acquired by battle ample space for the gods (7,983). Indra alone is king of
world
lord
of all that moves
and
is the
the whole
breathes
(3,46 2). He
he
is the
(i, ioi5). He is the king of thingsmoving and of men
(5,3o5);
of
all
and
leader
He
is
the
of
human
that
sees
moves
(10, io212).
eye
and divine (3,342). He
is several
times called a universal monarch
races
(4, i92 "c.) and still oftener a self-dependentsovereign (3,461"c.;cp.p. 24).
He
is also said to rule alone
(ekd) by his might as an ancient seer (8,641).
few
A
times
he
the epithetasura
receives
(i, 174*^8, 796). Indra bears
several
characteristic attributes expressiveof power.
Sakra
'mighty'applies
about
times
and
to Indra
only about five times to other gods. Sacwat,
40
fifteen times and other deities only
'possessedof might' describes Indra some
twice. The
'lord
of
epithetsacipati
might',occurring eleven times in the RV.
the Asvins as 'lords
belongs to Indra with only one
exception (7,67s),when
of might' are
besought to strengthentheir worshippers with might (sacibhih).
In one
of these passages
invoked
as
(10,242) Indra is pleonastically
'mighty
lord of might' (sadpatesaclnam). This epithetsurvives in post-Vedicliterature
of 'husband
of Sac!' (a sense
claimed
as
a
designationof Indra in the sense
is known

him

it

for

by

the

PISCHEL

in

even

the

RV.).

The

very

frequent

attribute

satafyratu,

two
'having
powers', occurring some
exceptionsentirelylimited to Indra. In the great majorityof instances satpati,
Indra's
'stronglord' is appropriated to Indra.
strength and valour are also
described
with various other
He
is
(nrtu),
epithets.
strong (tavas),nimble
victorious (turd),
force (i,n4. iQ26),of irresistible
heroic (sura),of unbounded
might (i,842). He is clothed in might like the elephant and bears weapons
like the terrible lion (4, i614). He
is also
(i, n4 "c.) and unaging
young
(ajard),as well as ancient (purvyct).
come
Having dealt with Indra's personaltraits and his character,we now
a

to

the

hundred

60

great myth

which

generally escorted
by
demon
of drought, most
(S 68)

and

also

very

conflict is terrible.
Vrtra

with

his bolt

is the
the

basis

Maruts

he

his nature.

of

enters

frequentlycalled

often
Heaven

(i,80";

styledahi
and
2,

earth
nq-

times

the

in

by
'Serpent'or

tremble

name

with

I0; 6, 17$); even

by

fray with

the
of

is with

RV.

Exhilerated

upon
the

the

Vrtra,

and

Soma

chief

the

the Obstructor

'Dragon' (" 64).


fear

when

Tvastr

who

Indra

The

strikes

forged

the

III. RELIGION,

60

literal

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

(abhra "c.) it

name

KUNST.

u.

hardly be denied

can

VEDIC

A.

MYTHOLOGY.

containingthe waters,

that; as

under
extent
they figure mythologicallyto a considerable
udder
cask
well
(utsd),
as
(udhar),
spring
as
(go: " 61),
clouds
the
rainThus
others.
meant
and
are
probably
(kosa)

the

of

name

cow

(kavand/ia\ pail
it is said

when

birth of Indra

(8,594).
giri: p. 10) that they appear
(jxirvata,
the
mountains
which
the demons
in the Indra
on
are
(i,32*)
They
myth.
down
them
from
which
he
dwell
casts
(i, 322; 2, I211),or
(i,130?; 4, 30**;
from these mountains
6,265). Indra shoots forth his well- aimed arrow
(8,6 66).
release
cleft wide
the mountain
He
the cows
to
(8, 453"). Or the cloud is
that

the

roared

cows

It is however

(adri) which
place (6, i75). He
rock

ii28).

at

rather

as

mountains

the

encompasses

loosened

released

the

the

cows

rocks
cloud
5, 3o4). The
stationaryrainless clouds seen

or

(10,

He

the

cp.

rather

be

i4of.)

thinks

in

Vrtra-myth are

the

aerial

and

the

and

moving
that

to

the

and

which

which

made

Indra

the

would

the mountains

also

he

admits

that

to

represent

cloud

well

they

as

were

the

would

cows

OLDENBERG
as

its

obtain

(6, 433

stone

to

during drought, while the


roaring rain-cloud (p. 10).

poets of the RV.

easy

the

seem

from

moves

cows

fast within

were

mountains

terrestrial,
though

later

and

cows

rock

(ORV.
the rivers

originally

period
also very
the clouds
fre
mythical imagery of the thunderstorm
the fortresses (flirah)21
of the aerial demons.
quently become
They are spoken
of as ninety,ninety-nine,
in number
hundred
or
a
(2, i46.iQ6; 8, i;14. Sy6).
These
fortresses are
'moving' (8, i28),autumnal
(i,1307. 1311 174^ 6, 20'"),
of metal
made
(2,2o8) or stone (4,3o20)22.Indra shatters them
(i,5i5"c.),
and so the epithet'fort-shatter er' (purbhid) is peculiarto him. In one
verse
(10, in10) he is spoken of as a fort-shatterer and lover of waters
at the
time.
In
another
the
various
features
mentioned
same
of the myth
are
he
slew
the
channel
for the rivers,,
together:
Vrtra, broke
a
castles, made
the cows
pierced the mountain, and made
over
to his friends (10, 897).
Owing to the importance of the Vrtra-myth the chief and specific
epithet
of Indra
is Vrtrahan, 'Vrtra-slayer'
23. It is applied about
70 times to him
in the RV.
The
only other deity who receives it with any frequencyis Agni;
but this is due to Agni's frequent association with Indra
dual divinity,
as
a
few
The
also clearly secondary
applicationsof the epithet to Soma
are
(" 37)24- Though Indra
is sometimes
expresslystated to have slain Vrtra
his
own
by
might alone
(i, i658; 7, 2i6; 10, I386) other deities are very
often
associated with him
in the conflict. The
gods in general are said to
have
in the
for action
battle
placed him
van
or
(i,55^; 6, i78),or the
of
Vrtra
have
increased his vigour
slaughter
(8, i222).They are also said to
for the fray with Vrtra
(10, ii38),or to have infused might or valour into
him
(i, So'S; 6, 2o2; 10, 483. i2o3), or to have placed the bolt in his hands
(2,2o8). But most
frequentlyhe is urged on and fortified by the Maruts
"c.
(3"324; 10, 731when
the other gods terrified by Vrtra
" 29). Even
fled away
(8, 857 cp. 4, iS11; AB. 3, 20), they stood by him; but the Maruts
themselves
in one
said to have
him
deserted
are
(8, 731)- Agnir
passage
Soma, and Visnu
often
also allied with
in the fightwith Vrtra.
Indra
are
Even
in his com
associate themselves
with Indra
priestson earth sometimes
bats
(5"3"8; 8, 5 111; 10, 449). The
worshipper (jarita) is said to have
placed the bolt in Indra's hands
(i, 63 2), and the sacrifice is spoken of as
having assisted the bolt at the slaughterof the dragon (3, 32 12). Hymns,
and
prayers,
worship, as well as Soma, are also often described as increasing
(Yvrdh) the vigour of Indra 2s.
*

In

at

were

understood

as

such.

the

Besides

Vrtra,

Indra

engages

in

conflict with

many

minor

demons

also

GODS.

ATMOSPHERIC

61

INDRA.

22.

of these, Urana, mentioned


(2, 14*) is described
only once
{" 69). One
and
while
six-eyed
another, Visvarupa, is three-headed
having 99 arms,
as
of
with
his
them
bolt.
Thus
does
He
one
not
them,
996).
always
slay
(10,
Some
with
ice
his
with
crushes
foot
he
or
(i, 51"; 8, 3226).
pierces
Arbuda,
in general. Thus
he is said
Indra
is described
times
as
destroying demons
with his wheel
the Raksases
the Asuras
to
(8, 859), to consume
away
sweep
the druhah
his bolt
fire a dry forest (6, i810) and
to
with
overcome
or
as
(4, 23". 282).
malignant spirits
is connected
the winning of light,sun,
With
of the waters
the liberation
Indra
dawn.
and
(3, 348). The
god is in
won
light and the divine waters
slain the
win
When
Indra
had
and
the
Vrtra
to
voked
y84).
(8,
light
slay
his
with
metallic
the
he
Vrtra
for
waters
bolt, releasing
placed
dragon
man,
the sun
(i, 5i4. 528). Indra, the dragon-slayer, set in
visiblyin the heavens
the
motion
flood
of waters
to
the
generated the sun, and found the
sea,
the
and
the
after slaying the demons
waters
He
sun
(2,
i93).
gained
cows
chief
When
Indra
slew
the
of
the
dragons and released the
(3, 348"9).
from
the dawn
the mountain, he generated the sun, the sky and
waters
(i,
blew
forth when
Indra
the
shone
the dragon from
sun
324; 6, 3o5). The
is usually the prize of the
air (8,3*"). Though
the
conflict,it also
sun
for he
weapon,
reference
any

Indra's

as

appears

(8, 129). Without


the light (3, 344; 8, i55;
the

of

generator

the

10,

burns

Vrtra

in the

(3, 494).

sun

the

to

434)

He

with

demon

the

the

fight, Indra
(i, io88;

4,

the

brilliant

darkness

placed

rays of the sun


is said to
find

sun,

the

i64).

Indra

is

light,in

it mount
(8,36.Sy2), and made
in
it in the
(i, ioo6- l8;3, 349) or found
gained the sun
it abode
darkness
in which
it
for
a
(3, 39s) and made
(10,
path
in3).
Indra
well
the sun
as
as
(2, 12 7. 2i4; 3, 31 l5; 32 8.
produces the dawn
made
dawns
shine
has
and
the sun
the
has
to
494). He
(3, 442). He
with
dawn
and
the
the
steals
the
sun
opened the darkness
(i,625). He
dawn
which
mentioned
with the
with
The
sun
cows
are
(2, 20$).
along
and
dawn
alone
sun
(i, 73; 2, i93;
(i, 625; 2, 12"; 6, i75) or with the sun
by Indra, probably
3, 349; 6, i73. 322; 10, i382) as found, delivered, or won
do
much
the
waters25
the
not
so
or
rainclouds,
as
morning beams
represent
(BRV. i, 245) and others, the red clouds
(" 61) or, according to BERGATGNE
of dawn.
The
waters
are
probably meant
by the ruddy watery (apya) cows
in the following passages.
clouds
The
(9, io86), but the morning beams
or
dawns
he became
the lord of the
on
him, when
seeing Indra went to meet
he overcame
Vrtra
he made
visible the cows
cows
(3, 3 14). When
(dhenah}
of the nights (3, 343 cp. BRV.
is in some
spoken of
2, 200). Dawn
passages
in expressions reminding of the winning of the cows.
Thus
'Dawn
the
opens
darkness
their stall' (i, 924). Dawn
doors
the
of
the
firm
rock
as
cows
opens
towards
low
the dawns
(7" 794)- The
cows
(7,757). The
Angirases burst
the cowstalls
of Usas
dawn
is sometimes
the heights (6, 655). The
on
open
said
have
in the same
been
in
to
produced along with the sun
passages
which
the conquest
is celebrated
of the waters
(i,32x-2-4; 6,3o5; 10,13s1-2).

the

made

sky (8,i23"). He
the sky (i, 73). He

Thus

there

of the
sun

myth

after

sun

from

the

he

directed
With

the

darkness

is said
the
the

to

action
Vrtra

have
of the

the

of

night

of
an

to

sun

confusion

darkness

probably only
activityin the

most

Indra's

Thus

be

to

appears

the

at

extension

thunderstorm

created

between

the

thunderstorm
dawn.
of

The
the

notion
and

winning

of

the

restoration

the

former.

is sometimes

more

lightningsof heaven
downwards
(2, 175).

the

of

of the
recovery
latter trait is in the Indra

the

waters

fight,with

shine

the

cows

directlyexpressed.
(2, 137) and to have
and

of

the

sun,

is

RELIGION,

62

III.

also

connected
and

the

sun,

the

demon,

Soma
drove

(Soma,

mead
out

that

the

became

Soma
his

u.

When

of Soma.
Indra'

hechose

Soma

demons,

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

KUNST.

own

(6, 20^). Indra


cows
(3,445).

forth

A.

(3, 368J.

property

(7,985j;he

won

the
Soma

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

the dragon from the air,fires,


(8,320). After his victoryover

his drink

disclosed
He

drove

Indra

juice,shone
for

After

he

became

juice pressed
at

the

same

conquered
the king of

with
time

stones
as

the

the
the
and

cows

the hidden
in heaven
the
nectar
found
(6,4423). He found
(i" 3212)- He
in
The
the
raw
cow
ruddy cow
(usriydyam: 3, 396).
goes
honey accumulated
all sweetness,
is accumulated
which
Indra
with ripe milk, in the ruddy cow
placed there for enjoyment (3, 3o14). Indra places ripe milk in the cows
(8,787) black or red (1,629),anci for which he opens
(8,3225),which are raw
These
to have
seem
the gates (6, 17").
primarilyat least a mytho
passages
in
describes the
most
cases
to
rainclouds, as the context
logical reference

great cosmical
Indra

actions

is said to

448). In a
mountains, which
earth unsteady.
10,

later

of Indra.
have
text

settled the
Indra

is

quaking
said

to

mountains
have

cut

and
off the

plains(2, i22;
wings of the

alightedwherever
they pleased and thus made the
originally
thunder
the
clouds (MS. i, lo1^). This
wings became
in post-Vedic literature. PISCHEL
is a favourite myth
(VS. i, 174) traces its
Indra
also
fixed
E.V.
the
the brightrealms
of
of
(4, 545).
originto a verse
and
the sky (8, 149). He
propped the sky (2,i;5"c.).
supported the earth
wheels
and
asunder
earth as two
heaven
He
holds
are
kept apart by the
and
heaven
earth (8,36) like a hide (8,65L
stretches
axle (10, 894). He
out
and
earth
is the generator of heaven
He
(8, 364 cp. 6, 47*). He generated
that which is and shall be by his great secret
name
(10,552) and made the non
existent into the existent in a moment
(6,245).The separationand supporting
the result of Indra's victory
and
described
earth
sometimes
of heaven
as
are
held
who
them
demon
he was
born
together (8,617).When
over
a
(5,29*),
for the
Vrtra
fight, Indra
spread out the earth and fixed the sky (8, 785).
he opened a path for
visible to heaven, when
The
earth
made
dragon-slayer
have
he
found
heaven
is
said
the streams
and
earth
to
(2, i35). Similarly
have
them
with
hidden
which
won
were
(8,85l6)or to
along
lightand waters
(3"348)- Possiblythe effect of lightextending the range of vision and seeming
and
earth
to
apparentlypressed together by darkness, may
separate heaven
have
such
of
been
the starting
conceptions.
point
Indra, the wielder of the thunderbolt, who
destroys the aerial demons
in battle,is constantly invoked
by warriors (4,242 "c.). As the great god
of battle
he
than
other
is more
deityas the
frequentlycalled upon
any
with
the
conflicts
in
their
enemies.
of
He
helper
Aryans
earthly
protects the
and
Aryan colour
subjects the black skin (3, 349; i, i3o8). He
dispersed
and
of the black
their citadels (4,i613). He
rent
race
subjected the
50000
Dasyus to the Aryan (6, i83) and gave land to the Aryan (4,262).He turns
from
of the Dasyu in the land of the seven
the Arya the weapon
rivers
away
to
(8,2427). Other deities are
as
only occasionallyreferred
protectors of
the Aryas, as
the
Asvins
(i, ii72I)"Agni (8, 92'), or the gods in general
(6,21").
More
generally Indra is spoken of as the one
compassionate helper
advocate
of his worshippers
(i,84*9; 8, 55'3. 691), as the deliverer and
(8,8520j,as their strength (7,3i5),and as a wall of defence (8,697).His friend
is never
slain or conquered (10, I521). Indra is very often called the friend
of
his worshippers27,sometimes
brother (3, 535),a father (4,i717;
even
a
in one
father and
mother
also the friend of
a
(8,8711). He was
10, 48 ') or
the fathers in the olden
time (6,2i8cp.
7,334),and the epithetKausika which
The

GODS.

ATMOSPHERIC

receives

(I,IOTI),impliesthat

INDRA.

22.

63

the family of
particularlyfavoured
Kusikas28.
Indra
does
desire
who
offers
the
not
the
friendship of him
he
the pious
bestows
libations (10, 424). But
on
no
goods and wealth
is implored not
to
be diverted
(2, 19*. 223; ^ 27 3), and
man
by other
his
his
18^
All
share
benefits
"c.)29.
(8, 547). Both
men
worshippers (2,
full of riches
is a
hands
wealth
filled with
are
(7, 373). He
treasury
shower
his worshippers as
a
can
on
(10, 42 2). He
satisfyingwealth
with
hook
shakes
and
down
fruit
Gods
from
a
tree
man
ripe
a
(3, 454).
mortals
can
no
more
wishing to give than a terrific bull (8,
stop him
is an
lead
of riches (i, 5iT)" and
all the paths of wealth
ocean
7o3). He
him
the rivers to the sea
to
as
(6,i95). One entire hymn in particular
(10,47)
he

once

dwells
the

manifold

the

on

goods

which

which

wealth

Indra, like

other

he

Indra

gods,

is

often

most

and

Cows

bestows.

asked

horses

bestow

to

are

(i,i69.

it is chieflyto him
is
that the epithetgopati, 'lord of cows'
14 "c.), and
10
'desire of cows'
are
applied. His combats
frequently called gavisti,literally
the result of victories (4,1710-11"c. :
(8,245"c.) and his giftsare considered
Indra
children
also
wives
bestows
male
(4, i7l6) and
2, 178).
cp. BRV.
is so
characteristic that the very frequent attribute
(i,535"c.). His liberality
entirelymonopolized by him in the RV. (cp.
maghavan, 'bountiful' is almost
in
and
remains
his exclusive epithet.The
literature
post-Vedic
epithet
p. 48)
vasupati, 'lord of wealth',is also predominantly applicableto Indra.
main
the
is his combat
with Vrtra,
Though
myth concerning Indra
stories attached
various other
themselves
the
to him
as
performer of heroic
deeds.
struck
Usas

Some
down
with

describe

passages
the wain

his bolt

Indra

(anas) of

and

rent

her

as

Dawn

coming into
(10, 736). He

(steeds) with

slow

with

conflict

shattered

his

He

Usas.

the

wain

swift (mares: 2,

of

i56).

her wain
(10, I385). Indra
Indra, Usas abandoned
performed the
manly exploit of strikingand crushingthe female medi
tatingevil,Usas, the daughter of the sky; her wain lay shattered in the river
of the
fled
in terror
obscuration
Vipas and Usas
(4, 3o8~ 1X). The
away
dawn
thunderstorm
this
of
is
basis
the
by a
myth.
usually regarded as
Indra
who
that it is not
Against such an
interpretationBERGAIGNE
urges
obscures
the sky but a demon,
and
that the application of the bolt, Indra's
concludes
characteristic weapon,
need
not be restricted
to the Vrtra-fight.He
that the
sunrise
dawn
overcoming the delaying
(cp.2, i56; 5, 79") is here

Terrified

the

at

bolt

of

heroic

conceived
Indra

as

victoryof

comes

between

in

Indra

conflict with

swift

bringing the
the

sun

3".

sun

in the

obscure
and

myth

about

race

drawn

sun
by
a
Etasa,
car,
His
is hindered
The
car
yellow steeds.
sun
by Indra.
being ahead
loses
caused
been
in some
a
to have
wheel, a loss which
by
seems
way
Indra (" 60 D). With
that Indra
the statement
this myth is probably connected
with
stopped the tawny steeds of the sun
(10, 928). Indra is also associated
the myth of the
of Soma.
that the eagle brings the
For
it is to him
rape
is not
often mentioned
draught of immortality(" 37). Another
myth which
and
the details of which
in
108) is that of
occur
(10,
chiefly
a
singlehymn
the capture by Indra
These
Panis
of the
of
the
demons, who
(" 67).
cows
here
the mythical representatives
seem
to be
of the
niggards who withhold
from
the pious sacrificer,
cows
which
herds
of cows
they keep hidden
possess
in a
far away
river.
cave
the
a
Sarama, Indra's
beyond
Rasa,
mythical
run

the

steed

who

draws

the

his

tracks
messenger,
the
Panis. In
by
rock
the

is said

Panis.

to

the

cows

another
have

Elsewhere

and

asks

for them

(6,39*) Indra
passage
Vala's
unbroken

pierced
the

cows

are

spoken

but is mocked
name,
around
the
desiringthe cows

in Indra's

ridge
of

as

and

to

confined

have

by

overcome

the

demon

RELIGION,

III.

64

reference

without

Vala

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

Panis, and

the

to

KUNST.

u.

driven

Angirasesare associated
passages
his
strongholds,and releasingthe cows
shattering
the

various

In

VEDIC

A.

Indra

by

out

with

MYTHOLOGY.

Indra

in

(2,i23; 3,3o10).
piercingVala,

(" 54).
enumerations, are frequentlymade
to
Fragmentary references,
Dasas
foes
are
over
or
the victory of Indra
Dasyus. These
primarilyhuman
noseless
are
skin is black (i, i3oH cp. 2, 2o7), who
whose
(5, 29"), are god
elements
do
sacrifice. Though
doubt largely
not
are
no
less and
mythological
his
of
individual
the
foundation
the
account
Dasas,
victoryover
mingled in
human.
For
while Vrtra
terrestrial and
is slain
to be
of these
myths seems
in

often

good

the

for
whom

with

or

Indra

of
who

to

general,individual

in

man

Indra

whom
not

are

seem

of

rule

as

historical.

been

have

of

ancestors

beings

human
Dasa

the

overcame

priestsbut
Divodasa

Thus

mentioned

are

Dasas.

or

These

for

proteges

princes or warriors
Atithigva31is the father
are

of Kulitara
being Sambara, the son
ddsa
the
from
when
the
is
whom
to
But
term
(" 69 B).
applied
dragon (ahi),
the
three-headed
the
waters
wrests
Indra
(2, n2) or to
six-eyedmonster
struck
off Indra's
Trita combats
whom
(10, 996) or to Vyamsa who
jaws
An
of Namuci
account
(4, i89),it unmistakably designatesregular demons.
and
Dasas
other
vanquished by Indra will be found in the chapter on demons.
have
but to be
A
to
seems
no
myth which
general significance
simply
of a later poet of the RVV
is that of Indra
and
the invention
Vrsakapi, the
details of which
This
are
given somewhat
hymn
obscurely in RV. 10, 86.
Indra
and
his wife Indram
about
the monkey
describes a dispute between
Vrsakapi, who is the favourite of the former and has damaged the property
and escapes,
of the latter. Vrsakapi is soundly threshed
but afterwards
returns,
when
reconciliation takes place, v. BRADKE
considers the story a satire,
a
under
the
of Indra
and
Indran!
certain
in which
names
a
prince and his
of

wife

are

his

king Sudas,

famous

the

Dasa

foe

intended 32.

stories preserving historical traits is that of Indra


Among
having safely
Yadu
the
Turvasa
and
rivers
across
(i, i749 "c.). They are the
brought
connected
heroes
of
two
Aryan tribes,which are, however,
closely
eponymous
sometimes
mentioned
This varying attitude
by the poets in a hostile sense.
is

indication

tolerablysure

god

the

patron

as
appears
is said with Susravas

with
all

fatal
the

chariot

to

appearence
him
in the

answer

to

the

The

of

battle
of

prayers

historical matter.

Aryan

crushed

have

wheel.

helped

of
of

migrations.
of

of
his

In

the

the

character.

Thus

Indra

ten

warrior
Indra

passage

their 60099

conflicts of

kings (7, 333), to


prieststhe Trtsus (among

the

national

another

chiefs and

twenty

accounts

historical

Here

king

warriors

Sudas

have

is said to

have

aided

whom

have

him

in

Vasistha

is

his foes in the river Parusm


prominent),and to have drowned
(7, i89" I3).
the
of
RV.
relates
how
maiden
named
a
a
(8, 80)
Finally, hymn
Apala
beside a river and
having found Soma
having pressed it with her teeth, de
dicates it to Indra
who
she receives as a reward
approaches and from whom
the

fulfilment of certain

Regarded
superiorityand

as

of

desires33.
the

whole

dominion

attributes of Indra
over

the

those of physical
chiefly
physical world.
Energetic action is
are

characteristic of him, while passive sway


is distinctive of Varuna.
Indra is
universal monarch, not
the applier of the eternal
laws
of the universe nor
as
moral

ruler,but

irresistiblewarrior whose

mighty arm wins victory,


bestows
the highestgoods on
inexhaustible liberality
mankind, and who
in the exhileration of magnificentSoma
confers rich re
delighting
sacrifices,
wards
the
hosts of priests officiating
in his worship. The
on
numerous
as

as

an

whose

hymns

which

celebrate

him

dwell

on

these

features

in

more

or

less stereo-

GODS.

ATMOSPHERIC

typed

and

terms

seldom

are

usually described

is not

There

Varuna.

free

characteristic of Varuna34.
in which
fessed

in

the

To

faith

of the

passage

realityof

disbelief of

againstthe

RV.

more

sensual

attributed

perfectionelsewhere

traits which

immoral

and

to

him

his

attained

books,
is

existence

heaven

nature

essential

the

to

by

con

being
Once

austere

doubtless

are

variance

at

are

and

later

sceptics(2,12$ ".)35.

have

to

actions

faith in him

and

of

grandeur

to Indra

in the

few, mostly

the

and

ascribe

him

offering.He

Soma

elevation

which

to

in

the

to

moral

passages
also a

are

65

cp .I594).
intense
anthropomorphism of Indra's

(10, 167*

certain

due

late

references

is attributed

character

expressed as

is said

fervour

There

enjoined (i, 555 "c.),

or

sometimes
he

ethical

an

several

however,

are,

from

possessingthe

as

INDRA.

22.

with

the

moral

character

of the

be accounted
for by different passages
gods. This incongruitycannot
different stages in the development of his char
representingchronologically

Vedic

it is apparent in the words


connected
It is chiefly
verse.

acter, for
the

same

In

one

the

zeal

(8, 6y5- 6) he
passage
in the
of mortals, and
One

vigorous draught.
which

is intoxicated

Indra

is

It

power.
cessive

the

with

said

poet, sometimes

same

his

excessive

in

even

fondness

for Soma.

and
see
everything,viewing
belly is described as full of the
entire hymn
(10, 119) consists of a monologue in
with Soma, boastingof his greatness and capricious

indicated

even

is

of

next

to

that

he

hear

his

verse

suffered

once

from

effects

the

of

ex

is even
represented as having
drinking (" 69). His love of Soma
driven
him
immoderate
to parricide(4, i812). In judging morally of Indra's
in
in
it
mind
be
borne
the
of Soma
that
exhilaration
must
indulgence Soma,
in
Vedic
c
haracter
the
and
that the
of
the
of
a
partook
religious
poets
eyes
itself led to its being regarded as the drink
influence
of Soma
intoxicating
is
of immortality.It is probably from
the latter point of view
that Indra
conceived
his
cosmical
such
as
as
grandest
feats,
fixing
having performed
heaven

and

of the

sympathy
moral

earth, under

standard

entirelyabsent
of

trace

of

paramour

the

the

effect

Amorous

of

in

even

the

the

Ahalya

in the

Brahmanas,

wife

except
of Gautama36.

offeringshould

Soma

Soma

(2, i52).
of Soma
the god
on
the
adventures, on

age.
the exploitsof Indra

from

such

poetry of the

poets with
to

influence

the

dwelt

have

and

RV.

It is

but

reflects the

other

hand, are
hardly a

is

there

spoken

only

natural

the

on

evident

the

is

he

that

And

as

the

that

the

of

of

thirstyaspect

his

nature.

It has
that

the

in the

been

maintained

preeminence
of the

course

by

of Varuna

followed

RoTH^7
as

belonging to

Rigvedic period

transferred

by

(JAOS. 3,327)

WHITNEY

an

older

order

of

to

Indra.

This

view

gods

was

is based

partly on the fact that not a singleentire hymn in the tenth book is addressed
to Varuna, while
is celebrated
in forty-five.There
Indra
two
are, however,
with
in
which
is
lauded
other
Varuna
hymns (126, 185) of book
two
X,
is invoked
of that book
Varuna
Adityas, and in many
or
re
single verses
ferred to along with other
deities. The
from
number
of
the
hymns
argument
is not
in all the earlier books
far more
of the RV.
hymns
cogent, as
very
addressed
are
Indra
book
Varuna.
In
to
than
III
to
to
no
hymn is devoted
Varuna
but
in book
and
II there is only one
22
to Indra, and
to Varuna
to
Indra.
books
added
23
considerably
Moreover, these two
together are
shorter than the tenth alone.
is much
less
It is, however, true that Varuna

frequentlymentioned
Beyond

in the

this fact there

session

of Varuna

(4, 42)

of

Indo-arische

the

by

earlier

Philologie.

seems

Indra

last book
to

be

during

no

the

than

in the

direct

1 A.

decisive

composition

part, describingin the

Ill,

and

earlier books

form

of

proof

the

of
a

of

RV.

RV.

of the super
One
hymn

dialogue
5

the

the

rivalry

III. RELIGION,

66

and

Indra

between

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

transition from

portance
statements

of

the

it must

time

same

2,

have
important
occupied a more
period,while on the other, Indra in
chief of the Indian
epics has become

to

time

the

by

meanwhile

Varuna

them39.

of

the

AV.

had

(OO.

48) and

i,

BREAL

(Hercule

Thus

Varuna

seems

Indo-Iranian

the

in the

(AB. 8, 12) and


maintains

even

of

though

divested
there

this

course

of his supreme
have
been
at

must

posi

subordinate
powers
least

in the

Rigvedic age. By
is con
101) Indra in the Vedas
ancient Dyaus.
This may
perhaps

even

Cacus

et

in

and

heaven

Indra

graduallyincreasingpopularityof

hand

Brahmanas

the

become

(p. 26).

one

Indra

the

on

triad Brahma-Visnu-Siva,

Puranic

the

under

is

positionthan

to

tion

regarded (GKR. 27) as char


period in the relative im
perhaps hardly justified
by the
the last book
(10, i24)38. At

of

that

remembered

be

an

401)

MYTHOLOGY.

older

conclusion

gods. The
another
(cp.GRV.
two

VEDIC

i A.

been

has, however,

Varuna

indicatinga
acteristically
of the

KUNST.

u.

BENFEY

have
to
superseded the
with regard to the Indo-Iranian
maintained
Trita
b
e
probability
greater
Trita
RV.
mentioned
in
the
For
is
there
described
as
Aptya.
though rarely
the
the
same
as
performing
exploitsas Indra, occasionallyappearing even
in the myth (" 23).
more
important personage
of Indra
The
name
occurs
only twice in the Avesta40.
Beyond the fact
but
his
character
there
his
is uncertain41.
of
being no god,
only a demon,
in the
distinctive Vedic
Indra's
in the Avesta
also
occurs
epithet vrtrahan
rather

sidered

with

of

form

thunderstorm

with Indra
is, however, unconnected
verethraghna, which
the
of
God
myth, designating merely
Victory42. Thus

or

the

it is

probable that the Indo-Iranian periodpossesseda god approaching to the Vedic


of the Vrtra-slaying
Indra.
form
It is even
possiblethat beside the thundering
the
of
heaven,
god
Indo-European period may have known as a distinct con
ception a thundergod giganticin size,a mighty eater and drinker,who slays
bolt4^.
the dragon with his lightning
The
etymology44 of Indra is doubtful,
is connected
but that the root
with that in indu, drop, seems
likely.
i

i,

ZDMG.

67.

32,

TS.
12, 7, i";
PVS.
2, 242
9 PVS.
2, 249.

i,
2,

58"62;
FIELD,

27,
4,

ZDMG.

42.

22

"

i, 44.

7-6"7-

34

"

95"7;
LXXXI;

OST.
Sp.AP.

175.

18

"

Kalhaka

HRT.

92.

AV.

IS. 12,

JRAS.

161

16
"

13,441.

MACDONELL,

Other

19

"

"

BRV.

30

"

3,

39

"

OST.

31

OST.
37

"

ZDMG.

5. 121,

244.

"

BRV

3,

BLOOM-

i, So4-

i, 313.

M;
21

"

2, 13-1;
ZLMMKK,

"

BRV.

HVM.

2, 209;
4,

25,
41

--

3"

--

PW.

96. 107.

i,

i"8;

5, 103"4.
ZDMG.
6, 73;
212.

"

"

6, 77;

note

HVM.

JRAS.

AI-FRECHT, IS.

--35

143.

193;

"

33

"

1887, p. 903.

5, 121"6.
195;
ZDMG.

2,

note.

77,

172"4.

BRV.

238.

HVM.

23 ZDMG.
8, 460.
27, 181.
26 AUFRECHT,
ZDMG.
13,
5, 91"2.
28 QST.
27 OST.
5, 104"5.
5, 348"9.
MM.
KZ.
Chips 2,
10, 416"7;
cp. SONNE,

"

5, 5, 49;

JRAS. 25,470"1;

passages

20

"

25 QST.
25, 472.
KRV.
42 (raincloud).

Akad.

SB.

"

548.

Ibid.

15

"

cp. BRI.

27.

SPIEGEL,
SBE.
DARMESTETER,
31.

"

32

"

ZDMG.

ZDMG.
OLDENBERG,
39,
WEBER,
Sitzungsberichte
40

"

3^ ORV.

Tr. Ill,
IV2, LXXII;

Av.

42 Sp.AP.
48, 422.
43 ORV.
i;
195.
134;
34, note
SCHRODER, WZKM.
44 YN.
RV.
BENFEY,
i, 34;
10, 8; Sayana on
9, 230.
OO.
MM., LSL.
I, 49; ROTH, PW.;
(1891)2,543, note; 'OGR. 218; AR. 396; OS T.
BB.
ZDMG.
208; GW.;
5, 119, note.
i, 342; BRV.
2, 166; BOLLENSEN,
41, 505"7;
JACOBI, KZ. 31, 316; IF. 3, 235.
KHF.
ZVP.
8; ROTH, ZDMG.
DELBRUCK,
i, 72; WHITNEY,
JAOS. 3, 319"21;
OST.
1865, 277-9;
BRI. 12"3;
108; LRV.
5, 77"139;
4, 99
40"7;
3, 317; KRV.
BRV.
PERRY, Indra in the Rigveda, JAOS. 11, 117
2, 159"96;
208; HILLEBRANDT,

HILLEBRANDT,

v.
.

"

"

169; HRI.

Berliner

275.

and

Ritual

ZDMG.

"

"

Religion i, 183; 2, U3f.


^
ibid. 2, 51"4;
MACDONELL,
JRAS. 27, 183.
12
ibid, i, 211.
X3 Cp. ibid. 2, 38, note
i.

27,

Also

46, 465 cp. ORV.


der

"

Ibid.

MACDONELL,

f.; ORV.

138"9.

AIL.

ZIMMER,

note.

i, 44,

KHF.

1 1 ;

BRV.
497;
i, 259;
29 OST.
5, 106"7.
91

266;

i,

Myth,

48, 549"51.
*7

"

10

--

--

HVM.

LANG,

HVM.

9, 232.
Nir. 5,
on

ROTH

"

3, 2, cp.

53;

"

WZKM.

119.

262; 8, 319-20. 6*; 10, 92*. 1249;

AIL
24

PVS.

I7S.

296"7;

HVM.

--

"

"

"

Literaturblatt f. Or.

16; SP. AP. 194-7;


v.
91"6;
SCHRODER,

Philol.
HVBP.
WZKM.

1884"5,

p.

60"80;
9, 230"4.

108; Die
ORV.

Sonnwendfeste

134-75;

ZDMG.

in Altindien
49,

174"5;

(1889),
HRI.

III. RELIGION,

68

to

in

bring wealth

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

stream

VEDIC

i A.

MYTHOLOGY.

of Trita (9,102$). Soma


ridges (prsthesti)

the

on

KUNST.

u.

summit
(sdnu) of Trita
the
dwells
the
the
bull
that
on
out
mountains,
stalk,
They
press
(9,374).
him
is
the
he
summit;
on
hymns
as
like
purified
a
buffalo,
accompany
who,
in
the
is
When
who
Varuna
cherishes
ocean
Trita
like)
(him
(9,95*).
roars;
of Trita (9, 8620).
the mead, he calls up the name
Soma
pours
the

caused

There

(5,4
In

1 9-

I0)

in whom

identical with
The

information

this steed

him.

about

Sun,
of

as

the

They

be

gathered

enumerations

some

being

accruing to Trita
Brahmanas
speak

of

the

as

in the

fashioned

Trita, add

only the idea of a


(i, ii3I"3; 19, 564). The
life. This

long

of

preparer

of

Trita

as

of

Agni

and

Soma,

of three

one

said

is

the
be

to

(i,i632"3).
operation'

secret

mention

another

from

followingstanza

'by

which

AV.1

(8,4i6).In

celestial steed

no

TS.

doubt

definite

no

remote

suggest

bestower

trait2
The

in

in the wheel

nave

with Trita

and

is transferred

dream

Trita

describes

the

passages

guiltor

whom

is centred, as the
have harnessed

Yama,

dozen

half

nothing can

occurs

(2, 3i6; 5, 4i4; 10, 643). In two other verses


is
to be
interpretation uncertain, as the text seems
corrupt.
of
Varuna
Trita
is
described
in the middle
a
as
one
hymn

given by Yama,

and

little or

name

is said to

Trita

passage

his

the

on

information

passage
all wisdom

one

sun

no

the

which

from
Thus

originalnature.

furnish

which

shine

sisters to

the

several passages

are

Trita's

to

as

with

along

sun

god, to
(i, 8, io2)
secondary

the

draught of immortality.
deities,the other two being
t

and

Ekata

3, 2, 810-

Dvita, sons
"). Sayana

the

other

two.

Dvita

in
already occurs
in an
hymn
Agni

twice

Indra

three

same

is

It

RV.

on

which

that

from

the

quotes

i, 105

brothers

clear

born

are

here

cast

have

names

into
a

well

numerical

by the
sense.

along with Trita (8,47l6) and once


alone
and
(5,i82)
apparentlyidentified with Agni. The
of
list of deities in the Naighantuka.
Trita
is
mentioned
in
the
not
name
Yaska
to
(Nir.4, 6) explains the word
mean
Very proficientin wisdom'
(derivingit from ytr\ or as a numeral
referringto the three brothers Ekata,
Dvita, Trita. In another passage
(Nir.9, 25) he explainsTrita as 'Indra in
three abodes'
e.
(i. heaven, earth, air).
In examining the evidence
of the RV.
Trita in
find that Indra and
we
three or four passages
Trita
perform the same
feat, that of slayinga demon.
in one
is impelled by Indra, while in another
Indra
is inspiredby Trita; and
the

heaven,
book

who

and

His

Agni.
a

is said to
in the

Maruts

is

takes

as

of

have

the

for Trita.

Moreover,

his abode

up

is remote

Soma.

once

acted

thunderstorm.

abode

Trita

drinker

the RV.,

being

three

the

Satyayanins,in

story of the

Rsis, Trita

(SB.1,2, 3*'2; TB.

waters

and

in human
hidden,

of Soma

preparer

(as Trita

becomes

finds

Soma

divergesmore

Corresponding

to

in

with

Agni, kindles Agni


dwellings,clearlyas a form
he

and

Trita

is associated

Further, Trita

in

is there.
from

Indra,

the Avesta

we

In

in
of

the ninth

who
find

is

only

Thrita,
(Yasna

is once
Indian Epic). He
(= Soma) for the
prepared Haoma
(Athwya
Aptya being the second) and once
(Vend.20, 2)
the
first healer who
from
Ahura
as
received
Mazda
thousand
ten
healing
plants which grow round,the white Haoma, the tree of immortality. Thrita
is also called the son
of Sayuzhdri in two
(Yasht 5, 72; 13, 113) in
passages
of which
he is said to have dwelt in Apam
one
on
earth)3.
napat (as a locality
This shows
that Trita was
with Soma
connected
the
Indo-Iranian
as
early as
other
side of Trita's activity,
period. The
the slaughterof the three-headed
find in the Avesta
six-eyeddemon
or
transferred to a cognate
dragon we
Thraetaona, who slaysthe fiendish serpent (Azi dahdkd), the threepersonage,
in
mouthed, three-headed,six-eyeddemon.
It is noteworthy that Thraetaona
a

man

io) described
corporeal world
9,

as

the

third
=

man

who

the

GODS.

ATMOSPHERIC

is

expeditionagainstDahaka

his

the

him

on
way4.
slay
Tptto;5, the third. That
shown
by the occurrence

beside

of Ekata

these

word

The
it

APAM

24.

accompanied by two brothers who


tritd phonetically
corresponds to
felt to

was

have

it of Dvita

beside

the

meaning

of

the

RV.

by

in

in the Brahmanas.

two

69

NAPAT.

in

and

collocation

The

seek

to

the Greek
is
third',,

'the

the invention
of

trtni,three,
Finally,

direction.

same
(RV. 9, 102^;
5, i1) points
of the RV.
(6, 4423)6 the word trita
highly probable that in one
passage
'third'.
in the plural means
Trita's regular epithet Aptya seems
derived from
to be
dp, water, and
in
be
to
to Apam
sense
hence
practicallyequivalent
napat7. Sayana (on
RV.
epithetof Trita,
8, 4715) explains it as 'son (putra) of waters'. Another
is formed
like a patronymic and
once
(10,
Taibhuvasa,) which
only occurs

AV.

Trita

with

the

it is

be

46 3) may

connected

above

The

Soma8.

with

evidence

may
third

the
perhaps justify

conclusion

that

Trita

was

of fire, originally
the middle
aerial form
or
lightning,the
of natural
of the triad Agni, Vayu
member
or
a
Indra, Surya. By
process
this
in
ousted
Indra
have
a
lmost
identical
to
selection
seems
god originally
with
obscure
character
himself, with the result that Trita occupies but an
in
this
Trita's
RV.
the
If
be
even
interpretation
correct,
original
position
would
with Soma
of
Soma
from
heaven
the
connexion
signify
bringing
by
lightning(as in the Soma-eagle myth: " 37). The paucity of the evidence
need
of these
be mentioned
has led to many
Only some
divergentviews9.
a

of

god

(ZDMG.
regards him

ROTH

here.

BRANDT10
be

of the

god

2,

as

storm,

deity of

older

than

'a god
be
to
86) thought him
(GGA. 1894, p. 428) expressed the
1

healer

who

was

See

deified.

later
WHITNEY'S

Trita

224) considered

AV.

of

the

and

opinion

verborum,

Trita
s.

the

of

Trita

that

thinks

who

was

is

Trta.

v.

"

god.

HILLE-

believes

PERRY

PISCHEL

sea

wind

and

water

brightsky.

Indra11.

HARDY

Index

the

him

to

formerly (PVS. i,
has recently
waters'
a
originally

god12.

moon
2

human

Otherwise

PISCHEL,

5 BRUGMANN,
Grundriss
3 SP. AP.
4 SP. AP. 271.
1894, p. 427.
2, 229;
193.
according to FICK, Vergleichendes Worterbuch
originallymeant
14, 63. 229, Trita
6 ORV.
IF. 4, 136.
7 Cp. JOHANSSON,
sea.
183, n.; cp. POTT, KZ. 4, 441.
8
date
in JRAS.
to
9 Stated
JRAS. 25, 450.
25, 4, 19
143.
up
23.
"
10
"
und
Varuna
Mitra
HVBP.
35"8.
94"5.
JAOS. n, 142"5.
the
The
To
authorities
here
MACDONELL,
god Trita; JRAS. 25, 419"96.
be added:
LRV.
KRV.
112
d; BRI.
82,
quoted may
II; BDA.
33, note
3, 355"7;
n.
cxxiii; LUDWIG,
1894, cxix
AJP. 1 1, 341 ; PAOS.
71 ; BLOOMFIELD,
3; Sp.AP. 262
1894, CLXXIV;
FAY, PAOS.
Rgveda-Forschung
AJP. 17, 13; ORV.
117"9;
143;
SEE.
46, 406; I1RL
OERTEL, JAOS. 18, 18"20.
104;

GGA.

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

The
Apam
deity called Apcam napat is celebrated in
napat.
of a hymn
to the waters
hymn (2, 35), is invoked in two verses
and
is
times
mentioned
(10, 30^- 4),
nearly thirty
by name
altogether in the
RV.
The
stood
around
of waters; the youthful waters
the brilliant Son
waters
desire to give food to him
him
around
the
divine
females
three
youthful;
go
the divine; he sucks
the milk
of the first mothers
(2, 353~5). He, the bull,
in
and
the
the
he
child, sucks
engendered
them;
they kiss him
embryo
of waters
(v. X3);the Son
growing strong within the waters, shines forth (v.7).
He
in lightning
fuel in the waters
shines without
(v.4; 10, 3o4). Clothed
the Son
of waters
the
the
mounted
of
has
lap
slanting (waters);
upright
him
the
swift (waters) golden in colour
(v. 9; cp.
carrying him
go around
is golden in form, appearance
Son
of waters
and
Agni in i, 954- s). The
sits down
and
he
food
his
to
colour; coming from a golden womb
gives
in
he
shines
the
with
worshipper (v. I0). Standing
always
unhighest place
dimmed
(splendour);the swift waters
carryingghee as food to their son, fly

"

one

24.

whole

--

70

RELIGION,

HI.

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

which

has
cow
a
(v. "). He
(v. ?). Steeds (vrsanah) swift as

in secret

The

of

son

all

beings,who

his

thought carry
with

is connected

waters

the

rivers

He

engendered

is the

Son

of

waters

who

down

sat

on

the

I). The

v.

him

of

invoked

as

of

son

waters

(v. 2- 8). In

Agni

as

and

addressed

hymns
the

the

increases

ghee,
gives good milk
waters
(i, i865).

of

son

(nadya\

earth

is

house

branches

are

MYTHOLOGY.

of waters, whom

food

own

merely
of the Apam
last stanza
napat hymn, the deity is
be identified with him.
Conversely Agni is in some
of
as
Apam
napat (cp.VS. 8, 24). Agni is
spoken
has

Son

whose

in

VEDIC

A.

of

colour

kindle, whose

maidens

KUNST.

(v.I4).The face
is golden, and

with their garments

around

u.

Son

must

him,

(3,9T)priest(i, I431).

of

dear

to

the

waters

of waters,
with the Son
distinguished.Agni, accordant
unites here with the
Vrtra
(6,i33). The Son of waters
body of another as it were
(2,3513).The epithetasuhejnan, 'swiftly
speeding'1,
used
applied three times to Apam
napat, is in its only other occurrence
of Agni.
in various enumerations,especially
with Aja
Apam
napat is mentioned
and
Ahi
Savitr
budhnya (i, i865; 2, 3I6; 7, 35'*),
ekapcad (2, 31*; 7, 35^),
(2, 3 16; 6, 5o13). The
epithet is directlyapplied to Savitr at least once
Savitr represents another
of Agni.
form
fertilizing
(p-33); perhaps because
in
who
clothed
is
is
in
the
d
wells
Apam
golden,
lightning,
highest
napat,
in
concealment, shines forth, is the offspringof the waters,
place, grows
down
is identified with Agni, appears
comes
to earth, and
to represent the
in the cloud.
For
lightningform of Agni which is concealed
Agni, besides
also
is
the
called
termed
Apam
being directly
embryo (garbha) of the
napat,
he has been
waters
(7, 93; i, 7o3). As such
dwellings
deposited in human
(3, 53), his abode is in the waters
(8,43^) and the two fire-sticks engender
Agni who is the embryo both of plants and of waters
(3, i13). Agni is also
called the 'son of the rock'
20?
(10,
can
hardly refer to
cp. 6, 48$), which
As
con
anything but the lightningwhich issues from the cloud mountain.
trasted with his celestial and terrestrial forms, the third form
of Agni is de
scribed as kindled in the waters, the ocean,
the udder
of heaven, the lap of
the waters
(io,45T~3).*n ^act tne abode of the celestial Agni in the waters
of the best established points in Vedic
is one
mythology2. The term Aptya
Trita
bear
similar
to
to
a
applied
(g 23).
interpretation
appears
creation of Indian mythology, but goes
back
to
a
Apam
napat is not
the Indo-Iranian
period. In the Avesta Apam napat is a spiritof the waters,
lives in their depths, is surrounded
who
by females and is often invoked
with them, drives with swift steeds,and
is said to have
seized the brightness
*
in the depth of the ocean3.
SPIEGEL
thinks this deity shows
indications of
considers him to be the
an
igneous nature in the Avesta, and DARMESTETER
from
the cloud
in lightnings.L. v. SCHROEDER
with
fire-godas bom
agrees
this view6; some
is of opinion
scholars,however, dissent from it. OLD ENBERG7
that Apam
water
a
originally
napat was
genius pure and simple,who became
confused
with the water-born
Agni, a totally different being. His grounds
But

also
they are
victoryover

confers

are,

that

in

even

one

in the

nected

hand,

of

the

hymns

two

ritual with

ceremonies

his aqueous
2,35
followed
by HARDY

MULLER"

that

he

is the

in which

(10, 30), is
with

concerned
exclusively

I0, thinks
or

is celebrated

HiLLEBRANDT9,
predominates8.

nature

sun

he

Apam

napat

is the

moon,

water,
on

the
and

con

while
other
MAX

lightning.

2
FaR.
WINDISCH,
Cp. especiallyRV. 3, I (GVS. i, 157"70); also
144.
3 Cp. HVM.
5
7, 494; 10, 96.
SEE.
4 Sp.AP.
i, 377"8.
192"3.
traduit 2,630, note, 3, 82 (cp. Ormazd
42, LXiii; 1'Avesta
et Ahriman
34);but see
i

5"

"

"52;

HILLEBRANDT,

"

ZDMG.

48, 422.

"

--

WZKM.

9,

227"8.

"

"

ORV.

118"20,

cp.

GODS.

ATMOSPHERIC

357.
HVM.

Cp.

I,

36

"

Matarisvan.

25.

the

and

in

the

Though

in

once

said

be

the

other

that

Veda.

to

is

Matarisvan
is

the

with

the

end

of

he

when

is

born;

when

case

the

Agni
where

of the

three

is further said

cp. i, i4i5),
'One
elsewhere:

Agni, Yama,

Matarisvan'

mtta

he

matari-.

is several

Brhaspati,who

appeared (sam abhavat]

became

being

times
at

the

had

of

one

as

he

Narasamsa

wind'

is

also

Agni (" 36): 'That


Matarisvan'
(i, i9o2).

is

distinguishedfrom

of

mother

with

rite

forms

(ami(3, 2911)- It
variously: they speak of

Matarisvan

the

at the

etymological
the

becomes
in his

96*).

i,

vocative
an

in

appear

(3, 59. 262;

flightof
call

to

in the
where

these

of the RV.,
prevailingin

begun

fashioned

wise

books

fire and

shows

myth

later

occurs

swift

Once

identified
as

the

passages

name

was

the

(i, i6446).

Matarisvan

Elsewhere

he

passages
of fire.

producer

of Matarisvan

conception

in

older

distinction between

the

any

six

is the

or

analysisof

the

Matarisvan

as

in

these

Agni

on

in

even

In

post-Vedic period,
of

name

also

v.

2;

probably
an
verse,
Agni hymn (9, 88 X9). In another
is given, he
is spoken of
explanationof the name
Agni: 'As heavenly germ he is called Tanunapat,
This

17"19.

2,

4,
napat; LRV.
apam
LRF.
MACDONELL,
93;

s.

celebrated

book.

produces it, the

in

and

Vedas

500.
Zoroastrische

hymn of the
any
only twenty-seven times, occurring twentyand
otherwise
that Veda
only five times

is based

clearly that

show

is not

identified

Nothing

identical.

be

to

can

"

NR.

410;

BRV.

I, 45;

note

955"6.

27,

SPIEGEL'S

in

82,

BDA.

sixth

the

Matarisvan

of

myth

of

portions

which
personification

Two

there

always either

is

Matarisvan

aT

and

JRAS.

Chips, 42,

"

"

WINDISCHMANN

1,89;

Matarisvan

"

latest

the

38 f.

106.

is found

name

third

the

in

HRI.

25,

MACDONELL,

GRV.
3, xix. Liv;
le Sanscrit
vedique,

etudier

pour

c. ;

HVBP.

Tr.

Avesta

griech. Culte

Die

475"6;

JRAS.

times

one

3, 45;

GRUPPE,

181;

RV.,

Manuel

*o

"

SPIEGEL,

177"86;

7;

"

48, 422 f.
de Ling. 3, 49 ff.;

ZDMG.

Revue

RIALLE,
Studien

1.

WZKM.

SCHROEDER,

v.

365"80;

MATARISVAN.

25.

Agni.

form

of

Brhaspati

(Agni) being

'He

appeared to Matarisvan' (i, I432). 'Agni first


and
at the choosing
Matarisvan
Vivasvat; the two worlds trembled
appeared"to"
of the priest'
(i,3i3). 'Agni being the highestof the luminaries has supported

born" in

with

the

highestheavens

his flame

the

firmament,

when

kindled

Matarisvan

the

oblation-bearer

Agni is directly
The
called Matarisvan.
a
discrepancyin contiguous
only explanation of
that the name
of a specific
of the same
to be
verses
personi
hymn, seems
is used
fication of Agni in the latter verse
as
an
epithet of the genericAgni
in the former.
Matarisvan
brought to Bhrgu as a giftthe gloriousofferer,
births
who
has two
the
banner
the
of the~~sacrificiar]gathering~
messenger
who

was

concealed'

(3,510).This

verse

follows

in which

one

such

(Agni) from the sky, the eagle wrested


(i, 601)..Matarisvan
brought the one
the
rock
from
other
(i, 936). Matarisvan
brought Agni the
(Soma)
Matarisvan
adorable
(and) the gods
(3, 2^).
priest,the dweller in heaven
for
the first adorable
the Bhrgus produced, as
fashioned Agni, whom
(priest)
has
from
afar
for
the
Matarisvan
man
brought
man
(10, 46^). Him,
god,
afar
of Vivas vat, brought hither from
(i, I282). Matarisvan, the messenger
the mighty seized in the lap of the waters
(6, 84).
Agni Vaisvanara, whom
from
the
hidden
afar
Matarisvan
from
friction,
by
Agni,
produced
brought
the
hidden
friction
the gods (3,1)5).Matarisvan
(i,i4i3).
Agni
produced by
in human
and
i was
set up
was
produced with friction by Matarisvan
the dragon and
abodes
for Trita from
(i, 7i4. I481). Indra produced cows
delivered the cowstalls
to Dadhyanc
(10, 482).
(and) Matarisvan
in late hymns which
There
few
obscure
are
hardly shed any
a
passages

the

further

lighton

the

character

of

Matarisvan.

In

two

of

these

he

seems

to

RELIGION,

HI.

72

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

regarded ras purifying"and

be

is mentioned

another, he

an

is

Indra

(Val. 42).

Soma

drank

in

the

Agni (cp. 10, 469, where


is probably also present

(9, 6;3X;
Fathers

allusion
verb

is invoked
along with other
"
Finally,in a very
38).
Tvastr,
(cp.

is

svan

spoken
with

used

times

of

Matarisvan

would

who

Agni,
brought down
lightningcan
of

the

at

his

be

messenger
is a messenger

basis.

natural

heaven

from

that (AV. 12, i51 "c.) and

generallyin

the
subsequent literature,

all the

is

This

skilful

producing

notion

of skill

wedding hymn (10, 854?), where


deities to join the hearts of two
obscure

(10, 109*) Matari

verse

of a celestial form
personification
of
as
having like Prometheus
thought
heaven
to earth.
Hardly anything but
This
for his being the
would
account
to earth
(6,84),just as Agni himself
be

("35) between
as
a
mystic name

is still found

Matarisvan

is

fire from

Vivasvat

of

to

time

same

Vivasvat

with

as

skill in

in

Indra

in later times.

found

be

to

appear

hidden

the

of

the

thus

him

and

whom

'wandering'(salila,an adjectiveseveral
attributes
which
AV.),
possiblyalreadyrepresent

Matarisvan

conception of

the

in

vdta

H41);

and

'boundless'

as

with

is used).

taks

of the

10,

beside

Matarisvan'

to

Matarisvan
lovers

of

compared

verse

MYTHOLOGY.

enumeration

same

in

VEDIC

i A.

enjoying Soma
once

in

io56),probably

artificer (10,

KUNST.

u.

two

worlds1.

the

In

AV.

of

Agni (AV. 10, 8^9- 4"). but


and
Samhitas, the Brahmanas
of
The
wind.
transition
designation
already quoted (3,29"):
passage

other
is

name

in

found

be

the

this conception
to
a
in his mother, became
he
Matarisvan
formed
the swift
was
as
'Agni, when
air
of
in
is
and
the
elsewhere
as
a
com
wind'2,
Agni
raging
flight
serpent
the
with
wind
Such
statement
a
(i, 791).
rushing
might easilyhave
pared
the wind.
been
Matarisvan
taken later to interpret
as
word
The
matarifvan, which is without a cognate in any other Indoof being a purelyIndian compound
European language, has every appearance
The
(likemdtaribhvari, rjisvan,durgfbhisvati).
Rigvedic poet's explanation
of the name
'he who
is formed
in his mother'
as
can
hardly be dismissed
in all likelihood dates from
as
an
etymological conceit, since the word
a
of
It
in
his
mother'
contemporary
phase
language.
probably means
'growing
(YSU, to swell,from which we have sis'u,child,and other derivatives)
3, Agni
being also said to grow (Yvrdh) in his mothers (i,i4i5). There is a change
of accent
from
the second
to the third syllable,
probably due to the influence
of numerous
words
in -van
(likeprdtaritvaii).By the mother either the
lower aram
the thundercloud
or
might be meant; but the latter is the more
from
heaven.
probable, as Matarisvan
Yaska
comes
(Nir.7, 26), who regards
Matarisvan
of
the
as
a
designation Vayu, analyzes
compound into mdtari
(= antarikse)and svan
to breathe
ds'u an
to breathe
(from svas
or
quickly),
to

so

as

to

ORV.

122,

nothing but
simply as the
2
Cp. BRV.
Sanskrit
31,

wind

the

mean

n.

that
thinks

form

of

Roots

p.

air.

the

has

no

51;

ROTH,

Matarisvan

is

regards Matarisvan
46, 123.
i, and SEE.

foundation, and

sure

of the

BDA.

176;

in

frequentlyexpressed opinion that

the

Agni,

Prometheus
i, 27;

breathes

108, n.
RV.; cp. ORV.
SEE.
3 Cp. WHITNEY,
OLDENBERG,
46, 306.
Nirukta
KZ.
in
IS. I, 416;
REUTER,
3; WEBER,
"

"

544"5KHF.

GW.

s.

note

2;

v.;

8. 1 4
BRV.

MUIR, JRAS. 20, 4 1 6, note


BRL

i, 52-7;

ORV.

9;

KRV.35;

OST.

5, 204,

HVBP.

note

no;

SCHWARTZ,

EGGELING,

KZ.
SEE.

20,

12,

2 10

186,

122"3.

S 26. Ahi

The
budhnya.
serpent of the Deep, Ahi budhnya, whose
solely in hymns to the Visvedevas, is spoken of only
twelve times in the RV.
and
alone. He
is associated five times
hardly ever
with Aja ekapad, three times with
three
times with the ocean
Apam
napat,

name

--

is mentioned

(samudrd),and

twice

with

Savitr.

There

are

only

three

verses

(5,41 l6;

GODS.

ATMOSPHERIC

in which

he

with

it is either

34l6'I?)

7,

referred

invoked

is

AJA

27.

alone.

When

position.The

characteristic enumerations

most

Ahi

only

in which

73

EKAPAD.

deity is

other

one

Aja ekapad (10,


together in the
10, 66 IJ) in juxta

Ahi

verse,

same

BUDHNYA.

him,
Apam
napat (i, i865) or
mentioned
budhnya and Aja ekapad are
they are always (with the slightexception of

to

When

644).

Am

26.

the

is invoked

name

budhnya,
(7, 35I3)j Ahi
Apam
Aja ekapad,
ocean,
budhnya, Aja ekapad, Trita,Rbhuksan, Savitr,Apam napat (2, 3i6); the ocean,
the "stream, the space
(rajas],the air,Aja ekapad, the thunderingflood, Ahi
and
all
the
Ahi
associates
gods (10, 66 II). Judged by these
budhnya,
would
is
in
be
and
he
enumerated
to
seem
an
atmospheric deity,
budhnya
the divinities of the middle
aerial region.
the Naighantuka (5,4) among
or
he is mentioned
alone
definite than
that anything more
But it is only where
this can
information
be gathered. In the verse
which
about him,
gives most
'I
with
the
in
the poet exclaims:
water
(abjdm\
praise
serpent born
songs
in the bottom
in the spaces' (7, 34l6; cp. 10,
(budhne) of the streams
sitting
and
Yaska
935). This indicates that he dwells in the atmospheric ocean,
air
budhna
In
the
as
(Nir.10, 44).
verse
explains
immediately followinghe
is besought not
and
identical
these
to
to injury,
give his worshippers over
are:

words

addressed

are

there

that

monly

is

overflowed

of

the

and

air

to

said

waters

different

Ahi

from

been

space

enclosing the
(ibid.)or
the

surmised

that

bottom

as

(budhna)
(i,791)

raging ahi

the

great

originally
being, who

divine

com

is described

depth (budhne} of
Ahi
budhnya was

is invoked

he

suggests

term

waters

at the

air is called
in

produced
be

is otherwise

Ahi

them
of

Vrtra, though

napat, his

resembles

the

it may

Thus

Vrtra

(5, 4il6).This

also

passage

nature.

lyingin

or

in

have

to

(4, ii1).

not

(" 68), and

(i, 526). Agni

is also

space

the

in his

hurtful

Vrtra

by

in another

him

to

something

applied

as

napat, Prsni

the

baleful

Apam
aspect only being hinted at. In later Vedic
is
connected
texts Ahi
with Agni Garhapatya (VS. 5, 33;
budhnya
allegorically
AB. 3, 36; TB.
literature Ahi budhnya is the name
i, i, io3). In post-Vedic
of

Rudra

well

as

IS.

WEBER,

" 27. Aja


his

once

ROTH,

ekapad.

PW.

(as a

41

This

"

s.

budhnya;

v.

unaccompanied

by it (10, 6513).

in

thunderingPaviravl
of the

sky,

the

svatf, are, however, almost

336; BRV.

5,

being is closelyconnected
with that
juxtaposition

times

'the
passage,
the supporter

OST.

2,

205"6.

moon).

of the

name

occurring five

name

only

96;

i,

Siva.

epithetof

an

HVBP.

3, 24"5;

401;

as

with Ahi
of

deities invoked

The

budhnya,

the

latter and

in

the latter

('daughterof lightning':
PW.), Ekapad
oceanic

stream, the

identical with

those

waters,
enumerated

all the
in

gods,

the

aja,
Sara-

following

hymn:
stream, the aerial space, Aja ekapad, the thundering
flood, Ahi budhnya, and all the gods' (10, 66 ll). These two passages suggest
that Aja ekapad
is an
aerial deity. He
in the
is, however, enumerated
the
deities
the
of
the
Naighantuka (5,6) among
celestial region. In
AV.
Aja ekapada is said to have made
firm the two
worlds
(AV. 13, i6). The
TB.
(3,i,28) speaks of Aja ekapad as having risen in the east
The
commen
his passage
tator
defines
on
kind
of
and
Aja ekapad as a
Agni,
Durga on
'the ocean,

Nirukta

opinion

as

2,

driving,and
with
as

2,

and

as

i52j. In
an

what

ekapad
Ahi
the

as

the

as

'he

who

hardly

has

foot'

libation

both

the

does

not

express

merely explainingAja

longer an

any

budhnya receives
Epic Ajaikapad is

one

himself

Yaska

sun.

Aja ekapad represents,

foot'. Though

one

well

him
interprets

to

the

name

or

'he

who

as

protects

or

an

ajana,
drinks

independentdeity,Aja ekapad
in

the
of

domestic
one

of the

ritual (Parask.
eleven

Rudras

epithet of Siva.

RoTH1,

with

whom

GRASSMANN

agrees2, regards Aja ekapad

as

genius

IH.

74

RELIGION,

the

of

translatingthe

storm,

VICTOR

the

that

name

'the

goat who

'the

unborn

the

inhabits

who
be

as

the

added,

mountains, and
PW.

s.

"

i,

Rudra.

28.

foot',thinks this means


another
conjecture

one

mysteriousworld.

If

he
may

"

7, 24"5.
5 HVBP.

IS.

WEBER,

2
GW.
I a/a(cp. OST.
s. v.
5, 336).
aja\ Nirukta, Erl. 165"6
4 Les hymnes Rohita, Paris
3 AJP. 12, 443 ; SEE.
42, 664.

v.
1

24.

p.

5
deity.HARDY
BERGAiGNE6, interpreting

moon.

only

Stormer'.

or

solar

a figurative
meaning 'the one-footed goat'7, was originally
the 'goat'alludingto its agile swiftness in the cloudlightning,
which
strikes^'theearth.
foot to the singlestreak
the one

cp. FAY, AJP.

1891,

Driver

'one-footed

represents

is the

has

(a-ja) who

MYTHOLOGY.

VEDIC

i A.

name,

designationof
i

he

alone'

goes

the

as

think

isolated

one

KUNST.

u.

name

HENRY

and

BLOOMFiELD3

believes

WIRSENSCH.

WELTL.

--

"

"

41"2.

"

BRV.

3, 23.

"

ORV.

cp. BRI.

71"2;

24.

96.

god occupies a subordinate positionin the RV.,


only three entire hymns, in part of another, and in one
This

in
being celebrated
conjointlywith Soma, while
His
physical features

his
in

about

occurs

name

the

RV.

16, i),and

the

are

firm limbs

times.

75

following. He
(2,33"). He has

has

hand

beautiful

lips
(2,337"c.), arms
braided
hair (i, H41-5). His colour is brown
(2, 33s) and (likePusan) wears
(babhru\
shape is dazzling(i, H45), and he is multiform
2, 335 "c.). His
like
brilliant sun, like gold (i,43s). He
is arrayed
HG
shines
the
(2i 339)'
with golden ornaments
a
(2, 33^) and wears
gloriousmultiform necklace1
later Samhitas
(2, 334). The
(niska: 2, 33in). He sits on a car-seat
(espe
traits.
VS.
number
of
other
He
is
(AV.
add
a
1 6)
cially
thousand-eyed
u,
has a belly,a mouth, a tongue, and teeth (AV. n, 26).
22- ?, VS.
1 6, 7). He
His
He
is blue-necked
(VS.
belly is black and his back red (AV. 15, i7'8).
and
is copper-colouredand red (VS.
blue-tufted
1 6, 7)
(AV. 2, 276). He
He
is clothed in a skin (VS. 3, 61; 16, 51) and
dwells in mountains
1 6, 7).
(VS. 1 6, 2-4).
(2,33^;VS.

The

often

RV.

mentions

Rudra's

in his

of

weapons

offence.

is

He

said

once

dis
(2, 333). His lightningshaft (didyut)
the
from
earth
the sky traverses
(7, 463). He is usuallysaid to be
charged
armed
and
with a
bow
arrows
(2, 3310- "; 5, 42"; 10, 125*),which are
is invoked
with Krsanu
(" 48) and the archers
strong and swift (7, 46 x). He
and
intended
is
be
when
Indra
to
(10, 648);
seems
compared with the archer
the car-seat
on
(6, 20", cp. 2, 33 IT). In the AV. he is also called an archer
other
later Vedic
his bow,
texts
(i, 28'; 6, 93 x; 15, 51""7).In that and
club
referred
285
or
are
to (AV. i,
bolt,
arrow,
frequently
"c.; SB.
weapon,
to

hold

9, i,

the thunderbolt

arm

i6).
One

of

tionshipto

the

the

Rudras
udder

or

Rudriyas2.

of Prsni

the

warlike

the

demons.

of

as

is said to

He

But

(2,342) 3.

exploitsof

his

the

Rudra

Maruts,

and

sons

have
is
for

2,

also

are

33');

several

generated them

from

associated, as

never

he

Rudra

about

(i, ii46-9;

is their father

He

frequently spoken

more

frequentlymentioned

points most

Maruts.

does

not

epithetof

Siva

engage

is his rela
or

they

called

the

shining

Indra
in

are

times

is, with

conflict with

is
to

Tryambaka, a
already applied to Rudra
refer

'he who
of

him

to

has

once

three

the universe

In

mothers'

(cp.GRV.

wife,seem
a

passage

in Vedic

in the RV.

even

for
wife, is mentioned
Rudra's
not
as
wife, but

Siva's

common

first to
of the

(VS. 3, 58; SB. 2, 6, 29) and


(7, 5912).The meaning appears

texts

in allusion

i,

the
as
occur

RV.

in,post-Vedicliterature,

(cp. 3, 565)
555). Ambika,

to

the

threefold

seems

to

be

division

of Siva's
post-Vedic name
first time in VS. 3, 5, appearing here, however,
his sister. Uma
and
of
Parvati, regularnames
in the TA.
and
the Kena
Upanisad.
(2, i6) Rudra is one of several deities identified
a

III. RELIGION,

76

(AV.

elsewhere

descend

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

n,

KUNST.

u.

225; 10, i23).

is

He

VEDIC

A.

MYTHOLOGY.

said

even

assail with

to

widepoison8 (AV. n,
26; 6, 90 op. 93).
fever, cough,
their prey unchewed,
also spoken
are
mouthed, howling dogs, who swallow
the
afraid of the strung
of (AV. 10, i3", cp. VS. 16, 28). Even
gods were
of Rudra, lest he should
and
the arrows
bow
(SB. 9, i, i1- 6).
destroy them
he
cattle
of
Mahadeva
is
said
the
to slay
name
Under
(TMB. 6, 9 ?). In
of a compound
he is said to have
formed
been
Brahmana
another
passage
terrible substances
of all the most
(AB. 3, 331). It is probably owing to his
and Sutras Rudra
is regarded
characteristics that in the Brahmanas
formidable
When
the
the
other
attained
from
isolated
heaven, Rudra
as
gods
gods.
ritual after offerings
behind
remained
to other
(SB. i, 7, 31). In the Vedic
Rudra
GS.
is
remainder
to
not
(Gobh.
a
assigned
uncommonly
gods,
i, 828;
with
and
beast
His
disease
which
attack
S.
and
Dh.
man
hosts,
Ap.
2, 423).
death, receive the bloody entrails of the victim (SSS. 4, i98),just as blood
of the sacrifice9 (AB. 2, 71).
their peculiarshare
is poured out to demons
as
and

Rudra's

222-

of

abode

The

north10,

while

his

formidable

with

another

four

in

Rudra
of

that

that

nature

later

these

the

other

gods

in the

deity (Soma: S 44)

It is

east.

only appears
divinityin one

dual

regarded as
perhaps

commonly

is in the
Rudra

RV.
as

is

texts

in the
due

to

associated

once

short hymn

of

stanzas.

the VS., besides many


to repeat, several
other epithetstoo numerous
he is called a 'robber,
Thus
mentioned.
attributes of Rudra
are
disgraceful
robbers' (16, 20
i). In fact, his
cheat, deceiver,lord of pilferersand
the
various
character
shown
as
epithetsoccurringhere, approximates to
by
of the post-Vedic
Siva.
the fierce,terrific,
impure, and repulsivenature
He
is also
Rudra
is, however, not purely maleficent like a demon.
in
evil
the
RV.
that
the
the
from
the
comes
to
avert
or
supplicated
anger
from
gods (i, ii44; 2, 337). He is besought not only to preserve
calamity
blessings(i, H41- 2; 2, 336), and produce welfare for
(5, 51 13),but to bestow
mentioned
with especial
and
beast
are
man
(i, 436). His healing powers
he
He
commands
grants remedies (2,33"),
frequency.
every remedy (5,42"),
and
has a thousand
remedies
(7, 463). He carries in his hand choice reme
his hand
is restorative and
dies (i, ii45). and
healing (2,337). He raises
is
his
for
he
the
heroes
remedies,
greatest physicianof physicians
by
up
(2,334), and by his auspiciousremedies his worshipperhopes to live a hundred
his worshippers'
sickness from
\vinters (2, 33 2J. He
is besought to remove
that all in the
and
be
and
favourable
to
to
man
beast,
offspring(7,462)
In
free
from
this
be
disease
connexion
well-fed and
(i, H41).
villagemay
Rudra
has two
epithetswhich are peculiarto him, jaldsa^ (perhaps)'healing'
and jaldsa-bhesaja,'possessing
(i, 434; AV. 2, 276). These
healing remedies
medicines
rains11
sickness
are
(cp. 5, 53M; 10, 599). That
against
probably
of a hymn in
this attribute was
essential to his nature, appears
from a verse
which
various deities are
characterized
without being named
(8,295): 'One
in his hand'.
bright,fierce,possessinghealing remedies, holds a sharp weapon
his remedies
also
Rudra's lightningand
mentioned
are
togetherin another
with the Rudras
is invoked
to be favour
verse
(7,463). The healing Rudra
In

"

able
as

(7. 356).

possessingpure
is sometimes

Rudra
AV.

The

2,

276);

but

Maruts
and

referred
much

Sutras, sacrifices to him


cattle (AG. 4, 84"; Kaus.
The

evidence

of

are

also in another

beneficent
to

remedies

in the

other

with

Rudra

healingpower

(VS.

Samhitas

3, 59;

16, 5.

of
49;

his destructive

prescribedfor removing

S. 51, 7 "c.).
does
the RV.
not

associated

(2, 3313).The

less frequently than


are

verse

or

show
distinctly

activity.In the
preventingdisease in
with

what

physical

ATMOSPHERIC

is connected.

Rudra

basis

is

his

missile

the

enemies

of his

destructive
for

is

He

storm

Rudra

the

This

chief

father

THE

MARUTS.

would

of the

as

77

storm-god. But
only against

directed

therefore

appears
simple,but

and

pure

I2.
lightning

of

agency

his

29.

generally regarded
is
of Indra, which

that

worshippers.

the

RUDRA.

28.

maleficent,unlike

representednot
and

GODS.

originally

have

to

its baleful

rather

side in the

deadly shafts
are
or
Storm-gods, who
'from
the
born
laughter
for

account

Maruts

his

or
being
lightningand who are said to have been
and
would
be based
of lightning'
healing powers
(i, 2312). His beneficent
action
the
thunderstorm
of
and
the
and
on
partly
partly
fertilizing purifying
the
de
indirect
Thus
action
whom
he
the
of
those
might slay.
on
sparing
(s'iva),
precationsof his wrath gave rise to the euphemisticepithet'auspicious'
in post-Vedic
which
of Rudra's
historical successor
became
the regular name

with

armed

This

mythology.

Agni

with

explanation would

in the

also

for Rudra's

account

close

connexion

RV.

deity in the earliest period speci


(the plural therefore
meaning the
and
Storm
but
that
the
of
fire
is
as
analogous,
Maruts),
,Firecom
roaring
and
bined
to form
destruction,the epithets of the Satarudriya
a
god of rage
Fire.
Rudra
and
Storm
partly from Agni
being derived
partly from
either
that
Rudra
form
of
H. H. WILSON
was
a
Agni or
thought
'evidently
chief
of the
Rudra
the
Indra'14.
L. v. SCHROEDERIS
as
regards
originally
dead
souls
of the
conceived
as
storming along in the wind (cp. p. 81).
is of opinion that Rudra
OLDENBERG
probably represented in his origina god
mankind10.
shafts
and
the
of disease
attack
of mountain
whence
forest,
is somewhat
rudra
uncertain as regardsthe
The
etymology of the word
meaning. It is generally derived from the root rud, to cry, and interpreted
it is
derivation18. By GRASSMANN^
is the
This
the
Howler17.
Indian
as
shine'
'to
with
of
connected
rud
root
a
or,
having the conjectural meaning
would
the 'bright'
thus mean
according to PISCHEL, 'to be ruddy'20. Rudra
the view that this
expresses
ally designated the howling of the Storm
IJ

WEBER

or

'red

the

one'21.

2
6, 504. 66";
120"1.
5, 4215;
i, 642- 12. 85";
Cp. PISCHEL, ZDMG.40,
is once
said to have
3 Vayu
generated the
(cp. 5, 59 8; 7, 561. 585).
is approximated to Rudra
in 10, 1691.
from
Maruts
the sky (i, 1344) and Vata
5 Cp. BLOOM4 i, 271"
(cp. Nir. 10, 8; Erl. 136); 3, 25; 4, 3 i; 5, 33; 8, 6i3.
6
46. 54;
ORV.
PVS.
Cp. BDA.
4.
I, 57;
359, note
AJP. 12, 429;
FIELD,
i

8,

"

2017

"

"

"

"

GELDNER,

FaW.

20.

"

AJP.

BLOOMFIELD,

explanation (AJP. 7, 469"72)

of AV.

I,

12

12,
as

428"9.

to

prayer

8 Cp. BLOOMFIELD'S
lightning conceived
-

as

IS. 4, 405).
9 HRI.
coughs (otherwiseWEBER,
I0
488. 302"3Cp. ORV.
335, note
3.
5- 458250, note
2; cp. ORV.
334"
the
ii
The
draught of immortality,
remedy is explained by BRV.
3, 32 as Soma,
and
HOPKINS,
and by BLOOMFIELD
83"4,
by HVBP.
(AJP. 12, 425"9) followed
*2
of Rudra).
MACDONELL,
the mutra
PAOS.
Dec.
s a
1894, CL ff.,as rain (Jala
HRI.
Dec.
PAOS.
38,
1894, p. CLI;
112;
HOPKINS,
JRAS.
cp. KRV.
27, 957;
the

of fever, headache,

cause

and

"

"

note

i,

133.

26"7.

13

"

(cp. HOPKINS,
WEBER,
18

"

20
-

152"4;

with
gana

PAOS.

19"22.

io.

"

17

"

ZDMG.

2,

222;

1873, p. 34"
v.

of the

Translation

J4

--

vol. 2, 9
1. c.).

15

"

WZKM.

9,

introductions

RV.,

248.

16
"

KZ.
Herabkunft
KUHN,
2, 278;
177;
3, 335;
61.
ZDMG.
v. BRADKE,
216; otherwise
40, 359"

YN.

10,

5;

Sayana
BRI.

on

RV.
HVBP.

i,

1141.

"

19

GW.

83.

14;
Cp.
and
Oriental
JAOS. 3, 318"9;
LRV.
2; BRV.
299"363. 420"3;
3,320"
HRI.
248"52;
99. 578.
9, 233"8.
21

"

WHITNEY,

4,
5; OST.
WZKM.
SCHROEDER,

vol.

to

216"24

ORV.

deities in the

Linguistic
3, 31"

8.

RV., thirtythem
to
at least to them
conjointly
alone, seven
hymns being dedicated
form
and
Pusan.
with
each
them
and
a troop,
They
to
one
Indra,
Agni
sardhas
with
in
connexion
(i,37I-5"c.),
them) or
(a word generallyused

"
three

cp.

OGR.
IS. 2, 19"22;
MM.,
TS.
6, I, 310;
I, 5, ii; SB.
pvS.
120.
i, 57; ZDMG.
40,

ROTH,
Studies

IS. 2,

37"8;

"

29.

The

Maruts.

--

These

are

prominent

WISSENSCH.

78

III. RELIGION,

of

deities mentioned

in the

thrice

AV.

or

WELTL.

only
(i, 133";

seven

KUNST.

u.

plural.Their

VEDIC

A.

MYTHOLOGY.

is thrice

number

birth is often

13, iT3). Their

sixty(8, 858)
to (5,

referred

of Rudra
(p. 74), being also often called Rudras
575 "c.). They are the sons
7
of Prsni
and
sometimes
(i, 387; 2, 3410 "c.), and
Rudriyas
(i, 394- "c.)
the
also
often
receiving
epithetprsnimatarah,
(2, 34 2; 5, 52l6.6o5; 6, 663),
Prsni
cow
'having Prsni for their mother' (i, 23'" "c.; AV. 5, 2I11). The
is their mother
(8,83 x) and they bear the epithet
or
simply a cow
($" S2'6);
mother'
for
their
cow
(i, 85^, cp. 8, 2o8). This cow
a
'having
gomatarafa
the
storm-cloud
mottled
(""43. 6iB.); and the flaming
presumablyrepresents
whom
they come
(2,345), can hardly
cows
having distended udders with

anything but

refer

to

from

Prsni

said

to

Agni

is said

to

once

said to

have

once

they

the

the

or

of heaven

mother,

sindhumdtarah

self-born

(i, i682;

i,

71*). Vayu

is

heaven

they

(10, 78" cp.


8;z).

5,

(6,3s;

in the

them

of

sons

(vtrdh) of heaven
(3,54'3; 5, 596). Once

heroes

When
born
lightning.
(6,66 1-3). They are also
lightning(i,23 12,cp. 38*).

wombs
of heaven
(i, I344), and
(10, 772), being also referred to as
(i, 64! 122*; 5, 54I0j or as the males (niaryah)

engendered
the

rain and
fires

laughterof
begotten them

the

fashioned

called

are

from

born

have

with

compared

are

been

have

charged with

clouds

the

Maruts

p.

said. to

are

have

Elsewhere

51).

the

ocean

they

are

for their

said

to

be

or
youngest (5,596.60$),
they are
equal in age (i, I651). They have grown
together (5, 565;
mind
an"^
"f
have
2O1the
are
one
same
(8,
birthplace
2I). They
7" S^1)
and
the
abode
same
(i, 165*; 7, 56'). They are spoken of as having
(S) S33)
heaven
on
earth, in air, and
(5,557) or as dwellingin the three
grown

They

brothers

are

whom

among

is eldest

none

for

(5,6o6J.They

heavens

(8, 83' 2).


They

are

86g), and

with

with

closest

their

car

666).
with

are

associated
Sarasvati

also

with

described

once

the

goddess Indram,

(7, 96 2, cp. 395). Their


who

the

is described

goddess RodasI,
bringingenjoyments (5, 568) or
all the

In

five

as

passages

in

which

simply
her

name

as

dwellingin

is their friend (10,

who

connexion
as

the mountains

is, however,

standingwith them

standing beside them


occurs,

she

on

(6,

is mentioned

them

been
to have
(cp. i, i674- 5). She therefore appears
regarded as
(like Surya as the bride of the Asvins). It is probably to this
that they owe
the epithetbhadrajanayah,'having a beautiful wife'
connexion
(5,6 14) and their comparison with bridegrooms (5,6o4) or youthfulwooers

their bride

(10, 786).
The

brilliance of the

is

constantlyreferred to. They are golden,


of sun-like brightness,like blazing fires,of ruddy aspect (6, 662; 7, 59";
8, 7 7). They shine like tongues of fire (10, 78^). They have the form or
the brilliance of Agni (10, 84*; 3, 26 5), with whom
they are compared in
fires
like
brightness(10, 7S2). They are
(2, 34*) or kindled fires (6, 662)
and
are
expressly called fires (3,264j. They have the brilliance of serpents
(ahibhanavah: i, I721). They shine in the mountains
(8, 71). They are
almost
self-luminous (i,372"c.),an
epithet
exclusively
appliedto them. They
are
as
frequently spoken of in a more
general way
shining and brilliant
(i, 165" "c.).
often associated with lightning,
They are particularly
vidyut (5,542'3'11;
The
smile
down
shed their
the Maruts
earth when
on
lightnings
i, 645).
mother
ghee (i, i688, cp. 5, 52"). The
as
a
lightninglows like a cow,
followingher calf,when they shed their rain (1,38 8).They are like lightnings
shining with rain (7, 5613). Lightning is so characteristic of them that all
the

five

compounds

of

Maruts

vidyut

in the

RV.

are

connected

with the Maruts

and,

GODS.

ATMOSPHERIC

excepting

singleinstance,

with

them

delightin

29.

THE

MARUTS.

only. They
and
lightnings

79

hold

in
lightnings

their

stone
a
(5, 543).
(rsti)are often mentioned, and that these represent the lightning
is shown
(i, i68S; 5, 5213).Less
by their epithetrstividyut,
'lightning-speared'
(i, 372. 883; 5, 33*. 572; 8, 20*),
frequentlythey are spoken of as having axes
which
are
(ibid.)they are said to bear the bolt (vajrd),
golden (S,732). Once
their
in
hands.
Sometimes
India's
said to be
peculiar weapon,
they are
with
and
armed
bows
arrows
(5, 534. 572; 8, 2o4- I2), once
being termed
but
in the numerous
this trait is rare
archers
as
shooting an arrow;
hymns
it
borrowed
addressed
be
from
father
Rudra.
their
Maruts
The
to them,
may
with garlands and
other ornaments
decorated
are
(5,534). They wear
golden
mantles
(5, 556). Like rich wooers
they deck their bodies with golden orna
anklets
ments
(5, 6o4). Armlets
or
(khddi) are an ornament
peculiarto them.
shine
like
with
With
these
the sky
like showers
from
stars and
they
glitter
describes
their appearance
the clouds
verse
(2, 342). One
more
fullythan
their shoulders, anklets
their feet,golden
usual.
on
on
They have
spears
i
n
their
ornaments
on
breasts, fiery lightnings their hands, golden helmets
their heads
(5, 5411)upon
ride
The
Maruts
which
on
cars
gleam with lightning(i, 881; 3, 5413),
which
which
have
fellies(1,64". 885),
are
golden (5,571),
golden wheels
or
in which
have
buckets
are
(5, 576), and which
standing in them
weapons
which
their cars
draw
coursers
are
ruddy or tawny (i, 8S2;
(i, 87*). The
swift as
thought (i, 85*). These coursers
5" 574)" golden-footed (8, 72?), and
the
from
are
spotted, as appears
epithet prsadasva, 'having spotted steeds',

hands

(8, 723; 5, 54"), they

Their

lances

which

is several

times

and

which
quently the animals
prsaflh (i, 396 "c.). These

exclusivelyconnected

with

cast

the

Maruts.

More

fre

spoken of in the feminine as


in
two
are
(5, 556.586), mentioned
passages
with the masculine
The
Maruts
asvah.
also described
are
as
having yoked
the winds
steeds
to their pole (5, 58?).
as
The
and earth
Maruts
are
great as the sky (5, 5 7 4), they surpass heaven
in
and
others
reach
(10, 773), are immeasurable
no
can
greatness (5, 582),
the limit of their might (i, i679).
The
Maruts
are
(i, 642. i652; 5,
young
divine
(asura), vigorous, impetuous,
imaging (i, 643). They are
42 l5) and
without soil (i,64-- I2) and
dustless
(6,662). They are fierce (i,19*), irascible
(7, 568),terrible (5, 562- 3; 7, 58'), of terrible aspect (5, 56*), of fearful form
(i, i95. 642), and are terrible like wild beasts (2, 34*; cp. p. 75). They are
calves
playful like children
or
(i, i662; 7, 56l6; 10, 786). They are like
black-backed
boars
swans
(7, 597). They are iron-tusked
(i, 885); they are
like lions (i, 648).
noise
which
is
The
is often referred
to (i, 169? "c.) and
they make
it
is
winds
called
thunder
but
of
the
also
the
(i, 23");
(7,
expressly
roaring
with fear (8, 720). They
it were
are
56j). At their coming heaven
roars
as
often
described
to
as
quake as well as making the
causing the mountains
earth or the two
worlds
tremble
the fellies of their cars
r. With
they rend the
with
is
mountains
rock
when
the winds
the
or
they come
(i, 64"; 5, 529). It
like
that they cause
rend
and
mountains
the
trees
to quake (8, 74). They
wild elephants devour
down
before
forests bow
the forests (i, 395. 64?). The
them
terrestrial
through fear (5, 6o2). Resistless as mountains
they cast down
and
afraid
of them
celestial creatures
(i, 858).
are
(i,643). All creatures
They speed like boisterous winds (10,78^) and whirl up dust (i,64"). They
make
with the
the winds
noise
the
of the winds
or
(7, 5 63). They come
winds (8, 73- *" X7) and
take
them
steeds
their
as
(5,587).
One
is to shed
rain. They are
of
the
main
functions of the Maruts
draw

their

car

are

8o

III. RELIGION,

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

u.

KUNST.

A.

MYTHOLOGY.

VEDIC

and
shed rain (1,389).
(5,574). They rise from the ocean
worlds
the
with rain (i,
blow
two
through
Milking the unfailingwell, they
646; 8, 716).Rain follows them (5,5310). They bring water and impel rain
the
their brilliance with rain (5,591). They cover
(5"S^3)- They obscure
when
with
darkness
the
cloud
with
create
rain
(5,595). They
eye of the sun
they speed with winds (8,7*).
they shed rain (1,389).They scatter mist when
of the mountains
the streams
the heavenly pail (5,536.598) and
They cause
flow
A terrestrial
the
When
waters
586).
hurry
(5,
to
they
(5, 597).
on,
pour
Maruts'
'swelled
the
its
river receives
(10,75s), from
Marudvrddha,
by
name,
Rudra
rain
became
of the sons
of
The
sweat
this action.
(5,587). The
milk
referred
is also figuratively
to as
(i, i663),
rain shed
by the Maruts
said
milk
and
to
out
are
or
(i,
64b);
ghee
they
pour
ghee (i,853; 10, 784);
earth
raise
with
the
the
honey (5,548)2. They
spring (i,85") or to wet
from
to
sea
waters
sky and dischargethem from the sky upon the earth
with
which
waters
(AV. 4, 274). The
they shed are often clearlyconnected
rush
to
the thunderstorm.
give water, whirlinghail, violent,they
Desiring
and
winds
with their might,
with thunder
lightnings
on
(5, 543). They cause
the udder, and
fill the
earth with milk (i, 64s).
milk
heavenly giftsfrom
The
thunders
which
The
milk,
(i,646).
they
sky, the ruddy bull,
spring
the
the stallion to make
shed
when
bellows
waters
they
(5,586).They cause
the
rain of heaven
and shed
water
(i, 646). They bestow
abundantly the
of the stallion (5,836). They assume
streams
a
golden colour when
they

clothed

make

with

water

of the

rain

with

Maruts,

the

when

sheds

steed

they

(2, 3413).

raise the

called

The

voice

streams

of

the

resound

cloud

with

fellies

the

(i,i688).The

waters

by the Maruts' (i,8o4).


of rain,the Maruts
with their character
shedders
receive the
In connexion
as
in
epithets
purndrapsdh (5,57s) or drapsinah (i,642)'abounding
drops' and
the frequent suddnavah, 'drippingwell'.
They also avert heat (5,541)- But
(7,5620);produce light(i, 8610), and prepare
they likewise dispeldarkness
the
also said to have measured
a
out
path for the sun (8, 78). They are
the
terrestrial
stretched
well
the
out
an"
as
(5? 552);
regions as
bright realms
of heaven, and held apart the two
worlds
(8, 83q" IX).

which

Indra

Doubtless

are

in allusion to

marutvatih, 'attended

the sound

of

the wind, the

Maruts

are

several

singers (5,521. 6o8; 7, 35^). They are


the sun
(S"575)-They sing a song (i, i94. i667J. While singingthey made
shine
to
(8, 29") and while blowing their pipe they cleft the mountain
he slew the dragon, they sang a song and pressed
(i, 85'").For Indra when
Soma
In
(5,292. 3o6).
singing a song they created
Indra-might (i, 852).
Though their song must primarilyhave representedthe sound of the winds
(cp.4, 224), it is also conceived as a hymn of praise(3,i44). Thus they
addressed
to be
in the company
come
of Indra
as
priestswhen
(5,29^ and
with
first to
are
the
compared
priests(10,781). They were
perform the
sacrifice as Dasagvas (2,362), and
they purifiedAgni in the house of the
pious, while the Bhrgus kindled him (10, 12 25). Like the other gods they
several
times also spoken of as drinkers of Soma
are
"c.).
(2,36*;8, 839"
are
Being identified with the phenomena of the thunderstorm, the Maruts
naturallyintimate associates of Indra, appearing as his friends and allies in
innumerable
They increase his strengthand prowess (3, 359; 6,17"),
passages.
with their prayers,
hymns, and songs3 (i, 165" "c.). "They generallyassist
Indra
in the Vrtra
fight(8;6$2- 3; 10, ii33). They help Trita as well as
Indra
in slayingVrtra
(8,724). They are besought to sing a Vrtra-slaying
(8,
781"3).
hymn,
They helped Indra in the conflict with the dragon and
with Sambara
Indra
(3,473- 4). With them
gains the light(8, 654), found
times

called

the

singersof

heaven

I2

GODS.

ATMOSPHERIC

VAYU-VATA.

30.

Si

sky (7,475). In fact Indra accomplishes


101.
(i, 100.
165; 10, 65). Some
company
in
Maruts
the
these
times
more
independent
exploits.Thus they
appear
strike Vrtra,,assisted by Indra
(i, 23") and are even
spoken of alone as having
rent Vrtra
joint from joint (8, 723) or as having disclosed the cows
(2,34*)in
Indra
have
their
the
chief
as
238
general)
(like
gods
(i,
"c.) and
They
Indra
like
Indra
to
(10, I282). They are
sons
accompanied by
(i,ioo5)
are
called his brothers
three
and
two
(i, 170'-).The Maruts
are
or
are, however
in the lurch.
said to have
left Indra
him
in the
alone
times
They involved
him
verse
(8,731). One
fight with the dragon (i, i656) and they abandoned
between
of
Indra
evidence
and
the
the
when
hostility
Maruts,
even
gives
him:
dost
kill
thou
seek
Indra?
kill
in
to
Do
not
latter say to
'Why
us
us,
the fray' (i, i7o2 cp. i7i6)4.A Brahmana
(TB. 2, 7, n1) also refers
passage

the

to

(i,65) and supported


exploitsin their

cows

the

conflict between

the

celestial

.all his

When

traits.

volent

with

then

They

to

Rudra.

of their father

their worshippers

and

Maruts

associated

not

Indra.
the

Indra,

some

They

implored

are

occasionally exhibit

Maruts

in the
participate

extent

ward

to

let their ill-willreach

maleficent

male
nature

lightningfrom

off the

(7,s69), and are besought


(i, i722), their lightning
their
and
and
bolt
from
cow(7, 561?). Evil can come
man-slaying
(7, 574),
is
them
deprecated (i, 171'; 7, 58s), and they are said
(i, 398j, their anger
of the serpent (i,648-9).But
like their father Rudra, the
the wrath
to have
Maruts
are
supplicated to bring healingremedies, which abide in the Sindhu,
mountains
the Asiknl, the seas, and
(8, 2o^~6), and once
they are associated
in
Rudra
the
of
remedies
with
beneficent
possession
salutary, and
pure,
remedies
be
the waters, for the
Maruts
bestow
to
(2"33 13)- The
appear
several times also said
medicine
by raining(5, 53 H). Like Agni, they are
be pure
to
or
pavaka (7,5612 "c.).
purifying,
association
the constant
with lightning,
of the Maruts
From
thunder,wind,
and
clear that
rain, as well as from other traits mentioned
above, it seems
According to the native interpretersthe
they are Storm-gods in the RV.
Maruts
represent the winds, and the post-Vedic meaning of the word is simply
in the RV.
'wind'.
But
and
simple,
they hardly represent the winds
pure
avert

their

as

some

of

A.

KUHN

to

and

BENFEYS

This

in

evidence

additional
be

mart

hard

PVS.

BERGER,
6

"

with

in the
latter

of

the

BRADKE,

2,

used

to

2,

FaR.

brated

alone

Indo-arische

Vayu
in

BDA.

one

Philologie.

ORV.

both

Each
the

14;

XXV;

JAOS.
KRV.

III. 1

A.

39;

two

248

9,

40,

hymn

no

to

shine',it is

best

besides

9.

"

8
"

349"60;

MMPhR.

with

see
on

the

BOHNEN-

1,64.

RV.

Niruktair,
KRV.

note

13;

136;
GRV.

5, 147"54;
HVBP.

83"5;

317"20;

96~ 9of

names

Vata

RV.
OO.

OST.

3, 319;

the

parts of

wind

and

physical phenomenon
and

in the

i, 59."

283" HRI-

the

chieflythe god

whole

WZKM.

224"5.

of

PVS.

3; ZDMG.
HRI.
97.

"

WHITNEY,
BRI.

"

112

32, xxiv"

117"25;

is

I, 218.

for rain

names

391."

2,

throw
appears

RV.

various

BRV.

222;

--

the

'to

sub

furnishes

RV.

the

accord

to

seems

well.
souls

ScHROEDER7

v.

'to die', 'to crush', or

of

the

369"402;

express

But

and

historicallypossible, but

in

Mythen

" 30. Vayu-Vata.


fication.

On

SEE.

Hymns,
ZDMG.

BRV.

I, 44;

MEYER

meaning, however,

16, 161"4;

KZ.

Vedic

ROTH,

is

Indogermanische

MM.,

and
lightningas
of the
personifications

be

to

this view

sense

Maruts

"

op.

cloud

from

Maruts

is

hurl

etymology8 being uncertain can


beginningsof the conception. The root

2, 73.
cit. 43-4."

GRASSMANN,

v.

and

the

The

description
given
i

the

origin

whether

decide.

to

borrowed

are

them

they

support of it. The

lighton
but

which

stone

held

(cp.p. 77),

stantially
agree.
no

the

their attributes

and
dead

of the

to

nor

arrow

Vayu

its divine

element.

others, and

Vayu

and

personi
is cele

in about
6

Vata

half

III. RELIGION,

82

(168

hymns
of

186)

and

sometimes

both

the

Indra,

couple

at

Indra.

end

in the

occur

deities

two

regarded

was

the

preters, that either


region in the Vedic

as

of

KUNST.

u.

of

same

is invoked

MYTHOLOGY.

in two

only

of

the

RV.

The

short
names

(6, 5o12; 10, 92^). The difference


that Vayu alone is as a god associated

verse

being

then

invoked

often

might represent
(Nir. 7, 5). Vata

triad

book

tenth

closely connected

so

them

VEDIC

A.

Vata

the

is illustrated by the fact

the two

between

with

conjointlywith

others

dozen

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

with

is only associated
fully personified,
is much
more
with the thunderstorm

the

by

Indravayu.
native

the

vivid

inter

other

atmospheric
hand, being less

Parjanya (" 31), whose


than

This

deities of the

the
on

as

ancient

that

of

Indra.

connexion

Different

sets

epithetsare applied to the two wind-gods, those belonging to Vata being


chieflyexpressiveof the physicalattributes of swiftness and violence.
made
worlds
references
said toto Vayu's origin.The
two
Few
are
are
have
spoken of as the songenerated him for wealth (7, 90^). He is once
is not
mentioned
in-law of Tvastr
(8, 262I~2), though his wife's name
(cp.
is
have
he
from
said
the
the
Purusa
of
breath
In
to
hymn
" 38).
sprung
is rarelyconnected
with the Maruts.
the world-giant(10, 90^). Vayu
He
is,
from
the wombs
said to have
of heaven
generated them
however, once
(i, I344) and to be accompanied by them
(i,i4212) as well as by Pusan
of

His

is
rather indefinite. He
personal attributes are
is
with
beautiful (i, 21) and
spoken of as touching the sky, swift as
is once
said to have
thousand-eyed (i, 232" 3). He
thought, and
roaring
has
drawn
team
a
car
ioo2).
a
or
Vayu
shining
by
velocity(10,
by a pair
steeds.
of red
His
of
consists
team
(rohita)or ruddy (arund)
(4,484)r
99
attribute niyutvat,
ioo
or
even
1000
(4, 463) horses yoked by his will. The
'drawn
with reference
his car, being
to Vayu
or
by a team', often occurs
otherwise used only once
twice in each case
with reference to Indra, Agni,
or
Vayu's car, in which Indra is his companion (4,462.
Pusan, or the Maruts.
the sky (4,464). Like the other
482; 7, 9 15),has a golden seat and touches
fond
is
of
which
he
often invited to come
is
with his
to
Soma,
Vayu
gods,

and

Visvedevas.

the

Indra

and

teams

pany
The
first

the

draught of which he obtains


i,i354),f"r ne *s tne swiftest of

first

with Indra:
AB.

(2, 25) tells


draught of Soma,

in the RV.

story of how

Vayu

reached

in

the

also called

epithetsudpa,

a protector of Soma
'drinkingthe clear (Soma

race

goal

his share1

(alsoin com
the gods (SB. 13, i, 27"c.)2.
which
the gods ran
for the
as

first and

(10, 855)

and

Indra
has

the

second.

He

is

characteristic

epithetwhich Indra
shares
with him.
He
is also once
connected
once
with the 'nectar-yielding'
in steeds,
wealth
(sabardugha) cow3
(i, 1344). Vayu grants fame, offspring,
and
for
oxen,
gold (7, go2- 6). He
disperses foes (4, 48*) and is invoked
(i, 13 4s).
protectionby the weak
of wind, is celebrated
in a more
Vata, as the ordinary name
concrete
His

manner.

which

name

it is derived.

is

frequently connected

One

of

draught)',an

with

the

root

vd, to

blow,

from

hymns devoted to his praise (10, 168) de


scribes him as follows. Shatteringeverythingand thundering,his din presses
on; he goes
along whirlingup the dust of the earth; he wanders in the air
his
on
paths; he does not rest even
a
day. Firstborn,he is a friend of the
he
This deitywanders
where
waters; but the place of his birth is unknown.
hears
his roaring,but his form
does
lists;one
one
not
see
(cp. i, i6444).
He
is the breath
of the gods (cp. 7, 872; 10, 92^) and
is worshipped with
the

oblations.

Vata, like Rudra,


treasure

doubtless

of

also

wafts

represents

its

healingand

prolongs life,for he has the


of wind
(10, 186). This healing power
purifyingcharacter (cp. p. 77). The
activityof wind

in his house
immortality

84

HI.

RELIGION;

WELTL.

WlSSENSCH.

KUNST.

rain-water

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

divine

(asura) father
implored to withhold
besought
(S" S33' 6).
of
after shedding it (5,83'"). It is, however, implied that the action
rain
Parjanya, as well as of the Maruts, in shedding rain is subordinate to that
Varuna
of Mitra and
(5, 6^~6). He is several times said to thunder (5,83).
down
strikes
he
is
trees, demons, evil-doers;the whole world
Thundering
terrified at his mighty weapon
(5,832). He and Vata are the wielders of
(10, 66 10). Parjanya is also associated with lightning,
mighty thunder
though
winds
blow
The
with thunder.
less frequentlythan
forth,the lightnings
fall,
when
Parjanya quickens the earth with his seed (5, S34). Parjanya thunders
also appears
with
(AY. 19, 30-). He
to be
lightningin the (aerial)ocean
the
in
of
the
RV.
the
who
to
thunders
Visvedevas,
a
hymn
by
god
meant,
with lightning
excites the two worlds,
and roars, rich in clouds and water, who
besprinklingthem (5,4214).
of rain Parjanya is naturallyin a specialdegree the
As
the shedder
and
of vegetation. When
nourisher
he
quickens the earth with
producer
in his activity
his seed, the plants spring up;
are
plants of every form; he
5*
has produced plants for nourishment
(5, 83** I0, cp. 6, 526; AV. 4, i52'3'15;
and
the
increaser
of plants; protected by the god
fructifier
He
is
721).
8,
Reeds
and
fruit
bear
(7, ioiI"5).
good
produced by his action
they
grass are
not
(7, I021, cp. 5, 75'5; AV. i, 2T. 31; 19, 3o5). Parjanya places the germ
and
women
(7, io22), and is invoked to
only in plants but in cows, mares,
is the bull that impregnateseverything:in
He
bestow
fertility
(5,83?cp.6,52l6).
him
stands (7, ioi6; cp. i, H51). He
is the soul of what
and
is even
moves
described
rules
the whole
as
a
over
self-dependentsovereign,who
world,
in whom
all beings and
the three heavens
the
are
established,and in whom
flow (7, ioi2-4"5). Owing to his generativeactivity
threefold waters
Parjanya
several
times
receives the
epithet of 'father' (7, ioi3; 9, 82^ AV. 4, i512;
is once
called
'our divine (asura) father' (5, 836); and
in an
12, i12). He
other
occult
of
the
Asura'
'the
refers
him.
to
(5,633-?)
perhaps
passage
power
His
wife is by implication
Earth
the
(5,834; 7, ioi3, cp. i, i6o3). The
AV.
(12,i12) states that Earth is the mother, Parjanya the father2,but else
where
calls Vasa
his wife (10, io6). In these respects as
well as
explicitly
the
him
of
his
relation
as
a
to
theriomorphic conception
bull,
thunder,
and
rain, he approximates to the character of Dyaus (cp. io, 454;
lightning,
he is once
called
son
(7, I021). Parjanya himself is said
2, 46. 2715) whose
to
of plants (7, ioi1, cp. v. 3; 5, 831),
produce a calf (vatsam),the germ
who perhaps represents lightning.Soma
however, be meant, for his father
may,
is once
(9, 82 3) said to be Parjanya3,and he is spoken of as 'increased by
(9, 1133).
Parjanya^
Parjanya is associated with various other deities. His connexion is closest
with Vata, who, with the singleexception of Agni in one
is the only
passage,
also a few
god forming a dual divinitywith him (" 44). The Maruts
are
times invoked
with Parjanya (5, 636. 835) and
called
to
are
sing his
upon
celebrated
in
is
with
him
of one
praises(AV.4,i54). Agni
two
verses
hymn
in common
with
the 'rainy'
(6,526-l6;cp. " 44). Indra has much
Parjanya.
being compared with him in this respect (8,61). The two gods have in fact
much
the same
natural
with which
basis, the connexion
is,however, much
clearer
in the case
of Parjanya (cp.p. 82).
is of uncertain
derivation. But it is still usuallyidenti
Parjanya'sname
of character,with that of the Lithuanian
fied,owing to the similarity
thundergod
Perkunas4, though the phonetic difficulties of the identification cannot
be ex
The
plained.
freshness of the conception in the RV. renders it probable that
with

he

thunder

He

comes

is

shedding

U.

for

as

our

rains (7, ioi5) and

is

ATMOSPHERIC

if the

two

names

that

god

well
the

actually sheds

who

the

in

the

Brahmanas

word

the

name

proper

The

of

senses

into

the

Cp. OO.
or
Vyoman

and

I, 223.

note

302"5
\VC.

OO.

(on
56 f.;

(7, 47.

49;
in

RV.

i,

10,

9.

TA.

i, 10, 12

husband.

165);

OST.

The

"

30),

Waters,
as

well

ZVP.
BRV.

Apah,
as

in

Mahabharata.

the

Bhumi

few

Earth

or

FaR.

LRV.

1865,

p.

3, 25

lauded

are

in

153.
3, 322 f.; ZDMG.

46, 105;

SEE.

226;

f.;

an

native
language. The
(garjanmegha "c.), while

that

says

42

5, 140"2;

ORV.

appellativeof
of its personification,
and rain-god
rain- cloud
is

Cp. BLOOMFIELD,

--

19,

80"2;

HVBP.

pah.

" 32.

The

164 f., cp. AIL.


IIiRT, IF. 1, 481"2.
DELBRUCK,
i, 214"29;

ZDA.

139;

BUHLER,

"

is the

Sky

223';ZIMMER,

i,
KRV.

still an

was

later

through
dictionaries explain the appellativeas 'thunder-cloud'
identified with Indra
found
the deity is sometimes

both

survive

form

Indo-European

RV.

the

as

rain.

85

APAH.

32.

their

really connected,

are

clear
appellative.It seems
as
the thundering rain-cloud
the

GODS.

275 f.; ROTH,


30;

"

I1RI.

in

scattered

KRV.

is

the

wife

--4

OO.

32,

314!".;

ZDMG-

40;

BRI.

24,
14;

103-4.

four
verses.

hymns of
They

the RV.
are

also

verses
personification
along
many
only incipient,hardly extending beyond the notion of their being mothers,
and
the sacrifice.
bestow
boons
to
come
wives, and goddesses who
young
armed
Indra
follow
who
the
of
the
(7,473).
are
path
goddesses
gods
They
in
channel
and
them
for
with
bolt
the
(7, 474. 49'),
they never
dug out a
(7, 473). They are also said to be under the commands
fringehis ordinances
celestial, as well as flowing in channels, and have
of Savitr (p. 32). They
are
where
the gods
the sea
for their goal (7,49*). It is implied that they abide
the sun
and
is
beside
and
the seat of Mitra
Varuna
are
(io,3ox). They are
in their midst, looking
is with them
and
the sun
moves
(i,23*7). King Varuna
falsehood
the truth and
of men
at least,
down
on
(7,49^). In such passages
be
the
the rain-waters
But
enumerates
must
meant
(HRI. 99).
Naighantuka (5,3)
the terrestrial deities only (cp. YN.
the waters
9, 26).
among
Agni is often described as dwelling in the waters (p 92). He is said to
into
have
entered
them
(7,494). As mothers
they produce Agni (10, 9i6,
called
of Waters'
of
whose
forms
is
'Son
AV.
("24). The
i, 331), one
cp. 2";
of the world, equal
mothers
the wives
waters
are
(10, i710; i,23l6),who
are
in age
and
origin(io,3o10). They are besought to give their auspiciousfluid
like loving mothers
(10, 9'). They are most
motherly, the producers of all
is
and
that
fixed
moves
(6, 5o7).
and
The
cleanse
defilement;
waters
purify; these goddesses bear away
cleansed
the worshipper comes
and
of
them
out
(10,
They
i710).
up
pure
sins
invoked
the
of
cleanse
from
moral
are
to
even
violence, cursing,
guilt,
and
io,98). They are remedial
(6, 5o7), bestowing remedies
lying (i, 23"
and
long life,for all remedies, immortalityand healingare contained in them
in the house
health
man's
(HGS.
(10, 95~7; i, 23T9~21). They watch
over
excellent
of
boons
and
wealth
and
bestow
strength and
dispose
2, 45). They
immortality(10, 95. 3o12). Their blessing and aid is often implored (7, 474.
themselves
invited to seat
they are
along with the
49X~~4; 10, 9. 30 IX), and
Son
of waters
the sacrificial grass at the offeringof the
on
soma-priest(10,

invoked

detached

with

other

deities. The

is

30M. 15).
mix

The

waters

their

milk

dripping with

are

with

several

honey

times

with

mothers

they
honey;
it exhilarated (7,47T"2)of Indra, whom
Indra
rich in honey, by which
grew

associated

(i,23l6).The

wave

of

honey.

the

waters

As

is rich in

the drink
ghee it became
Apam
napat is besought to give waters
rich
invoked
the wave,
to heroic
to pour
waters
are
strength (10, 3o4). The
in honey and
from
them
released
con
gladdening the gods, for Indra who
which
is produced
the draught of Indra, which
finement; the wave
intoxicates,

III. RELIGION,

86

in

These

sky (10, 307~~9).

the

celestial waters

the

least

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

the

heavenly Soma,

KUNST.

u.

regarded

were

Indra.

of

beverage

terrestrial Soma

other

In

that

sometimes

the waters

passages
When

at

identical with

containingor

as

be

show

to

appear

passages

MYTHOLOGY.

VEDIC

A.

the

used

in

they

bearing
appear
with the priests,
bearing wellghee, milk, and honey, they are accordant
for Indra
man
delightsin them as a young
(io;30^). Soma
pressed Soma
who
a
as
in lovely maidens; he approaches them
lover; they are maidens
the youth (10, 3o5~5).
before
down
bow
preparing the

OST.

note.

5, 24,

343. 345;
Sp.AP.
153"5;

56;

WC.

73"4;

Rivers.

Beside

"

unimportant positionin the


the

Sindhu

with

Indus

or

other

of

number

streams

besides

though

others,

connexion

the

minds

the

to

present

in

of

the
the

goddess
poets.

detached

several

and

praise of

case

goes
the

with

Sarasvati

sister

the

any other river.


in the
further than

than

much

river is in the

is lauded

RV.

always
hymns of

in three

Sarasvati, Sarayu, and Sindhu


elsewhere
(10, 649)
(10, 755) Ganga,
great
others
known
and unknown, altogether
Yamuna, Sarasvati,Sutudrl,Parusnl, and
of the
addressed.
Kings and peoples livingon the banks
twenty-one, are
iron fort,flows with
Sarasvati
referred to (7, 96*; 8, 2il8).Sarasvati,an
are
in greatness; she
fertile flood, a stream
(sind/iu)
surpassingall other waters
alone
the (celestial)
of rivers appeared pure, flowingfrom the mountains, from
with her
the
ocean
(7,95*- 2, cp. 5, 43 II). She tears away
mighty waves
and
of
and
flood
immense
her
moves
mountains,
impetuous
roaring
peaks
is distinguished
the
(6, 6 12* 8). She
by greatness among
great, she is the
active of the active,and
is implored not to withhold her milk (6, 6i13).
most
the

and

of

invocation

greatlycelebrated

more

in which

fifth verse,

streams, while in the sixth verse


affluents of the Indus.
Another

as

the

to

not
a
occupy
celebrates
(io;75)

hymn

one

the

other

in this
personification

the

of

exception of

is, however,

SarasvatT

The

Waters, deified rivers

whole

mentioned

are

Ameretat

et

GODS.

The

the

Haurvatat

242.

divine

the

hymn (3, 33),is devoted


Vipas and Sutudrl.

entire

But

rivers

260; DARMESTETER,

i,

ORV.

RV.

invoked

of its tributaries are


a

BRV.

meant.

TERRESTRIAL

C.

" 33.

to

seem

RV.

invoked

are

numerous

verses.

and

streams

as

The

poet

prays

that

strange (6, 6i14). She


of seven,
mother
one
a

he

may

has
of

be

not

from

removed

sisters and

seven

streams2

her

(7,366).She

fields which

to

is sevenfold

are

is

(6, 6i10-12).She

is the

best

of

of

mothers,

goddesses (2,4il6).She is called pavlravl, an epithet(applied


also to tanyatu, 'thunder',in 10, 65^) probably meaning 'daughter of light
ning'3, and is said (6, 49?) to be the wife of a hero (probably Sarasvat).
She fills the terrestrial regions and the wide atmospheric space and occupies
three abodes (6,6iII"12).
from
the sky, from the great
She is invoked
to descend
The
the
three
sacrifice
last
to
mountain,
(cp. also 7, 952)
(5,4311)passages
allude
like that of Ganga in postseem
to
of a celestial origin,
to the notion
Vedic
called
divine
or
(7,96Z). The goddess
mythology. She is once
asurya
rivers,and

to

comes
on

the

of

the

sacrifice

river

goddess, for

from

defilement.
She

streams'

on

sacrificial grass

herself is

in the

the

same

chariot

Even
(10, i78-9).

followingtwo

verses

as

here

the
she

Fathers
must

the waters

are

purifier
(i,3"). She is besought to
(6,526)and, along with the waters, the bestowers
a

and

herself

seats

conceived

be

invoked

come

of

as

the

to cleanse

with
'swelling

wealth,

progeny,

GODS.

TERRESTRIAL

SARASVATT.

33.

87

and offspring
immortality,to grant vitality(io,3o12). She bestows vitality
with deities who
assist procreation (10, i842). She
(2,4i17) and is associated
named
Divodasa
have
is also said
to
to Vadhryasva
(6, 6I1).
given a son
of
kind
riches
breast
AB.
Her
unfailing
d, i6449). She
(cp.
4, i) yields
every
said
nourishment
bestow
is often
to
(7, 952; 8, 2i17;
wealth, plenty, and
times
receives
and
the
several
'bountiful'
i73-9),
epithet
subhaga,
6732;
10,
9,
mother
As
she
(ambd}
to the
a
6;
2i17).
8,
reputation
(i, 89^; 7, 954grants
and
She
devotions
the
of
unrenowned
stimulates,directs,
(2, 41 Ib).
prospers
is
invoked
her worshippers (i, 310-xl; 2, 38; 6, 6i4). She
along with the
goddesses of prayer (7, 37"; 10, 6513). She destroys the revilers of the gods,
and
is terrible,
a
Vrtra-slayer(6, 6i" 7). But to her worshippers she affords
their enemies
and
(7, 95^ 5; 2, 3o8; 6, 497).
protection
conquers
with
deities.
is often
other
Besides
SarasvatI
invoked
and
Pusan
Indra,
with
the Maruts
she is particularlyassociated
(3, 541-3; 7, 95. 39s. 4o3) and is
said to
her friends4
be
accompanied by them
as
(2, 3o8) or to have them
in
the
with
She
is
RV.
connected
also
the
the
When
Asvins.
once
(7) 96 2)is
refreshed
him
said to have
latter aided
Indra, SarasvatI
(10, i3i5). With
the same
the gods cele
reference
to
myth the VS. (19, 12) states that when
Asvins
brated
the
and
SarasvatI
sacrifice,
as
a
healing
physicians
through
The
VS.
even
vigour to Indra5.
speech (vdca) communicated
speaks of
the wife of the Asvins
SarasvatI
as
(19, 94). SarasvatI is several times asso
ninth
in the eighth and
ciated
of the dpri and
verses
dpra hymns with the
sacrificial goddesses Ida
and
BharatI
she
forms
(with whom
a
triad),and

and

sometimes

sacred

the

to

sacrifice

for

the

on

Mahl

and

character
the

on

(2, 19)

AB.

with

also

refers

banks

of

of

the

banks
to

This

river.

Allusion

SarasvatI

association

SarasvatI

the

there

were

have

may

is made

and

sacrifice performed

the

of

Hotra.

due

been

Agni being kindled


(3, 23*) 6; and the

to

Drsadvati

by Rsis on the
perhaps places

SarasvatI.

Hence

worship

of

of

the

of the Bharatas, would


Bharatas; in that case, BharatT, the personified
offering
in the AprI litanywhich
naturally find a fixed place along with SarasvatI
sacrifice7.
accompanied the animal
Though there is nothing to show
(cp. 7, 35") that SarasvatI is
distinctly
ever
anything more, in the RV. than a river goddess, we find her identified
in the Brahmanas
(SB. 3, 9, i?; AB. 3, i10), with Vac, Speech, and in postVedic
has become
she
goddess of eloquence and wisdom, invoked
mythology
as

muse

older

to

19,

and
the

which

has
the

with

that

have

been

wife

the

as

Brahma8.

of

conception is perhaps

transition from

The

be

to

found

in

the

like VS.

passages

above.

quoted

12

There
of

regarded

later

been

much

SarasvatI

goddess

of

the

the

controversy
river

Avestan

latter

is

river

which

as

identityof

the

to

name
personification. The
Haraqaiti in Afghanistan9,

is

first lauded

was

stream

identical
it

and

may
But

SarasvatI10.

the

as

the

ROTH

and
of
ZIMMER
(PW.), GRASSMANN
(GW.), LUDWIG",
(AIL. 10) are
SarasvatI
a
opinion, that in the RV.
originallymeant
usually and
mighty
(SarasvatIbeing the sacred and Sindhu the secular
stream, probably the Indus
in Madhyadesa,
name), but that it occasionally designatesthe small stream
to

which

its

both

ferred.

MAX

in

Brahmavarta

Vedic

ancient

with

times

the
and

reached

riverbeds

tary of the

Sutudrl

its sacred

believes

MtiLLER12

SarasvatI, which

region

and

name

affords

(the

it to

the

loses
sea.

evidence
modern

be

According
that

the

the

with

this

sands

to

SarasvatI

Sutlej)14,and

later

boundaries

the

itself in

in

were

identical

formed

Drsadvati
which

character

that

OLDHAM
was

when

times

of

of

the
X3

trans

river

small
the

sacred

desert, but
a

survey

a
originally

the

latter

of

tribu

left

its

88

III. RELIGION,

old

bed

has

MYTHOLOGY.

VEDIC

continued

Sarasvati

correlative named

male

been

have

goddess

river

the

A.

in the

flow

to

old

Sutudri.

Sarasvati

of

KUNST.

u.

the

joined the Vipas,

and

of the

bed

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

Sarasvat,

in three

sung

who
of

verses

after

the

praises
(7, 96),

hymn

one

by worshippers desiringwives

and

offspring,
and
his exuberant
waters
even
fertilizing
In another
(i, i6^2), Sarasvat, here
referred to.
breast are
passage
appar
with rain. ROTH
is
the
bird
of
spoken of as refreshing
Agni1*,
ently a name
bestows
fertility.
(PW.) regards him as a guardian of the celestial waters who
in

is invoked

the

three

next

plenty.

HiLLEBRANDT16

identifies

HARDY*?

and

2
326.
According
owing to the accent.

OST.

"

"

"

2, 86.

PVS.

345.
OST.

2,

382"3

12

"

moon)

the

as

of

name

"

(ibid.)
'havingthe (celestial)
i65f.; FW. ;,BRV. I, 327.
5 Cp. SB.
(10, 755).
12, 7, 3
;

ROTH,

river

Nir.

"

Buddha
II, I7f.; OLDENBERG,
413 f.
Cp. Manavadharmasastra
1"
8
HRI.
9 Sp.AP.
i, 84; 27, 705.
105 f.
31.
Cp. ZDMG.
liber Geographic etc., Prag 1875"6, p. 13;
AV.
und
RV.
qx
13 JRAS. 25, 49"76.
'4 OST,
Vedic
SBE, 32, 60.
Hymns
"

"

"

BRV.

15

"

the

Soma,

5, 94 note.
7 ORV.
243.
des
Nachrichten
"

(=

napat

BERGAIGNE

to

"

Cp. Marudvrddha

"

i,

Apam

similar view.

mother',

for her

ocean

with

Sarasvat
a

expresses

Cp. BRV.

his

Here

protectionand

144;

i,

47.

2,

BRV.
5, 337"43;
Sarasvati
(celestial
=

10

"

HVM.

"

I,

380"2.

BOLLENSEN,
325"8;
98;
milky way); HVBP.

17

"

ZDMG.

i,

ORV.

HVBP.

41,

499;

42-3.
HVM.

I,

243.

The
Earth, PrthivT,being, as has been shown
(p.22),.
in only one
short
with Dyaus, is lauded
alone
conjointly
in
in
and
and
RV.
beautiful
the
one
of
three
84)
stanzas
a
(5,
long
hymn
but
of
the
The
the
i
s
attributes
AV.
the
in
personification
slight,
(12, i).
RV.
of
the
the
she
physicalearth. According to
goddess being chieflythose
the burden
of the
in heights,bears
abounds
mountains, and
supports the
of the forest in the ground (ksma}. She
trees
quickens the soil, for she
of
heaven
shed
showers
from
the lightningof her
and
the
are
scatters
rain,
and
firm
She is great (ma/it),
cloud.
(drlhd]
shining(arfum}.
The
meaning of Prthivi is 'the broad one'; and a poet of the RV. (2,i52}
he says that Indra upheld the earth (prthivT)
alludes
to the
etymology when
it
out
and
(paprathat). The TS. (7, i, 5) and TB. (i, i, 3s) in de
spread
of Prthivi from
the
origin of the earth, expresslyderive the name
scribing

J"

Prthivi.

34.

"

generallycelebrated

the

prath,

root

because

extend,

to

she

is extended.

in
the dead
man
Earth', to whom
wirh Dyaus,.
mentioned
hymn (10, i810), is exhorted to go. When
Prthivi frequently receives the epithetof 'mother' (cp."" n.
44).
Prthivi is

spoken

of

'kindlyMother

as

funeral

BRUCE,

ZDMG.

"35-

Agni.

41,

primary importance
of

centre

the

prominent
the

RV.,

of
and

OST.
5,
p. 321;
HVBP.
25"6;
494"5;

JRAS. 1862,

LENSEN,

ritual

chief

The

the

as

Vedic

in

several

2;

terrestrial

of

gods.
besides

the

Veda.

He

is celebrated

he

BRV.

THURNEYSEN,

deity
of the
personification

poetry

the

21-

Next

is invoked

is

i,

4,

48;

BDA.

4"5;

IF.

BOL

84.

Agni, being naturallyof


is the

sacrificial fire,which
to

Indra

is the

he

in at least

conjointlywith

200

most

hymns

other

of

deities.

regulardesignationof fire,the anthropomorphism


is only rudimentary, his bodily parts having a.
physical appearance
clear reference
the phenomena
of terrestrial fire mainly in its sacrificial
to
He
is
butter-backed
(5,43"c.),butter-faced (3,il8"c.) and beautifulaspect.
is
He
butter-haired
tongued (i, 147).
(8,492), flame-haired (i,456 "c.) or
and has a tawny beard
tawny-haired (3,21-*),
(5,77). He has sharp (8, 493"c.)
or
burning jaws (i,585 "c.), golden (5,2") or shiningteeth (5,74) and iron
is once
footless and
described
headless (4, iix)"
grinders(10, 872). He
as
As

of

his

his

name

is also the

TERRESTRIAL

but

elsewhere

he

is said

GODS.

to

have

34.

PRTHIVI.

burning

faces
seven
rays (i, 146*; 2, 53). He
is often mentioned
(8, 6il8 "c.). He

head

(7, 31)

in all directions
is

also

AGNI.

35.

said

or

89
three

heads

and

(2, 31 "c.). His tongue


to

have

three

tongues

(VS. 17, 79), his steeds also being seven-tongued (3, 62).
later given to each
of these
A name
was
seven
tongues x. Butter is Agni's
is
he
four-eyed (i, 3i13), thousand-eyed (i, 7912), and thousandeye (3, 267);
horned
bears
he
(6, i8). In his hand
gifts for men
(i, 72*). Like
many
(8, i932). He is called an archer
Indra, he has the epithet sahasra-muska
(4, 41) or is compared with an archer (i, 7oxi), who
sharpens his flame like
iron
blade
of
a
(6, 35).
is often likened
He
doubtless
with
various animals, in most
to
a
cases
view
rather
than
to
indicatinghis functions
representing his personal form.
is frequently called
bull (i, 585 "c.). He
is a strong bull with a mighty
He
a
neck
in seed
(5, 212). As such he bellows
(10, 81), abounds
(4, 53), and is
with
horns
which
he
he
provided
sharpens (8, 49 Ij), which
(5, i8; 6, i639),
him
difficult to seize (i, 140"). He
is many
times
make
shakes, and which
is also often com
born
calf (vatsd). He
a
spoken of or alluded to when
as
pared with (i, 582"c.) or directlycalled a steed (i, 149^; 6, i26)2. The
tail which
he agitateslike a horse
When
(2, 44) is doubtless his flame.
puri
fied by sacrificers he is compared
with a groomed
horse
(i, 60$ "c.). Sacrihim
in motion
like a horse
ficers lead
set
(3, 2''),excite, and
(7, 71 "c.).
is the horse
He
direct (2, 5'; 3, 2 7 3). He
is kindled
and
they seek to tame
like a horse
that brings the gods (3, 27^).
is attached
He
to the pole at
places of sacrifice (2, 21) or to the pole of the rite (i, I437). He is yoked
in order
waft
the sacrifice to the gods (10, 5i7). He
is also compared
to
with (3, 263) or directlycalled a neighingsteed (i, 368). He is further likened
horse
from
to
a
as
dangers (4,28).
conquering (8,9i12) or causing to escape
is
bird.
like a
He
the eagle of the sky (7, 15*) and
Agni is,moreover,
a
divine
bird (i, i6452). As
the aquatic
he resembles
dwelling in the waters
bird hamsa
bird perches ontakes
a
as
(i, 659). He
possessionof the wood
is
is winged (i, 58*; 2, 24), his course
tree
a
(i, 662; 6, 35; 10, 9i2). He
with
the
and
he
darts
a
flight(6, 37. 46 "c.),
gods (10, 64).
rapid flightto
is once
He
described
as
a
raging serpent (i, 791)Agni is besides frequently compared with inanimate objects. Like the
he
his tongue
resembles
stretches
he
out
sun,
gold (2, 24; 7, 36). When
is
he
times
is
several
like
elsewhere
also
he
which
(6, 34)
com
a
hatchet, to
pared (i, 1273 "c.). He resembles
(i, i4i8 "c.) or is directlycalled a car
in battle
(3, ii5), as bringingriches (i, 583; 3, 155) or as being formidable
directed by others, for he is
be thought of as
(i, 666). He seems
to
car
a
conducted
to the sacrifice like a laden
compared
(10,1763). He is even
car
wealth
to
(i, 58". 60') or to wealth
(i, 731).
acquired by inheritance
Wood
is his beverage
butter
(2, 76) or ghee (7, 31) is his food, melted
his
is nourished
mouth
into
(2, 76; 10, 692). He
(3, 2ix;
poured
by ghee
is
and
the
forests
and
chews
oil
He
eats
of
eater
5, n3"c.)
an
(AV. i, 72).
with sharp tooth
with
his
them
(1,1435) or eats and blackens
tongue (6,6o10;
is all-devouring
times
three
a
day
10, 792). He
(8,4426). He is nourished
and the
(4, I21, cp. i, i4o2; 7, 1 1 3). He is sometimes
spoken of as the mouth
the gods eat the sacrifice (2,iI3tongue by which
I4); and his flames are spoons
with which
he
honours
the
besprinkles or
gods (i, 76s; 10, 64). But he is
more
himself
281"6). Writh
to eat the
(3, 2I1"4.
frequentlyasked
offerings
he
strives after the ghee that is offered (i, 127'),
upright,god-ward form
Though the regular offeringto him is fuel or butter3, he is sometimes, and
then nearly always with other
juice (i, 14'",
gods, invited to drink the Soma
(3, 2o2)

or

seven

III. RELIGION,

90

199.

(10, 45

11' 3; 2,
5"

I2).

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

364). In
He

he

hymn

one

KUNST.

u.

VEDIC

i A.

is called

MYTHOLOGY.

'guardianof

somagopd,

Soma'

is often
sacrifice (10, 989j and
to
to come
the sacrificial grass along with the gods (3,i42;

is invited

the

down
on
sitting
spoken
1
1
ii2.
*,
433).
265; 7)
Cp.
5,
dwelt
He
is of brilliant lustre
upon.
Agni's brightnessis naturally much
(2, io2 "c.), brilliant-flamed (6, io3),bright-flamed(7, 15" "c.), clear-flamed
(i, 140*; 5, 2 3). He has a golden form (4,31
(8, 433I)"and bright-coloured
the sun
shines
like
He
(i, I493; 7, 36). His lustre is like the rays
2o9).
io,
of the rain-cloud (io,9i4-5).
the lightnings
like
and
dawn
and
the
of the
sun
the
he
with
shines even
sun
at night (5,74). Like
He
dispelsthe darkness
and sees
is a destroyer of darkness
his rays (8,4332). He
through the gloom
he opens
the gates of darkness
of the night (i, 945; 7, 92). Kindled
(3,51).
and
in
darkness
visible when
the
earth
The
sky become
Agni is
enveloped
dawn
and
is the only individual god
at
born
(io, 882). For he is kindled
who
is described
as
(though the gods collectively
Svaking at dawn', usarbudh
receive this epithet).
sometimes
On
the other hand, Agni's course,
path, or track, and his fellies are
his steeds
make
black
black
(i, 1417; 2, 46-7; 6,6'; 7, 82; 8,23*9), and
furrows
(1,140*). Driven by the wind he rushes through the wood
(i,584-5),
and
the hairs of the earth
the
forests
shears
invades
(i, 658), shaving the
beard
earth as a barber
a
(io, I424).
of the sea
like the roaring waves
His flames
are
(i,44"). His sound
of Heaven
the
thunder
like
2
is like the Wind
roars
5s;
or
(5,
7, 36). He
lion
the thundering Dyaus
(io, 454), or Parjanya (8,9i5), or a
(3,211). He
of

bellows
fied

at

cannot

as

like
the
be

bull

noise
checked

when

invades

he

his

when

the

than

more
any
of heaven

the

the bolt
(i, I435).
Agni flames upwards (6,i52).Driven
and
wavers
sky (8,43*). His smoke

loose, or

the birds are terri


trees, and
arise (i, 9410" IX). He

forest

grass-devouringsparks
of

sound

by

the

his flame

the

Maruts,

an

his flames

wind

be

army
shoot

let

into

seized

(8,23').
His
His red smoke
rises up to heaven
smoke
(7, 3\ i63).
spreads in the
of a post (metr), he supports the sky with his
sky (6,26). Like the erector
the ridge of heaven
with his crest and
smoke
(4, 62). He touches
mingles
with
heaven
He
his
with the rays of the sun
(7,21).
encompasses
tongue
in the brightspace
(8, 6il8) and goes to the flood of heaven, to the waters
and
above
below
the
sun
(3, 223). The
Agni of Divodasa
spread along
mother
earth
the gods and
stood
towards
the ridge of the sky (8,92 2).
on
'Smoke-bannered'
(dhumaketu) is a frequent epithet exclusivelyconnected
with Agni.
Agni is borne on an lightningcar (3, I41), on a car that is luminous
(i, I4Q1), bright (i, I4i12),shining(5, i11), brilliant (io, iSj, golden (4,i*)
beautiful (4, 24). It is drawn
or
horses4, which are butterby two or more
backed
(i, i46),ruddy (rohita^arusa), tawny and
ruddy (7, 42-), beautiful
(4,22J, omniform
(10,70"), active (2,42), wind-impelled(i,94 10),mind-yoked
the gods (i, i412; 3, 66; 8, 641). For
(i, i46). He yokes them
to summon
he is a charioteer
(i,253 "c.) of the sacrifice (io, 92* "c.). With his steeds
he brings the gods on
the same
his car
seated on
as
car
(3,69). He comes
the gods (3, 4"; 7, n1) or in advance
of them
(io, 7o2). He bringsVaruna
from
the air (io, 70").
Indra from
the sky, the Maruts
to the offering,
According to the ordinary view of the Vedic
poets, Agni's father is
of Dyaus (4,1 56;
Dyaus, who generated him (io,458).He is the child (sis'u)
the

6,492) and
He

is often

is said to
called

the

have
son

been
of

born

Dyaus

from
and

the

Prthivl

cannot

belly

of

the

Asura5

(3,22. 3". 25';

(3,291).
10, i2. 27.

92

III.

RELIGION,
is called

he

When

there

(2, i1),

of

friction

Agni is
(i, 592). This

it occurs,

excavated

the

technical

term

altar

allude

to

in

'navel'
RV.

or

plants
by the

as

forests

by his being called


in the
many
the sacrificialAgni

receptacle of
ritual

Vedic
in

the

ndbJd

vcdi,

uttard

is the

'navel'

or

in

which

is-

Agni

probably suggested the figure,that


of immortality(3, i;4). The
only
attribute vedisad, 'sitting
the altar',
on

term

centre

the

of

the

the

In

the

of

use

the

Agni.
Agni's origin in

well

as

in

expression appears,

to

hollow

designatingthe

occurrences

trees

produced

indicated

further

of

redi*$.

or

deposited14.The earlier
the gods made
Agni the
two

of

or

fire

trees.

earth'

the

in which

passages
on

of

'navel

the

MYTHOLOGY.

VEDIC

i A.

(i, 70*)

trees

side-glanceat

of

boughs

KUNST.

u.

of

embryo

be

terrestrial existence

The
the

the

may

the

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

refer to

waters'
the

has

shown

the

of

is

5");he

(10, 45 z; AV.
(10, 81); he

is often

aerial waters

the

been

has,
'embryo' (garbha)
as

(" 24), become

45)

has

who

a
13, 1
is ocean-girt(8,9i5). He

(i, i445;
(6,62).

distinct

(3, i12- J3);he

waters

bull

referred
a

and

is kindled
in

grown

the

the

'Son

of

is also

in

the

of

the waters

from

the dhanu

lap

is also said to descend


be

The

to.

deity.Agni

waters

shiningthunder
lightningform

dwelling in
10,
the
of
In such
the brightspace
Agni must
passages
of the later hymns
of the RV.
Some
be
meant.
(10, 51
3. I24)15 tell a
and plants and being found by the gods.
legend of Agni hiding in the waters
in the Brahmanas16.
In the AV.
the Agnis
This legend is also often related
the
from
those
that
of
in the waters
are
on
distinguished
lightning
path
go
the
celestial Agni with the lightning(AV. 3, 2iT- 7; 8, i11) and are
from
or
dwelt
of the RV.
also
said to have
earth (AV. 12, i37). In one
on
passage
it is stated that Agni rests in all streams
(8, 398,cp. Ap. SS. 5, 21); and in
in connexion
the later ritual texts
is invoked
with ponds
Agni in the waters
Thus
in the oldest Vedic
and water-vessels.
even
period, the waters in which
Agni is latent,though not those from which he is produced, may in various
have
thinks that the
been
regarded as terrestrial. OLDENBERGI?
passages
and
terrestrial waters
in
this
connexion
doubts,
whether the
are
chieflymeant
in the first hymn
of the third book18.
In any
lightning
Agni is intended even
the
of Agni in the waters
notion
is prominent throughout the Vedas..
case,
Water
is Agni's home, as heaven
is that of the sun
(5, 852: cp. AV. i3,i5";
also
mentioned
1ne
often
waters
are
along with the plantsor wood
I9" 331)'9
his abode
as
(2, i1 "c.).
is moreover
Agni's origin in heaven
frequentlyspoken of. He is born
in the highest heavens
existed potentially
(i, 143*; 6, S2). He
though not
in
the
heavens
and
from
was
actually
highest
(10,5'),
heaven, from
brought
afar by Matarisvan
(" 25). In such passages Agni doubtless represents lightning;
for lightningis regardtd as
from
the waters
well as
as
coming from heaven
in a Brahmana
it
is spoken
(AV. 3, 2iK 7; 8, i11), and
(AB. 7, 72)
passage
of as both celestial (divyd)and aqueous
mentioned
is
(apsumai).When
lightning
or

cloud-island

to

"

by its

proper

name

vidyitt(which

occurs

hardly

with

Agni, it is commonly compared with


him20, doubtless as a concrete
phenomenon

myth, too,
the

actual

of

the

descent

observation

of

fire from

heaven

and
in
to

times in the RV.) alorg


from
thereby distinguished

30

contrast

with

earth, due

god. The
undoubtedly to
the

conflagrationscaused by the stroke of lightning,


implies the identityof the celestial Agni and lightning.The heavenly origin
of Agni is further implied in the fact that the acquisition
is
of fire by man
and
of
the
regarded as a gift
gods as well as a production of Matarisvan;
the
allude
of men'
Agni's frequent epithet ot 'guest(atithi)
same
to
may
notion (5, i9 "c.).
of

GODS.

TERRESTRIAL

In

other

"conception

of

is to

again, Agni

passages,
the sun

form

35.

93

identified with

be
is

of

AGNI.

the

sun;

for

belief.

Vedic

undoubted

the

Thus

as
a
an
Agni,
in the bright sky, waking at dawn, the head
of
light of heaven
side of the air and sees
all things
born
heaven
the other
(3,2^). He was
on
rising in the morning (10, 886)21. The
(10, iS;4'5). He is born as the sun
when
remarks
the
AB.
285that
(8,
sun
Ij)
settingenters into Agni and is
him.
identification
is
from
The
same
probably alluded to in passages
produced
stating that Agni unites with the light or the rays of the sun
(5, 37'; 7, 21),
that when
men
lightAgni on
(6, 23), or that
earth, the celestials light him
(3, 2712; 8, 4429). Sometimes, however, it is difficult
Agni shines in heaven
decide
is intended.
whether
solar aspect of
The
to
lightning or the sun
is
often mentioned, the sun
not
Agni's nature
being too individual a pheno
be generally conceived
form
of fire. Agni is usually thought
to
menon
as
a
of in his terrestrial form, being compared
identified with the sun.
rather
than
Thus
the poet says that the minds
turned
of the godly are
to Agni as
eyes
towards
the sun
time
there is frequently a side- glance
(5, i4). At the same
forms,
it being therefore
in many
which
doubtful
of his
at Agni's other
cases

is the

Agni

aspects is intended.

Owing to the diverse births


Jiaving a triplecharacter22, which

described, Agni is often regarded as


is expressly referred
to
many
passages
with some
form
of the numeral
fthree'. This earliest Indian
trinityis important,
it is based
for
much
of the mystical speculationof the Vedic
on
age*3.
three
threefold
him
Agni's births are
or
(i, 95^; 4, i/). The
gods made
is
threefold
He
threefold
(10, SS10).
light (3,267), has three heads
(i, 146'),
three tongues, three bodies, three
stations (3, 2o2). The
epithettrisadhastha,
is predominantly connected
with Agni24, and
the only
'having three stations',
in
the
which
word
three
occurs
tripastya,'having
(8,398), it
dwellings',
passage
is an attribute of Agni. The
triad is not always understood
in exactly the same

way

or

mentioned

was
first_.Agni
(10, 451, cp.

in

the

born, the
2-

order.

same

time

second

The

in

order

Thus
from

of

us

one

(=

poet

'From

says:

men), thirdlyin

Agni's abodes
27. 469), while

is

heaven

the waters

also

heaven,
earth,
one
verse
(8, 44l6; 10,
(i, 953) has
the variation:
Sometimes
the terrestrial Agni comes
heaven, waters.
ocean,
first: 'He
first born
in houses, at the base
of great heaven, in the womb
was
of this atmosphere' (4, i11); 'the immortals
kindled
flames
of Agni: of
three
these they placed one
and
with man, for use,
the
sister-world'
went
two
to
terrestrial Agni in
(3, 2"). A Sutra passage
a
(Ap. SS. 5, i64) distinguishes
in the waters, and
celestial one
in the sun.
Occa
animals, an aerial one
a
waters

in

sionallythe
whom

'the

vv.

other

3).

above

passages

terrestrial

middlemost

Agni

third.

comes

brother

is

He

is

one

lightning(asnaJi) and

of

three
the

brothers

of

third is butter-

backed'

(i,164*, cp. i4i2). 'Agni glows from the sky, to god Agni belongs the
kindle Agni,.
bearer
of oblations,lover of ghee' (AV. 12, i20, cp.
air, men
i3,321; 18,4").
third form
The
of Agni is once
spoken of as the highest(19, i3; cp.
that his predecessor Sakapuni
5, 33; i, 722" 4). Yaska
(Xir. 7, 28) mentions
regarded the threefold existence of Agni referred to in 10, 88
as
being in
third
mani
earth, air, and
heaven, a certain Brahmana
consideringAgni's
is in heaven, to be the sun
Nir.
This
threefold
festation,which
(cp.
12, 19).
of Agni, so
nature
clearly recognised in the RV., was
probably the prototype
not
only of the- posterior triad of Sun, Wind, Fire (8, iS19), which is spoken
of as
distributed
in the three worlds
(10, 158'; AV. 4, 392) and is implied
in' another
verse
(i, 164^), but also of the triad of Sun, Indra, Fire, which
though not Rigvedic is still ancient. Here Vata or Vayu and Indra have
broad

10

RELIGION,

HI.

94

the

sacrificial fire

the

of

ritual

Vedic

of the

cult

in the

myth. At any
of the three
representative

reacted

on

the

sacrificial fires
anterior
himself

may

period29.
in the

Doubtless

three
on

into

go
Thus

back

of

VEDIC

A.

MYTHOLOGY.

the Brahmanas

as

have

any
be

the

of

Agni

time

the

is

than

which

which

in the
form

known

of

the

to

the RV.2S

The

RV., possiblyeven

three
to

to
Agni
besought
bring
gods
receptacles(yonisu: 2, 364; cp. 5, n2; 10, 105^).

the

is in

the

to

basis of the twofold

division of the Universe


said to

several

an

ritual may
have
then
literature took
the three fires
The

rate, later Hindu


to

fire26 and

domestic

Brahmanas27.

forms

name

sacrificial fires 25

three

the

other

and

the transient

to

Agni for
expressed only by epithets
suggested and would
explainthe

therefore

distinct from

kept

are

essential feature

as

lack

lightningand partlyto the


which
could
lightning,
personified
triad of Agnis may
allusions. The

division

substitution is perhaps partly due

of

nature

or

This

call him.

commentators

KUNST.

u.

Agni,
Agni Vaidyuta, the lightning

of

place

the

taken

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

have

and

an

seat

into heaven

births, being the


earth, Agni
passages
of
6oT.
as
dvijanman (i,
i4o2. i492- "'). An
only singlegod spoken
upper
birth are mentioned
and
lower
(2,9^),his abode in lower and upper spheres
a
the opposition is generally between
terrestrial
is referred to (i, i283), and
least
celestial fire (3,54%- 10, 45 10),though in one
and
at
(8, 4328)
passage
and

the

contrast

is between
his supreme

his birth in heaven


abode

(8,1

and

two

in the waters.

Agni

is

sum

thence
to the lower
ones
7) and comes
he is brought from
the highest father he rises into the plants
(8,6415).When
as
(i, 1 4 14). Here
Agni is conceived
coming down in rain and then entering
he
of
which
is
the plants,out
again produced. The fires,like water, after
(i, i6451). On this distinction of
descending to earth again rise to heaven
of fire are
such
based
forms
that Agni should
sacrifice to
two
as
prayers
descend
that
he
himself (10,76),that he should
should
bringAgni (7,395),or
the
sacrifice (3, 69 "c.). Allied to this distinction is the
with the gods to
notion
kindled by the gods as contrasted
that Agni was
with men3"
(6, 23).
latter notion is due
The
to the assumption that celestial fires must
be kindled
and
sacrifice like men
one
gods must
(cp.AB. 2, 34).
by some
another
From
births (10,5').
point of view, Agni is said to have many
This multiplicity
doubt
fires kindled
no
on
primarilyrefers to the numerous
For
terrestrial altars.
Agni is very frequentlysaid to abide in every family,
house, or abode (4,68. 71- 3; 5, i5. 6s "c.). He is produced in many
places
bodies (10, 9810). Scattered
in many
(3"5419) and nas many
places, he is
in many
and
the same
one
king (3,554). Kindled
places, he is but one
branches
to him
to a tree
(Val. io2). Other fires are attached
as
(8, i933).
Thus
be
he comes
invoked
with
the
to
Agnis (7, 3T; 8, iS9. 49'; io, i4i6)
all the Agnis (i, 26"; 6, i26).
or
The
involve
accounts
sometimes
given of Agni's abodes or birthplaces
divisions. Thus
his brilliance in heaven, earth, air, waters, and plants
cross
is referred to (3,222) or he is said to be born from the heavens, the waters,
of a similar kind
stone, woods, and
plants (2, i1). Longer enumerations
elsewhere
occasionallyoccur
(AV. 3, 21; 12, i19; Ap. SS. 5, i64). When
Agni
is said (i,7o4, cp. 6, 48 5) to dwell in a rock (adrau) the reference is probably
the lightninglatent in the
to
cloud (cp.p. io). The
is probably the
same
when
he is said (2, i1) to be produced from
case
stone
a
(asmanaK) or to
have
been
two
stones
generated by Indra between
(2,12 3); but here there
lurk
allusion
the
of
heat is of
to
fire
from
flint. Animal
an
production
may
be
when
meant
in the heart of man
course
Agni is said to
(io, 51),or in
beasts, horses, birds, bipeds and quadrupeds (AV. 3, 2i2; 12, i19. 233; XS.
4, 6, 1 3). As
being the spark of vitalityand so widely diffused in nature,

moned

from

GODS.

TERRESTRIAL

Agni naturally

and

described

be

to

comes

of

probably

is later

these

the

by

meant

four

is said

Indra

with

associated

owing

Agni
with

only god

the

this

to

(8, 46l6)
(i, 93) Agni

hymn

is

Agni
and

of

as

any
forms

suggested the
(10,
5i6). The
plural
The
same
are
6, 61).
the

first three

(4, i2).

died
Else

(6,592)32. Indra is indeed oftener


god and is,with two slightexceptions,
dual
divinity(" 44). It is doubtless

described
as
Agni
Panis
unbelieving

vanquishing the
is also

brothers

have

Agni's brother

is

that

three

of

is

what

brother
other

Agni

association

(TS. 2,
gods, of whom

spoken
twin

with

whom

and

heat

than

notion

fires may
of in the

three

the

of

once

his

be

to

be

to

Hotrs

is

(Kath. 25, 7)31. Varuna


where

stated

the

of

(garbha)
5, 257).

germ
(i, 7o3; AV.

stationaryor moves
The
rise to
of Agni gave
triple nature
of sacrificial
(i, I641); while the multiplicity
of Agni's elder brothers
idea
who
are
spoken
number

95

the

as

exists

all that

of

AGNI.

35.

coupled

occasionallyidentified

with

Soma

with

other

burstingthe
(7, 63).

In

rock
one

(" 44).
gods, especiallywith

with
entire

Varuna

when
the sacri
he goes
to
(2, i4- 3, 54- ^ I23). He is Varuna
is Varuna
when
Mitra
fice (10, 8s). He
he is born
and
when
he is kindled
(5, 31). Agni in the evening becomes
Varuna, risingin the morning he be
the air,becoming Indra he illumines
comes
Mitra; becoming Savitr he traverses
the sky in the midst
of the RV.
(AV. 13, 3^). In one
(2, i3" 7) ne
passage
is successively
with
identified
dozen
about
a
gods besides five goddesses. He
various
divine
forms
assumes
(3, 387) and has many
names
(3, 20^). In him
all the
surrounds
whom
he
are
a
comprehended
as
31),
gods (5,
fellythe
spokes (5, i36).
What
is probably the
oldest
function
of fire in regard to its cult,that
of burning and
dispellingevil spiritsand hostile magic, still survives in the
Veda.
Agni drives away the goblins with his light (3,1 5 "c.) 34 and receives
the
kindled
he consumes
epithet raksohan, 'goblin-slayer'
(10, 87')- When
with heat
with iron teeth and
scorches
the sorcerers
the goblins
well as
as
(10, 87 5- 14),protectingthe sacrifice with keen
glance (ib.9). He knows
the races
of the sorcerers
and destroys them
(AV. i,84).Though this function
of dispelling
terrestrial demons
is shared
with Agni by Indra
(as well as by
Brhaspati, the Asvins, and especiallySoma), it must
primarily have belonged
aerial demons
is
to Agni alone, just as, conversely, that of slayingAsuras
or
transferred
This is borne
to
Agni (7, 13') though properly peculiarto Indra.
out
by the fact that Agni is undoubtedly more
prominent as a goblin-slayer
than
Indra, both in the hymns and in the ritual 35.
with
life than
other
human
Agni is more
closely connected
god.
any
His
association with the dwellings of men
is peculiarly
is the
intimate.
He
the
only god to whom
frequent epithetgrhapati, 'lord of the house', is
He
dwells
in
abode
applied.
(7,i52), never
(8,49*9).
leaving his home
every
The
attribute 'domestic' (damunas) is generally connected
with him (i,6o4"c.).
This
household
of ideas; for in the
deity probably represents an old order
Mitra33

2-

'

later

elaborate

other

two

is called

it is

ritual of

(the dhavariiya or
gdrhapatya or

the

to
interesting

of

traces

the

the

observe

sacrificial fire

(4, 93. I51), strides round


three times (4, 64- 5. i52);
he

is led

is

the

east

is further

He
He

to

guest in

and

three

sacrificial

fires, the

one

from

which

the

or
southern) were
taken,
belongs to grhapati. In this connexion
that
even
as
early as Rigvedic times there are
been
transported36.For Agni is led round
having
round
the sacrifice
the offerings(4, i53) or
goes

and

eastern

that

and

again

the daksina

which

as

to

soon

the

as

west

he

is released

from

his

parents,

(i, 3i4).

abodes.
constantly designated a 'guest'(atitht]in human
house
(io,9i2), the first guest of settlers (5,82). For
every

III.

96
he
any
has

is

RELIGION,

god),

other

who

Agni

domestic

(3, 25) and


settlers' is

8, 49

caused

who

mainly
Agni comes
T0),or simply a
described

(8; 43l6; I0; 73 "c-)"

intimate

abode
human

mortals

to

Such

to

with
be

MYTHOLOGY.

VEDIC

A.

applied to Agni

than

to

mortals

(8, 6oT). He
among
habitations (3, 5 3; 4, 62). It is
is a leader
settle (3, iI7j. He

epithetvispati,'lord

the

protector of settlers (i, 96*), and


connected

worshippers.
less
Agni was

his

up

commonly

more

settled among

or

Thus

is oftenest

taken

KUNST.

u.

much

term

has

established

been

the

(a

immortal

an

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

of

him.

called

the

kinsman

nearest

of

man

(7, 15';

kinsman
(i, 2 63 "c.) or a friend (i, 75* "c.). But he
also
father
brother
as
a
as
a
(6, i5 "c.), sometimes
and

terms

eyen
seem

as

to

(2, i9)

son

point

to

sacrificial and, as, the centre


is not
relation such
as
easilyfound

or

older

an

of
in

mother
order

domestic
the

(6, i$),
of

of

his

things,when

life,produced

an

worship of other gods 3 1.


would
naturallyconnect

in the house
continuityof Agni's presence
the ancestral
than
other
him
more
god with the past. Hence
closely
any
is
probably more
typicalof
friendshipof Agni with his worshipper (i,7i10)
the forefathers kindled,
is the god whom
him than of any other deity. He
is made
of an Agni of Bharata
mention
(2,7*;
to whom
they prayed. Thus
of
Divodasa
of
Devavata
of
(3,233),
(8,922),
Vadhryasva (10,69*),
7,84"c.),
sometimes
of ancestors
identified
and of Trasadasyu (8, I932J38.The
names
of the RV.
in part those
of families to which
be
with Agni are
composers
had
have
historical
of
like
to
Some
seem
a
Vasistha,
origin,
these,
longed.
while others, like Angiras (" 54) and
probably mythical
Bhrgu (" 51), are
(cp.S 58).
Agni is further brought into close relations with the daily life of man
in the sacrifice. He
is,however, not merely a passivereceiver of the offering,
transmits the oblation
heaven
and earth. He
but is an
intermediarybetween
do
not
to the gods, who
get exhilarated without him (7,n1). On the other
hand, he brings the gods (3,i42) to the sacrifice as well as takes it to them
them
the
seats
strewn
on
(i, 31 17; 8, 443), to eat the
(7, ii5). He
grass
He
the
on
offering(5,IIT"C.).
paths leading both to the gods (10,98")
goes
and to earth (8, 72),knowing these paths (6, i63). He is therefore constantly
called
knows
and
who
the paths and
a
characteristically
(dutct),
messenger
who
all
sacrifice
visits
flies swiftly
the
abodes
(i,
or
(4, i8);
727)
conveys
between
heaven
and
earth
(10, 64), moving
(4, 78. 84; 10, 42), or the two
men
(4,22-3);who has been appointed by the gods (5,86"c.)
races, gods and
and
oblation-bearer
by men
(10, 4610), to be an
(havya-vah or -vdhana,
connected
with
and
the hymn of the wor
terms
to announce
always
Agni)
shipper (i,274) or to bring the gods to the place of sacrifice (4,82). He is
the messenger
of Vivasvat
of the gods (6, i59) and
(p.42); but as knowing
of heaven, as
the innermost
recesses
conveying-the sacrifice,and bringing
of men.
the
the gods (4, 78.8J) he is mainly to be considered
messenger
A
later text states that Agni is the messenger
of the gods, and Kavya Usanas
or
Daivya that of the Asuras
(TS. 2, 5, 85. n8). Another describes Agni not as
the messenger
of, but as the path leading to, the gods, by which the summit
of heaven
be reached
(TB. 2, 4, i6).
may
In consequence
of his main
of officiating
function in the Veda
at the
celebrated as the divine counterpart of the earthly
to be
sacrifice,
Agni comes
priesthood.He is therefore often called genericallythe 'priest'
(rtvij^viprd)
the
and
or
'domestic
more
specifically
priest'
(purohitd],
frequently
constantly,
in fact than by any other name,
is
the 'offerer' (hotf)or
chief priest,who
He
is a Hotr
(8, 491; 10, 7s)
poet and spokesman in one.
appointed by men
and
of Hotrs
eminent
by gods (6, 16'). He is the most
adorable, the most
The

GODS.

TERRESTRIAL

35.

AGNI.

97

18).

is also termed
He
an
adhvaryu (3, 54) and (likeBrhaspati,
brahman
or
a
Indra)
Soma,
prayingpriest(4,94). He combines in himself
human
of the various
the functions, in a higher sense,
priestscalled by the
and
other specific
above
names
(i,946; 2, i2"c.). He is constantly invoked
honour
to
or
worship the gods (3, 25'; 7, n3 "c.), while they in their turn
said to honour
are
Agni three times a day (3,42). He is the accomplisher
of the rite or sacrifice (3,33.272), promoting it by his occult power
(3,277),
making the oblations fragrant (10, i512),and causing the offeringwhich he
is the father (3,34),the king (4,31),
protects to reach the gods (i, i4). He
the ruler (10, 63), the superintendant (8,4324), the banner
(3, 33. io4; 6, 23;
is
sacrifice.
it
related
of
In
that Agni grew
1
one
(io,
5),
hymn
51)
10,
his
and
refused
fulfil
of
the
sacrificial
service
to
offices,but on being
weary
he
required from the gods, continued to act as
granted the remuneration
high priestof men3?.
Agni's priesthood is the most salient feature of his

(10, 21.

9
and

character.

though
the

end

He

this

of

phase
RV.,

to

the

due

endless

ordinarysacrificial

the

as
great priest,

Agni's character
it is of

of the

tivelyrecent,
led

is in fact

to

those

is

symbolism

who

Agni

of

great warrior.

prominent
historical point of

mystical sacerdotal

sacrificial

is the
from

so

from

course

Indra

the

the

But

beginning to
view

speculationswhich
later ritual texts.

compara

ultimately
From

the

offering(havya-vah or -vdhana) is
the form
distinguished
'corpse-devouring'
(kravyad:
VS.
three forms, as
the Agni who
devours
distinguishes
rawcp. " 71). The
flesh (amad\
the corpse-devouring
or
funereal,and the sacrificial Agni (VS.
The
TS.
(2, 5, S6) also distinguishes
three, the Agni that
i, 17, cp. 1 8, 51).
bears
the oblation
the
(havyavdhana),as belonging to
gods, the Agni that
bears
the funeral offering
as
(kavyavakand),
belonging to the Fathers,and the
Agni associated with goblins(saharaksas)as belonging to the Asuras.
Agni is a seer (rsi) as well as a priest(9, 6620); he is kindled as an
eminent
seer
(3, 2i3); he is the most
(6, i42); he is the first
gracious seer
of

Angiras (i,31').

seer

He

conveys
Fire which

is the

divine

the

is called

one

(asurd)

among

the

sages

(3,34).

the sacrifice exactly (io, no11) and


all rites (io, I222).
knows
Agni knows
the
rectifies
which
he
mistakes
the
commit
seasons
Knowing
men
proper
the
ordinances
of
sacrificial
of
the
through ignorance
gods (io, 24- 5) He
knows

the

of heaven
(4, 82- 4). He knows
everything (io, n1) by
(10,913). He has all wisdom
(3,i1?; io, 2i5), which he embraces
the fellythe wheel
as
born
as
(2,53)and which he acquired as soon
(i,96x).
is 'all-knowing'
He
and
the
of
all
(vis'vavid);
epithets'possessed
knowledge'
the intelligence
of a sage' (kavikratu)
(visvavedas),
'sage'(kavi),and 'possessing
bears the epithet
are
predominantlyapplicableto him. He exclusively
jdtav"fas,
which
is there (6, i513) ex
and
times in the RV.
occurs
upwards of 120
knows
all generations'
plained as meaning 'he who
(visva veda janima)*0.
He
knows
the divine ordinances
and
the generationsof men
(i, 70'- 3). He
knows
and
all creatures
hears
the invocations
sees
(3, 55'"; io, i874) and
addressed
to him
(8, 43 23). Agni is also a producer of wisdom
(8, 9i8).
Wisdom
and
arise
is
him
from
He
an
(4, n3).
inspirer(io, 465),
prayers
inventor of brilliant speech (2, 94), the
an
first inventor
of prayer
(6, i1).
He
is also said to be eloquent (6,44) and
a
singer (jaritf).
with a
of his worshippers.He
Agni is a great benefactor
protects them
hundred
iron walls (7, 3?. i610, cp. 6, 488; i, i892). He
them
from
preserves
calamities
takes
calamities
in
them
the
or
across
sea
as
ship over
(3,2o4;
a
is a
who
friend of the man
deliverer (8, 495) and
5, 4"; 7, i22j. He
a
entertains him
a
as
guest (4, 410). He
grants protectionto the worshipper
who
sweats
fuel (4, 26), He
watches
with a thousand
to bring him
eyes the
recesses

his wisdom

Indo-arische

Philologie. III.

1 A.

III.

98

RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

brings him food and nourishes him with oblations (10, 795). He
like dry bushes
(4,4*) and strikes down
worshippers'enemies
is
(6,
the malevolent
tree
85, cp. AV. 3, 21 "c.).
a
as
destroyed by lightning
in
which
he
leads the van
in
battle
invoked
is therefore
He
(8,4321),
(8,738).
in
food
whom
he
and
The
man
protects and inspires battle wins abundant
him as branches
issue from
from
be overcome
(1,277). All blessings
never
can
(i,i3.3i10.
tree
(6,13*). He gives riches, which he abundantly commands
a
in
and
him
he
door
All
collected
the
of
are
(10, 66)
treasures
36*).
opens
all riches in heaven
and
earth
riches
(4, 511) or in
(i,6810). He commands
(7, 67; 10, 913). He gives rain from heaven (2,6s)
earth, heaven, and ocean
is therefore constantly
and is like a water-trough in the desert (10, 41). He
boon:
of
bestow
kind
deliverance
from
food, riches,
besought to
every
poverty,
The
demons41.
boons
which
are
childlessness,enemies, and
Agni bestows
and
rather
domestic
prosperity,while Indra for the most
welfare, offspring,
glory. Agni also forgivessin42 committed
victory,and
part gives power,
before
Aditi (4,i24; 7, 93?, cp. p. 121), and averts
makes
guiltless
through folly,
frees
from
wrath
Varuna's
even
(4, i4). He
by a man's
guiltcommitted
mother
father and
(AV. 5, 3o4; TB. 3, 7, 12*- 4)
(samrdj), strong as Indra (7,6 *). His
Agni is a divine (asura] monarch
that
of
heaven
mighty
(i,595).He is greater than heaven
greatness surpasses
who

man

his

consumes

all the worlds, which


he
filled when
born
earth (3, 62; 10, 8814), than
(3, 310). He is superiorto all the other gods in greatness (i,68 2). All the
he abides in darkness
(6,97). He
gods fear and do homage to him when
is celebrated
and
the
all the gods
and
Maruts,
worshipped by Varuna, Mitra,
tremble
(3,98. 14*; 10, 69q). Agni performed great deeds of old (7,62). Men

and

at

his

and

mighty

he

deeds

delivered

(8,923). In

them

from

curse

battle he

procured space for the gods (i,595)


of thousands
(7,i32). He is a conqueror

attribute of Soma).
He
the
drives away
an
(sahasrajit: more
commonly
Dasyus from the house, thus creatinga wide lightfor the Arya (7, 56). He
is a promoter
of the Arya (8,92')and a vanquisherof irreligious
Panis (7,63).
He
receives with
the
of
and
two
some
or
frequency
epithet
'Vrtra-slayer',
three

times

that

'fort-destroyer'
{puramdard), attributes primarilyappro
priateto Indra (p.60). Such warlike qualities,
though suitable to Agni in
his lightning
he
form, are doubtless derived by him from Indra, with whom
is so frequentlyassociated (p. 127).
he is nevertheless called
of Heaven
and Earth
Although Agni is the son
the generator of the two
worlds
(i, 96^ cp. 7,57)"his ordinance, which does
and
earth (7, 54). He
stretched
not
perish(2,83),being followed by heaven
them
them
like
skins
out
out
two
(3, 65; 7, 54) or spread
(6, 83). With his
flame
his
he supported the vault of heaven
smoke
or
(3,5'";4, 62). He kept
asunder
the two
worlds
with true
(6, 83). He
supported earth and heaven
is the head
of the world
of the
hymns (i, 67^). He stands at the head
or
earth at night (10, 885- 6), but he is also the head
and
summit
(kakud) of
the sky (i,592; 6, 7*; 8, 44l6). He
measured
the air and
the
touched
out
vault of heaven
with his greatness (6, 82). He measured
out the aerial spaces
and
the brightrealms
of heaven
caused
the sun
the
to ascend
(6, 77). He
the
The
notion
that
of
exercised
sky (10, i564).
a
kindling
magical
Agni
influence on
the sunrise seems
to be
not
entirelyabsent in the RV.43. Such
the meaning of the poet when
to be
he exclaims:
'Let us light
appears
Agni,
that thy wondrous
brand
is
shine
in
notion
heaven'
This
clearly
(5,64).
may
stated in a Brahmana
before sunrise he produces him
'By sacrificing
passage:
(the sun), else he would not rise' (SB. 2, 3, is, Cp. TS. 4, 7, 133). Otherwise
the kindling
of Agni and
the sunrise are
represented merely as simultaneous
of

III. RELIGION,

ioo

and

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

improbable52.It

to

seems

generated
'the bodily(i.e. own)
signifies
Matarisvan

with

trasted

According

MYTHOLOGY.

himself',,as

of

BERGAIGNE'S

to

be

to

spontaneously

it
interpretation,

father 53.

is said

Narasamsa

VEDIC

A.

divine

the

of

son'

and

'son

mean

cloud.

and

in wood

KUNST.

u.

Tanunapat
'the

as

con

divine

(asura)
priest,the

embryo' (3, 29 ll).The dawns are said to kiss Agni 'the domestic
of the ruddy one' (10, 92 2, cp. 5, 58"). Tanunapat is beautifulTanunapat
tongued (10,no2). He is besought to take the sacrifice to the gods (i,i32;
distributes the sacrifice rich in ghee and mead
he
(i, 142% cp.
10, no2);
honour
times
him
three
The
a
day,
Varuna, Mitra, Agni, every
i882).
gods
(comparing 9, 5*) identifies Agni Tanunapat with
day (3, 42). HILLEBRANDTS*
of
form
to be a special
Agni Somagopa or the lunar Fire, which he assumes
55.
Agni
which
is given as an
somewhat
The
more
frequent epithetNarasamsa
and
is unaccompanied by
independent appellationin the Naighantuka (5,3)
of Agni in the RV., is not restricted to Agni, being twice connected
the name
its fixed place in
with Ptisan (i, io64; 10, 643)56. It has the third verse
as
in
which
and
second
those
called
the
the Apr! hymns
are
technically
Apra.
is 'four-limbed' (10, 92") and
of a
is the 'lord
celestial wife
Narasamsa
honey on his tongue and in his hand, he performs
(gndspati:
2, 3810). With
times a day he besprinklesthe sacrifice
the sacrifice (i, i33/ 5, 52). Three
three
heavens
He
the
and
the gods (2,32).
anoints
with honey (i,I423).
of the gods and
makes
the sacrifice pleasantfor them
He
comes
at the head
(10, ;o2). Through his sacrifices worshippers praisethe greatness of the gods
said

is

Soma

(7, 22).

to

between

go

and

celestial (daivya)
terrestrial and the celestial

Narasamsa

the

which
between
the
to mean,
seems
(9,8642),
Agni. As contrasted with Tanunapat and Matarisvan, Agni is called Nara
when
he
is born
samsa
(3,29"). In one
hymn to Brhaspati(10, i822)
is
for
in
invoked
he is spoken of as the
Narasamsa
another
protection,and
sacrificer of the seat of heaven
in these two passages
(i,i89). He thus seems
nttra-sdmsa is apparently an im
identified with Brhaspati.
The
word
to be
compound (in which the m of the genitivepluralhas disappeared),
proper
in two
and
accent
having a double
having its parts separatedby particles
As
the
and
devdndm
naram
(9,
samsa
86*2;
64^).
expressions
passages
10,
calls Agni samsam
samsa
occur
(2,346; i, 141") and a poet once
dyoh,
'Praise of Ayu' (4,6"), Narasamsa
'Praise of men'
in the
to mean
appears
of 'he who
is the object of men's
the
sense
praise'.BERGAIGNE
expresses
opinion57that the exact aspect of Agni representedby Narasamsa, is that of
a
god of human
Brhaspati.
prayer, like a second
one

Mund.

425

46, 144.
indische
52;

2,

510.

50.

2,

JOLLY

"

in

cp.
ZDMG.

2, p.
16

LRV.

note

cp.

62.

"

ZDMG.

35,

ORV.

"

552.
SEE.

6 SCHWAB,
altDas
; OLDENBERG,
8; ROTH, Indisches Feuerzeug, ZDMG.
7 BRV.
43, 590
5.
8 ROTH,
and
Nirukta, Erl. 120; PW.
s. v. yuvati
tvastr\ OO.
*o
this Encyclopaedia II, 8, p. 25.
KHF.
ed. Schrader
(1889)
"
KHF.
note
HRI.
18; KRV.
35, 561.
121;
107.
"

"

"

"

43,
15

ORV.

593;

121.

OLDENBERG,

ZDMG.

ORV.

115.
Other

17

"

*3

"

39,
18

"

Cp.

HVM.

68"72;

Cp.

note

179

i,

MACDONELL,

GVS.

157"70.

i,

4.

HAUG,
26, 16 ff.

14

"

JRAS.
"

19

ORV.

are
3, 144; 8, 565; 10, 88
passages
AV.
22
OST.
13, 113; TS. 4, 2, 94.
MACDONELL,
5, 206; BRV.
i, 21"5;
ORV.
23 Cp. HRI.
24 See
GW.
106; SEE.
25, 468"70;
46, 231.
105.
26 ORV.
25 LRV.
27 Cp. SB.
3, 356; BRV.
i, 23.
348.
2, i and
28
SEE.
HRI.
LING,
12, 274 ff.
29 BRV.
106; cp. LRV.
i, 23;
3, 356.
2.

--

112.

21

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

SEE.
OLDENBERG,
3" 355;
3' LRV.
5, 504"5.

"

"

614.

"

33

Cp.

BRV.

50,
SEE.

i, 143;

"

"

5, 504.
20
ibid.

ZDMG.

Cp. OLDENBERG,
4 Cp. BRV.

"

46, 128.
ZDMG.
39, 69.

104;

50"1

ZDMG.

ROTH,

EDA.

"

"

37-9;
AB.

i, 24;

46, 159. 207.

Tieropfer77
PVS.

2,

12

Up.

6; SEE.

"

30,
32

3, 134 f.

"

3" BRV.
46, 362; ORV.
348.
Cp. Sayana; ROTH, Nirukta, Erl. 140; MM.,
note

x,

34

BRV.

i;

"

2,

217.

"

35

ORV.

128.

36 SEE.

113
I2

""

JRAS.
v.

s.

EGGELRV.
i, 103.

LSL.

46, 361.

2,
-

TERRESTRIAL

ORV.

37

132"3.

and

BLOOMFIELD,

38 OST.

"

26,

JRAS.

DONELL,

GODS.

12

"

JAOS.

22.

348"9;

i,
4"

"

16, 16.

"

36.

cp.

SEE.

101

46,

123. 211.
otherwise

AJP. 3, 409;

WHITNEY,
41

BRHASPATI.

5, 218.

OST.

42

"

39

"

PVS.

Cp. ORV.

299

MACI, 94

300.

"

view
of KHF.
SEE.
The
44
69 ff.
ff.; ORV.
46, 330.
109;
FaR.
ORV.
48 PW.;
46
45 ORV.
MM.PhR.
102.
47
KNAUER,
64.
103.
IF. 5, 222.
49 BRV.
117 (cp. KIRSTE, WZKM.
7, 97); rejected by BARTHOLOMAE,
Nir. Erl. 7, 19.
5" ROTH,
51 ROTH,
Nirukta, Introd. 36 f.; Erl. 117"8.
153"6.
52 ROTH,
MM.ASL.
IS. 10, 89"95;
GRV.
Nir.
WEBER,
463"6;
121"4;
i, 6.
SEE.
53 BRV.
Erl. 117; cp. OLDENBERG,
54 HVM.
46, 10.
i, 339.
2, 99 f.
Erl.
56 ROTH,
6.
55 Ibid. 330
57 BRV.
i, 305"8.
209 f.
117 f. ; cp. Sp.AP.
LRV.
KHF.
1
JAOS. 3, 317"8; OST.
105; WHITNEY,
199"220;
3, 324"5;

Cp. BRV.

43

i,

140

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

KRV.

35"7;

53;
147"
MM.PhR.

v.

BRV.

i, 11"31.
KZ.

SCHROEDER,

144"203.

252"302;

" 36. Brhaspati. --This


in the

minence
also
about
The

forms
120

two

times
forms

RV.,

eleven

pair with
and
of

the

Indra
in the
name

38"45.
29,
193
HVBP.

70"4.

100"

ff.

(cp. BB.

63"8;

i.

ORV.

BRL

139"45;
19,

230);

102"33;

HRI-

alternate

in

different

verses

of

in 2, 23). The
of Brhaspati are
few.
physical features
and
mouthed
seven-rayed (4, 5o4),beautiful-tongued(i, 190*;

(10, i552),

225"30;
105"12.

god occupies a positionof considerable pro


entire hymns being dedicated
to his praise. He
in two
occurs
hymns (4, 49; 7, 97). His name
form
of Brahmanas
pati about 50 times besides.

(e.g.

horned

Sp.AP.

9"11;

WZKM.

the

4,

hymn

same

He

is

seven-

50*),sharp-

(5, 4312),
hundred-winged (7,977)- He
is golden-colouredand
(7,977),
ruddy (5,4312), bright (3, 62"- 7, 977),^pure
and
clear-voiced
has
is the rite
a
(7, 975). He
bow, the stringof which
(rfa), and good arrows
(2, 248; cp. AV. 5, i88-9). He also wields a golden
iron axe,
which
and
is
with an
hatchet
armed
Tvastr
(7, 977)
sharpens (io,
539). He has a car (10, 103*) and stands on the car of the rite,which slays
wins
is drawn
the goblins,bursts
the cowstalls,and
the light(2, 23^). He
steeds
(7, 976).
by ruddy
and with
from
first born
Brhaspati was
great lightin the highestheaven
darkness
thunder
(ravena) drove
(4, 5o4; cp. 10, 6812). He is the off
away
been
is also said to have
of
the
worlds
but
two
978),
(7,
spring
generated
is
the
father
Tvastr
On
he
of the gods
called
the
other
(2, 231?).
by
hand,
forth the births of the gods like a black
(2, 263); being said to have blown
smith
(10, 722).
Brhaspati is a domestic
priest1(2, 249; VS. 20, n; TS. 6, 4, 10; AB.
ancient
almost
seers
placed
peculiar to Agni (p.96). The
8, 264), a term
him
at their head
(puro-dha) (4, 50*). He is Soma's purohita (SB. 4, i, 24).
is also a brahman
He
once
or
probably in the
prayingpriest2(2, i3; 4, 5o8)_,
the brahman
is
In
later
Vedic
technical
texts
Brhaspati
sense
(10, i4i3).
called the prayer
or
priest(in the technical sense) of the gods3. He is even
the
devotion
(brahmd) of the gods (TS. 2, 2, 91 "c.) Brhaspati promotes
(i, i87). As
yoking of devotion, and without him sacrifice does not succeed
of
feast
the
the
to
gods (2, 236-7).
a
good the access
pathmaker he makes
awakens
him
the gods obtained
their share of sacrifice (2,23'). He
From
even
the hymn in which
himself pronounces
the gods with sacrifice (AV. ig} 63 x).He
Indra, Varuna, Mitra, Aryaman, the gods take pleasure (i,4o5). He sings
heaven
chants
metre
(i, i9o4) and
to
(10, 36s). His song
(sloka) goes
(chandas)belongs to him (MS. i, 92). He is associated with singers(7, io4;
(10,67^),by whom
sings with his 'friends that cry like Hamsas'
10, 1 43). He
mentioned
in the preceding verse
the Angirases4 (" 54)
to be
(io,672) seem
said
is also
be
He
to
meant.
accompanied by a singing (rkvatY host
the reason
(gana: 4, 5o5). This is doubtless
why he is called ganapati, 'lord
also (io, ii29).
Indra
of a host' (2, 231), a term
once
applied to
Brahmanas
the name
As
pati shows, the god is a 'lord of prayer'. He
blue-backed

and

III. RELIGION,

io?

is also
sages

described

as

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

the

(2, 231). Mounting

supreme
the
car

u.

king
of

KUNST.

of

the

prayers,
rite he

is the

A.

VEDIC

the

most

MYTHOLOGY.
famous
the

sage

of

enemies

of

conquers
generator of all prayers
the
human
to
prayers

(i,i9o2),
priest
')ord of speech',vdcaspati
a
a term
applied to Brhaspatias god of
specially
(MS. 2, 66,cp. SB. 14, 4, i2-3),
in post-Vedic literature.6
eloquence and wisdom
identified with
in which
several passages
There
Brhaspati appears
are
is invoked
Mitra'
like
handsome
lord
of
'the
Thus
Agni,
prayer,
Agni.
identified
with other
i3
(2, ff.)Agni, though
(i, 38*3). In another
passage
with Brahmanaspati, as
intimatelyconnected
gods as well, is clearly more
in
vocative.
In
the
verse
one
these
are
names
(3, 262) both Mlitwo
only
the
the
wise
the
to
and
seem
tarisvan
swiftly-moving'
priest,
guest,
'Brhaspati
be
seems
to
be
an
epithetsof Agni, while in another (i, ipo2) Matarisvan
who
takes
is
his
of
blue-backed,
Brhaspati,
Brhaspati.
Again,
by
up
epithet
in the house, shines brightly,is golden-colouredand ruddy (5,43 12),
abode
In two
other verses
(i, i819; io, i822) Brhaspatiseems
Agni must be meant.
as
Narasamsa, a form of Agni (p. 100). Like Agni, Brhaspati
to be the same
is called 'Son
of strength'
is a priest,
(i,4o2) and Angiras (2,23l8)as well
burns
and
the
him
to
exclusively),
(the epithetangirasa belonging
goblins
also
of
is
as
spoken
(io,io34). Brhaspati
(2, 2314) or slays them
ascending
abodes
to heaven, to the upper
(io, 6710). Like Agni, Brhaspatihas three
of houses
the
is
he
adorable
abodes
one
(7,97s),and 'lord of the
(4,So1);
7
called sadaspati, i,2i5).
sadasas
pati (i,i86;Indra-Agni are once
dwelling',
the other
On
kavi, 'sage of prayer' (6,i63")
hand, Agni is called brahmanas
and
heaven
earth
favourable
is besought (2, 2 7) to make
and
by prayer
is
much
from Agni
But
more
(brahmana).
commonly
Brhaspati
distinguished
named
or
(2, 253; 7, io4; io, 689), chieflyby being invoked
along with him
in enumerations
(3,20$ "c.)8.
Like Agni, Brhaspati has been
into and
firm
has obtained
drawn
a
the
Indra
the
of
The
in
of
mountain
release
the
cows.
footing
yielded
myth
to his splendour,when
Brhaspati,the Angiras,opened the cowstall and with
Indra
his companion let loose the flood of water
as
enveloped by darkness
his
(2, 23l8,cp. i, 56s. 899). Accompanied by
singing host (cp." 54) he
with a roar
rent
Vala; shouting he drove out the lowing cows
(4,5o5). He
and
the
and
treasures
won
desiringwaters
light,
great stalls full of cows;
the irresistible Brhaspati slays his foe with flames
firm
What
was
(6,733).
what
he
he
drove
was
the cows,
was
out
loosened,
strong yielded to him;
He
and of the gods (2,233-8).
prayer
communicates
and
(i,
405)
He
utters
prayer
later to be called
he
comes
(io, 9827)- Thus

cleft Vala

the

with

stone-mouthed

prayer;
well

he

covered

filled with

up

the darkness
which

and

made

heaven

visible;

Brhaspatipiercedwith might,
honey,
that
the
celestials drank, while
they poured out together abundantly the
fountain
(2,24-^4).When
watery
Brhaspatiwith fierygleams rent the defences
of Vala, he revealed
the treasures
of the cows;
if splitting
as
open
eggs, he
drove
the cows
of the mountain; he beheld
out
the honey enclosed
by the
he
it
cloven
forth
he
with
his
smote
stone;
brought
out, having
(Vala)
roar;
it
the
of Vala
as
were
and
drove
the cows
marrow
out
(io,684~9). He
distributed them
in heaven
(2, 2414). Brhaspatifetched the cows
out of the
of Vala, he took
rock; seizingthe cows
possessionof them
(io,685). His
of
Vala
is
characteristic that it became
so
conquest
proverbial(AV. 9, 32).
Being in the clouds (abhriyd)he shouts aloud after the many cows
(io,6812,
mentioned
the
which
cows
cp. 673). These
are
represent
waters,
expressly
may
(2, 23l8; 6, 733) or possiblythe rays of dawn
(cp. io, 675. 689).
In releasingthe cows
Brhaspati seeks lightin darkness and finds the

TERRESTRIAL

GODS,

36. BRHASPATI.

103

light; he found the Dawn, light,and Agni, and dispelledthe darkness


(10,
found
the fort, he
the Dawn,
the Sun, the Cow
684' 9). In shattering
(10,
hid or
and
made
visible the light (2, 24$;
675). He
dispelledthe darkness
to
comes
acquire more
general warlike traits. He
4, 5o4). Brhaspati thus
full of riches and
penetrated the mountain
splitopen the strongholds of Sambara
(2, 242). Brhaspati Angirasa, the first-born holy one, cleaver of rocks,
bull at the two
roars
as
a
worlds, slaysVrtras (prtrdni\ shatters forts,over
foes (6, 731- '). He
comes
disperses foes and wins victory(10, 103^). No
him
in great fight or
small
overcome
one
can
(i, 4o8). He vanquishes the
in
battle
is
in combats
be
He
invoked
(2, 23").
to
(2,^313) and is
enemy
a
praised in conflict (2, 249).
priest much
and
Being the companion
ally of Indra (2, 23l8. 24'; 8, 8515), he is
invoked
with
that
often
is a somahe
deity (4, 50
"c.). With Indra
drinker
like
(4, 49^. 50*") and,
him, is styled maghavan, 'bountiful' (2, 2412).
he forms
Indra, too, is the only god with whom
a
pair (2, 2412; 4, 49T~6).
he comes
Thus
to be
styled vajrin, 'wielder of the bolt' (i,4o8) and to be
the bolt, the Asura-slaying
described
missile (AV. n,
as^hurling
lo1^). He is
with the Maruts
time
also invoked
Indra
at the same
as
(i,40*) and is once
he be Mitra, Varuna
accompanied by the Maruts, whether
besought to come
Pusan
he is said to have
heard
the prayer
of
(10, 98')- In one
or
passage
in a well and
Trita buried
have
him
to
delivered
(i, 105*7).
who
offers prayer
the
Brhaspati favours the man
(2, 251) but scourges
of
hater
He
the
from
all
23^).
man
(2,
pious
dangers
prayer
protects
and
and
calamities,from
curse
malignity,and blesses him with wealth and
of all desirable
prosperity(i, 18^; 2, 231" I0). Possessed
things (7, 10*. 97*),
he is opulent, a procurer
of wealth, and
increaser
of prosperity(i, i82).
an
is a prolonger of life and
He
of disease (i, i82). Having such
a
remover
benevolent
traits he is called a father (4, 5"D6;
6, 731)is asurya,
'divine' (2, 232), belongs to all the gods (3,624; 4, 5o6),
He
is the most
and
god-like of the gods (2, 243). As a god he widely extended
and
embraces
all things (2, 24", cp. 8, 6il8).Mightilyhe holds
the
to
gods
asunder
ends
his roar
the
of the
earth with
(4, 5oT). It is his inimitable
deed
that sun
and
is also spoken of
rise alternately(10, 6810). He
moon
t
he
of
Later
as
growth
plants (10, 97^- ^j.
Brhaspati is brought
stimulating
into connexion
with certain stars.
Thus
in the TS. (4, 4, lo1) he is stated to
be the deity of the
constellation
Tisya9, and in post-Vedic literature he is
regarded as the regent of the planet Jupiter.
forms
of the
name
occur
Brhaspati is a purely Indian deity. Both
throughout the older as well as the later books of the RV. But since appella
tions formed
with pati (likevacas
pati, vastos pati, ksetrasyapati} to designate
deities presidingover
be comparatively recent
a
as
particulardomain, must
of
this
reflexion10,
products
mythologicalcreation can hardly go much further
back
than
the beginning of the Rigvedic period. The
of the
accentuation
word
it to be an
The
member
brhaspdti shows
compound.
improper
prior
in -as*1, but
the
form
noun
might possibly be a neuter
contemporaneous
brdhmanas
that the poets of
of explanation,indicates
is a kind
pati, which
the RV.
of a noun
root
as
regarded it as the genitive12
brh, from the same
t

10-

IX

brahman.
The
was

evidence

an
originally

aspect which

adduced

above

aspect of Agni

seems
as

to

divine

(unlike other epithetsof


pati, grhapati, sadaspati)had attained
the beginning of the Rigvedic period, though
an

vis'dm

the

view

Brhaspati
devotion,
priestpresidingover
with pati, such as
Agni formed
favour

an

the

that

independent
connexion

character

with

Agni

by
was

104

III. RELIGION,

not

entirelysevered.

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

H.

H.

LANGLOIS^,

KUNST.

u.

ROTH16

Agni.
regarding Brhaspatias a
god is a direct impersonationof
think

him

the
appropriated

deeds

of earlier

abstraction
priestly

of

has

which
to

OLDENBERGIS

and

be

of

be

to

was

As

considers

Z9

triad,while

word, brahma, developed into the Absolute


Cp.

ZDMG.

32,

316.

the
they are
Maruts, Vedainterpretation10.

of that

10.

"

72.

HVM.

ii

--

5, 283.

OST.

i, 409.

254. 578.

249.
16

ZDMG.

19

Vajapeya

i, 404.

PW.

i, 73;

15.

(cp.277);

418"9

KRV.

*7

"

"

32.

18

"

Tr.

ZDMG.

cp. OLDENBERG,

proto
of the

philosophy2^

46, 190.

ORV.

"

382.

"

--

6.

"

2,

SEE.

381"2;

"

Also

22

i,

32, 94.
SEE.
46, 94.
21
xi.
HVM,

ix; EDA.

173."

49,

Trans,

RV.

13

"

Hymns,

66-8.

ORV.
RV.

form

neuter

"

Vedic

J5

"

136; cp. WILSON,

136.
i, 304; HRI.
OST.
ZDMG.
ROTH,
i, 72"80;
LRF.
HVM.
BRI.
6;
i,
404-25;
15
-

i, 77.

the

Stars, HVM.
i, 416;
7 Cp. HILLEBRANDT,
Vedaint.
""
ZDMG.
ROTH,
2, 371.
i,

77.

I,

ZDMG.

i, xxxvii.

Trans,

HRI.

2"

"

"

RV.

T4

--

"

i; SEE.

Die
Naksatra
WEBER,
"
KZ.
MACDONELL,
34, 292

"

the

luminary.

been

Vedanta

the

of

note

ZDMG.

Maruts:

thinks

ROTH

396,

ORV.

"

Brhaspati

in this by HOPKINS
20.
of plantsand a personification

lord

of the -Hindu

chief

the

that this

is followed

representingpredominantly the igneous side


to have
divine brahman
priest,Brhaspatiseems

the

in

agree

opinion

moon22,

the

type of Brahma,

HVBP.

46"7.

BRV.

23

5, 272"83;

97"8;

"

Since

" 37. Sojna.


ritual of the RV. T,the
-

of

MULLERXS
of

WEBER

gods.

and

Indra,

him

holds

Finally,HiLLEBRANDT21

be

to

MYTHOLOGY.

of devotion.
the power
Similarly
abstraction of priestly
an
action,

sacerdotal
KAEGi17

I4, MAX

WILSON

varietyof

VEDIC

A.

that Veda.

All

god

the

is

hymns

114

of

the ninth

1894, p.

the main

of the most

one
naturally

KRV.

i, 299-304;

sacrifice forms

the Soma

Soma

BRV.

PISCHEL, GGA.

besides

73"4;

420.

feature

of

the

importantdeities

6 in

other

books,

are

praise. He is also celebrated in portionsof four or five other


hymns, and as a dual divinitywith Indra, Agni, Pusan, or Rudra, in about
in compounds, occurs
six more.
The
of Soma, in its simple form and
name
of times in the RV.
the
standard
hundreds
of frequency, Soma
Judged by
therefore
of importance among
third in order
the Vedic
comes
gods. Soma
less anthropomorphic than Indra
is much
or
Varuna, the constant
presence
of the plant and
its juicesettinglimits to the imaginationof the poets who
describe
its personification.
form
Consequently little is said of his human
dedicated

or

his

to

action.

The

marvellous

colourless, because

secondarilybelong
as

well

on

the
the

over

woolen

as

Soma,

strewn

to

him.

to

invoked

grass2.

the

Like
to

while

the

heroic

deeds

almost

all the

other
to

come

ninth

The

tangibleSoma
strainer into

litter of

and

common

wooden

the

sacrifice and

in

him

the
receive

consists of

mainly
pressed by the

vats,

to

greater gods,

gods, he is, under

book

it is

attributed

which

either

are

or

name

the

else

only

of Indu

offerings

incantations

sung

stones, flows through the


it is finallyoffered on
a

in fire (i,9414; 5, 51;


beverage, sometimes
it is subjected
"c.) or drunk
8, 43
by the priests.The processes to which
overlaid with the most
are
varied and
chaotic imagery and
with mystical
fancies often incapable of certain interpretation.
In order to make
the mythology of Soma, the basis of which
intelligible
the concrete
terrestrial plant and
are
the intoxicating
juice extracted there
from
it is necessary
brieflyto describe these as well as the treatment
they
undergo. The part of the Soma
plant which is pressed is called ams'u, 'shoot
stalk' (9,672b).The
or
shoots swellinggive milk like cows
with their udders
from
the stalk,the whole
Soma
(8,9T9).As distinguished
to be
plant seems
intended
andhas
from
by
(8,32*8; io,948 "c.),which is said to have
come
heaven (9,6i10)and to have been broughtby the eagle(5,459;9,686;10,1445).
The
same
is applied to the juice also3 and
term
Indu
is distinguished
from
the god (9, 5 1 3;
(which
10, 115^). The
juice is also designatedby soma
IX

grass

to

gods

as

TERRESTRIAL

the

means

plant

as

is called

the

GODS.

SOMA.

37.

well) and generally by


and
pitu, the 'beverage';

rasa,

105

fluid. In

one

hymn

(i,187)

it is often

juice
styled mada, 'intoxi
with
also referred to
'food' (7,98*;
catingdraught'4. Soma is occasionally
anna,
with the Asvins
term
8, 412; SB. i; 6, 4s). The
madhu, which in connexion
of 'sweet
to be applied, in the general sense
means
'honey' or 'mead', comes
milk
and
but
draught',not only to
ghee (ghrta),
especially to the
(payas)
Soma
is the equivalent of Soma
juice (4, 275; 8, 696). Mythologically madhu
the latter means
when
celestial ambrosia
the
(amrta)s. Conversely, amrta
is frequently used
as
an
equivalent of ordinary Soma
(5,23; 6, 373 "c.; VS.
SB.
is
Soma
when
amrta
6, 34;
pressed
(VS. 19, 72).
9, 5, i8)6. King
Another
mead'
'Soma
expression is somyam
madhu,
(4.,265; 6, 2o3). Figu
the Soma
juice is called piyusa (3, 482 "c.),milk (9, io712),the wave
ratively
of the stalk (9, 968) or
the juice of honey (5,43 4). The
most
frequent figur
ative name
is indu, the
of
applied to Soma
'bright drop', another
term
similar meaning, drapsa, 'drop',
less common.
being much
The
extraction
of the
juice is generally described by the root su, 'to
but
'to milk' (3, 366-? "c.). The
62*
often
also by duh
"c.),
press' (9,
juice
is intoxicating
(i, 1253; 6, 17". 2o6) and 'honied',madhumat
(9, 971*)- The
latter expression simply means
'sweet',but as applied to Soma
originally
have
with
'sweetened
to
meant
seems
honey", some
pointing to
passages
this admixture
(9, i78. 8648. 97". io920)7. As flowingfrom the press, Soma
is compared
with the wave
of a stream
(9,8o5) and directlycalled a wave
of honey (3,47*). With reference
(9, 64" "c.) or a wave
to the juice collected
in the vat, Soma
is spoken of as
a
sea
(arnava: 10, ii53) and frequently
(samudra-. 5, 473; 9, 64" "c.). The
as
ocean
is also called
an
heavenly Soma
well
a
(utsa),which is in the highestplace of the cows
(5,458), which is
and
placed in the cows
guided with ten reins (i. e. fingers:6, 4424), or a
well of honey in the higheststep of Visnu
(i, i545).
The
colour
of the plant and
juice, as well as of the god, is described
brown
as
(babhni) or ruddy (aruna\ but most
frequently as tawny (Jiari).
Thus
Soma
is the branch
of a ruddy tree
(10, 94^); it is a ruddy milked
shoot
(7, 981); the tawny shoot is pressed into the strainer (9, 921). The
colour
of the Soma
is
plant or its substitute prescribed in the Brahmanas
which
is the price paid in
ruddy (SB. 4, 5, lo1); and in the ritual the cow
the purchase 9f Soma, must
be brown
that is Soma's
colour
or
ruddy because
(TS. 6, i, 6J;SB. 3, 3, i"4)8Soma

is described

as

purifiedwith

the

hands

(9, 8634), by

(9, 84. i58 "c.), or, figuratively,


gers
by the ten
i7.
(9,
65), or by the daughters (naptt]of Vivasvat

maidens

who

the
are

ten

fin

sisters

(9, i45). Similarly,the


maidens
of Trita are
said to urge
the tawny
with stones
on
one
as
a
drop
for Indra
drink
to
of
is also
(9, 322. 38"). Soma
as
spoken
purifiedor
it is said
brought by the daughter of the sun
(9, i6. 72^. H33)9. Sometimes
to be
The
Soma
purified by prayer (9, 9613. H35).
are
priestswho
press
Adhvaryus10 (8, 4").
The
is crushed
shoot
with a stone
(9, 6719) or pressed with stones
the
is
(9, ic"710);
plant
pounded to produce the Soma
draught (10, 853).
The
its skin (TB. 3, 7, I31). The
lie on
stones
tear
stones
a
skin; for they
'chew him
the hide of the cow'
the vedi
on
are
(9, 794). They
placed on
altar (5,3i12): a practice differing
or
from
that of the later ritual11. They
held
with
hands
are
or
arms
two
(7, 221; 9, 794; AV.
arms
i10). The
n,
and
the ten fingers
the
the
said
Hence
stones
stone
are
to
434).
(5,
yoke
be guided by ten reins (10, 948). Being spoken of as yoked, they are
com

pared

with

horses

(10,946). The

usual

name

for

the

pressingstones

is adri

III. RELIGION,

io6

(generallyused -with
with vad, to speak,or

the

verb

verbs

to

either in

the

The
stones
are
plural,and not in the dual.
as'na
(8, 22),bharitra (3,367),parvata (3,358)

the

singular or

juiceby

to

Parsis,it may

period

strainer

cleansed

goes

back

go

to

the

to

feast

formed

contrivance).All
from
sheep.
am,

ployed

in this

of the

pavamdna

these
The

the

But

by

terms

is in

Soma's
This

mrj\ 'to cleanse'^is


strainer,but also to

addition

of

over

the
that

strainer,which

ridge (sdnu,

with

used

or

milk

and

water

among

pass

without

is

skin

the top

as

adjective
em
figuratively
is usuallycalled
general term

passing through the strainer Soma


'flowingclear' (from rfpu). The more
of
not
only applied to the purification
the

the
was

impurity,so

itself is sometimes

am

use

It is called

names.

(pavitrd),or

are

word

of

ritual texts,

the

"c.) and

10

removes

various

filter

stones

extraction

method

gods (9, 78*).

under

of

means

age.

(9,63

upon
it

by

As

sense.

pundna^

or

RV.

the

Indo-Iranian

the

frequentlymentioned, passes
wool
(vdra\
(tvac],hair (romaii),
the

Soma

pestle,which is also sanctioned


the RV.
(i, 28T~4); and as this

very
of

of

poured
pressed drops are
of sheep's wool
(9, 699). For

The

he

pressingof

The

and

mortar

already known
the

in the

method

usual

the

was

press) or grdvan (generallyconnected


meaning, and hence showing a greater
terms
adri). Both
nearly always occur

to

su,

called
respectively

once

MYTHOLOGY.

VEDIC

A.

of cognate

parvata adrayah (10, 941).

and

KUNST.

u.

than
personification12

tendency
also

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

an

with

Soma

(9, 86".

9i2).

the
The

but much
called suddha, 'pure',
juice is sometimes
oftener sukra
This
unmixed
Soma
or
(
8,
3o2).
s'uci,
'bright' 2TO; 9, 332; i, 5s.
and
is offered almost
the
t
o
Indra,
exclusively Vayu
epithetsucipa, 'drinking
clear (Soma)' being distinctive of Vayu (p.82). This
with the later
agrees
clear
Soma
is
or
ritual,where, in the Grahas
draughts for dual divinities,
with
milk
for
offered to Vayu and
is
mixed
but
Mitra-Varuna,
Indra-Vayu,
and
with honey for the Asvins1-3.
After
flows into jars (kalafa,9, 6o3 "c.) or
passing the filter,Soma

purified(unmixed)

vats

Soma

rush
of Soma
streams
to
(drona)**. The
flies
bird
like
the
a
(9,33*. 926);
god

buffaloes
like

bird

sittingon

tree, the

tawny

is mixed
with water
9, 7 25). Soma
stalk roars
bull on
Like
a
(9,745).
the

of

the

to

forest

herd,

he

the

with

United

vat.

of

the

vats

settle in the vats

settles in

one

in the

the

rushes

on

(9, 31);
(camu:

bowls
the
the

like

wave,

the

vat, into

roaring bull; clothinghimself in waters, Indu rushes


around
the vat, impelled by the singers(9, y65. icy26). The
wise milk him
into the waters
and
with their hands
the wool
over
794).
(9,
Having passed
in
the
cleansed
the
Several
he
is
maidens
ten
playing
wood,
(9,65).
by
other
of water
with Soma
(9, 305. 534. 868-25).
passages refer to the admixture
The
Soma
said to spread brightnessin the streams
(9, 761).
drops are
Besides the verb
'to
which
is
the
used
to
cleanse',
mrj\
commonly
express
admixture
of water
(e.g. 9, 6317),a-dhav, 'to wash', is also employed (8, i17).
In the preparationof Soma, the pressing(~\/~su)
then the mixing
comes
first,
with water
later ritual the
the
in
(7, 326; 8, i17. 318; AV.
as
just
6, 21),
is
the
bowls Soma
In
the
'pressure',
precedes
ddhavana, 'washing'.
savana,
mixed
with milk (9,86 "c.)15,which
is said to sweeten
l6. In several
it (8,23)
lap

the

waters,

the addition of both water


and milk is mentioned.
passages
that Soma
clothes himself in waters, that streams
of water
when

he

desires to

clothe

him with stones, theywash


men

milk

Soma

him

is

out

of

the

himself
him

in

in water,

stalks

clothinghim

(8, i17;

recognised
(trydtir:
sour
5, 275), with milk (gavasir),
in

the

RV.

(i.e.

cows

cp.
as

2,

milk:
as

9,

Thus

flow

23-4). They

it were

36'; 6, 4o2;
three

it is said
after

him,
press

in cow-garments,
9, 86?4-5.

kinds

of

96^).

admixture

having
(dadhydsir],and barley(yavd-

milk

III. RELIGION,

io8

into

the

vats

is said

the

flow

to

KUNST.

it is

juice as

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

being purifiedand

It is

with

to.
compared
bowls, is often
language is generallyhyperbolical.Thus

referred

or

But

(9,4 13).

u.

Soma

by the

made

sound

The

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

the

drop

sweet

(9,69").

din of combatants

filter like the

the

over

rushes

that of rain

The

noise

bellow (krand,
or
constantly designatedby various verbs meaning to roar
verb
'to
Even
the
thunder',is used
stan,
nad, md, ru, vas:
9, 9i3. 954 "c.).
stalk'
(9, 869) and the wise are described as 'milkingthe thunderingunfailing
with
connected
the
in
also
is
verses
some
purification
(9, 726). Lightning
is

of

(9,4

Soma

and

celestial Soma

the

of

cation

in all

8;8); this

13. So1. 843.

probabilityalludes
referred

have

may

to

the

to

the

purifi

phenomena

of

thunderstorm28.

the

called

milk,29
usually that

of

cows

(9,7 19)
him

towards
the

bull

is lord

or

is

he

roar

commonly
in the

bellows

he

wood'

compared with or directly


(9, 73); 'the tawny bull

(9, 26). As the waters, added


relation of Soma
the
called cows,
figuratively

are

967)

bull

with the Sun'

shines

and

out

and

'As

bull.

bellows

is said to

Soma

When

the

of

like

or

to

bull towards

(6,4421)-

streams

the

is the

He

He

(9, 724).

cows

(9, 8o2 "c.).

is

He

cows.

bull

among
bellows
like

cows

(9,7i7),the

bull of heaven

impetuosity of

The

the

Soma

bull

also

cows
as

is also

or

with
is

them

to

(9, i66. 69!


traversingthe

cows

well

as

with

bellowing

of the

earth

times

several

he even
comes
to
comparison with a buffalo (mahisd). Thus
the cow-waters,
animal
(pas'u:9, 8643). Being a bull among
Soma
is the fertilizer of the waters
(10,368, cp. 9, i95). He is also (9,8639)
in the
an
impregnator (retodha),an epithetespeciallyapplied to the moon
of fertility
YV.
he is a bestower
(e.g. MS. i,69).Hence
(9,6o4. 745). Soma
being so frequentlycalled a bull (uksan, vrsan, vrsabhd) is sharp-horned
in the RV.
is
(tigmasrngd),an epithetwhich in five of its six occurrences
word
drink (manthd) of
meaning 'bull'. Thus the brewed
accompanied by a
Indra
is like a sharp-horned bull (10, 86 IS). Soma
is also said (likeAgni)
to sharpen his horns
(9, i54. 70?)3".
Soma
is swift (i, 47) and, in illustration of the speed with which
the
pressedjuiceflows, is very often compared with or designateda steed. Thus
the ten maidens
said to cleanse
him like a swift steed (9,6s). The drop
are
which
intoxicates Indra
is a tawny
steed (9,6317). Soma
flowing into the
is
also
sometimes
vats
compared with a bird flyingto the wood (9,72$ "c).
Owing to the yellow colour of the juice,the physicalqualityof Soma
mainly dwelt on by the poets, is his brilliance. His rays are often referred
and
he is frequentlyassimilated to the sun.
to
He
shines like or with the
illustrated by
be called an

sun

or

of

the

earth

clothes
sun

with

and
rays

his parents to
Thus
it comes
it off

with

himself

in its rays

stands

above

like the
shine
to

be

all

(9, 76! 8632; cp. 7i9).

beings like

(9,41 5). When


(9, 93). The
daughter
sun

said of him

light (9, 8622), or

that
creates

the

sun31-

He
He

ascends

the

fills heaven

car

and

brightson, he caused
of the sun
purifieshim (9, i6).
he combats
the darkness
(9, 97),wards
bright light,dispellingthe darkness
born

(9,6624. ioo8. io812 "c.).


Its mysteriouslyexhilerating
and
invigoratingaction, surpassingthat of
ordinary food or drink and prompting to deeds beyond the natural powers,
led to Soma
life.
immortal
being regarded as a divine drink which bestows
Hence
it is mythologically
called amrta, the draught of immortality.It is an
immortal
stimulant (i, 84^),which the gods love (9,85") and
of which, when
and
mixed
with milk, all the gods drink (9,109*5);for they
pressed by men
hasten to exhileration (8, 2l8)and
is
become
exhilerated (8,58"). Soma
immortal
(i,439; 8, 4812; 9, 3T "c.)j and the gods drank him for immortality

GODS.

TERRESTRIAL

37.

SOMA.

109

confers
(9, io68). He
immortality on the gods (i,gi6; 9, io83) and on men
and imperishable
He
(i, 9 11; 8, 483).
places his worshipper in the everlasting
world
where
him
there is eternal light and
immortal
where
glory, and makes

king

Vaivasvata

lives

(9,ii37-8)32.

also.
for a
It is medicine
naturally has medicinal
power
sick man
Soma
the
is
Hence
heals
whatever
sick,,making
(8,6i17).
god
and
the blind to see
the lame
to walk
(8,682; 10,25"). He is the guardian
bodies
and
of men's
occupies their every limb (8,489), bestowing length of
life in this world
Soma
(i, 9i6; 8, 484"7; 9, 46. gi6). The
draught is even
said to dispel sin from
the heart, to destroy falsehood
and
truth.
to promote
imbibed
When
stimulates the voice (6,473; 9, 84"*.955. 9732)"which
Soma
his boat
he impels as the rower
the reason
(9,95 2). This is doubtless
why
is called 'lord of speech' vdcas
Soma
pati^ (9, 264. ioi5) or leader of speech,
vdco
agriya or agre (9, 73. 6225~6. 8612. io610). He is also said to raise his
voice from
heaven
(9,68s). In the Brahmanas
'speech',is described
as
vac,
the price paid by the gods for Soma34.
Soma
also
awakens
thought
eager
'We
have
drunk
(6,473). So his worshippers exclaim:
Soma, we have become
have
entered
into light,we
have
known
the gods' (8,48 3). Thus
immortal, we
he is also spoken of as a lord of thought and
as
father, leader, or gener
a
is a leader
of hymns35.
He
of poets, a
ator
seer
priests(9, 966).
among
He
has the mind
of seers, is a maker
of seers
(9,96 l8) and a protector of
(6,523). He is the 'soul of sacrifice' (9, 210. 68), a priest (brahma)
prayer
the
their share
of sacrifice
gods (9, 96"),and
apportions to them
among
wisdom
Soma's
thus
be
to
(10, 85 19).
comes
predominantly dwelt upon36.
is a wise
He
knows
the races
of the gods (9, 8i2. 952.
seer
(8, 681). He
is a wise man-seeing wave
with intelligence
(9, 782). Soma
977. io83). He
is
Hence
he
creatures
(9,
many-eyed (9, 265) and thousand71 9).
surveys
eyed (9, 6oT).
Soma
stimulated
the Fathers
to deeds
(9, 96"); through him the Fathers
found
the lightand
the cows
is also said to be united
with
(9, 9739). Soma
the fathers (8, 4813) or
be accompanied by them
SB.
to
(AV. 18, 412;
2, 6,
i4, "c.), the Fathers, conversely, being called soma-loving,(somya: 10, i46;
AV.
2, 125).
The
exhileratingeffect of the draught on man
was
naturally transferred
main
the Soma
offered.
The
to the gods, to whom
was
applicationof its
is
in
his
its
Indra
effect
conflict with the
intoxicating
stimulating
on
power
hostile powers
of the air.
That
Soma
for the
strengthens Indra
fight with
in innumerable
the
of
RV.
8i17
Vrtra, is mentioned
(8,
"c.). In
passages
the intoxication
of Soma
Indra
and
all
foes
resist
no
one
can
(9,
i10)
slays
him
in battle when
he
is the soul
has
it (6,47'). Soma
drunk
of Indra
(9?"53), the auspicious friend of Indra (10, 259). whose
vigour he stimulates
he aids in slayingVrtra
(9, 762) and whom
(9, 6i22). With Soma
as
a
com
the waters
and
slew the dragon (4, 281).
for man
panion Indra made
to flow
Thus
Soma
is sometimes
called the bolt (vajra) of Indra
even
(9. 727. 77*
Indra's
a
in3).
Soma,
juice, becomes
thousand-winningbolt (9, 473). It
is the intoxicating
is n
forts (9, 482) and
draught which
destroys a hundred
the god Soma
Thus
is said to be
stalk (6, 17").
Vrtra-slaying
intoxicating
'like Indra
and
a
to
a
(9, 884) and comes
slayer of Vrtras
fort-destroyer'
.receive half a dozen
times
which
the
pri
epithet vrtrahan, 'Vrtra-slaying',
marily belongs to Indra37.
When
drunk
caused
the sun
to rise in heaven
by Indra Soma
(9,8622).
Thus

So

Soma

this cosmic

caused

the

sun

action
to

comes

shine

to

(9, 28s.

be

attributed

374),

caused

to

the

Soma

independently.

lightsof

the

sky

to

He

shine

III.

no

RELIGION,

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

in

(9" ^59), and produced the sun.


to
rise, impelled it, obtained

u.

the

and

K.UNST.

VEDIC

A.

MYTHOLOGY.

(9, 42*) 38. He


caused
it, and

waters

bestowed

in
worshippers participate

the

caused
the

the

sun

dawns

to

(9, 45)
shine39.
the
found
light(9,594) and wins light and
(9, 35'). He
lightfor them
the sacrificial butter is spoken of as the 'navel
heaven
(9,32J. Just as even
world
the whole
the
which
rests
of immortality',
on
(4,581-11),
conception
of
of
that
be
extended
universal
dominion
to
a
Soma
to
of
comes
being
is
'lord
of
the
who
the
performs
quarters'(9, ii32),
(9, 8628-*9),who
great
worlds
actions of generating the two
cosmic
(9,901), of creating or estab
and
earth, of supportingheaven, and of placinglightin the
lishingheaven
his

makes

He

and

sun

finds

(6, 4423~4- 473'4)40-

sun

in the
with Indra
conflict with Vrtra,
intimatelyconnected
He
is a victor,
Soma
to be spoken of independently as a great fighter.
comes
heroic of
unconquered in fight,born for battle (i, 9i21). He is the most
victorious
of
the
the
fiercest
He
ever
6
6l6~7).
terrible,
(9,,
heroes,
conquers
for his worshippers cows,
chariots,horses, gold, heaven, water, a thousand
reference
his warlike
boons
to
(9, 784), and
everything (8, 681)- Without

Being

so

character, he

earth,food,

is constantly said

cattle,horses, and

is,occasionallycalled
(SB.

6, 45). Soma

i,

treasure

also

can

bestow

to

so

all

the

wealth

(9,45^. 49^. 52
(rayi: 9, 48^) or the
afford
protection from
forth

wealth
foes

and

heaven

of

"c.). Soma

of

himself
the

(10, 257).

gods
He

other deities but more


goblins(9, 495) and, like some
frequently,
away
is the only god who
receives the epithetof goblin-slayer
(raksohan). Soma
is called a slayerof the wicked
(9,286 "c.). In the later Vedic literature
that Brahmans
who
drink Soma
able to slay at a
the statement
occurs
are
(MS.
82)*1.
glance
4,
is said to have
Being a warrior, Soma
(9, 96l6),which like a
weapons
and
in his hand
hero he grasps
which
terrible and sharp (9,613".
are
(9,y62)
he is said to have
obtained
his weapons
9o3). In one
by robbing
passage
with
his malignant father of them
armed
a
as
(6,4422). He is described
shaft
bow
his
swift
and
is
thousand-pointed
(9,83s. 864")
(9, 9o3).
rides in the
chariot
Indra
Soma
same
as
(9,Sy9. 962. 1035). He is
Indra
charioteer to the car-fighter
(AV. 8, 823). He drives in a car (9, 35),
which
has light(9,8645) or
is heavenly (9,in3).
He
filter for his car
a
the
is
He
best
of
charioteers
He
has
(9" 83s).
(9,6626).
well-wingedmares
of his own
like Vayu (9,883).
(9, 8637) and a team
is naturallysometimes
Soma
with Indra's intimate associates,
connected
the Maruts.
They are said to milk the bull of heaven
(9, 108", cp. 54*)

drives

and

adorn

the

child when

born

(9, 96*7). Like

is attended
Indra, Soma
(6, 475) or the troop of the Maruts
by
(9, 6622). The
Winds,
said to be
too, are
(9, 3i3) and Vayu is his guardian
gladdening to Soma
forms
(10,855). Soma
a
pair with Agni, Pusan, and Rudra
respectively
A
few
128
times
he
is mystically
indemnified with Varuna
(p.
9).
(9, 775. 954;
cp. 733'9;8, 4i8).
to

the

Maruts

"

The

which

Soma

in the
plant is once
according to later statements42

RV.

(10,341)

would

described

as

maujavata,

Mount
'produced on
in
the
mountains
as
dwelling
(giristha)^or growing in the mountains44
(parvatavrdh: 9, 461). Mountains
also called 'Soma-backed'
are
(AV. 3, 2i10), a term
which, perhaps by sacri
ficial symbolism, is applied to the
stones
(adraya/i)in RV.
8, 522.
pressing
All these terms
the
abode
of
the
Soma
to
point
plant being on terrestrial
mountains
of the
(cp. especially9,823). This is confirmed
by the statement

Mujavat'.

Avesta

Soma

that Haoma

is also

grows

several

on

times

mean

described

the mountains^.

Since

the

Soma

plant actually

GODS.

TERRESTRIAL

SOMA.

37.

in

of
on
mountains, it is probable that this fact is present to the mind
grew
'on
he
that
the
heaven
vault
of
the poet even
when
sweet-tongued
says
bull' (9, 8$l" cp. 954). Terrestrial
hills may
friends milk the mountain-dwelling
has placed Agni in the waters,
(5,852), or that 'Matarisvan brought
the one
(Agni) from heaven, while the eagle carried off the other (Soma)
from
the rock'
doubt, as 'mountain' and
(i, 936); but here there is more
'cloud' (p. 10).
'rock' mythologicallyoften mean
is a terrestrial plant, it is also celestial (10, n63); in fact
Though Soma
its true
it is said that
Thus
are
origin and abode
regarded as in heaven.
it has been
the birth of the plant is on
received
high; being in heaven
by
earth (9, 6i10). The
'intoxicating
juice'is the 'child of heaven'
(9, 38s), an
In one
however, he is called
epithetfrequently applied to Soma.
passage,
the offspring
(9, 931) and in another
Parjanya is spoken of
(jdh) of the sun
the father of the mighty bird (9, 82^
the AV.
In
the
as
origin
ii33).
cp.
is also traced
the
seed
of amrta
of Parjanya (AV. 8, y21). When
Soma
to
is called a child (sis'u)
this
is
doubtless
simply (9, 96 I7) or a youth (yuvan),
in allusion to the fact that, like Agni, he
anew46.
is continually produced
is the
milk
is
Soma
of
heaven
in
heaven
(9,
"c.),
purified
(plyusa)
51
his
dear
with
flows
the
heaven
86
He
of
stream
to
(9, 832.
"c.).
places
the spaces
with his stream
(9, i28). He runs
across
through heaven
(9,37).
He
(9, 859), is in heaven
(SB. 3, 4, 3^), or is the lord of
occupies heaven
heaven
earth
and regards
he looks
down
(9, 86 II-33).As bird of heaven
on
all beings (9, yi^). He
stands
like god Surya (9, 543).
above
all worlds
The
been
the air,on
heaven, from
drops being purifiedhave
poured from
the surface
of the earth (9, 6327)47; for he is a traverser
of space
(rajastur:
him
surrounded
milk
fon
third
rub
with
the
ridge,in
4, 484. io87). Fingers
realm
heaven'
the bright
of
(9, 8627). His place is in the highest heaven
(3,3210; 4, 266; 9, 86'5) or in the third heaven
(TS. 3, 5, 71 "c.)"8. 'Heaven',
be
of the strainer of
to
however, also seems
a
frequently
mystical name
This
wool49.
is spoken
be
the
when
Soma
of as
to
seems
sheep's
case
being 'on the navel of heaven, on the sheep-filter'
(9, i24), as traversing
the lightsof heaven, the sheep-filter
(9, 373), as running with Surya in heaven,
the filter (9, 27$); or
it is said that 'the bull has
when
on
occupied heaven,
the king goes
strainer' (9, 859 cp. 868). The
the
term
soaring over
sdnu,
'the
'summit',so frequentlyapplied to the filter,is suggestive of divah sanu,
summit
of heaven'.
Such
would
with
be
connected
terms
to
come
naturally
the terrestrial Soma, because
is the abode
heaven
celestial Soma
of the
or
amrta
(6, 4423).
Soma
has
heaven
been
brought from
(9, 6327.663"). The
myth most
this
belief
is
and
of
Soma
the
that
of
commonly
expressive
eagle. It was
bird
from
that highest
brought by the eagle (i, 8o2). The
brought Soma
heaven
mead
(4, 266). The
or
(madhu) to Indra
eagle brought the Soma
swift eagle flew to the Soma
(3" 437; 4, i813). The
plant (5,45^); the eagle
off the sweet
tore
stalk for Indra
The
(4, 20").
eagle brought it for Indra
through the air with his foot (8, 71 9). Flying swift as thought, the bird
broke
he
through the iron castle (cp. 4, 271), going to heaven
brought the
Soma
for the wielder
of the bolt (8, 8gs). The
the
bore
eagle
plant from
from
heaven
afar,
(9, 68". 772. 8624; 10, n*. 998. I444). The
myth is most
it is Gayatri, a
and
fullydealt with in RV.
275". In the Brahmanas
4, 26
of Agni 5 x, that carries off the Soma.
In the RV.
mystical sacerdotal
name
the eagle is constantlydistinguished
from
Indra
the
Soma
to him.
as
bringing
There
is only one
(unconnected with this myth) in which Indra seated
passage
also

the

be

sun

intended

in heaven,

when

and

it is said

Soma

on

that 'Varuna

the

rock'

22

III. RELIGION,

1 1 2

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

u.

KUNST.

VEDIC

A.

MYTHOLOGY.

offeringis called an eagle (10, 998). 'Eagle of heaven' is an


epithetapplied to Agni (7, i54: otherwise twice said of the Maruts), the term
with Agni Vaidyuta or lightning(TB. 3, 10, 51 cp. i2,i2),
eagle is connected
and Agni is often called a bird in the RV.
(p. 89). On this evidence BLOOMof RV.
his
who
i
nterpretations
subjects
4, 27 to a search
predecessors'
FIELD,
the
much
with
explains
carrying off of Soma
plausibility
by
ing criticism,
of the
the
of
the
simple phenomenon
eagle as a mythological account
of lightning,
descent
dartingfrom the cloud (i.e. the iron castle)and causing
at

Soma

the

time

same

he

bably
out

Soma

fluid Soma

to

eagle carried

Cp.

detail in the Brahmanas.


been

shot

salyaka
xion

off.

tree.

with

the

tree

AB.

Either

Falling to

The

the

water

of

the

cloud).

the

At

(i, 936)
together52. A detail of the myth (pro
added
by the individual poet) is the trait that
the
archer
KrsanuS3
shot at him
Soma,
knocking

passage

away

(4, 272- 4;

feather

(i. e.
of

the

in which

RV.

the

descent

mentioned

are

embellishment

mere

the

refers

of

of fire and

as

ambrosial

fall of the

the

the

3,
a

25).
feather

trait is related

This
or

is here

claw

it became

with

stated

greater
to

have

ground,
parna
(palasa]or
s
acred
in conne
character
hereby acquired a specially
a

ritual54.

been
is said to have
born
as
important of herbs Soma
have
Soma
their
also
which
said
to
as
are
king55
plants(9,ii42),
receives the epithetvanaspati, 'lord of the wood'
(9, 9718""9).He
(i,gi6;
is said to have
generated all plants(i,9i22). In the Brahmanas
9, 127) and
with Soma,
connected
(SB. 12,, i, i2)50.
plants are
being styled saumya
of
his
is
lord
of
like
Soma
other leading
often,
being
Irrespectively
plants,
is also a king of rivers (9, 892), a king of the
gods, called a king57. He
earth
whole
father of the gods (9,8610. 872. 109*) a king
a king or
(9,97s8),
of gods and mortals
and
a
(VS. 9, 40; TS. i,810;
(9,9724),
king of Brahmans
MS.
called
is of course
often
he is
a
god; but in one
passage
2, 69). He
(a god pressed for the gods' (9,36-?).
described
as
In the post-Vedic literature Soma
which
of the moon,
is a regularname
is regarded as being drunk
is
the
and
tillit
filled
so
waning,
gods
up
up by
In
the
is
again by the sun.
Chandogya Upanisad (5,lo1) the statement
found
that the moon
is
drunk
of the
and
is king Soma, the food
gods,
up

Being

the

lord

by them58.
is

the

most

of

Even

in the

Brahmanas

the identification of Soma

with

the

moon

that the moon


already a common-place59. Thus the AB. (7,11) remarks
is the Soma
of the gods; the SB.
(i, 6, 45), that king Soma, the food of
the gods, is the moon;
and
in the Kausitaki
Br. (7, 10; 4, 4) the sacrificial
is
of
the
plant or juice
symbolical
moon-god. The mythology of the Brah
due
the gods and
manas
to
as
already explains the phases of the moon
Fathers
consists of ambrosia60.
eating its substance, which
Soma, as the
in
is
the
YV.
also
lunar
conceived
the
as
asterisms,the daughters
moon,
having
of Prajapati,
for his wives61.
times
the AV., moreover,
several
In
Soma
the
means
of scholars
moon
(7,8i3'4; n, 67, "c.). A large number
agree
that even
in a few
of the latest hymns of the RV.
tenth
first and
the
(in
Soma
is
the
identified
moon62.
books)
with
of them, however,
Most
already
hold that Soma
as
a
god is celebrated in the Vedic hymns only as a per
sonification of the beverage, regarding his identification with the moon
as
the
of
merely a secondary mythological growth6-3. The
most
important
in which
the identification is generallyadmitted,is that which
de
passages
scribes the wedding of Soma
and
the sun-maiden
Surya (10, 85)64. Here
Soma
is spoken of as 'in the lap of the stars',
(v.2),and it is said that no
of that Soma
one
eats
which
the priestsknow
and which
is contrasted with
that which
of the moon
they crush (v.3). The Soma
nature
being referred

to
a

notion.

popular
with

lesced

known

secret

as

the

TERRESTRIAL

GODS.

to Brahmans

only, shows
which

The

by
process
difficult to
is not

moon

SOMA.

37.

that

113

yet have

it cannot

celestial Soma

the

understand.

been

gradually coa
the
one
is, on
as
dispelling

Soma

continuallythought of as celestial and bright,sometimes


the
and
other
hand, it is very often
swelling in the waters; on
would
there
called a 'drop',indu
(6, 4421)65. Comparison with the moon
in the bowls
is said
in one
Soma
to
fore easilysuggest itself. Thus
passage
in
in
and
like the moon
the waters
another,
(8, yi8; cp. i, I051);
appear
the drop (drapsd] which
Soma
as
looking
being described
goes to the ocean,
is generallyadmitted
with the eye of a vulture (io;i238),
to allude to the moon.
HILLEBRANDT,
however, in his Vedische
Mythologie not only claims this
hand,

darkness

identification for

number

in
passages
is the moon

other

of

the RV.,

but

in

that

asserts

the
whole
of the ninth book
Soma
(p. 309) and nowhere
in fact being a book
of hymns
to
ordinary plant (p. 326), the ninth book
he
in
earliest
well
latest
the
the
the moon66.
as
as
maintains,
Soma,
means,
hand, and,
plant or juice on the one
parts of the whole RV., only the Soma
the other
a
on
as
deity,only the moon
(pp. 274. 340. 450). According to
his view, the moon
and
is a receptacle of Soma
is the god whom
amrta
or
when
he
which
is part of the
the
the worshipper means
draught,
presses
ambrosia.
HILLEBRANDT
this
lunar
further
than
even
complete iden
goes
the

tification of Soma
Soma

god

as

and

there

and

forms

the

the

in the RV.

moon

Vedic

of

also

He

belief

allude

may

such

to

luminous

celebratingthe

passages

his swelling (apyayana), which

affords

notion.

But

and

that

asserts

the

moon-

(p. 277), being the


and ruler of the world
much
than
the sun
creator
more
(p. 313), while Indra
is the most
popular Vedic
god only next to the moon67
(p. 315).
In oppositionto this hypothesis, it has
been
argued that, in the vast
in the RV., the character
of the god as
to Soma
majority of the references
of the plant and
On
the other
a
juice is clear and obvious.
personification
while
the
identification
Soma
is
of
and
the
hand,
moon
perfectly clear in
the later literature,
there is in the whole
of the RV.
no
single distinct and
explicitinstance either of the identification or of the conception that the
is the food
of the gods. It is only in passages
the brilliance
where
moon
of Soma, so
with
connected
is
the
constantly
vaguely expressed, that
sun,
references
the moon
to
be
found.
At the same
time it is possible that
can
chaotic
details of the imagery of the
amid
the
Soma
hymns, there may
and
the moon.
Here
occasionallylurk a veiled identification of ambrosia
centre

nature

parallelto
the whole,

a
on

cult

of

Soma

to
referring

or

swellingof

the
with

the

few

the
late

tions

moon,

excep
of the

certain that to the seers


be
to
generally admitted, it appears
is a
god Soma
personificationof the terrestrial plant and juice68.
It is, moreover,
in whose
hardly conceivable that all the Vedic commentators,
Soma
and
the moon
believed
should
be
know
that
day
to
were
not
one,
RV.

the

Soma

the

means

It is

and

prepared
described

growing

as

it

on

skilful

the

rock;

god.

distributed from
is

king

of

removes

In

Indo-arische

the

RV.

its native
In

As
The

both
Soma

that

the

1 A.

the

Avestan

Haoma,

already

was

period. In the RV. Soma


a
particularmountain; in

mountains

or

certain

mountain.

In

the RV.

is
the

Varuna

places
Haraiti by

it is

placed on the great mountain


it is
brought by an
eagle; in the Avesta
mountain
it
In both
by certain auspicious birds.
it is a medicine
which
and
gives health,long life,
it is

grows
pressing and

Philologie, III.

Soma,

Indo-Iranian

the

on
grow
in the Avesta

plants.
7".

on

to

death.

Ardvi-sura

in

also69.

RV.

fact

celebrated

it is said

Avesta

in the

moon

undoubted

an

in the

waters,

offeringof Soma

so

Haoma
was

in

the

already

an
Q

waters

of

important

RV., only

in the

it is stated

worship.

two

are

while

But

(amsu
milk

with

mixed

KUNST.

u.

mentioned

stalks

the

that

and

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

of Indo-Iranian

feature
to

RELIGION,

in.

ii4

three

in the

dsu}

(Yasna

and
=

missiles (vadare

casts

hvaresd]
wicked,

ancient

of

names

victoryover

referred

2).

10,

In both

pressed, that the juice was


13). In both the celestial Soma
beverage from the god. In both

were

10,
the

The

of

preparers

(Yasna

RV.

earth.

to

already become

mighty

lightwinning (svarsa

are

the

remove

machinations

celestial world.

the

and

In

is verethrajan

Haoma

so

the

Vivasvat

Soma,

down

comes

vadhar). Both
hukhratii). Both
foes, and confer

children.

excellent

and

grant steeds

Vedic

(sukratu

bestow

of the

the

wise

and

MYTHOLOGY.

dailypressingsare

Avesta

yellow
and
the terrestrial,
from
is distinguished
of
Soma
it
is
home
the mythical
heaven, whence
sacrificial
h
ad
the
both the Soma
fire)
draught (like
is vrtrahan,
god and is called a king. As Soma
was

VEDIC

A.

Avesta

and

even

Trita

Both
in

agree

Aptya

the

on

The
belief
Vivanhvant, Athwya, and Thrita on the other71.
of
which
d
ivine
the
home
be
was
an
beverage,
heaven, may
intoxicating
have
been
If
it
of
must
regarded as a kind
Indo-European.
honey-mead
so,
As. medii) brought down
its guardiandemon
to earth from
(Skt.mddhu, Gk. jxsftu,
by an eagle (theSoma-bringing eagle of Indra agreeingwith the nectar-bring
ing eagle of Zeus and with the eagle which, as a metamorphosis of Odhin,
one

and

hand,

in

carried

This

mead)72.

off the

madhu

if

honey-mead,

Indo-European, was
but
have
survived
into
replaced in the Indo-Iranian period by Soma;
may
the Vedic
period,by amalgamating with Soma73.
Haoma
means
EtymologicallySoma
'pressedjuice',
being derived from
the root
'to
su
hu,
press'.
or

"

sura

ZDMG.

OLDENBERG,

ZDMG.
ORV.

SB.

12,

32,

301.

389.

42,

241.

"

Otherwise

23

KHF.

HVM.

27

123"4.
in
i, 399;

i, 392"3.

28.

i,

210.

140.

5, 843;

7,

31

i,

185;

HVM.

i, 340

I, 601.

i, 349.

BRV.

35

10, 915

3"

HVM.

56^3;

34

ROTH,
2;

308; BRV.
35, 687; WEBER,

KRV.

32

"

note

"

i, 300,

BLOOMFIELD,
5, 834;
thinks the horns
those
are
note

ZDMG.
HVM.

i, 403.

36 BRV.

"

192.

IS.

10,

"

HRI.

with

rain

7, 470.

360;
"

moon.

33

"

185"6.

i,

Op.

87"8;
26

"

of the

I,

'9

i,

AJP.

cp.

"

5, 260.

pyS.

25

"

HVM.

"

LRV.

22

182.
15

--

i,

141.
cit. 229.

Op.
-

128

468 ff.;

cit.

HVM.

ir

4 Anna

"

KHF.

Op.

FaR.

189.

FaR.

i*

"

cit.

WINDISCH,

24

WINDISCH,

i, 47.
"

"

I, 204.
References
in HVM.

"

14

Op.

21

518.

i,

1894,4. 13227; KZ.


I, 521 ff.; GGH.
70. 115; WVB.
28
BRV.
Op. cit. I, 170; lightningis associated
i, 165.

BRV.

i, 79-

HVM.

"

142.

129.
"

29

"

"

HVM.

"

J3 Op. cit. 206


Op. cit. 151.
7.
16 LRV.
17 HVM.
I, 186.
3, 378"9.
20
cit. 195.
Op. cit. 256, note
3.
12

182.

i,
5

"

Op. cit.
Vedainterpretation16.

HILLEBRANDT,

10
"

BRV.

"

I, 264.
cp. HVM.
HVM.
i, 243"4.

38;

7,

37

"

BRV.
HVM.
KHF.

38 HVM.
in HVM.
39 References
MACDONELL,
JRAS. 25, 472.
i, 387"8.
41 ZDMG.
42 VS.
i, 388.
7, 511.
7, 331. 375.
4o_Cp HAUG, ZDMG.
3, 61
and
43 Twice,
Ap. oS. 12, 5, 1 1 ; YN.
9, 8; cp. AIL. 29; HVM.
comm.,
i, 63 ff.
105;

"

"

"

"

"

"

also

said

of Visnu,

of

once

the

Maruts.

45 On
the habitat of the Soma
plant, see
interpretation
15.
MM.,
134"9;
42.
Biographies of Words
(London, 1888)222
"

TB.

"

see

and

"

ff.; PVS.

BRV.

52

180-1; WVB.
1894, p. 5.
BLOOMFIELD, JAOS. 16, 1"24;

3, 322

"

natural

the

water

agent

in

of clouds.

38,

JRAS. 25,437.

the
-

bird,
-

53

6, i, 6i; Kath.

HVM.

49

"

9;

ORV.
-

384;

48 Also

46

"

in IS. 8, 31; VS. i,


23, 10
ZDMG.
5" ROTH,
36,
361, note
3.
Revue
de linguistique 18,
30. 66; KOULIKOVSKI,
HVM.
FaR. 149"55;
BLOOMFIELD,
i, 207"16;
i, 278"9;

140.

3, 2, ii.
Methode
LUDWIG,

I, 310;

I,

353"60.
1

FaR.

WINDISCH,

47

"

ZDMG.

ROTH,

"

211;

Veda-

44'Bergfroh',HILLEBRANDT,

or

i,

Cp.

5i

to

KHF.
130 f. 144 f. 172.
3, 9, 410;
to
thinks there is no
reason

bB.

ORV.

Sp.AP.

"

176. 180

assume

224.

connexion

any
-

KHF.

54

the

between

I59f.

170.

209;

Soma
WVB.

55 Cp. ZDMG.
56 HVM.
1894, p- 557 Op. cit.
25, 647.
4.
I, 390, note
58 DEUSSEN,
317"8.
59 WVB.
1894, p. 16"7.
System des Vedanta
415 ff.
60 HVM.
61 WEBER,
Naksatra
ZDMG.
i, 296.
2, 274 ff ; OLDENBERG,
49, 470;
Soma
on
dwelling with Rohinl, cp. TACOBI, FaR. 71, note; R. BROWN
JR., Academy
62 HVM.
BRV.
64 WEBER,
IS. 5, 178 ff.; WVB.
42, 439.
i, 269. "63
i, 1 60.
1894, p. 34; OST.
ib. 49, 227; OLDEN
167"8;
5, 237; EHNI, ZDMG.
JACOBI,
33,
66
ib. 478.
65 EHNI, 1. c.
MM.
BERG,
AJP. 14, 491"3;
Cp. BLOOMFIELD,
"

"

"

"

--

"

"

"

"

III.

1 1

RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

KUNST.

u.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

with the genitive


of that which is supported)
frequentlyused (almost exclusively
and
other
Indra
of
occurs
once
as
an
gods,
independent name
an
epithet
as
other
and
deities
Dhatr
(7,
Tratr, the 'Protector',
353). Similarly,
along with
Indra
of
and, in the plural,of the
Agni or
mostly employed as an epithet
in five passages
God'
along
independentlyas 'the Protector
Adityas, occurs
deities (i, 106"; 4, 555" 7; 8, i820; 10, i287). In ROTH'S
with other
opinion,
also Bhaga
intended
are
Savitr especiallyand
by this god2. A 'Leader
in one
three
times
is
invoked
two
or
God'
(deva netr)
hymn (5,50) as a
guide to prosperityin life.
of this type, who
The
besides
B. Tvastr.
only deitybearing a name
"

Savitr

is mentioned

in the

65 times
the

seventh

tenth.
No

it

being

is

once

any

frequency,

RV., pretty

uniformly in

well

as

hymn

No

with

as

the

part of Tvastr's

physicalform

characteristic

him

described

(6, 4719).

Tvastr

as

yoking

to

his two

is

showing

the

skilful workman

skill of

an

to

iron

steeds

and

(i, 859;

artificer. He

about

occurs

(though rarelyin
in

oftenest
relatively
praise.

to

axe

except

3,

his chariot and


or

Savitr).
5412),producing

is in fact

his

in his hand

(sugabhasti\
6} 499),
him

name

family books

is mentioned
an

His

the

first and

arm

or

his

to

hold

is beautiful-armed

(supdni\predominantly applied
He

the

eighth),but

is,however, devoted
of

is Tvastr.

the

hand,

(8,293). He
shininggreatly

beautiful-handed

various

objects

skilful of workmen,
times said (5,3i4 "c.)

most

craftycontrivances (10, 539). He is several


(ytaks) the bolt of Indra. He also sharpens the iron axe
formed
of Brahmanaspati (10, 539). He
a
new
(i,2o6) which contained
cup
the food of the asura
(i,no3) or the beverage of the gods (i,i6i5;3,35s).
vessels
of which
AV.
thus possesses
the gods drink (10, 539). The
He
out
him
full
bowl
describes
old
of
as
an
man
a
(9, 43" 6)
wealth,
bearing a
cup
From
he
of Soma.
Tvastr
the
swift horse was
and
produced (VS. 29, 9),
givesspeed to the horse (AV. 6, 921).
The
RV.
that Tvastr
all beings with form
adorned
further states
(10,
in
He
womb
and
the
all
the
is
of
the
forms,
no9).
developes
shaper
germ
and animal (i,i889;8,9i8;10, i84x). Similar statements
human
are
frequently
made
he is characteristically
in later Vedic
texts
a
(AV. 2, 26% "c.), where
of forms
creator
(SB. n, 4, 33; TB. i, 4, 71)3.He himself is called omniform
fashioner of living
As
(visvarupd)oftener than any other deity in the RV.
he
is
forms,
generationand bestowing
frequentlydescribed as presidingover
and
wife
he is said to have fashioned
husband
offspring(3,49 "c.). Thus
for each
other
from
the womb
(10, io5; AV. 6, 782). He has produced and
nourishes a great varietyof creatures
(3, 5519).Beasts belong to Tvastr (SB.
universal
is indeed
a
father,for he produced the whole
3 7) 311- 8, 3"). He
world
(VS. 29, 9).
He
is also the ancestor
in so
of the human
far as
his daughter
race
wife
of
becomes
the
mother
of
the
Saranyu,
Vivasvat,
primeval twins Yama
and
YamI
said to be his son-in-law
(io, ly1- 2, cp. 5, 4213). Vayu is once
(8, 2621). Tvastr begot Brhaspati(2, 23*7). Agni produced by the ten fingers,
is the offspring
of Tvastr
and Earth, the
(i, 952), who, along with Heaven
the
him
and
inferred
is
It
to be
Waters,
(io, 2?. 469).
Bhrgus, generated
that Tvastr
also the father of Indra (p.57). Tvastr
is especially
was
a guardian
of Soma, which
is called 'the mead
of Tvastr'
(i,ii722). It is in his house
that Indra
drinks Soma
and
presumately steals it,even
slayinghis father in
order
it (p.57). The
to obtain
has a son
'omniform'
Tvastr
named
Visvarupa
is directed
The
is a guardian of cows.
of Indra
(the Omniform), who
hostility
in order
these
win
to
against the son
just as against the father in
cows,

versed

have

to

in

fashioned

GODS.

ABSTRACT

order
with

gain possession

to

fear

wrath

the

at

of the

Even

Soma.

Indra

of

TVASTR.

386.

(i, So1*)

117

himself is said to tremble

Tvastr
is

and

inferior

represented as
able to perform a feat done
a
Tvastr, whose
story of how

to

he was
not
even
as
Indra, inasmuch
by Indra
TS.
had
son
(2, 4, I21) tells
(10, 4910). The
assist
slain by Indra, refused
the
latter
his
sacri
allow
Soma
been
to
to
at
and
drank
off the Soma
often
by force. The Brahmanas
fice,but Indra came
relate a similar tale (SB. i, 6, 36, "c.).
in the womb4,
of his creative agency
Tvastr
is closely
Probably because
wives
allied with
the
of
the
celestial females
(gndh, janayak) or
gods, who
his most
are
(i, 229 "c.)5. Tvastr is chieflymentioned
frequent attendants
with gods of cognate
Pusan, Savitr,Dhatr, Prajapati. 'Savitr' is indeed
activity,
attribute of Tvastr
in two
the
an
(3, 5519; 10, io5) in which
occurs
passages
identical
savitd
collocation devas
tvastd
visvarupah^^ 'god Tvastr, the omniin both
form
and
the generativeor
of which
creative faculty of the
vivifier',
the Kausika
In
to.
deity is referred
Sutra, Tvastr is identified with Savitr
and
in
the
and
Purana, with Visvakarman
Prajapati7, and
Markandeya
is
the
of
twelve
one
Prajapati. In the later mythology Tvastr
Adityas
in the Mahabharata
and
is once
and
the Bhagavata Purana
twice
form
or
a
of

the

sun.

The

adds

RV.

Tvastr's

few

character.

is

He

indefinite traits,which

rather
said

be

the

throw

lighton

no

first (i,

i310) or the first-born


who
before
As
of the Angirases
a
(agrajd} and one
(9,
companion
59).
goes
he knows
the region of the
the
to
gods (10, 70^), goes
place of the gods
between
earth
is
heaven
and
He
of blessings
(MS. 4, i49).
(2, i9)
a bestower
is possessed of excellent
and
wealth
is supplicatedto
(10, 7o9. 92"). He
his worshippers and
to
to
delight in their hymns (7, 3421).
grant riches
also confers
Tvastr
life
AV.
(10, i8";
6, 783).
long
is derived from
The
word
verbal
root
rare
a
tvaks^ of which
only one
nominal
in the RV., and
the cognate
form, besides
some
derivatives,occurs
is found
of which, thwaks,
in the Avesta.
It appears
in
be identical
to
with
which
is
the
with
used
the name
of Tvastr
root
meaning
common
taks,
in referring
bolt. The
to the fashioningof Indra's
meaning therefore appears
to

the

be

Tvastr

'Fashioner'
is

one

'Artificer'.

or

of

to

the

obscurest

members

of

Vedic

the

pantheon8.

The

due
obscurity of the conception is explained by KAEGi9
to Tvastr, like
as
and
of gods who
ousted
were
others, having belonged to an earlier race
thinks Tvastr
derived
from
by later ones; while HILLEBRANDT
was
a mythical
tribes. Different explanations have
been
cycle outside the range of the Vedic
Trita

offered
A.

of

KuHN10

drawn
BERG

Tvastr's

this view.
believes

I3.
activity
be

sun,

to

not

indeed

originalnature.
that

thought

LuDwio12

him

to

be

HILLEBRANDT

probable14.
seem

represented the
Rigvedic poets

he

themselves

to

sun,

but

regards

him

as

Tvastr

of

god

being
later11

seems

the

year,

called

Savitr,

have

to

with

while OLDEN-

pure abstraction expressinga definite characteristic


holds
earlier view
KUHN'S
that Tvastr
represents the
a

HARDY

unlikely that
creative

Owing
the

meant

aspect

also
this
of

the

considers

god,
sun's

in

him
a

nature.

solar

period

deity15. It

anterior

If such

was

to

the

the
case

does

RV.,
the

of it. The
only very dimly conscious
name
itself would
have
the
of
accretions
illustrative
encouraged
growth
mythical
of creative
skill,the desire to supply the pantheon with a regular divine
artificer being natural
in the same
it was
supplied with
enough. Much
way
divine priestin the person
a
of Brhaspati.
The
of Tvastr
has been
explained as the 'bowl of the year' or the
cup
nocturnal
conceived
full
sky. But neither of these could well have been
as
were

III. RELIGION,

1 1

is

moon

more

OST.

AJP.

448.

i,

517.

Portenta

"

HVBP.

15

"

ZDMG.
HVM.

I,

109.

8
"

MYTHOLOGY.

of
interpretation

it

as

the

Rohitas, Paris 1891; BLOOMFIELD,


WC.
3 Cp.
PW.;
9" 10.
cp. GW.;
6 ROTH,
Nir. Erl. 144.
7 WEBER,

"

"

113"6.

GGH.

VEDIC

A.

"

5, 229.

LRV.

12

"

Hymnes
ROTH,

"

OST.

2.

"

I.

n.

"

391

KHF.

"

209,
Ibid.

"

Les

HENRY,

HRI.

tvastr.

und

Omina

V.

395"6;

5,

v.

s.

KUNST.

the

by

429"44;

12,

PW.

u.

gods. HILLEBRANDT'S
(cp.p. 133).
plausible

drunk

and

of Soma

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

KRV.

note

J3

ORV.

233.

"

3, 333"5-

"

131.

10

"

KZ.

HVM.

"

i,

30"1.

GEIGER, Ostiranische
i, 8; EHNI, Yama

I, 522;

IF.

513"35;

Kultur

BRI.

304;

4"16;

BRV.

22;

3, 38"64;
46, 416 f. 248.

SEE.

OLDENBERG,

A few other abstract deities originating


Prajapati.
in compound
god who was
being
epithetsand all representingthe supreme
in the RV.
the
found
As
the
end of the Rigvedic period, are
evolved
at
the
and
five
RV.
times
in
Visvakarman
of a god
occurs
only
name
always
Two
whole
to his praise.
in the tenth book.
hymns (10, 81. 82) are dedicated
attribute once
word
also occurs
The
as
an
(8, 8y2) of Indra and once
(10.,
is
the
It
Sun
allnot
uncommon
of
the
as
an
as
creating'.
adjective
i7o4)
it also appears
attribute of Prajapati(VS.
an
as
in the later Vedas, where

"39. Visvakarman,

"

61). The

12,

seeing,having
this the Brahma

well

as

eyes,
of later

as

describe

RV.

of the

hymns

two

Visvakarman

thus.

is all-

He

and

side.
feet, on
(In
arms,
every
is four-faced and four-armed, resembles

face,

mythology, who

provided with wings. He is a seer, a priest,our father. He


of
speech (vdcas pati}, swift as thought, beneficent, the source
and
he
alone
knows
all places and
their
all prosperity. He
beings,
gives
the highestapparition
is wise and energetic,
to the gods. He
names
(paramd
samdrk). He is an establisher (dhdtf) and a disposer (vidhdtr),having pro
the earth and
disclosed the sky. It seems
duced
likelythat the word was
the
first
attached
to
as
an
at
epithetchiefly
sun-god, but in the later Rigvedic
of the almost
names
one
given to the one
god
period became
synonymous
then being tentatively
was
evolved, and
(10, Si3) the conception of whom
who as Visvakarman
owing to the name,
mainly thought of in his archiwas,
in
the
Brahmanas
techtonic aspect1. Visvakarman
is expresslyidentified with
the creator
Prajapati(SB. 8, 2, i10. 3^, cp. AB. 4, 22). In post-Vedic times
conceived
the artificer of the gods.
he was
as
of the RV.
in one
Prajapati occurs
(4,532) as an epithetof
passage
is spoken of as
and prajdpati of the
Savitr, who
a
supporter of heaven
world2, and in another, as an
compared with Tvastr and
epithet of Soma
him.)

is

is also

He

lord

Indra

of

(9, 59). Otherwise

is found

word

the

distinct

times

four

the

as

of

name

deity,always in the tenth book.


god Prajapatiis invoked (10,
8543) to bestow abundant
offspring(prajdui},is besought, along with Visnu,
Tvastr, and Dhatr, to grant offspring(10, 184*), and is spoken of as making
cows
prolific(10,i694). As a protector of generation and livingbeings
The

Prajapatiis
praisein

his

of

the waters

(pati}of
god above
established

clearlythe
RV.

in

this

of

his

that

the

the

of

who

whole

supreme

all

the
this

creator

was

born

and

and

and
the

in the
space
all creatures.

god. Though

and

heaven

to

in the last

only

name

of

devoted

hymn

one

(jdtd)as

breathes

beings

traverses

world

In

by

the

all that

ordinances

earth;

arms

as

lives; who

king

one

whose

and

of

name

all

is, the

gods;

heaven
with

embraces

is celebrated

he

hymn

all that

in the AV.3

(10, 121), he is invoked

RV.

and

the

invoked

often

the

this

In

verse.

also

the

earth,
lord

one

the

moves,

one

gods follow; who


atmosphere; who
Here

only mentioned

Prajapatiis
once

in the

in the AV.
and VS., and
is commonly
regularlyin the
sense,
the
is
He
the
of
the gods, (SB.
chief
father
recognized as
god.

Brahmanas,
n,
i, 614; TB.

he

8,

i, 34

"c.), having existed

alone

in

the

beginning (SB.

GODS.

ABSTRACT

VIS'VAKARMAN,PRAJAPATI.

39.

40.

SRADDHA.

MANYU,

119

(TB. 2, 2, 2^)4. He is also described


the first sacrificer (SB. 2, 4, 41; 6, 2, 31). In the Sutras Prajapatiis identi
as
fied with Brahma
(AGS. 3, 4, "c.). In the place of this chief god of the
later Vedic
theology, the philosophy of the Upanisads put the impersonal
the
universal
the Absolute.
soul or
Brahma,
of his
A
(4, 212) of Prajapatibeing enamoured
myth is told in the MS.
transformed
herself into a gazelle;whereupon
he trans
She
daughter Usas.
2,

himself

formed
his

created

He

41).

did

not

the

Brahmanas

of

(AB.

be

two

father

is referred

Earth)

the

In

is referred

and

to

refrain

Rudra

an

is several

at

lord

this aimed
if he

of beasts

times

referred

to

in

basis of this myth


8, 2IO)s. The
in
the incest
which
(i, 7i5; 10, 6iS~~7)

RV.

his

daughter (here apparently the

is mentioned6.

archer

first nine

of the

unknown

incensed
him

make

7, 41; PB.

Dyaus) with

be

to

seems

i,

the

of

passages

(who

SB.

33;

3,

well

as

corresponding male.
Prajapatipromised to
io,,6i7). The
story

the

when

(cp.RV.

shoot

to

seem

into

him,

at

arrow

the,Asuras

of RV.

verses

10,

the

121

Who

god

supreme
The

interrogativepronoun
answer
Ka,
all beings. This
Prajapati alone embraces
later led to the employment
of Ka
not
only as an epithetof Prajapati(AB.
but
used
o
f
as
a
227),
god (MS. 3, 12$). In
by itself, the supreme
name,
3,
is
identified
the TS.
Ka
with Prajapati7.
(i, 7, 66)
expressly
the
In
first verse
of RV.
the supreme
god is referred to as
10, 121
the 'Germ
lord of what
of Gold', the one
exists. This is
Hiranyagarbha,
in
the
the
it
of
the
but
is
several
mentioned
name
RV.,
only occurrence
times
in the AV.
literature
of
and
the
the Brahmana
period (cp.p. 13).
of the AV.
it is
(4, 28) where
Hiranyagarbha is also alluded to in a passage
stated that the waters
it was
as
born,
produced an embryo, which
was
being
in
the
In
TS.
is
a
enveloped
golden covering.
ex
(5, 5, i2) Hiranyagarbha
pressly identified with Prajapati. In the later literature he is chieflya desig
nation of the personal Brahma8.

given

to

in

as

the

tenth

OST.

AJP.

14,

OST.

4,

5, 354-55
PW.

See

"

SEE.

is that

verse,

5"n;

4,

493.

by

the

284,

s.

v.

WC.
80"5;
prajdpati.
"

SPH.
4

33-40.

Cp. OST.

"

5, 80"

Cp. BLOOMFIELD,
i.

"

ASL.

529;

FaB.
WVB.
DELBRUCK,
1894, p. 34; GELDNER,
24;
6
FaW.
21.
7 SPH.
SEE.
46, 78 f.
Cp. BRV.
2, 109 f.; OLDENBERG,
27,11.2;
8 ASL.
ASL.
SEE.
12, 8.
569 f.; OGR.
18;
433; IS. 2, 94;
4, 15
295; OST.
1. c.
GELDNER,
5" 352- 355; WC.
i; HVM.
141"2;
i, 380, n.
50
i; HRI.

45;

12,

n.

i;

"

"

"

"

"

40.

Manyu,

tions of abstract

Sraddha

"c.

--

We

have

yet

to

deal

with

the

deifica

Manyu,
personificationsuggested chiefly
Wrath,
in two
by the fierce anger of Indra, is invoked
(10, 83.
hymns of the RV.
is of irresistible might and
84). He
self-existent. He
glows like fire,is a
is Indra, Varuna, Jatavedas. He
god; who
slays Vrtra, is accompanied by
the
and
bestows
wealth.
with
like
United
Maruts, grants victory
Indra,
and
foes.
One
short
Tap as, Ardour, he protects his adorers
slays their,
the
Faith1.
hymn of the RV.
(10, 151) is devoted
to
praise of Sraddha,
She
is said to be invoked
and
night. Through Faith fire is
morning, noon,
kindled and ghee offered. Through Faith wealth is obtained.
In the Brahmanas
Sraddha
is the daughter of the Sun
(SB. 12,7,3") or of Prajapati (TB. 2, 3,
still further worked
in the Epics and Puranas.
lo1). Her relationships
are
out
Favour
twice
Anumati,
(of the gods), occurs
as
a
personificationin the
RV.
is besought to be gracious and
She
let her worshippers long see
the
sun
(10, 596) and her protection is referred to (10, i673). In the AV.
and
VS.
she
becomes
a
goddess of love and presides over
propagation. The
later

day

ritual
before

nouns.

connected

full-moon

her
2.

with

the

Aramati,

regarding her as representingthe


Devotion, Piety, is occasionally
personified
moon,

III. RELIGION,

120

The

in the RV.
earth

well

as

3, but

wisdom

times

three

or

u.

KUNST.

counterpart in the

VEDIC

A.

Avestic

can
personification

the

MYTHOLOGY.

Armaiti,

geniusof

back

hardly go

to

the

as
a goddess
Bounty4, appears to be personified
is
the RV.
(i, 40^; 10, i4i2)- Asunlti,
Spirit-life,

period. Sunrta,

Indo-Iranian
two

has

name

as

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

in

of the RV.
(10,595"6J,
being besought to prolong
passage
Nirrti, Decease, Dissolution,appears
lifeand grant strengthand nourishment5.
death.
about
as
twelve times in the RV.
a
personification
presidingover

personifiedin

one

for the first time

personifications
appear

Other

in the later Vedas.

Kama,

is not, as in post-Vedic
(9, 2; 19, 52).
all
desires. His arrows,
with
a
literature,
god of love, but a deitywho fulfils
he pierceshearts, are
which
alreadyreferred to (AV. 3, 251). He is described

Desire, is deified in the AV.

as

the

first who

probably
(p. 13) of

to

(AV.

born

was

traced

be

the

to

he

Here

2I9). The

9,
kama

originof

the

in

'desire',which

conceptionis most
cosmogonic hymn

(10, i294), is called 'the first seed of mind'6. Kala,


Time, is personifiedas a cosmogonic force in the AV. (19, 53. 54)7, and
Skambha,
Support, an abstraction postulatedby the speculationof the A V.
the
the Alluniverse created by Prajapati,
to be praised as
comes
to uphold
god (AV. 10, 82)8. Prana, Breath, is also deified and identified with Prajaare
pati (AV. n, 412 "c.)9. Other personifiedabstractions of a like nature
of
found
Fortune
be
in
Sri
AV.10
or
as
to
a
personification Beauty
the,
first appears
in the SB. (n, 4, 31)11i

519;
BERG,

224;
HVBP.

RV.

the

Cp. OLDENBERG,
8, 770; 9, 690

ZDMG.
"

2;

50, 450 f.

Sp.AP.

151.

"

ZDMG.

200"3;

7,
HVBP.

608; IS. 5, 229.


136.
91; HRI.

ZDMG.
5 But
JRAS. 2, 460, n. 2.
50, 440.
cp. MM.,
SPH.
ZDMG.
OST.
76"7.
17, 290;
14, 269;
5, 402;
8 SPH.
"
HRI.
88.
SPH.
9 SPH.
209.
50"9;
35.

6
"

"

"

Aditi.

14.

"

"

"

WEBER,
SPH.
"

"

7,

OLDE*IS.

5,

78"82;
GGH.

4.

deity who, if rightlyinterpretedas the


of a pure
personification
abstraction,like those treated in the preceding
is not
paragraph, occupies an anomalous
positionin the RV. For the name
collection.
the
limited to the latest portion,but occurs
This
would
throughout
be
in which
for by the peculiarmanner
the personification
accounted
came
Otherwise this
to be correct.
about, supposing the explanationoffered below
have
classed with abstractions of the epithettype (" 39).
to be
deity would
The
the subject of any separate hymn, but is often
Aditi
is
not
goddess
celebrated
in
the
her
name
incidentally
RVV
occurringnearly eighty times.
alone
with her
Very rarelymentioned
(8, i914), she is constantly invoked
the
Adityas.
sons,
She
definite physical features.
has no
is often called a goddess
She
w
ho
is sometimes
'intact' (2, 4o6; 7, 4o4). She is widely
(devi),
styledanarva,
expanded (5,46"), extensive,a mistress of wide stalls (8, 6"712).She is bright
and
(i, I363: otherwise said of Mitraluminous, a supporter of creatures
Varuna
and
and Earth).
all
men
only),
(7,io4: also said of Heaven
belongs to
She is invoked
and
at morning, noon,
sunset
(5,693)1.
Aditi is the mother
of Mitra and Varuna
(8,253; io, 36^.1 326)as well as of
of kings (2, 27% cp. v. x),
she is called the mother
Aryaman (8,479). Hence
of excellent
sons
(3,4"), of powerful sons
(8,56"), of heroic sons (A V. 3,8 3;
said to be the
i11),or of eight sons
(10, 728; AV. 8, g21). She is once
n,
mother
of the_
and
Rudras, being the daughter of the Vasus
(strangeto say)
sister of the Adityas (8. 90^), and
the AV.
(6,41) mentions her brothers as
well as her sons.
In another
of the AV.
VS. 21, 5) she is
(7,62
passage
"41.

"

There

is

"

ZDMG.

"

one

invoked

as

the

great mother

of

the

devout,

the

mistress

of

rta" strong in

might,undecaying,widely extended, protecting,


guiding.Such passages
skilfully
and
the constant
invocation of Aditi along with the Adityas,her sons, show

GODS.

ABSTRACT

that

pasty a,
and
of
VS.

housewife
the

In

hood.

is

motherhood

her

mother

of
in

Visnu

(29, 6o

essential

an

ADITI.

121

trait.

characteristic

and

allude

epithet

Her

to

her

wife

of

mother

(4, 553; 8, 27^) may


possibly
Epic and Puranic
mythology Aditi is the daughter of Daksa
the gods in general, and
expressly of Vivasvat, the Sun, and
also

his

incarnation.

dwarf

TS.

41.

is said

She

be

to

the

Visnu

in

514).

7,

times

spoken of as protectingfrom distress (amhas), and


she is said to grant complete welfare
or
safety (10, 100;
i, 94 15),but she is
release
from
to
more
(i,24*5),
frequently invoked
guilt or sin. Thus Varuna
free
from
to
guilt
against
Agni (4, i24), and Savitr (5,826), are
besought
sin
and
Varuna
Aditi.
Mitra,
are
Aditi,
(2, 2714), Aditi
implored to forgive
bonds
and
to loosen
(the
of) sin (7, 93 7). Worshippers beseech
Aryaman,
sinless (i,i6222); prayingthat by fulfilling
Aditi to make
them
her ordinances
without
sin
towards
be
and
be cut
evildoers
Varuna
that
(7,
877)
they may
may
Aditi
off from
Hence
other
(10, 87l8).
though
gods, Agni (3, 5410), Savitr
Heaven
and
Earth
(4, 543),Sun, Dawn,
(10, 35*' 3) are petitioned to pardon
of releasing from
it is much
with
more
sin, the notion
closely connected
fetters that bind sinners
Aditi and
her son
are
characteristic,
Varuna, whose
unties sin like a rope
and
who
and
it (p. 26).
removes
This
is nearly allied to the etymology of the name.
notion
The
word
aditi is primarily
a noun
'bondlessness', from di-ti 'binding'
meaning 'unbinding',
derived
from
the root
(= Gk. 5=-ai-c),
da, 'to bind'. The
past passive parti
is
verb
describe
'bound'
of
this
to
ciple
(di-td)to the
employed
Sunahsepa
stake
Hence
Aditi
is
invoked
her
to release
as
a
goddess
(5,27).
naturally
worshippers like a tied (baddhd) thief (8, 6714). The
original unpersonified
of the RV.
Thus
seems
to survive in a few
meaning of 'freedom'
passages
'who
that
back
I
to
see
a
exclaims,
worshipper
gives us
great aditi,
may
father
and
mother'?
The
Adityas are
(i,241).
besought (7, 5I1) to 'place
the
(adititvef. The
offeringin guiltlessness(andgastve) and freedom
poet
and Earth
for 'the
the same
he prays
to Heaven
perhaps means
thing when
and
aditi also occurs
unlimited
secure
gift of aditi* (i, 1853). The word
Aditi

several
attribute
4,

is several

in

times
twice

of

of
adjectivalsense
Dyaus (5,598;10, 633)

the

'boundless'.
and

more

It

is thus

used

as

an

frequentlyof Agni (1,94*5;

i20; 7, 93; 8, i9"4).


The

indefiniteness

and
identifications,

of

the

would

name

the

conception
speculations found in

cosmogonic
said to have
the gods are
In the verse
14).
63 2; cp. p.
their
aditi),
mother, is said

was

the

easilyhave

naturallyaffected
more

recent

lent

by

itself to
the

portionsof

mystical
theogonic and

the

RV.

Thus

Aditi, the Waters, and Earth (10,


immediatelyfollowing,the 'boundless' Sky (dyaur
milk. Here
there
to supply the gods with honied
fore she appears
identified with the sky2. Elsewhere
to be
(1,72$;AV. 1 3,1 38)
this identification is frequent
Aditi seems
identified with the Earth, and
to be
in the TS. and SB.
of
is given as a synonym
In the Naighantuka the name
in
the
of
the
of
Heaven
and
Earth3.
In
earth, and,
dual,
passages
many
and Earth
from
Heaven
RV., however, she is distinguished
by being mentioned
(i;8910)Aditi
(io,63IO"c.)+. In another
separately along with them
passage
'Aditi
is
the
Universal
of
Nature:
a
personification
sky; Aditi is
represents
the
the air; Aditi is the mother, and
Aditi
is
all
and
gods and
father,
son;
shall be
the five tribes; Aditi is whatever
has been
born; Aditi is whatever
born'
(p. 1 6; cp. Katha
Up. 4, 7).
Though according to the older mythology of the RV. Aditi is the mother
of Daksa
as
an
Aditya (2, 271), she is in a cosmogonic hymn (10, 72*- s)
said to be his daughter as well as his mother
by the reciprocalgeneration
been

born

from

III. RELIGION,

122

is

which

notion

WELTL.

not

WISSENSCH.

unfamiliar

to

u.

the

KUNST.

RV.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

other
cp. 10, go5). In two
connected
in
such
are
a

(p.12;
deities

these

book

i A.

(5". 645)
be the mother
of Daksa, but seems
rather
to be
scarcely
way
of some
of the leading
him.
subordinate
to
Though Aditi is the mother
also.
Thus
she
deities,she plays an inferior part in a few other passages
her
the
with
of
Savitr
sons
Varuna, Mitra, Aryaman,
celebrates, along
praises
(7, 38*) and is said to have produced a hymn for Indra (8,i214, cp. 5, 31$).
luminous
of the
Adityas, Aditi is sometimes
Probably as the mother
for light(4, 25^, cp. 10, 36^), her im
is asked
with light. She
connected
is called
the face of Aditi
perishablelightis celebrated (7, 8210), and Dawn
(i,ii319). OccasionallyAditi is referred to in general terms which might
she
is implored to protect or bless her wor
apply to other deities. Thus
and
their
cattle
their
(8, i86- 7; i, 43 2J. She is prayed to
children,
shippers,
for wealth
(7, 40*), her pure, intact,celestial,imperishablegiftsare suppli
cated
(i, i853), and the large blessingsbestowed
by the Maruts are com
deeds
with
beneficent
of
the
Aditi
(i,
i66I2j.
pared
of the RV.
In some
(i, I533; 8, 9ol5; 10, n1 "c.) as well as
passages
in later Vedic
texts
(VS. 13, 43. 49), Aditi is spoken of as a cow,
and, in
the
is commonly
addressed
Aditi5.
Terrestrial
cow
as
ritual,a ceremonial
Soma
of Aditi (9, 96^);
and
milk
is compared to the milk
be
only can
of
who
the
Soma
meant6 by
Aditi
he flows to the vat
as
yieldsto
daughter
be a similar allusion when
(9, 693). There
priestswith their ten fingers
may
the lap of Aditi (9, 261. 7i5).
said to purifySoma
are
on
review
of the evidence
indicates that Aditi has two
A
and only two

hymns

of

the

that Aditi

prominent
of

tenth
can

characteristics.
of

whose

The

first is her

motherhood.

She

is the

mother

metronymic formation from hers.


group
main
Her
second
in conformitywith the etymologicalmeaning
characteristic,
of the name,
of releasingfrom
is her power
the bonds
of physicalsuffering
and moral
lead
would
to her
guilt.Mysticalspeculationon the name
being
boundless
identified
with
her
a
as
or
to
plenty,
styled cow,
representing
being
the

boundless

gods

name

earth, heaven,

or

represents

universe.

But

how

are

we

to

account

for

so

of such
for Aditi
abstract idea, and in particular
an
early a personification
thinks the transition to Aditi's
becoming the mother of the Adityas? BERGAIGNE?
is to be found
in such an expressionas dyaur aditih,the 'bound
motherhood
less sky',the mother
who
suppliesthe gods with milk (10,633)- According
and secondary adjectival
to this view, the rare
meaning 'boundless' would have
developed from being an epithetof the sky,otherwise characteristically
regarded
as
does
this explanation
a
father, into an independent female
deity. Nor
for
the
to
seem
account
satisfactorily
conception of Aditi releasingfrom
bondage. Another
explanation is possible. The
expression aditeh putrdh,
of Aditi, several
times applied to the Adityas in the RV., may
sons
in the
Vedic
'sons of freedom'
period have simply meant
(like sahasah
preputrah,
'son of strength':
and
describing a prominent qualityof Varuna
p. 12) as
Such
the
would
lead
an
to
gods.
cognate
personification
easily
expression^
of Aditi as
mother.
of Indra's
evolved
a
name
as
a
SimilarlySavasT wa?
mother
in the RV.
itself from
his epithet'Son
of Might' (savasah: p. 12)
and
Indra's epithetsacipati,'lord of might',later led to sad
being personi
fied as the wife of that god, the compound
of
'husband
as
being interpreted
Sacf.
The
of a metronymic Aditya, son
formation
tend to
of Aditi, would
the limitation of the group
deified personification
The
comprising her sons.
would
with the originalmeaning of existence
naturally retain a connexion
free from
all fetters,
but would
few additional fluctuating
assume
a
attributes,
such
from
the Adityas. As
as
mother
of the leadinggods
of some
brightness,

III. RELIGION,

124

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

Goddesses

"

VEDIC

A.

MYTHOLOGY.

GODDESSES.

E.

" 43. Goddesses.

KUNST.

u.

occupy

subordinate

very

positionin
of the world.

rulers

worship. They play hardly any part as


importance is Usas, who judged by the statisticalstan
any
dard ranks
as
a
deity of the third class (p. 20). But, unlike nearly all the
share
in the Soma
received
Sashe
no
offering1.Next to her comes
gods,
with
the
lowest
ranks
of
class
deities.
A
rasvatl
(" 33), who, however, only
in
other
few
one
Prthivi,hardly sepa
hymn each.
goddesses are praised
short
of three
from
rable
stanzas
(" 34).
hymn
Dyaus, is praised in one
Like
is
also
in
invoked
her
sister
one
(10,
127).
hymn
Dawn,
Ratri, Night,
is
She
conceived
the
the
of
Heaven.
she is called
not
as
dark,
daughter
shines manifoldly with her eyes. Decked
but as the bright starlit night. She
with all splendour,she fills the valleysand heights,
drivingaway the darkness
home
like
her
birds to their nests.
with light. At
return
men
approach
and
the
the
is invoked
wolf
She
to keep away
thief,guiding her worshippers
to safety. Night probably became
a
goddess by way of antithesis to Dawn,
she is invoked
in several verses
with whom
as
a dual
divinity2
(pp. 48. 129).
in
is
celebrated
one
(10,
hymn
Vac, personifiedSpeech,
125
cp. 71), in
all
and
she
She
the
describes herself.
which
accompanies
gods
supports
Rudra's
bow
She
bends
Mitra-Varuna, Indra-Agni,and the Asvins.
against
the unbeliever.
Her
She
all
place is in the waters, the sea.
encompasses
called
and
In
of
the
another
she
is
beings.
(8,89IO"n)
gods
passage
queen
In
the
divine3.
the Naighantuka (5,5) Vac
is enumerated
deities
among
belief and

Vedic

only

The

of the

of

one

and

atmosphere;

thunder,

or

mddhyamika

'the voice

vac,

of the

middle

nave
(Nir. 1 1 27), may
region',in the terminology of the commentators
of
about
A
Vac
been the starting
the
point
personification. legend
frequently
referred
is that of Soma
to in the Brahmanas
being bought back from the
Gandharvas
the price of Vac
into a woman
transformed
at
(AB. i, 27).
whose
about nine times in the RV., is goddess of
name
occurs
Puramdhi,
with BhagaS, two
three times
or
Plenty4. She is nearly always mentioned
and
also with Pusan
and
\vith Visnu
Savitr,and once
Agni. Parendi, com
monly regarded as identical with Puramdhi, is generallyconsidered a goddess
of riches and
abundance
HILLEBRANDT,
(cp. Yast 8, 38) in the A vesta6.
thinks
Puramdhi
is a
however,
goddess of Activity7. Another
goddess of
,

abundance

is D his

Nourishment,
RV.)

of

the

from

the

cow.

though
it

occurs

as

actual

one

of

whether

called

the literal

the

called

She

the

is

place
of

son

(3"299' I0)-

synonyms

generally
the

nourishment'

of

is also
the

herd

with

sacrifice (7, 44").

The

name

of

35)

the

as

well

goddess

to

Dadhikravan
In

as

said

(yutha]
the

SB.

the

Mahl

the

RV8.

I la,

Apr!

to

be

the

the

of

nature

(10, 7o8).

hymns,

in which

As
she

It is doubtful

BharatR

is intended

and

with,

Naighantuka (2, n)

butter-footed

or

of the

by

the

phrase ilayas

sacrificial fire). Agni is

once

place of his production


her son
(10, 95l8). She is once
with UrvasT
connected
(5,4i19).
to

and
she

of Mitra-Varuna

Brhaddiva

and

in

personifiedsense
(i.e.

in the

Owing

cow.

(7, i68)

appears
and

of

Pururavas

5,

of

SarasvatI

or

mentioned

morning
(i, 8, i8; ii,

in

frequently connected

and

cow;

Ila, clearlyin allusion

mother

once

the

triad with

the

times

dozen

Brahmanas

of, the

name

butter-handed

personificationshe

_pade, 'in

nearly

is in the

Ida

an

is called

usually forms

mentioned

a,

(mentioned less than a dozen times in the


personification
of
and
milk
butter,thus representingplenty derived
offering
Hence

never

offeringIla

an

is the

occurs

the

the Asvins

is called

the

(1,8, i2?;
four

in reference

daughter

14, 9,
in

times

to

of

427;ASS.

hymns

the

Manu
i,
to

7?).
the

GODDESSES.

43Visvedevas.

(2, 314;
to

is called

She

and

Raka
5, 41 T9), SarasvatI
mentioned
only twice in the RV.

give) is

is invoked

who

is mentioned

(10, 6410) and


(5, 42"). Raka

mother

125

bountiful

Ila

Yrd,

from

(probably

rich and

as

with

goddess,

with

is referred
others
to in two
(2, 327; 5, 42I2J. Sinivali
is
She
sister
of
the
(2,
a
hymns
gods, broad-,
10, 184).
32;
mistress
of
is
the
hipped, fair-armed, fair-fingered,prolific,a
family, and
with
implored to grant offspring. She is invoked
SarasvatT, Raka, as well
as
Gungu (who is only mentioned
here). In the AV.
(8, 46^) Sinlvali is
called
tion

of

the

RV.

the

wife

of

goddess

Sinlvali

being
the

are

first

Kuhu,

of

new

found

and

personificationof

is

Brahmanas

also

moon10.

Raka

new

of

full

nothing to

show

day

actual

There

the

the

with phases of the

connected

of the

moon.

in the

Samhitas

later

texts

presidingdeity

day

be

The
a

in later Vedic

the

is to

Visnu.

the

former

latter,of

such

that any

and

the

moon,

and

moon,

men

connexion

RV11.

in the RV.
have
goddesses occasionally mentioned
already
been
referred
of the Maruts
to.
Prsni, the mother
(p.78) pre
incidentally
storm-cloud12.
word
is also used
The
sumably represents the mottled
as
an
of speckled (cp. 7, io36-IOJ, in the
adjective in the sense
as
an
singular
attribute
of both
in the
bull and
and
which
milk
plural,of the cows
cow,
Soma
for Indra
to mean
(i,84*"- "; 8, 61?. 710. 58^. It thus came
'speckled
in the RV.
cow', and finally'speckled cloud'.
occurs
once
Saranyu
(10, if2)
the
of Tvastr's
Vivasvat.
The
to
as
name
most
daughter, wedded
likely
which
be
that
with
identifies
her
the
sun-maiden
to
seems
interpretation
The
word
also occurs
four times
Surya; or Usas, the Dawn^.
as
an
adjec
tive in the RV.
meaning 'swift'. It is an ordinarySanskrit formation, derived
with
the
suffix -yu
from
run), like caran-yu
speed (]Ar, to
sarana,
A

and

few

other

others.
Goddesses

wives

as

part in the Veda.

representingthe
anything
from

of

They

the

is not

Rudrani

the
of

insignificant
great gods similarlyplay an
altogetherwithout independent character,simply
such
have
had.
gods as Indra must
Hardly

are

with

gods

'wife of Indra'14.

ant

the

whom
spouses
is mentioned
them

about

those

of

VarunanI

Agnayl
Sutras, but

part in the cult than any


Asvins
is once
in the RV.

gods' (devandm

the

the

Brahmanas

the

gods (SB.

6, 19;

207

ORV.

Ahriman

COLINET,

"

"

of

Cp. OLDENBERG,
4,

23,

2, 24554,

liturgievedique,

ii;

SEE.

Or.

; Trans.

121

46, 190.

SEE.

MILLS,

GGH.

i,

Nir.
his

10,

39,

p.

predecessors

"

145.
are

"

"

63

"

4)

see

below,

p.

9.

2
"

DARMESTETER,

"

31,

PVS.

25;

Cong. 1892,

"

"

J3

stated.

" 62.

51;

ZDMG.

9,

"

"

JAOS.
172;
and

the

OLDENBERG,
PAOS.

39,

JAOS.
Sr.AP.

7 HILLE-

"

serie, p. iff.,
2.
46, 120
238.326; SEE. 46, 11.

LVIII.

ORV.

Surya

OST.

Ormazd

I, 202;

396"420.

i,

ORV.

BLOOMFIELD,

16 KRV.
15 ORV.
n.
148; on
219.
32, 299.
BRV.
IS. 5, 178"89;
PVS.
486;
2,
i, 13"29;
ORV.
female
divinities cp. HOPKINS,
17 On
241.

pp.

apart from

"

BRV.
168"9;
i, 325;
KZ.
288; BAUNACK,
34, 563."
on

cult

IS. 9, 473 ff.; BRI.


ZDMG.
16; OLDENBERG,
226.
4 PVS.
BLOOMFIELD,
2, 202"16;

142"3.
LXX;

la

1'histoire de

sur

"

IS.

12

(above

the

Vedica,
3, 188"94.
259
73; cp. also V.HENRY,
8 pyS.
de
Societe
ling. 9.
2, 82 ff.; OLDENBERG,

la

WEBER,

156. 191.
Cp. ROTH
the
opinions

in

them

wife of

The

'wives
p. 5i)x6. The
in the RV.
in
have

"

de

Memoires

-dni^.

occasionallymentioned

WEBER,

HRI.

BOR.

WZKM.

BRANDT,

"

SEE.

25;

9;

"

she

other

to

simply

the

RV., but rarely.


decidedly more
import

occur

place assigned

Recherches

79 f.

85"6;
63.

WC.

58"9;
et

i, 9,

HRI.

in

formed

is

Indrdm

211)17.

BERGAIGNE,

5, 191;

also

simply

are

Thus

plays a
goddesses in
AsvinI
(= Surya:

the

called

patmti)

established

an

of

which

names,

suffix -ani.

and

till the

found

their

but
feminine

the

1889,

ire

15,

SEE.

"

IS. 5, 228
172

"

ff.

"

88, where

KZ.
cp. LEUMANN,
Asvins
cp. WEBER,
GGA.
p. CLXII;

1889, 7"8;
on

Sarama

RELIGION,

III.

126

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

".

pairs of

About

occasionally separable1.
of the
least sixtyhymns
at
than

more

hymns

The

RV.

of

but

several
to

dual, accented,

are

thus

are

of

name

dedicated

are

six
Jndra-vayii,

to

seven

members

gods

combinations,

these

Eleven

both
dozen

and parts
twenty-three,

"

Mitravdrund,.
about

of

half

names

which

in

compound

dual

MYTHOLOGY.

mythology is the celebration in


are
joined in the form of a special

Vedic

of

of deities whose

number

of

kind

peculiarfeature

44.

VEDIC

A.

DIVINITIES.

DUAL

F.

KUNST.

u.

Indra
far

conjointlypraised in
into

enters

seven

or

the

of
largest number
others
is addressed, to the pair
Indragnl, nine to Indrd-vdrund,

by

"

two
DySvd-prthivt,

to

and

each

Indrd-sdmd

to

and
Indrd-brhaspdti,

and

and

Somd-nidrd,

each

one

other

few

Agm-sdmd.

Indrdvisnii,I

to

ndrd-pusdnd,Somd-pusdnd,
of
couples, includingthe names

mentioned

in detached
invoked
above, are
verses.
These
are
Indra-ndsatyd, Indrd-parvatd, Indrd-marutah, Agiii-parjanyd,Paror
(less often) Ndktosdsd,
jdnyd-vdtd (once Vdtd-parjanya), Usdsdndkta
nine

deities not

ten

or

Suryd-masd
There

or

Suryd-candramdsa.
be

can

littledoubt

that the

analogy

for this favourite

formation

and

Heaven
furnished
Earth2, the pair which to
by Dyavaprthivl,
in nature, that the myth of
connected
earlythought appeared so indissolubly
their conjugal union is found
widely diffused among
primitivepeoples3 and
the Veda
from
down
has therefore probably come
to
a
period anterior to
that immediately preceding the separationof the Indo-European nations.
In
RV.
that
the
itself this couple is so closelyassociated
while they are invoked
is devoted
to the
as
a
pair in six hymns, not one
praise of Dyaus alone
was

and

only

poets

ing

to

of

one

three

dissociate the
rain of heaven

the

verses

two,
from

that

to

that

her cloud

of

Prthivl.

in this hymn

even

So

hard

Heaven
i,

and

Earth

i855, owing
hundred

the

more

to

times

are

the
in

the

praisedfor send

(5,843). The dual compound,


of Dyaus as a god. It
name

frequentlythan
Dydvdksdmd
cluding the comparatively rare
synonyms
about
hundred
a
times, or more
frequentlythan the name
occurs

much

it for

was

Prthivl is

and
of

moreover,
in

occurs,

Dydvabhiiml,
any

other

pair.

also

called rodasi, the two


worlds (spoken of as sisters,
of
the
gender
word), an expressionoccurring at least
the

RV.

Heaven
Earth
and
are
parents, being often
father
and
as
styledpitard, mdtard, janitri, and also separately addressed
mother
(i, I591"3. i6o2). They are primeval parents (7, 532; 10, 658). Their
and
sustain
marriage is referred to in the AB. (4, 275~6)1 They have made
all creatures
i6o2.
themselves
(i,I592.
185'). Though
footless,they support
much
offspringwith feet (i, i852). They are the parents of the gods also;
for to them
exclusivelybelongs the epithet dei'dputre,
'having the gods as
sons'.
They are in particular said to be the parents^of Brhaspati (7, 978)
and
and, with the Waters
Tvastr, to have
begotten Agni (10, 2 7). At the
time they are
in different passages
created by
same
spoken of as themselves
individual gods. Thus
and
observes
who
heaven
that he
a
produced
poet
earth must
have been
the most
skilful artisan of all the gods (i, i6o4; 4, 563).
Indra is said to have
generated or fashioned them (6,3o5; 8, 36*; 10, 296.543).
Visvakarman
received their
produced them (10, 8i2 cp. AV.
12, i6o)5. They
forms from
Tvastr
(10, no?). They sprang from the head and feet of Purusa
(10,90*4). But one
produced and which
poet is puzzled as to how
they were
of the two
first came
into being (i, 185*; cp. p. i3)6. Many
of the epithets
applied to Dyavaprthivl are suggested by their physicalcharacteristics. The
is a prolific
one
bull,the other a variegatedcow
(i, i6o3). They are both
rich in seed
(i, I592; 6, 701-2). They yield milk, ghee, and honey abundantly

44-

DUAL

DIVINITIES.

127

old (6,70*).
(6, 7Q1"5), and produce amrta
(i,i$92. i856). They never
grow
(i, i6o2). They are broad and
They are great (i, I591) and wide-extended
(i, i856). They are fair-faced, wide, manifold, with ends which
great abodes
far away
are
(i, i856-7). Sometimes, however, moral
qualitiesare attributed
them.
wise
and
to
They are
righteousness (i, I591)- As father
promote
and
mother
they guard beings (i, i6o2) and protect from disgrace and mis
fortune
(i, i8510). They grant food and wealth
(6, yo6; i, I595) or bestow
and
fame
dominion
i6o5).
(i,
are
They
sufficiently
personifiedto be
great
called
leaders
of the
sacrifice and
conceived
be
to
as
seating themselves
around
the sacrifice (4, 562"7),as
coming to their worshippers along with the
heavenly folk (7,532), or taking the sacrifice to the gods (2, 4i20). But
Heaven
and
Earth
attained
never
to a
living personificationor importance
in worship. These
deities
in most
of the
two
But
are
quite coordinate.
other
of the two
couples one
greatly predominates, his characteristic qualities
being shared by his companion. Thus Indra-Agniare conjointlycalled 'wielders
of the bolt' and
Occasionally an attribute of the lesser deity
'Vrtra-slayers'.
is predicated of both.
Indra-Visnu
Thus
taken
are
together said to have
wide
strides (6, 6g5). Frequent association
of this kind
lead
to
a
deity
may
he
receiving by himself an epithet to which
originallyhad no
right. Thus
is often called a 'Vrtra-slayer'.
alone
characteristics
The
Agni when mentioned
of each
member
of the pair are, however, in some
distinguished7.
passages
Next
and
is Mitrato Heaven
Earth, the pair most
frequently named
Varuna.
These
deities are
invoked conjointly in many
two
more
hymns than
their
dedicated
Mitra
As
has
are
to
hardly any individual
separate praise.
the same
attributes and
functions
traits,
belong to the pair conjointly as to
Varuna
alone.
added
therefore
be
here
what
to
Scarcely anything need
has already been
said about
conceived
Varuna.
The
are
as
couple
young
men
(3,54'"; 7,62s). Like various other gods, they are spoken of as shining
(candrd), bright(sud), sunlike (svardrs),ruddy (rudra), and terrible (ghora}.
The
in the compound
of Mitra
priorityof the name
to indicate
might seem
that he was
t
he
it
more
important deity;
originally
is,however, probably due
the
the shorter word
the first member
of a com
simply to
tendency to make
pound. This dual invocation goes back to the Indo-Iranian
period, for Ahura
Mithra
and
thus coupled in the Avesta8.
are
the two
universal
monarchs
the
Indra-Varuna,
out
(i, 17'), hollowed
channels
of the waters
and
in motion
in the sky (7, 82^). They
the sun
set
are
vanquishers of Vrtra
(6, 682), aid in battle (4, 41")? and grant victory
(i, 177). They cast their mighty bolt against the wicked
They
(4, 4i4).
bestow
of
protection and prosperity(i, i77'8),fame, wealth, and abundance
steeds
(4, 41 *-10;6, 688). They are drinkers of the pressed Soma, their car
and
themselves
to the sacrifice,
seated
comes
to exhilerate
they are invoked
the sacrificial grass
characteristics
the
on
of
In
some
(6, 6810-11).
passages
each
member
the
is
of
Varuna
besought to
pair are distinguished.Thus
divert

his

(7,842).

wrath

from

Indra

is contrasted

his

worshippers,and

Indra

to

procure

them

wide

space

slays Vrtra, with Varuna


god
who
in
wisdom
and
men
asso
supports
(6, 68^; 7, 825-6.853). The
peace
ciation of the
is invoked
is very
intimate; for Indra
couple Indra-Agni^
conjointlywith Agni in more
hymns than with any other deity10,while Agni
is otherwise
addressed
dual divinityonly in one
as
a
hymn and two detached
with Soma
verses
and
in one
with
verse
Parjanya. Indra-Agni, the best of
Soma-drinkers
drink
their car
Soma
to
(i, loS1), and are
on
(i, 2I1), come
invited together to
sit down
it (7, 936; 8, 384-7~9), to
drink
and
on
come
the sacrificial grass
with
themselves
the
and
exhilerate
at
the
to
offering,
as

the

warlike

who

III. RELIGION,

128

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

KUNST.

u.

VEDIC

i A.

MYTHOLOGY.

called

Vrtra-slayers. They are


with the bolt (6, 593 "c.),
armed
lightningis sharp (5,863). They
aid in battle (i,1097-*). They
together demolished
fort-destroyerswho
are
(3, i26) and are invincible in battle (5,862). They
the 99 forts of the Dasa
their imprisonment (8,48s) and
released the rivers from
accomplished heroic
bountiful
are
deeds together (i, io85). They
(5,863). All these are traits
are

often

and

their

pressed draught (i, lop5). They

Indra-Agni are also called the two priestsof sacri


wise (8,403). They are lords of the abode
are
(sadaspafi)
fice (8, 381), and
features
the goblins (x,2i5). These
more
are
and drive away
appropriate
have
father
twin brothers
who
The
one
two
(6,592).
to Agni.
gods are
in
close
allusion
this
Asvins11
called
to
(i, io94), possibly
They are once
food, wealth, strength, cattle,steeds (4,6oI3~14).
relationship.They bestow
heaven
and
than
mountains
(i, io96).
earth, rivers, and
They are
greater
addressed
when
as
The
not
a
are
once
contrasted,
two
pair;
though
gods
The
but
the
two
said
Indra
to slay,
Dasyus (6, 284).
Agni to burn,
being
invi
consist chiefly of
to Indra-Brhaspati
hymns (4, 49; 7, 97) addressed
and of prayers
tations to drink Soma
to bestow
abounding in
great wealth
invited to
devotion.
steeds and
are
to
Indra-Vayu
constantly
promote
them.
and
Soma
else
about
said
drink
little
They
come
(i,231"2 "c.),
being
to the
(4,472~4) or in their golden-seatedcar
come
offeringwith their teams
themselves
the sacrificial litter (7, 9i4). They
are
on
(4, 46*) and seat
and
of
devotion
lords
of
lords
might
233),
(dhiyas
patt:
thousand-eyed,
i,
in
wealth
bestow
(savasas patl: 4, 473). They help in battle (7,924) and
warlike
and
exploits
perform the
steeds, cattle,
gold (7,9o6). Indra-Soma
characteristic of Indra.

characteristic of Indra
made

They

the

dragon, depressed

the

actions

great cosmic

the

or

flow

waters

for

wheel

of

released

man,

the

ascribed

often

so

the

The

(4,28I"2;6, 72^).

sun

him.

to

rivers, slew

seven

the

work

true

they destroyedtheir foes and broke


open
enclosed
in the rock
what was
(4, 284- 5). They performed the first great
and
deeds in findingthe sun
light,dispellingthe darkness, causing the sun
to shine, supporting heaven, and
spreading out the earth (6, 72'- 2). They
of

the

bountiful

two

gods

that

was

of
bodies
placed ripemilk in the raw
who
might to men
(ib.5).Indra-Visnu,

too

(madapaft)^are

intoxication
and

to

fill their

toxication

of

existence.

invited

belly with
made

to

As

vocations

of

their

jointlyin only one


pound only twice.
companion.

With

of

(ib.4).They grant victorious


receptaclesof Soma, lords of

with

it.

The

the

air broader, and

two

Soma,
victorious,they grant
generators

are

come

Ever

dangers.

cows

all

prayers,

gods

their steeds,to drink Soma,

strode

wealth,
they are

widely

out

spread
and

conduct

When

him

made

the

great

waters

in

across

form

in

the

invoked

are

for

spaces
hear

to

in

the

safely

besought

worshippers (6,69) I2. Indra-Pusan


short hymn
(6, 57), and their names
Indra

the

out

dual

con
com

his
was
flow, Pusan
(6, 562). One of them
he
slays Vrtras, while

friend,Indra slays Vrtras


steeds
with which
by two
the other
desires gruel (karambhd) and
is drawn
by goats. Mention is once
made
the
of
of
abode
(i, i622)
a
(pdthas)
Indra-Pusan, to which
goat con
ducts
the sacrificialhorse.
The
two
gods are as usual also besought to confer
welfare and
booty.
Soma-Pusan
invoked
darkness
and
to quicken
(2, 40) drive away
are
the
seven-wheeled
five-reined car, yoked
which
out
measures
by thought,
and
They are generators of wealth, of heaven
earth, and protectors
space.
of the world
the gods made
of immortality.
the
centre
(cp. 10, i73), whom
drinks

For

Soma

them

they

bestow

and

Indra

as

is drawn

is invoked

victory over

to

foes

produce ripe milk


and

grant

in

abundance

the

raw

of

cows.

wealth

Together
and

food.

44-

But

they

also

are

contrasted.

DIVINITIES.

DUAL

One

129
made

has

of them

high in
generatedall beings,
abode

his

in air; one
earth and
on
in
Soma-Rudra
*3.
(6, 74) are
seeing everything
voked
sickness and decay from
the house, to place all remedies
to drive away
them
all sin, and
in the bodies
from
of their worshippers, to
to
remove
the
free from
fetter of Varuna.
they are besought
Wielding sharp weapons,
have
and
beast.
and
to
are
implored for prosperity to man
Agnimercy
confined
Soma
the
celebrated
are
streams,
together for having released
obtained
time
the light,
in the sky. At the same
and
the luminaries
set
they
said
from
M
atarisvan
the
have
to
one
are
distinguished,
brought
heaven,
being
and
the eagle the other
the rock
from
(i,93). Their joint help and pro
tection
are
invoked, and they are besought to grant cattle,horses, offspring,
several
health, happiness, and wealth
(10, 19*. 667). This pair is mentioned
times
in the AV.
'two
The
of
In the MS.
as
are
eyes'.
spoken
(3,71) they
SB. refers to them
that
the
also
brothers
sun
as
(n, i, 619),
belongs
stating
to
Soma
to
Agni and the moon
(i, 6, 324). In the ritual Agni-Soma seem
share
in the Soma
to receive
never
a
offering,but only cakes and animal
sacrifices. It is somewhat
who
that the two
remarkable
great ritual deities,
form
outside
in
sacrificial
the
the
a
literature,
should,
frequent couple
very
mentioned
twice
their
devoted
be
one
to
as
a
hymn
(i, 93)
praise,
only
pair,and that only in the most recent part of the RV.14
A few other pairs are
invoked in detached
verses
only. Agni-Parjanya
mentioned
in one
are
are
52l6).
together besought to
(6,
They
passage
bestow
food and
time
the one
the
but
at
same
contrasted,
being
are
progeny,
said to have
other
oblation
and
the
the
(garbham).
(ildm)
offspring
produced
bulls of earth
invoked
in four passages.
As
Parjanya-Vata
are
they are
besought (6,496) to impel the watery vapours
(purisani).Along with IndraVayu and other gods, they are invoked
as
(purlsina)bulls (10,659).
vaporous
In another
food (6,5o12).
abundant
enumeration
entreated
bestow
to
they are
connected
with 'the
also
Nir.
invoked
as
once
They are
(10, 6610 cp.
7, 10)
invoked
several
and Night
are
thunderingbuffalo' (probably Dyaus15). Dawn
times.
almost
or
They are mentioned
exclusivelyin Visvedeva
Apr! hymns.
(7, 26; 10, no6),
They are rich goddesses (2, 31$; 10, yo6),divine maidens
like
wives (i, I222)
of
heaven
two
daughters
(5, 417; 10, 7o6). They are
and
suckle
abound
in milk
their
colour
a
they
single
(2, 36). Changing
child who
sisters
beams
and
earth
between
two
heaven
(i, 965). They are
who
and
of one
mind
but
of different colour, whose
are
path is the same
clash
stand
and
never
or
endless,who, taught by the gods, move
alternately
still (1,1133). They
of order
the shiningmothers
(i, I427); they con
are

heaven, while

while

duct

the

with

the

other

dwells

other

moves

brightrays

every

offering(5.4i7)

and

weave

invoked,

and

sit

(2, 36). They

are
bountiful,much
(7, 26). They are
great and
Appearing alternatelythey arouse
are

mentioned

in

five times

of

suryacandramdsa.
of SuryaT7. In
name
Thus
they are said to
the act
of Brhaspati

that

Creator

and

path

fashioned

like

sun

fication when
few

and
the

most

are

sacrificial

the

grass

(10, 361. no6; i, i37. 1427).


livingthings (2,3i5)16. Sun and Moon

all

of

form
the

snrydmasd

only

the

and

dual

concrete

alternatelyso
sun

sacrifice-

well-adorned

cases

move

on

of

moon

that
rise

and

three

compounds

times

formed

in

that

with

the

meaner
only are
It is
(i,
io22).
may
The
6810).
alternately(10,
luminaries

"

"j
.1

see

we

(10, 190 3). A poet says, 'let us go on our


moon'
personi
is,however, an incipient
(5, 5i15). There
with other
deities (10,64$. 9212. 935). In a
pair is invoked
and
evidently
though not expressly mentioned, are
moon,
sun

sun
passages
in
of
their
thought
Indo-arische

These

the

web

the

dual

Philologie. III. 1

A.

moon

character.

'The

two

go

round

the

sacrifice like
9

III. RELIGION,

130

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

all

playingchildren; the one surveys


is
seasons' (10, 85l8). There

(the
bright

eyes

two

of

eyes

again,ordering
the

by

meant

are

heaven

made

two

the

by

(i, 72").

immortals

MM.,
842.
50,

2,

606.

OST.

"

456.
1890, p.

i,

ZDMG.

BERG,

89;

39,

"

ibid. 2, 299.

HRI.

79.

17

"

228.

4,

16

"

ZDMG.

OLDENBERG,

GROUPS

G.

LRV.

Cp.

15

22

362. 825-6.
839.
ZDMG.
OLDENBERG,
io
Cp. FAY, 'AJP. 17,
OST.
5, 180; HVM.
7,

"

"

93.
HAUG

3,

"

683;

6, 52*6. 572.

Mitra
EGGERS,
70;
29"31;
MACDONELL,
JRAS. 25, 470.
13
MACDONELL,
JRAS. 27, 175.
des
Die
Hymnen
Rigveda I, 267; HILLEBRANDT,

458"61.

i,

cp. ORV.

159;

Mythology).
6
Cp. Nirukta

"

12

"

HVM.

401;

(Chapter on

Cp.

"

404-5;

2,

Sp.AP.

"

5,

5, 220;

2,

14

"

OST.

614.
OLDENBERG,

LSL.

"

"

308.

2,

RV.

853.
46.

vol.

AB.,

of the

LSL.

98.

i,
297 f.; HVM.
Culture
322"8

Primitive

TYLOR,

240.
Translation
"

OGR.

i6if.;

KHF.

14.

the

MYTHOLOGY.

is born

other

that they

doubt

by

VEDIC

i A.

beings,the

no

and

(8, 4i9)

of Varuna

KUNST.

u.

50,

KRV.

GGA.
OLDEN

52;

63.

GODS.

OF

of more
recognised a certain number
associated
with
less definite groups
some
or
beings,generally
par
whose
ticular god. The
largest and most
important of these, the Maruts,
180
is variouslystated to be 21
in the RV.
number
or
(p. 78), is, as has
been
as
attendingIndra in his warlike exploits
shown, constantlydescribed
of Rudras
the name
is occasionallyasso
under
same
(p.57). The
group
The

" 45.

divine

of

ciated
treated
AB.

as,
SB.

(7, io4. 356).

Rudra
in

the

or

constantly associated either with their


chief Varuna
(7, 356 "c.). This group
inasmuch

Maruts

in

quently mentioned
are

neither

conceived
which
with

leader

the

characterized
as

Varuna
the

its members

as

is

more

is their

nor

Aditi with

or
are

the

invoked

two

with

Aditi

separate

Indra,

356).But

is

smaller

the

other

RV.

that

of

the
fre

group

two, for they

That

they

were

in
by two passages
Rudras, and Indra

shown

with

the

with their

or

third

is

RV.

the

than
A

names.

in the

The

(7, io"- "c.)

mentioned.

number

the Rudras,
eleven

twelve, is in

than

vague

be

of

definite

more

Adityas, Rudra

(7,io4.

to

passages

becomes

mother

have

speciallyconnected

Vasus,

of the

RV.

in

of

(i, 4, n1).

TS.

the

is

number

The

is stated

Brahmanas,

in
(p. 19) but is thirty-three
whose
number
the
Adityas,
eight (p.43) and in the Brahmanas

of

seven

father

separate class

and

group

their

with

the Veda

of

mythology

the

in later Vedic

texts

eight in number

Agni

is the

in the AB.

and
They are regarded as
The
three groups
of the
(p.19), but in the TS. (5, 5, 25) become
333.
and
Vasus
of the
invoked
are
together in a few passages
Adityas, Rudras
RV.
Brahmanas
The
6612
io*.
as
356)2.
(2,3 11; io,
distinguish,, three
cp. 7,
of gods, the Vasus
of earth, the Rudras
of air,and
kinds
the Adityas of
heaven
(SB. i, 3, 4"; 4, 3, 51). In the Chandogya Upanisad (3, 6
io) five
with Agni, the Rudras
with
are
mentioned, the Vasus
being connected
groups
with Soma, and
the Sadhyas with
Indra, the Adityas with Varuna, the Maruts
Brahma
of the semi-divine
(cp.RV. io, 97- l6)3. There is besides the group
who
with
are
Angirases
chieflyconnected
Brhaspati("" 36, 54) and the
small
of the three Rbhus
who
one
are
nearly always associated with Indra
is formed
of the Visvedevah
(" 46). Finally,a comprehensive group
or
who
in
f
or
least
the
at
an
sacrifice,
All-gods,
forty
important position
occupy
entire hymns of the RV.
devoted
to their praise.It is a factitious sacri
are
ficial group
should
be
meant
to
represent all the gods in order that none
in laudations
excluded
be addressed
intended
all. But
the All-gods
to
to
sometimes
conceived
are
as
narrower
a
being invoked with other
group,
such
the
and
Vasus
as
Adityas (2, 3^)4.
groups,
Vasus1.

SB.

"

'

IS.

5, 240;

BRV.

PERRY, JAOS. 16, 178.

"

2,
3

370;

WEBER,

BLOOMFIELD,
IS. 9,

6; SPH.

FaR.
23.

151.
"

"

HRI.

LRV.

137. 143,

6, 147;
note

i.

cp.

182.

III. RELIGION,

132

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

KUNST.

u.

MYTHOLOGY.

VEDIC

A.

(suhastdh) and skilful (apds,suapas: 4, 331'8"c.); their skilful deeds


being incomparable (3,60-*). They are frequently said to have acquired the
handed

divinity(3,60 T). By
they
like eagles in
and
immortal, alighting
gods
air who

the

of

their

obtained

deeds

their

by
they

skilful services

went

skill.

of their marvellous

in consequence

gods

of

rank

Through

skilful

mounted
heaven
to
energy
the path of immortality to
and

the

their

became

they

(4, 358). They


(i, no6).

heaven

the

their wondrous

deeds

host

of

are

men

For

their

the

gods

friendship
(4,333"4.

gods
(4, 353), obtainingimmortalityamong
mortals, children of Manu, who
by their
originally
353. 364). But they were
The
AB.
(3,3o2) speaks of
industry acquired immortality(3,6o3; i, no4).
who
them
men
as
by austerity
(tapas)obtained a right to partake of Soma
the
gods rejoiced so greatly in their work, that Vaja
gods. The
among
artificer
the
of
the
of Indra, and
Vibhvan
of Varuna
became
gods, Rbhuksan
the sacrifice,or
obtained
share
of
to the gods and
a
(4" 339)- They went
the
the
sacrifice,among
gods through their skilful work
(i, 2ou8. i2i6- /).
the
third or
Thus
evening pressing or libation (savana) belongs to them,
it by
obtained
their skilful work
they having
(i, i6i8; 4, 33". 344. 35").
They are thus sometimes
expresslyinvoked as gods (4, 365. 37').
Like

higher gods, they

the

besought

are

to

give prosperityand wealth


to grant vigour,nourish

(4?338-375X m
to the Soma
(i,in2). They grant treasures
offspring,
dexterity
presser
(1,20?; 4,356).He whom
they help is invincible in fight(4, 366), and Rbhu
and
Vaja are besought to give aid and booty in battle (i, n55).
verb
The
same
to the
taks, to fashion,is generallyused with reference
manual
skill of the Rbhus
The
five great feats of dexterity
to that of Tvastr.
as
by which
they became
gods, are spoken of with pretty uniform frequency
cattle,horses, heroes

(4, 3410), and

ment,

and

all

are

their

is

which
in

When

be

only

(4?33

loose

It

the Rbhus

made

(i, 2o3)

formed

way

fashioned

They guarded

the

fashioned

and

her

or

is

formed

inferred
Brhaspati may
yoked the two bay steeds and
the omniform
(cow). A minor
nected
with the foregoing one,
be

her

calf

The

two

who

of

their

again

and

were

feats

fashioned
fame

as

same

bay

two

made

i6i3;

to

4,

themselves, this

appears

exploit.
(hari) which

waft

him

reference

same

feat

steeds

make

to

horse

the
or

as

having

(i, i6i3; 4, 34$), which yields


they
(4,338). This cow
(arinitd)from a hide (i,i6i7"c.j.
her flesh (4,334).That
they formed this cow
from
verse
a
(i, i6i6) which states that Indra
the Asvins
the car, while Brhaspati drove
up
feat,only twice referred to and perhaps con
consists in their having re-united the mother
a

cow

omniform

in1).
rejuvenated their parents (i, 2o4. in1; 4, 355), who
the
lay like decaying posts (i, no8; 4, 33 2-3). They made
old young
in the brief enumeration
again (i, i6i3- 7). When
already referred to (4,349), they are
simply said to have
also

their parents,

among
so

dedicated

hymn

(i, no8,

Rbhus

frail

were

the

and
all-stimulating
(i, no8) or extracted

and

for

with

Asvins

the

referringto

be
to
only a varied
represented as desiringto
after another
(i, i6i3-?).

hide

of

out

have
of

appears

further

They
nectar

nearly every
car
(i, in1.

are

horse

one

to

made

or

they fashioned

"c.).

10

when

said

are
a

Indra

For

in

338. 362),
The
horseless,reinless,three-wheeled, and traverses
(4,361).
space
round
for
fashioned
Asvins
the
2o3.
they
i6i6; 10, 3912).
(i,
goes
each
of their feats with a single
verse
a
(4,349) which enumerates

word, they
to

mentioned

them

fashioned

praise. They

which
car

of

most

or

the
to

the
that

same

gods,
they
(4, 36^). In

walk

feat is doubtless
made
the

meant.

their frail and


first

verse

of

the

It
very
same

was

their laudable

old parents young


hymn it is said

DEITIES.

LOWER

have

to

their

great proclamation of

the

been
and

heaven

46. RBHUS.

earth

thrive.

to

divine

latter thus

The

133

seem

that
power,
intended
be
to

made

they
by

their

parents.
exhibition

The

skill which

the

of

same
hymn
measuring

to

as

it is said that
passage
desired
the females
and

another

fame

the

been

have

among
vessel

of

is most

and
frequently mentioned
appears
the
Rbhus
in
the
character
of
showing
thought
greatest,
in their having made
rivals of Tvastr, consists
successful
the
the
one
cup,
of Tvastr, into
work
four
is
the
(i, 2o6. no3; 4, 352- 3. 364). This
cup
(i, iio3). The
drinkingvessel of the gods (i, i6i5; 4, 355) or of the Asura
commissioned
Rbhus
were
by the gods through their messenger
Agni, to make
into
the one
of wood,
that they
was
four, promising as a reward
cup, which
should
receive
worship equally with the gods (i, i6iT" 2). Tvastr praised
make
to
(panayaf) the proposal of the Rbhus
two, three, or four cups, and
he
the
when
four
saw
acquiesced (avenat)
shining cups (4, 33$' 6). But in
to

Tvastr,

gods (i, i6i4" 5), though


(v. T) disclairn any wish to
like

out

among
when
they

field

immortals

the

said

are

to

seeing the

on

kill the

to

Rbhus

the

for

Rbhus

in

desecrate

it.

four

cups,

hid

himself

desecratingthe drinking

of the
previous verse
They are described as
wide
the
one
drinking vessel (fiatra),
desiring
feat is less definitely
referred
(i,no5). The same
formed
fashioned
have
or
(i, i6i9; 3, 6o2
cups
a

cp. 4, 355)skill
The

is incidentally exemplified by the


of the Rbhus
statement
sacrifice
and
the
worlds
(10,
two
8o7),
(3,
they fashioned
5412),
prayer
that
the
of
(4, 349), or
they are supporters
sky (10, 6610).
Another
the Rbhus
with Savitr.
said
have
to
myth connects
They are
round
been
the
sky, wind-sped, in swift course
(4, 331 cp. i, i6i12). After
much
the house
of Savitr,who
to
conferred
wandering they came
immortality
them
when
to
on
they came
Agohya (i, no2- 3). When,
slumbering for
twelve
fair
days, they had rejoiced in the hospitalityof Agohya, they made
fields and
directed the streams, plants occupied the arid ground and
waters
lowlands
the
the heights and
(4, 337). By their skill they made
grass on
in the depths, when
in the house
of Agohya
waters
they slumbered
(i, I6:11).
Having slept,they asked Agohya as to who had awakened
them; in a year
around
(ib.I3).
they looked
is apparently derived
The
rbhu
the root
word
from
rabh, to grasp (cp.
in the RV.
meaning 'handy', 'dexterous'. It frequently occurs
2, 38)1,thus
as
an
adjective and is several times thus used as an attribute of Indra, Agni,
and
the Adityas. It seems
be
elbe and
to
identical with the German
the
the
vaj) means
'vigorous one' 3, and
English elf2. Vaja (from the root
Vibhvan4
both
the
(from m and the root bhu), 'the eminent' (artist).Thus
and
of the Rbhus
the account
in
of
them
the
RV.
indicate
that
name
given
that

their

essential

character

is clear

It

beginning.

that

is that

they
their

Whether

their

their

patronymic Saudhanvana,

in the

and

as

cannot

be

days

an

The
twelve

of
be

notion

days

concealed'6.

genii
of the

attribute

of

the

winter

three

since

who

that
in

They

with

Indra

the

word

and
are

been

sudhanvan

of the Maruts.

mentioned

so

gods

way
any
is meant
who

house

have

of

therefore

seasons8,which

solstice. The

cup

of Tvastr

at

do

by
only twice
is,however, most

It

often, represent heaven

is connected
fertility
the
Savitr or Agohya,
by various scholars 7

are

the

to

occurs

they produce

the

from

in

has

uncertain

It is also

of Rudra

their parents

that

earth5.

sojourn
to

original

having

not

as

connexion

is doubtful.

nature

RV.

probable

regarded

were

close

with

skilful artificers.

of

stand-still

with

their

sun

'who

been

taken

during the

twelve

possibly represents

the

moon,

RELIGION,

HI.

134
and

it

whole

the

On

which

into

four

the

seems

aerial elves, whose

skill. But

warrant

any

KZ.

KUHN,

BRV.

4,

2, 407.

134;

Altind.

whom

nothing

366.

100.
HVBP.
515;
time, past, present,

them

to

and

is

or

illu

myths

the RV.

by

"

46, 191.

1.

AIL.

297.

24,

note
c.

hardly

whose

KUHN,

A.

they

c.,

3, 52, 'from
HVM.

53"4;

genii of creative

are

three

2, 412,

number

Entwicklungs-

BRV.

KRV.

3, 335;

1.
According to WEBER,
future; according to BRV.

acquired immortality and

2, 298; cp.
according to

'Riches'

"

according to

3;
LRV.

Grundriss

BRUGMANN,

"

KZ.

i,

various

furnished

70.

p.

1894, 37,

WVB.

"

concealed'.

is

sacrificers who

Gr.

WACKERNAGEL,
SEE.
Cp. OLDENBERG,

AIL.

phases.

conclusion.

103"20;

stufen

evidence

four

terrestrial
originally

were

attracted

MYTHOLOGY.

Rbhus, its

the

by

the Rbhus

the

certain

VEDIC

i A.

transformed

was

probable
dexteritygradually

Cp. WACKERNAGEL,

A.

it

KUNST.

u.

that

marvelous

strative of
sufficient to

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

ancient

is connected

with

skilful

the triad

of sacrificial fires.

NEVE,
126;
GGH.

The

The

RV.

"

almost

appears

times.

24"6;
Altertum

Apsarases.

information

five

on

is also

the

doubtless
in

the

More

is

said

waters,

described
are

as

Apsarases
by the

2,

3, 51"5;
An124;

SCHROEDEK,

v.

of

and

the

(10, i235).
said to

are
sea

are

born

was

close
as

with

in

to

the

flowing to
the juice.

spoken of as able to move


(10, i366). The Apsaras
(apyd yosa), the wife of the
is

powers
Gandharvas

nymph

aqueous

mentioned

sat

is mixed

only

occurs

Vasistha

have

even

physical basis.

described

which

that

nymph

her

(10, io4).

waters

about

the

in

Apsarases
in

and

they

the

Their

AV.

trice (AV.

abode

is in the

2,2^);and

come
a
they are besought
go
the bank
of the waters
to the river and
vicinityof men
The
Visvavasu
are
goddesses accompanying the Gandharva
connected
with
and
stars
(AV. 2, 24). They
clouds, lightning,

depart from
(AV. 4, 373).
to

semi-divine

with

meant

Gandharva

whence

ZDMG.

Mythologie

is very
scanty, as the name
her beloved
(the Gandharva

smiles

of

path

cp. ROTH,
403"13;

(cp. L.

Apsaras denotes a kind


completely separated from

obtainable

there

The

long-hairedascetic
the

2,

235"6

ORV.

13, 31"5;

at
Apsaras
the preceding verse) in the
highest heaven
of the Apsaras (7, 33I2j and
the Vasisthas
The
(ibid.
Apsarases
9).
Apsarases of the
with
Soma
the water
reference
to
(9, y8J),

The

1847;

Paris

GRV.
BRV.
i, 103;
119;
Germanische
E. H. MEYER,

253).

9,

" 47.

Ribhavas,

des

Mythe
GKR.

WC.
no;
deutsches

fur

WZKM.

le

sur

5, 226"7;

108.

zeiger

in the

Essai

OST.

the

expressly called wives

with

the

(VS.

30, 8; AV.

latter has

assumed

of the
the

(AV.

Gandharvas
character

of

2,

25), and

formula

in

the

their connexion
later Samhitas

de
(n, 5, i") the Apsarases are
scribed as
into
themselves
of
kind
bird
a
transforming
aquatic
(dtayaJr.cp.
RV.
often spoken of as
post-Vedic literature they are
9, 59). In the
very
found
the Ganges, and they are
frequentingforest lakes and rivers,espescially
in Varuna's
is
The
the
word
of
palace in the ocean2.
etymologicalmeaning
most

8, 99, "C.)1.

probably 'moving
The

above

is that of
of

in

evidence

the

SB.

waters' 3.

indicates

celestial water

genius named

the

In

nymph,

Gandharva.

that

the

oldest

conception of
already regarded in the RV.

the
as

Apsaras
the

con

the
sphere
and
to
Apsarases
to trees.
They are spoken
particular
of as inhabitingbanyans (nyagrodhd] and
sacred
(asvattha],in which
fig-trees
their cymbals and
lutes resound
the
(AV. 4, 374). Elsewhere
trees
as
same
well as
other
varieties of the fig-tree(udumbara
said to be
and plaksa) are
the houses
of Gandharvas
and Apsarases (TS. 3, 4, 84). The
and
Gandharvas
Apsarases in such trees are entreated
to be
propitiousto a passingwedding
procession (AV. 14, 29)4. jn the SB. (n, 6, i) the Apsarases are described
as
engaged in dance, song, and play. Post-Vedic texts even
speak of mountsort

extends

the

earth

In

in

the

later Samhitas

the

of

DEITIES.

LOWER

ains, both
beings5.

mythical
The

luck

bestow

at

causing
(AV. 2, 3s "c.).
mental

and

adds

AV.

47.

APSARASES.

favourite

actual, as

traits that

the

THE

the

resorts

of

135
these

two

classes

of

fond
and
of dice
Apsarases are
that they are
feared
especiallyas

play (AV. 2, 25 "c.), but


derangement, magic therefore

being employed againstthem

of the great beauty6 (cp.86.13,4


are
Apsarases, who
the
but
even
by
Gandharvas,
only
by men
occasionally
3
such
is
related
least
A
of
union
at
(cp. 10, 959).
myth turning on
a
one
individual Apsaras in Vedic
literature. The
other
names
only of several
there
The
mentioned.
AV.
refers to
Apsarases are
three, Ugrajit,Ugramand
Rastrabhrt
several
(AV. 16, nS1-2), while the VS., airing
others,
pasya,
and
Menaka
SB.
speaks of Urvasi
(VS. 15, 15
(3, 4, i22) also
19). The
of the royal family of the Bharatas?
specifiesSakuntala, the ancestress
(SB.
well
UrvasT
as
(SB. u, 5, i1).
13, 5, 4T3), as
^
The
of these
names
only one
occurring in the RV. is that of Urvasi.
she
That
there
from
the
fact that;
was
regarded as an Apsaras, appears
Vasistha
is said in one
have
been
born
of Urvasi
to
verse"
and, in the next,!
of an
invoked
with the streams
Apsaras (7,3311' I2). She is once
(5, 4iI"?).
is
Her
mentioned8
otherwise
in
twice
late and
obscure
name
only
a
hymn
consists
of a dialogue between
her lover
her and
Puru
(10, 95IC- X7), which
is there
of Ila.
She
described
the
(apyd),
as
as
filling
ravas, son
aqueous
atmosphere, and traversing space
(the latter expressionis also applied to the
celestial Gandharva
in 10, i395). She
is said to have
spent four autumns
is
and
(V. I7)- The
mortals (v. l6)
besought to return
among
request is ap
receives
the promise that his offspringshall
parently refused; but Pururavas
while
himself
shall enjoy bliss in
he
worship the gods with the offering,
heaven
find their settingin a
of this hymn
(svarga:v. l8). Several verses
continous
fills in details partly based
story told in the SB. (n, 5, i), which
It is there related that the Apsaras
on
a
misunderstandingof the text of RV.
Urvasi
of Ila, in an alliance,the permanence
joins herself with Pururavas, son
of which
him naked.
The
depends on the condition that she shall never
see
Gandharvas
the
noise
Pururavas
a
by
during
night.
stratagem produce a
he is seen
springsup naked, when
by Urvasi illuminated
by a flash of light
in search
vanishes forthwith.
Pururavas
wanders
about
of her,
ning. Urvasi
till he
last observes
at
her
swimming in a lotus lake with other Apsarases
in the
form
him
of an
Urvasi
herself
discovers
to
aquatic bird.
and, in
his
him
for
to
receive
to
consents
entreaties,
one
night a year later9.
response
He
the appointed time, and
returns
at
the following day the Gandharvas
on
him
the
boon
of becoming
of themselves
one
grant
by producing fire in a
which
of Pururavas,
particular way.
means
Excepting 10, 95, the name
RV.
of
the
where
'calling
aloud', occurs
(i,
31*),
only in one
Agni
passage
is said to have
caused
the
(vdsaya) for the righteousman
sky to thunder
word
The
have
the
(manave) Pururavas.
here, however,
adjectival
may
Pururavas
and
have
scholars10
been
sense.
Urvasi
interpreted as
by some
The

7"

love

of

8),is enjoyed

the

not

"

sun

and

dawn.
See

PW.

2
ZDMG.
3 Ex
HOLTZMANN,
33, 635. 641.
by ap-sarim; cp. MEYER,
Indogermanische
Mythen l, 183;
GGH.
10 ; PVS.
Methode
IS. 13,
LUDWIG,
183 ff.';
I, 79 cp.
WEBER,
91; otherwise
BURY, BB.
IS. 5, 394;
I35" GW.,
4 HAAS,
7, 339.
MEYER, op.
13, 136; E. H.
cit. 13.
ZDMG.
5 HOLTZMANN,
cit. 67; MANN33, 640 f.; v. SCHROEDER,
op.
6
und
WaldFeldkulte
in the
HARDT,
I, 99 ff.
Epic period the Apsarases have
become
IS. i, 198
7 Cp. WEBER,
regular celestial courtesans.
HOLTZMANN,
201;
ZDMG.
8 Cp.
ZDMG.
ibid. 498 ff.
v.
48, 80"2;
BRADKE,
33, 635 f. ; LEUMANN,
SEE.
have
OLDENBERG,
named
46, 323.
son
9 They
a
Ayu: cp. KHF.
65. 71;
1

plained by YN.

s.

v.

gandharva.

"

"

5, 13

"

"

"

"

"

"

RELIGION,

III.

136

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

KUNST.

u.

VEDIC

A.

MYTHOLOGY.

10
SEE.
46, 28.
OLDENBERG,
283; BRV.
WEBER,
2, 324;
10;
Chips 42, 109 f.
Essays p. 61 ; Essays i, 408
note
8; ROTH, Nirukta
71
2; KHF.
1,432,
LASSEN, Indische Alterthumskunde
v.
SCHROEDER,
(cp.WZKM.
2, 90"6;
155"6; GRV.
op. cit. i, 23"39
2, 488; BRV.
GGA.
ZDMG.
73"6;
1890, 420 flf.;
37, 81 ; 39, 52 n. 4.
9, 253); OLDENBERG,
Die
Liebesgeschichte des Himmels,
GVS.
SIECKE,
Strassburg 1892
95;
i, 243

GVS.

IS.

i,

197;

IS.

I,

196; MM.,

i,

Oxford

"

"

"

"

moon);

(Urvasl

in the

RV.,

Of

dharva.

137.

Gandharvas.

" 48.
even

HRI.

as

the

With

"

has

been

twenty

the

Apsaras

shown,
of

occurrences

male

the

Apsarases

or

being

word

or

are

beings

in the

RV.

associated

named

Gan-

only three

are

in the AV.
half are
in the
occurrences
plural, while of the thirty-two
in
the
found
few
Avesta
times
is
Gandarewa1
The
a
as
name
(a
plural.
the
in
This
and
the
Gandharvas
-like
to
monster)
singular.
points
only
dragon
class having been
as
a
graduallydeveloped from a singlebeing. In the later
Samhitas
they are spoken of as forming a distinct class by the side of Gods,
is fixed as 27
and
Fathers
Asuras
(AV. n, 52; TS. 7, 8, 252). Their number
in
and
be
the
said
AV.
is
to
in some
even
(n, 52)2.
6333
Yajus texts
back
The
fact that the conception goes
to the Indo-Iranian
period, accounts
of the RV.
for its obscurity. The
evidence
extent
to some
is,moreover,
so
and
its
certain
definite
that
result
character
to
no
as
original
scanty
vague
that
the name
is found
in
It is worthy of note
is attainable.
only once
VIII
it occurs
twice as that of a being hostile
books
II to VII, while in book
word
be
sometimes
The
It is
to
to Indra.
3.
seems
only an
appellative
all
the
occasionallyaccompanied by
epithet visvdvasu, 'possessing
goods'
(9, 8636; 10, i394- 5; AV. 2, 2*; VS. 2, 3). This epithet is in one
hymn
in the later
used alone
to designateGandharva
(10, 85"cp. 4"- 4I); and
it frequentlyoccurs
Samhitas, the Brahmanas, and the post-Vedic literature,
in

the

22

as

the
In

or

the

less

is

of
spaces
of heaven

(ib.5).

His

Gandharvas
form

an

individual

Gandharva

RV.

He

sky.

vault

of

name

(10,I237).
is

be

localized

in the

high region

(10, i395). He is found in the


space
is heavenly (divyd)and
stands
He
erect

of

air (8, 665).

abode

to

seems

measurer

Gandharva.

in

(AV.4, 343). In

is the

He

heaven
several

lover

on

whom

2, 21- 2) and
Gandharva
passages

(AV.

the

the
Blest

of

air

fathom
on

Apsaras

live with

is closelyconnected

the

smiles
the

with

of celestial

light. Thus he is brought into relation with the sun,


of Varuna'
(10, I236), with the sungolden-winged bird, the messenger
bird (10, i772), with the sun-steed (i, i632), with Soma
likened to the sun
is further connected
with the 27 stars of the moon's
orbit
(9? 8512)' He
is
He
with Rohini
(VS. 9, 7) and in particular
(AV. 13, i23).
possiblyalso
associated with the rainbow4
in one
hymn of the RV.
(10, 123). In the VS.
with Agni, Sun, Moon, and Wind.
enumerated
(18, 38 ff.)the Gandharvas
are
In
of the mirage is 'cityof the
of the
names
post-Vedic literature one
some

'the

Gandharvas'

5.

Gandharva

is, moreover,

book) with Soma.


the
gods (9, 834

in the RV.

often

associated

in
(chiefly

the ninth

of
and
place of Soma
protects the races
all
forms
of
he
stands
the
2214).
Soma,
Observing
cp. i,
the vault of heaven
on
(9, 85* 2). Together with Parjanya and the daughter
of the
the Gandharvas
cherish Soma
(9, H33). Through Gandharva's
sun,
mouth
the
gods drink their draught (AV. 7, 733). The MS. (3,810) states
that the
Gandharvas
for the gods, but
having allowed it to be
kept Soma
the
from
excluded
Soma
as
a
stolen, were
punishment
draught. Doubtless
is described
owing to this association with Soma, Gandharva
as
knowing
that Gan
plants (AV. 4, 41). It is probably as a jealousguardian of Soma
dharva
in the RV.
is pierced by Indra in
hostile being, who
as
a
appears
He

guards

the

LOWER

the

air (8,

regions of

For

in

later

the

form

the

Gandharvas

of

DEITIES.

665)

text

whom

or

is

Soma

48. GANDHARVAS.

have

to

or

to

(8, i11).

overcome

in

Visvavasu
dwelt

said to have

Gandharva

the

by

to

Gandharva

the

is further

stolen

been

elude

Soma

eagle (TS. i,2,9T).

an

is invoked

Indra

besought

137

among

Visvavasu, but to
of females, at the
trait of
73). The

fond
as
bought from the Gandharvas,
they were
TS.
MS.
6, i, 65;
price of the goddess Vac (AB. i, 27;
3,
be old, for in the Avesta
to
(Yt. 5, 38) the hostile Gandahostilityappears
is fought
of the white Haoma,
dwelling in the sea Vourukasa, the abode
rewa,
shoots
with
and
the
archer
who
overcome
Krsanu,
by Keresaspa. Moreover,
carries
off the Soma
Gan
the
at
to be
(RV. 4, 27^), appears
a
eagle that
in TA.
dharva6, being expressly said to be one
i, 9'.
been

have

is sometimes

Gandharva
and

with

connected

the

in

'Gandharva

waters.

the

and
of Yama
the parents
as
called
'the Gandharva
of the

alluded

the

'aqueous nymph' are


is
(10, lo4). Soma
poured into water
with
waters'
the Apsarases, is also said to
(9, 8636). Gandharva, connected
in the AV.
is
in the waters
dwell
(2, 23; 4, 3712). In the Avesta Gandarewa
in
who
dwells
lord
of
the
the
waters
(Yt. 15, 28).
a
abyss
union
The
of Gandharva
with
the water
nymph is typicalof marriage.
with
and
the unmarried
connected
the
is therefore
He
wedding ceremony,
is said to
and
maiden
Gandharva
well
Soma
to
to
as
as
belong
Agni (10,
is regarded
Visvavasu
in the first days of wedlock
3540-1). The Gandharva
is
rival of the
husband
love
of women
a
(ib.22), and the Gandharvas'
as
in
later
MS.
Gandharvas
and
thus
The
texts
73).
Apsarases
(cp.
prominent
3,
and
desire
are
offspring(PB.
preside over
fertility
prayed to by those who
19, 32)waters'

to

Yam!

Of
in the

conceptionof the
Epics and later,there

10,

i772. ii2).

the

RV.

There

only

are

They
(10, i237). The
are

said

three

or

is

AV.

be

to

two

have

to

mology,
The

is said

earth

This

rise to

to

has

name

aid

this

equation

the

the

doubtful

epenthesis

of

37;

Gandharva

(12, i23)

in

ways
many
handsome

as

wears

odour

the

fragrant
(gandha)

possible.But such an ety


conception.
lighton the original

gandha

to shed

no

in

assumed

as

Ksvraupo;; but

with

has

popular etymology
of

in
appearance
brilliant weapons
8, 61 ff.).Here
they

has

forms, being
they are
spoken of
AV.

appears
RV.
(cp.

physical

animal

that

the

Gandharvas.
from

identified

been

even

in

trace

Gandharva

(especially
4,
half

the

suggests the derivation


if true, would
even
seem

their

to

and

Elsewhere, however,
dangerous to men.
adds
The
RV.
the touch
(SB. 13, 4, 37- 8).
in the
while
(surabhi] garment (10, 1237),
of the

distinct

no

references

(3, 386)
definite

more

and

shaggy

be

to

seems

wind-haired

are

which
being celestial singers,

Gandharvas

the

the

be

to

in

order

called

word8.

Greek

in

The

justify

to

well

as

two

as

con

The
utmost, from
nothing in common.
review
of the evidence, it seems
the original
nature
a
possible to say about
of the Gandharva
is,that he was
a
thought
bright celestial being, sometimes
of as
dwellingin the waters with his spouse the Apsaras. Various conjectures
Some
have, however, been made
regard the Gandharvas
by different scholars.
others
think that Gandharva
as
wind-spirits9,
represents the rainbow10, or a
genius of the moon11, or Soma12, or the rising sun13, or a cloud-spirit14.

ceptions,moreover,

1
2

WVB.

BRANDT;
6

KHF.

WEBER,
Sp.AP,

Yasht

5, 37;

1894,
cp.

p.

ORV.

19,

34.

223"4;

41;
3

"

246,

WVB.
151
2;
IS. 2, 313"4;
"

to

appear

have

SP

cp.
HVM.

note

l.

"

1894, 7"9
KUHN

BLOOMFIELD,

in

AP.

i, 427.

KZ.

JAOS.

BARTHOLOMAE,

Disputed by

"

See

PW.

(cp. 1888,
i, 523;

16, 20;

ZDMG.

276;

s.

p.

ROTH,
ORV.

BERGAIGNE

42,

and

158.

HILLE-

gandharva-nagara,
-pura.
to
Krsanu,
as
cp. also
ZDMG.
36, 359; BRV.
3, 30 ff.;
v.

n.);

13,
181.

"

v.

SCHROEDER,

GGH.

73;

III. RELIGION,

138

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

164 f.

Indog. Mythen

MEYER,

KUNST.

u.

Grundriss

Cp. BRUGMANN,

--

op. cit. i, 219 f.; v. SCHROEDER,


GRV.
DPV.
10
Nir. Erl.
145;
2, 400;
253;
ROTH,
12
BRV.
LRV.
11
158; HRI.
157.
2,
PW.;
4,
KHF.
14
10 1.
LRF.
153.
IS. i, 90; 5,
KZ.
A.
KUHN,
i, 513 ff.; WEBER,
-

MYTHOLOGY.

I,

481.

I, 446."

op.

38

ff.

9, 164.

WC.

13

MANN-

"

cit. 71; HVM.


WZKM.
KIRSTE,

MEYER,

201;

HARDT

VEDIC

A.

34.

36 cp.

"

op. cit. 11"2.16"8.23.55.


ORV.
HVM.
i, 427"66;

his

to

in

times

praise.

disease,

RV.,

He

is there

invoked

and

beast,

man

one

of

of

to

grant

i,

Sp.AP.

pati

210"15;

only

occurs

(7, 54) is devoted

stanzas

favourable

I34f.; MEYER,

13,

77"81;

Vastos

three

confer

to

185. 210;

64"7; PVS.
49, 178"9.
name

hymn

the

bless

to

The

"

and

3,

ZDMG.

244"9;

Deities.

Tutelary

" 49.
seven

BRV.

179;

entry,

prosperityin

cattle

to

remove

and

horses,

of the hymn
immediately
always to afford protection.In the first verse
of
is
all
he
who
described
as
assumes
disease,
a
destroyer
following(7,551)
with
identified
He
is
Indu.
forms.
once
as
(7. 542)
Soma, being addressed
is invoked
the All-gods (5, 41 8) he
of a hymn
in immediate
In a verse
to
is perhaps identified with him
and
the great
as
juxtapositionwith Tvastr
is
he
firm
called
artificer. In another
a
verse
(8, i714)
pillar,a cuirass of
and
be
identified with Indra.
In the only passage
to
seems
Soma-pressers,
and

which

book

tenth

of the

17). According
that

epithetof
above

the

mentions

who, along with

ordinances

GELDNERX

to

prayer
Rudra

is here

in TS. 3,40, io3.

god

there

passages,

of
is spoken of as the observer
fashioned
by the gods (10,

he

him,

(brahmct),was

seems

Though

meant,
Vastospati being an
identified with various deities in

sufficient

no

to

reason

that

suppose

the

attached to any
one
originally
particular
greater deityas an epithet
The
Sutras
(AGS. 2, 99; SGS. 3, 4; PGS.
(likegrhapati to Agni).
Grhya
when
is to
house
a
new
3, 47) prescribethat Vastospatiis to be propitiated
entered.
of the
be
This, together with the contents
hymn devoted to his
praise,points to his having been simply a tutelarydeity of the house2, as
the name
of the dwelling'implies.He
itself 'Lord
thus seems
of
to be
one
the lower
order of deities which in primitive
beliefs animate, inhabit, or preside
was

name

natural

over

field.

He

horses

as

In

objects such

the

To

of

Savitr, the

hymn

and

Dawns,

first three

fill heaven

to

as

mountains.

pati

belongs Ksetrasya

is invoked, in the
well

verse

same

and

trees

as

order

of

verses

4,

tutelary deity of the

the

grant cattle and

to

57,

and

3.
earth, plantsand waters with sweetness
the All-gods (7, 35") he is besought,along with
to
Parjanya, to bestow prosperity. In a similar hymn

desire to have him


(10, 66I3), worshippers express
a
as
a
neighbour. The
field is
Grhya Sutras state that he is sacrificed to or worshipped when
a
of
SGS.
In
(AGS.
addressed
one
verse
ploughed
to
a
hymn
2, io+;
4, i35).
deities (4,576)
agricultural
to grant rich blessings
Slta, the Furrow, is invoked
and
Sita later appears
the
(PGS. 2, 179) as
wife of Indra
crops.
(perhaps
r

because

8,

that

2i3

Sutra

cp. 4,
passage

scribed

'having a

as

FaW.

god is once
bears
577) and
just mentioned

PERRY,

Berichte

21;

DRISLER
der

k.

IV.

of

sense

value

of

V.

called

RV.

urvarapati, 'lord

of

the

Savitrl (TB. 2, 3,

Agni, WC.

Memorial
sachs.

241,

Gesellschaft

MYTHICAL
As

'man', there

proper

the
the

field':

the
patronymic
zo1).
the blessingsof Urvara,
the arable
Field, de
invoked.
are
garland of threshing-floors',

Manu.

" 50.
the

in

name

22.

--

thinks

the

is

1892, p. 174;
PRIESTS

SEE.

Cp. BLOOMFIELD,

Pusan

probably
ORV.

AND

254

5.

Manus
or
appellationManu
an
uncertaintyas to
It appears

343"4.

HEROES.

is sometimes
in the RV.

42,

Cp. WINDISCH,

meant.
"

In

to

have

is often
when

the latter

used

it has

in
the

signification

III. RELIGION,

140

Bhrgus.

"51.

besides

"

two

is

Bhrgu

"

MYTHOLOGY.

1865, 287ff.; OST.

singular;and
mythical beings.

of

with

chiefly connected

brought Agni

as

the

adverbial

appears

therefore

Mentioned

162"96;

i,

BRV.

of

(i, 601)

in

the

bhrguvat. It is found
to have
properly designated
times in Agni hymns, they

twelve

Bhrgu

to

times

twenty-one

form

communication

the

treasure

with

met

name

in

occurrences

in the

once

group

are

VEDIC

A.

62"70;

i,

KUNST.

u.

Mum,
JRAS. 1863, 410"16;
17, 334;
ORV.
275"6; HRI.
143.

KZ.

RV.,
only

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

fire to

Matarisvan

men.

kindled

or

the

hidden

Agni

and
the gods fashioned
Agni for Manu,
Bhrgus (3,510). Matarisvan
him
the
while
(10, 469). The
Bhrgus with might produced
Bhrgus found
him
in
the
worshipping
462);
waters, they
Agni lurking in the waters
(ip,
him
abodes
of
the
in
established
man
or
4).
They
42
(2,
Ayu
cp.
placed
Agni
the

for1

men
(6,i52) or as a treasure among
well-depositedin the wood
(i, 586). For Agni is the Bhrgus' gift(3, 2 4). Rubbing him they invoked
him with prayer
(i,1277). With songs of praise they caused him to shine
forth (10, 1225) in wood
(4,71). They brought him to the navel (cp.p. 92)

like

friend

of the

earth

(i, i434). While

established

Atharvan

rites with

sacrifices,the

themselves
as
(10, 9210).Their skill,
gods with their dexterity
Bhrgus showed
in
manifested
is
fire,
producing
incidentally
primarily
spoken of as artistic. For
make
for
Indra
the
Asvins
the Bhrgus (made) a
or
a
as
worshippers
prayer
car
(4,i620; 10, 39'4).
For
sacrificers speak of them, togetherwith
They are an ancient race.
the Angirases and
Atharvans, as their Soma-loving fathers (10,14") and in
the Angirases,and
voke
Manu
did (8,43 13).
Agni as the Bhrgus (bhrgitvat),
They implore Indra to hear their prayer like those of the Yatis and Bhrgus
he did the Yatis, Bhrgus, and
Praskanva
as
(8, 6l8),or to aid them
(8, 3?).
The
the
and
with
the
foes
are
mentioned, along
Turvasa, as
Bhrgus
Druhyus
of king Sudas
in
their name
(7, 18"). In the last three passages
appears
the
of the
historical character
designationof a tribe. The Bhrgus are in
with all the thirty-three
voked
drink soma
to
gods, the Maruts, the Waters,
the Asvins, lisas, and
and
Surya (8, 353). They are
compared with suns
said to have
gained all their desires (8,3l6).In one
(9, ioiJ3)they
passage
connected
with
unknown
are
an
myth, when
worshippers express a wish to
the niggardly,as the Bhrgus the demon
drive away
(makham\
Thus
the Bhrgus never
in the RV., but
designateactually existing
priests

only

relation

group
of

Vasistha

to

that of the

The

myth

connected

with

from
as

ancient

of

chief, just

heaven

as

of

the

presentinga
seed
japati's
(AB.

3, 341

Vasisthas.

later

of

descent
and

the
lightning,

the

Bhrgus.
Bhrgus do not

establishment

Vedic

cp.

its communication

fire and
the

literature

tribe (AV. 5, 19*; AB.


and

ancestors, to which
Bhrgu bears the
of the Angirases, or
the group
to

does

Angiras

Matarisvan

kindlingit for
In

the

sacrificers and
as

and

while

But
fetch

it,but

diffusion of

Bhrgu occurs
2, 20?). He

to

arises

receives
being adopted by Varuna
PB.
is expressly called
1 8, 91) and

chiefly
brings it
regarded

rather

are

sacrifice

the
the

as

is

man

Matarisvan

seer

from

spark
patronymic

as

the
a

earth.

on

of

name

Varuni

(SB.

of Varuna

son

re

Pra-

i1)2.

n,6,

Etymologicallythe
shine'.

BERGAIGNE^

originally
a
the

form

the

Bhrgus

of

word

thinks
of

bhrgu
there

fire,while

hardly

can

the

from
'shining'

means

be

doubt

in
agree
fire it represents is lightning.
KuHN6
and WEBER7
with the Greek
as
fire-priests
"pXey6at.
name

Cp. OLDENBERG,

SEE.

KUHN*

46, 243.

and

"

BARTHS

WEBER,

ZDMG.

root

that
the

9, 240

bhraj, 'to
bhrgu was

opinion that
identify

further

ff.

"

BRV.

i,

MYTHICAL

PRIESTS

52"6;

"

"

ZDMG.

9,

Atharvan.

52.

242.

The

in

"

"

OST.

KHF.

i, 170;

of

name

plural, and

ATHARVAN.

52.

16, 280.

JAOS.

HOPKINS,

cp.

2i"2.

51. BHRGUS.

"c.

9"14.
ORV.

"

123;

Atharvan

is also

53.

HRI.

BRI.

141

10.

"

times

KHF.

168.

found

in

times

fourteen

occurs

several

DADHYANC.

in

the

the
AV.
RV., thrice
in the character
ancient
of an
priest. He rubbed
generally appears
did (6, i517)- Agni
Agni forth (6, i613) and priestsrub Agni as Atharvan
the messenger
of Vivas vat (10, 2i5). Atharvan
became
produced by Atharvan
first established
themselves
(order) by sacrifices,while the Bhrgus showed
their
skill
first extended
the paths;
(10, 9210). By sacrifices Atharvan
gods by
then
the sun
Manu
and
was
produced (i, 835). Atharvan
along with Father
(i, 8ol6). Indra is the helper of Atharvan
practised devotion
as
Dadhyanc
Matarisvan
and
well as
of Trita, Dadhyanc
(10, 482). The
goblin-destroying
divine
the
with
flame
like
down
fool
burn
to
Atharvan
Agni is invoked
traits.
adds
further
AV.
Atharvan
some
(10, 8y12). The
brought a cup of
Soma
to Indra
(AV. 18, 354). A miraculous
cow
was
given to him by Varuna
is a companion of the gods, is related
to them,
(AV. 5, n; 7, 104). Atharvan
and
in heaven
is
dwells
the
Atharvan
SB.
In
(AV. 4, i?, "c.).
spoken of
ancient
teacher
as
an
(14, 5, 522.7, 32S).
enumerated
Fathers
In the plural the Atharvans
are
as
along with the
and
Angirases, Navagvas, and Bhrgus (10, i46). They dwell in heaven
are
called
gods (AV. u, 6I3j. They destroy goblins with a magical herb (AV.
4, 377)the

Atharvan

In

few

of

passages

the

RV.

the

word

to have
appears
attribute
of Brhaddiva,

atharvan

the

it is an
the
appellative meaning of 'priest'.Thus
it seems
of a hymn
to be an
(10, i2o9 cp. 8). In this sense
epithet
composer
is described
of Agni, when
the Atharvan
seer
as
a
pouring the libation on
it
is
said
The
word
when
also
that
the
mix
Atharvans
(8, 97).
means
priest
Soma
receive
hundred
that
from
(9, 42) or
a
cows
a
they
patron (6, 47 24).
That
this is the
is borne
out
by the fact that the cognate
originalsense
Avestan
for

word

dthravan

which
signifies
'fire-priest',

is also the

etymologicalsense

also occurs
the Vedic
(for athar], fire, is the same
as
athar-*, which
in athar-yu, flaming (said of Agni, 7, i1). This
old
then
have
must
name
been
ancient
of a semimythologically applied to designatean
priestlyrace
divine character,generally represented in the singular by their chief.
atar

BRUGMANN,

THOLOMAE,

LASSEN,
BRV.i,

Grundriss

2,

IF.

360;

rejects the
5, 221,
Indische
Alterthumskunde
49;

HRI.

160,

n.

cp. BLOOMFIELD,
connexion
of atar

1,523;

KHF.

10;

SEE.

42,

with

atharvan.

IS.

I,

xxm,

n.
-

289 ff.; OST.

BAR-

2;

Cp. also
i,

160;

i.

is the son
of Atharvan
(6, i614;
Dadhyanc.
Dadhyanc, who
nine
times
in the RV.
exception,
n722), is mentioned
and, with one
the ninth, the tenth, and
is a seer
who
He
especially the first book.
kindled
with
and
is
mentioned
Agni (6, i614)
Atharvan, Angiras, Manu, and
other
ancient
sacrificers (i, 8ol6. i399).
The
Asvins
horse's
head
to Atharvan's
a
son
Dadhyanc, who then
gave
the (place of the) mead
proclaimed to them
(i, ii722).
(madhu] of Tvastr
With
the head
the
Asvins
of a horse
the
to
(place of
Dadhyanc
proclaimed
mead
the
of
The
Asvins
heart
the
then
the)
(i, n612).
won
Dadhyanc;
horse's
head
is also
connected
with
this
spoke to them
(i, ii99). Indra
in
of the horse
hidden
myth. For it is said that, when
seeking the head
the
of Da
mountains, he found it in Saryanavat and slew with the bones
from
dhyanc ninety-nine Vrtras
(i, 84^- I4). Indra, besides producing cows
the dragon for Trita, gave
Matarisvan
cowstalls
to Dadhyanc
(and)
(10,482).
These
which
of
are
probably the cowstalls
Dadhyanc
by the power
opens

"

i, n612.
only in

53.

"

III. RELIGION,

142

Soma
which

KUNST.

u.

noteworthy that in
he
Dadhyanc
occurs,

It is

the

the

of

is the

name

is himself

and

the

abode

of

his horse's

head

secret

kindler

of

with

and

Soma

his

and

fire.

only

VEDIC

A.

(9, io84).

Atharvan
with

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

older

(6, i614)in
passage
of the ancient fire-priest

son

Otherwise
in

Indra
he

MYTHOLOGY.

is

he
the

chieflyconnected

release
be

the

of

cows.

hardly
of
etymologicalsense
of
'curdled
milk'.
In BERward'
might signifyeither 'possessing'or 'fond
in originfrom
differ essentially
Soma2.
not
GAIGNE'S opinion Dadhyanc does
But
evidence
The
is,however, insufficient to justifyany certain conclusion.
that
it does
not seem
an
altogetherimprobable conjecture
Dadhyanc originally
would
horse's head
indicate its
representedthe lightningform of fire. The
speed, the voice with which it speaks,the thunder, its bones, the thunderbolt.
Owing

ciated

to

Dadhikra.

steed

the

from

name

can

The

altogether disso
dadhi-aiic,'curd-

with

connexion

His

eagle

with

of

form

abode

secret

in the

and

fashioned

been

have

The

of

would

Soma,
too,

name,

post-Vedic literature

In

Dadhlca,

is said to

Vrtra

the

celestial Soma.

thunderstorm.

of the
the

the

of

the

Angirases.1

voted

"

RV.

about

two-thirds

found

there

about

the

also

that

of

the

curdling effect

in
generally occurs
for slaying
thunderbolt

2
i
BRV.
'Uni au lait',
BRV.
3 PW.
s. v.
Cp. also BRV.
2, 457.
2, 458.
456" 60; GRV. 2, 84; PERRY, JAOS. ii,i38;LRF. 120"2;
OERTELjAOS. 18,16"18.

" 54.
in

name

the

his bones3.

"

2,

suggests

the

Mahabharata
out

resemble

to

The

praise of
Angirases are

the

Of
are

"

the

than

more

in the

sixtyoccurrences

plural. Derivatives

thirtytimes. The
the Arigirases
as
a
of

"

whole

of

one

of

hymn

of

this

the

word

name
are

(10, 62) is

group.

heaven2

(3, 537; 10, 6y2 cp. 4, 215). They


who
of the
seers
are
sons
are
gods (10, 624). A single Angiras being
'sons of Angiras' (10, 625).
regarded as their ancestor, they are also termed
of
them
Poets
'fathers'
'our
fathers'
as
speak
(ib.2j,
(i, 7i2), or 'our ancient
fathers' (i,622). They
with
mentioned
fathers
the Atharvans
are
once
as
and
(ib.3~5). They
Bhrgus (10, i4fc),
being especiallyassociated with Yama
in

sons

are

also

the

Adityas,Vasus, Maruts
well

more

the

general way
Atharvans

connected

with

(7, 444; 8, 3514), or


(AV. n, 813). Soma

other
the

groups

of

divine

beings,

Adityas,Rudras, Vasus,

is offered

them
to
(9, 629),
gods (3, 537; 10, 62). They are brahman
priests
Agni hidden in the wood
(5, n6) and thought of the
first ordinance
of sacrifice (10, 672). It is by sacrifice that
they obtained
well
the
of
Indra
as
immortalityas
(10, 621).
friendship
With
the latter deity the Angirases are
closelyassociated. To them Indra
disclosed the cows
he opened the stall (i, 5i3. I344),and
(8, 523), for them
drove
the cows
which
Vala
out
were
hidden, castingdown
(8, i48). Accom
Indra
them
Vala
and
drove
panied by
out the cows
(2, n20)
(6, i76).
pierced
As their leader Indra
is twice called aiigirastama,chief Angiras (i, ioo4. 1302).
Soma
(as inspiringIndra) is also once
said to have
opened the cowstall for
the Angirases (9,8623). In connexion
of
with the myth of the deliverance
the cows
the song
of the Angirases is characteristic. Praised by them
Indra
piercedVala (2, i58),and burst the cowstalls (4, i6l8),slew Vala and opened
his citadels (6, i85), or
dispelledthe darkness, spread out the earth, and
established
the lower
of heaven
(i, 62^). So characteristic is their
space
with their varied
said to be
like the An
singingthat the Maruts
are
songs
and
the
the
chants
with
girases(10,785),
gods are invoked to the offering
of the Angirases (i, io72). Hymns
addressed
by actual prieststo Indra are
also
several
times
those
with
of the
compared
Angirases (i,62 T-2 "c).
Indra
the Angirases in
less prominent positionthan
Incidentally
assumes
a
the myth of the cows.
Thus
have
said
the Angirases are
to
emptied the

as

as

they are invoked


(7, 421). They found

and

like

MYTHICAL

PRIESTS

ANGIRASES.

54.

horses, with

and

containing cows

stall

"c.

Indra

their

as

omission

have

we

the

acteristic

action

both

ancestor

the

being directlyattributed

According

also
as

n,

the

143

companion (10, 627).

ninth

book

alluded

5, 67 "c.)4.
On
the whole

ceived

as

attendants

it
of

race

to

with

angiras

KHF.

ORV.
p.

is

so

that

(AV.

as

character
priestly

of
personifications

OST.

BRY.

2,
"

309;
7 IS.

BRV.

GW.;

5, 23;

--

is borne

view

45.

"

167.

of

it 3.

10,

the

RV.,
the

com

Priestlyfamilies

720) and

occurs

later

(SB.

the

heaven
between
messenger
later development5.
a
was
flames

of fire

as

messengers

by the etymological connexion


ayyeXo;, 'messenger'0. WEBER,
however, is
IndoTranian
the
of
period7.
priests
originally

2
127"8.
Cp. BDA.
4
Cp. BlooMFiELD,
31.

PW.;
ROTH,
2, 188; HR1.

described

often

their

been

were

10;

the

which
Atharva-angirasah,

itself

Veda

of

priestlyfamily,as

members

to

compound

in that

7, 33). This
the
Greek

opinion that they

the

Amikramam

con
probable that the Angirases were
originally
as
gods and men,
higher beings intermediate between

(cp. RV.

of

in

the

actual

an

seems

They

may
heaven

in

as

is attributed

AV.

of

earth

the

to

found

regarded
to

the

Agni, who
(p.96), and
possiblyhave

and

tradition

been

designationof

Indra

Agni.

the

have

be

to

seem

and
to

Angirases must
position of

the

to

of

"c.

altogether, his char


Angirases themselves.
By the
rite they drove
the cows
and
Vala
caused
the
out
to
sun
2),
(ib.
pierced
the
and
cleft
earth
the
rite
mount
(ib.3). By
sky,
spread out mother
they
with
the rock
and
shouted
the
cows
(4, 3"). Singing they found the cows
the light(i, 722).
(i, 62 2). They burst the rock with their songs and found
with
The
further
connected
the
of
the
of the
cows
Angirases are
finding
Panis
for Indra
ioS8is
said
assisted
Indra
to have
by Sarama
(10,
I0),who
and
the Angirases in tracking them
(i, 62 3 cp. 728). The
Angirases are
also described
alone
and
steeds
of Pani
as
(i, 83*).
having found the cows
is
with
who
connected
receives
the
the
same
myth (10, loS6-11),
Brhaspati^
epithet Angirasa when
(6; 731) or
piercingthe rock and capturing the cows
like Bhaga
(10, 682).
giving cows
the cows
he drives
out
Brhaspati is even
directlycalled Angiras when
and
releases
the waters
with
in
Indra
Otherwise
(2, 23l8).
nearly all the
of the word
in the singular,
occurrences
Angiras is an epithet of Agni, who
is the first seer
Angiras (i^i1), the ancient Angiras (10, 9215) or the oldest
(i, i272) and the most
inspired (6, n3) of the Angirases. Agni is several
times
also called the chief Angiras (i, 752 "c.). This term
is,however, once
twice applied to Indra, Usas, and
Sometimes
Soma.
or
Angiras only desig
ancient
'the ancient
nates
an
priest without direct allusion to Agni, as when
is
mentioned
in
of
enumeration
ancestors
an
(i, I399) or when
Angiras'
the context
shows
that in the form
'like Angiras'
angirasvat the singular sense
is meant
(i, 453). In one
(i, 3i17), in which the poet exclaims, 'O
passage
the name
to Manus,
to us as
to Angiras, o Angiras',
Agni, come
as
designates
Here

transition

VIRUPAS

55.

JAOS.
cp.

i, 291

i8o"

17,

HVBP.

i, 47

Cp. WEBER,

"

out

109;

2;

ORV.

of

WC.
69"72;
2, 308"21;
History of Ind. Lit., Engl. tr.
SEE.
xxvii.
5
Cp.
42, xvn"
"

8;

"

127.

6
"

BRUGMANN,

Grundriss

ff.

connected

with

times

in the

the
the Angirases are
plural. The Angirases,
the Virupas, are
of
of heaven
sons
sons
Virupas are
(3, 53"). The
seers,
born
from
from
heaven
occurs
as
Agni,
(10, 62 5-6). Virupa once
Angiras,
the name
of a singlebeing, who
(8,646)
singsthe praises of Agni. in a stanza
in which
The
also has
name
immediately followingone
Angiras is invoked.
in the
is
indicated
the singular sense
adverb
'like
by
Virupa', as
viruparat,

" 55.

A.

Virupas, whose

Virupas1.
name

--

Closely

is mentioned

three

HI.

144

RELIGION,

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

u.

KUNST.

i A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

(1,453) of Priyamedhavat, Atrivat, besides


in a verse
in its patronymic form
(10,145)
Angirasvat.
with the Angirasesand
the Vairupas. As
the word
is invoked
in which Yama
is most
a
usually a simple adjectivemeaning 'of variable form' and, when
in company
with that of Angiras or the Angirases,it
is always found
name,
been
than an
would
to have
seem
epithetof the latter.
hardly more
The
of these beings occurs
B. Navagvas2.
name
altogetherfourteen
in the RV., six times in association with that
of the Angirases. The
times
the

in the

occurrence

stanza

same

word

The

once

occurs

Navagvas are spoken of as 'our ancient fathers' (6, 222), or as 'our fathers'
along with the Angirases,the Atharvans, and the Bhrgus (10, i46). Like the
with the myth of Indra, Sarama, and the cows
Angirases,they are connected
Panis
of the
(i,623-4; ^ 457- I0) io8s). Indra with the Navagvas as his
friends sought the cows
they laud Indra with songs;
(3,395). PressingSoma
broke
of
stall
the
the
cows
they
(5, 2912). In one
hymn
they are
open
described
In

in

being
also

having

as

of its

two

of

one

cases

times

in the

pressingstones for
pluralthe word navagva

the

in the

these

three

found

with

sung

occurrences

attribute of

an

the

rays

it appears

when
singular,

months

(5,457"I1)simpleadjective,
of Agni (6, 63). It is
be
to
an
epithetof

ten

is

Angiras (4, 5i4; 10, 626) or of Dadhyanc


(9, io84). It apparently means
of
of) nine'3, designatingas a plural noun
'going in (a company
a
group
nine ancient priestly
ancestors.
C. Dasagvas2.
This name
times in the RV., three times
occurs
seven
in the singular,
and
that of the Navagvas. The
twice
unassociated
with
only
the first who
offered sacrifice (2,34* 2). Indra
with the Nava
Dasagvas were
and
with the ten Dasagvas found
the
sought the cows
sun
gvas
(3, 395).
With the Navagvas and
the Dasagvas Indra
and
Vala
the rock
rent
(i,62-*).
The
the stall of the
Navagvas and Dasagvas praise Indra and broke
open
the Navagva
dawns
shine on
cows
(5,2912). The
Afigira and the sevenmouthed
with Navagva, is once
Dasagva (4,5i4). Dasagva, mentioned
spoken
of as chief Angiras(10, 626). Dasagva is described
in one
as
having
passage
been succoured
by Indra
(8, i22). The
being merely a numerical
name,
variation of Navagva, was
most
probably suggested by the latter.
D.

The

Rsis4.

seven

numerical
times

group
in the RV.

(4,428). They
the

'seven

as

are

ancient

ancient seers
are
represented by a definite
four
Rsis',who
however, only mentioned
are,
One
'our fathers,the seven
seers'
as
poet speaks of them
in another
called divine (10,130?),and
passage (10, io94)
'the

The

seven

seers'

associated

with

the

number
gods. The
may
technical priests(enumerated in
suggested by that of the seven
2, i2), of whom
they would, in that case, have been regarded as the proto
individualized by each
types. In the SB. they become
receivinga name
(SB.
Brhadar.
the
In
26;
Brahmana
26).
same
14, 5,
Up. 2,
(2, i, 24 cp. 8, i, 10)
in the constellation of the Great
stars
they are also regarded as the seven
Bear
and
stated to have
been
are
bears5.
This identification is
originally

have

doubtless

due

partlyto

the

RV.

partly

Probably

Mmilarly
times
nical

the

in the

of

sameness

sound

between

'star' (i, 24'") and

the

same

with

Hotrs6

seven

the

to

of
similarity

both

means

(viprdk)who
the

are

been

the

ancient

ft\vo divine
seem

to

Manu

rsi,'seer',and

'bear'

the

two

and

cases

rksa, which

in the

'(5,
563).

sacrificers are
made

in

number

referred to

Navagvas praise Indra

with whom

RV.

the

as

the

(6, 222

cp. 3,
the first offeringto the

priests

seven

31$; 4, 2^),

Sacrificers' (dairy
a
Jiotdra]mentioned
have
been
the celestial counterpart

or

gods (10, 637).


nearly a dozen
of

two

6.

307

tech

priests7.
1

GW.

s.

v.

vintpa; BRV,

2,

307,

note

4.

"

BRV.

2,

145

"

"

8.

"

PRIESTS

MYTHICAL

Cp. YN.

ZDMG*"

282,
7

n.

2.

57.

KANVA.

145

"

"

"

"

391;

mentioned

ATRI.

cows'.
4 ROTH,
PW, ; OLDENBERG,
19; BRV.
2, 145: 'having nine
5 WEBER,
SEE.
IS. i, 167; EGGELING,
276"8.
12,
236; ORV.
383" 4; SEE. 46, 189. 322.
"_Cp_JioPKixs, JAOS. 16, 277; ORV.

56. Atri.

"

56.

n,

42,

ORV.

"c.

in the

SEE.

46,

is

This

"

The

RV.

cp.
one

BRV.

I, 234"5.

of the

name

seers

of

there

occurs

ancient
about

days most
forty times

frequently
in the

sin

Atri
gular and six times in the plural as a designationof his descendants.
tribes
and
is
the
five
mentioned
is spoken of as a seer
to
(i,ii73)
belonging
of the human
and
other ancestors
race
(i,399).
along with Manu
Atri
(7,i55) as a well as other ancient
helped
Agni is said to have
the prayer
of Atri
(8,367) and
seers
(1,453; 10, 1505). Indra also heard
opened the cowstall for him and the Angirases (i, 5i3). Atri is, however,
chieflyrepresented as the protege of the Asvins, and the characteristic myth
with them.
is connected
the
darkness
him
about
They delivered Atri from
him
with
rescued
of
chasm
all his host
out
a
(5,784)
(6, 5o10; 7, 718). They
(i,n73).
(i, n68. n73), when they destroyed the wiles of the malignant demon
which
from
he
has fallen and
The
chasm
into which
they deliver him is a
draught (i,n68. n87). They
burning one, but they gave him a strengthening
his
abode
made
chasm
the
(rbisa] or
(grhd) agreeable for him
burning
from
(I0?399; 8; 62?); they prevent the fire
burning him (8, 62s). They res
in the heat
cued
Atri who
was
(10, 8o3), they protected him from the heat
the burning heat agreeable for him
with coolness
(i, up6; 8, 623), and made
Once
have
had
said
to
are
rejuvenated Atri, who
(i,ii27).
they
grown
old (10, I431-2).
it was
when
In one
hidden
hymn Atri is said to have found the sun
Svarbhanu
and
to have
placed it in the sky (5,4o6-8). But
by the demon
is attributed
in the very
the Atris collectively.
to
next
verse
(9) this deed
in the sky (AV. 13,
the
The
AV.
also refers,
to Atri findingand
sun
placing
Atri
is
SB
the
who
jn
darkness
a
24.
36^
priest
dispelled
(4, 3, 421),
identical with her (14, 5, 25).
originatedfrom Vac (1,4, 513),and is even
in the RV.
in the last
The
plural form of the name
regularly occurs
Atris here
of a hymn.
The
of the last verses
or
one
designatethe family
of seers
the
of
the
who
whole
of
are
hymns (5, 39s "c.). The
composers
is
attributed
and
fifth
book
the
of
the
the Atris,
about
one-fourth
to
family
of the name
in the singularor pluralare
found
in that book.
of the occurrences
is perhaps derived
from
the root
The
of
name
ad, to eat, in the sense
word
in
the
the
RV.
used
as
a
adjective
'devouring',
atrin, frequent
cognate
this meaning. The
have
word
atri1 itself is
to describe
to
demons, seems
with
this
once
employed as an attribute of Agni, probably
(2,8s).
signification
is even
BERGAiGNE2
of opinion that, though Atri
has
become
he
a
priest,
form
of Agni.
The
of Atri
is four times
name
originallyrepresented some
The
accompanied or, in the next verse, followed by that of Saptavadhri.
latter is a protege
of the Asvins, a seer
whom
invoked
release
to
they are
from
is said to
have
captivity(5,782- 6),and who
sharpened the blade of
the
Agni with his prayer (8, 628). For Atri Saptavadhri the Asvins made
burning chasm agreeable (10, 399). The two are therefore probably identical 3.
12.

i
a
BRV.
SEE.
46, 35. 214.
Cp. OLDENBERG,
ZDMG.
BAUNACK,
Cp. also PW., s. v.
50, 266.
ZDMG.
213; BAUNACK,
50, 266"87.
"

"

V "
the

in the
of

57.

RV.

as

Kanva
that

as

"c.
of

The

"

name

of Kanva

2,

467"72.

Atri;

occurs

"

OLDENBERG,

about

the

son

of

ZDMG.

sixtytimes

ancient

42,

in

and
of his descendants, the occurrences
seer
is spoken
plural being nearly equally divided. Kanva
Nrsad
(io; 3iIT) and bears the patronymic Narsada
(i,ii78;
an

singularand

Indo-arische

Op. cit. 467;

Philologie.

III. 1

A.

10

III.

146
AV.
as

RELIGION,

in

is mentioned

He

iQ2).

4,

KUNST.

u.

MYTHOLOGY.

VEDIC

i A.

enumeration

an

ancient

of

gods gave Agni to


by him (i, 36IO"

The

Angiras (i, i399).

and

Manu

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

such

ancestors

Kanva

and

others,

I7). Agni helped


as
Atri, Trasadasyu,
others,
5o5), and is
Kanva, as
(10, n55). Indra conferred
spoken of as a friend and chief of the Kanvas
and
others
and
cattle
on
(Val. i10- 210). The Maruts
Kanva,
Trasadasyu,
gold
and
Turvasa
Yadu
with
(8,7 l8).The Asvins
bestowed wealth on Kanva
along
have
Kanva
said
times
several
to
(1,475.ii25; 8, 5?5.820). He
helped
are
restored
his sight
succoured
blind when
was
by the Asvins (8,523),who
(i, "8?).
of the RV.
attributed to the
of the hymns of the eighth book
Most
are
themselves
of
and
there
The
Kanvas.
of
as
name
Kanva,
speak
poets
family
whose
that of a family is therefore historical. But the ancestor
name
was
as
in the RV.
in reality1
that
of a con
transferred to them
never
as
appears
been
have
thinks his origin may
ROTH
mythical like that of
temporary.
of
that
the
is
blind
Kanva
and
BERGAIGNE
opinion
Angiras2;
represents the
sun
during the night or, more
generally,the hidden Agni or Soma3.
of Kanva, being called by the patronymic
Medhyatithi, a descendant
is
mentioned
nine
times in the RV., occasionallywith Kanva
Kanva
(8,2*"),
and

him

kindled

who

blessed

were

""

of

in enumerations
who

has

four

or

times
his

past, but

the

(i. 3610-11-X7).

ancestors

and

The

battle (10,

is found

descendants

beside

often

that

of

speak

whose

'he

mean
occurs

name

(8, 525),belongs

Kanva

themselves

of

to

seems

name

(i.e. Agni)'. Priyamedha,

sacrificial guest

five

in

and

well

in

the

to

plural as

Priyamedhas4.
4

i
ZDMG.
OLDENBERG,
ZDMG.
OLDENBERG,
42,

" 58. A.

This

Kutsa1.

7.

warlike
in

nearly forty times


pluralas a designation of

mentioned
the

216"

42,

"

pw.

s.

Kanva.

v.

"

BRV.

2,

465."

217.

the
a

hero
RV.

family

belonging
The

of

to

the Indra

only

occurs

name

myth

is
in

once

singerswho address a hymn to


by the patronymic Arjuneya,son

is four times called


(7, 25$). Kutsa
ii223
of a son
Indra
is made
of his, whom
"c.). Mention
Arjuna (i,
is young
and
brilliant
aided in fight against a Dasyu (10, io5XI). Kutsa
called upon
Indra for aid when
(i, 633). He is a seer, who
plunged in a
Indra
as
car
(4, 16"; 5, 299), who
pit (i, io66). Kutsa rides on the same
him
him
his
charioteer
wafts
as
(2, ig6; 6, 20$).
(5,3i8; 8, i11) or takes
with
him
is similar to Indra (4, i610) and is even
invoked
in a dual
Kutsa
their car (5,3i9).
on
compound as Indrakutsd, the pairbeing besought to come

Indra
of

The

foe

againstwhom

Kutsa

is associated

with

Indra

Indra

is Susna.

for Kutsa
Susna
(i, 633. i2i9; 4, i612; 6, 263), aided Kutsa
against
him
to
(7, i92), or, associated with Kutsa
(i,5 16), subjected Susna
and
the ,gods,
vanquished Susna (5,29$). Indra is invoked to fightwith Kutsa
Susna
(6, 3i3) or to bring Kutsa
as
a
against
slayer of Susna (i, i754).
Indra
even
fightsfor Kutsa
againstthe gods (4,3o2~5j Or againstGandharva
results in the stealingof the wheel
of the
conflict with Susna
(8, i11). The
Indra
off
the
wheel
foes
his
sun
tore
(i, i754; 6,3i3). For Kutsa
pressed by
with
of the sun
he
while
the
other
Kutsa
to
(4,3o4)
to drive on
(5,2910).
gave
of stopping the
This miracle
be
to
a
sun
(cp. i, i2i10; 10, I383) seems
transference
of the myth of Indra
for human
gaining the sun
happiness,to
the reminiscence
of a semi-historical battle. In winning the sun
Indra
is said
smote

Susna

to

have

to

crush

made

wide

the

fiends

space
with

for
Kutsa

his charioteer
and

to

roll

Kutsa
forward

(6, 20$).
the

He

wheel

Indra
is said to have subjected other
(4,i612). In one
passage
the Vetasus
to Kutsa, viz. Tugra, Smadibha, and
(10,494).

foes

is invoked
of

the

than

sun

Susna

III.

148

RELIGION,

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

KUNST.

u.

VEDIC

A.

MYTHOLOGY.

(" 65) and


as
gods might be conceived
having
Vedic
The
gods themselves
being anthropomorphic
higher
animal forms also.
beings of the Veda which have an animal form
in character, the supernatural
demoniac
semi-divine only or
lower
order,
being
a
to
according as
belong
the
the
is
useful
to
as
or
as
animal
injurious,
the
man,
cow,
serpent. More
him
animals
has
attached
various
which
to
serviceable
are
just as man
over,
the great anthropomorphic gods are
naturallysurrounded
to him, so
by a
celestial animal world of a similar character.
Lastly,actual animals are in
with mythological conceptions of the gods. They are
the ritual connected
intended
only as an instrument for the time being
representatives
symbolical
in
This
the
fetishistic point
some
influence
gods they
respect resemble.
to
faded
the
of
of
identification
view
remnant
is probably
of
a
more
primitive
The
such
animal
fetishes play in Vedic
part which
gods with visible objects.
times is, however,
no
longer great,,since the representationof deities by
of the gods as mighty
animals conflicted with the higherconception prevailing
and
heaven
the
in
sacrifice.
t
o
coming
invisibly
men
dwelling
definitelydrawn

not

was

" 60. The


the

draw

Hors_e_L.
of

cars

there

tioned
which

Dadhikra

is

ten

so

of

the

R.V.

Besides

individual
of these

(4, 38

times.

The

name

ghantuka (i, 14)

as

synonym
head
of

divine

40;
the

"

hardly ever

steed
a
characteristically

steeds

He

7,

44).

word

is swift

is celebrated
is

name

in

men

Dadhikravan,

form

in other
is

which

in Vedic

occur

The

extended
occurs

that the

of horse.

the celestial horses

is Dadhikra, who

times, interchangingwith

twelve

is found

Dadhikra.

various

notable

most

h\mns

late2

rather

A.

"

gods,

of the

mythology. One
four

the

Vedic

given

in

texts.

the

Nai-

(4,38*'9. 39*), being

the
chariots (7, 44*) and
a
vanquisher of chariots
speeds like the wind (4, 383). The
people praise his swift
and every Puru
ness
(ib.9- 3).
praiseshim as he runs on a precipiceas it were
the
of
the
He
also
He
bounds
is
conceived
curves
as
paths (4, 40*).
along
winged. For he is called bird-like,his wing being compared with that of
of a
bird and
a
speeding eagle (4, 4o2-3). He is likened to a swooping
called
and
even
an
directly
(4,40^)
eagle
eagle (4, 38s-2). In one
passage
he is spoken of as the swan
the
Vasu
well
in
(hamsd) dwelling
as
light,as
in the air, the priestat the altar,the guest in the house
all epithets
appropriateto various forms of Agni.
Dadhikra
is a hero, smites the Dasyus, and
is victorious (4, 38Z~~3'7).
of heaven, when
His adversaries fear him
he
the thunder
as
fightsagainst
and
the tribes cry after him in con
a
thousand; he wins booty in combats
8the dust and
tests (ib. 5- 4). Making himself (krnvana) a garland, he
tosses
6it
from
brows
his
scatters
(ib. 7). He
belongs to all the tribes,pervades
the five tribes with his power,
as
Surya the waters with his light,and observes
the assemblies
(ib.
him, the victorious steed, like
4). Mitra-Varuna
gave
shiningAgni, to the Purus (4, 392 cp. 381-2); they gave us the horse Da
dhikra as a blessingfor the mortal
(ib.5).
The
steed Dadhikravan
is praised when
Agni is kindled at the dawning
of Usas
(4,393). He is invoked with the Dawns
(ib.1.
40'), who are prayed
to the sacrifice like Dadhikravan
to turn
(7,4i6). He is regularlyinvoked
with Usas, nearly as
often
with Agni, less frequentlywith the Asvins
and
with other deities also (3, 201-5; 7, 44I"4j 10, ioix); but
Surya, sometimes
Dadhikra
is invoked
first (7,441).
The
be
said to throw
etymologicalmeaning, being uncertain 3, cannot
additional light on
the
of Dadhikra.
The
second
any
originalnature
part

the

first steed

at

(rathatur),who

2-

of the
word

compound
would

then

I0-

may
mean

be

by-form

of

curdled
'scattering

root
kr, 'to scatter',and
milk', in allusion to the dew

the

the
or

ANIMALS

rime

appearing

think
the

This

sun.

as

steed

thinks

GAIGNE

he

(p.31)
notion

the
that

the

that

opinion
racer

Dadhikra

has

dhikra

in

name,
head.

horse's

not

deity,but

divine

received
remarked

been

possiblyin

and

deity

regarded
and

rather

(ib.).
be

might

deities.

BER-

but that
lightning,
lightningforms 5.

to

actual

an

warlike

as

of

whom

conceived

Varuna
those

of

both

with

is often

sun

general, including his solar and


and
OLDENBERG^,
however,

was

charger,
already

or

is sometimes

refers

who

circlingball

the

the

the

given by Mitra
being the eye

Dadhikra

149

GRASSMANN*,
steed

that

fact

lisas, that

he

sun

HORSE.

BRADKE8,

v.

which

It

the
of

name

in

represents Agni
PISCHEL?,

LuDWic6,

of

of

the

is

was

and

form

by

that

and

Dadhikra

that

with

connected

is

THE

60.

ROTH

to

the

supported
closely connected

bird

or

statement

in

represents

view

is most

Dadhikra

The

sunrise, according

at

Dadhikra

that

OBJECTS.

INANIMATE

AND

horse,

in
agree
famous

the
as

honours.
that

(p. 142)
since

nature,

is allied

Dadhyanc
is spoken

he

of

Da

to

having

as

is Tarksya, whose
is
name
Nearly related to Dadhikra
Tarksya.
mentioned
late hymn,
con
(i, 8Q6; 10, 178*). One
only twice in the RV.
his praise. He
is there
to
(10, 178), is devoted
sisting of three stanzas
described
as
a
god-impelled mighty steed (vdjin),a vanquisher of chariots
as
a
(cp. 6, 444), swift,and speeding to battle. He is invoked
giftof Indra.
words
In the identical
(4, 3810), he is said to have per
applied to Dadhikra
his power,
vaded
the five tribes with
as
Surya the waters with his light.That
is shown
steed
he was
(v.2; i, 896) by his epithet
as
a
primarilyconceived
B.

aristanemi, 'whose

dependent
the

fellies
beside

name

word

(which in VS.

intact'

are

Tarksya

and

as
15, 1 8 appears
In the Naighantuka

Garuda).

'horse'.

(i, 14)

later
tdrksya
synonym
in
referred
the
and
to
a
as
bird;
Tarksya is,however,
Epic and
is identical
with
swift bird Garuda, the vehicle
he
the
subsequent literature,
the whole
of Visnu.
It seems
on
represented
probable that Tarksya originally

Vedic

the

occurs

as

of

in

an

In

one

two

or

texts

in

sun

the

Trksi,

from

in

mentioned

Tarksya

was

form

the

divine

of

name

the
an

of

man,

(8, 227).

RV.
actual

horse

race

steed10.
with
This

word

The

derived

be

to

seems

patronymic Trasadasyava,

the

derivation

leads

Fov11

once

believe

to

Trksi

(likeDadhikra), belonging to

that
of the

family of Trasadasyu.
Paidva.

C.
to

have

brought to Pedu
(i, n66; 9, 884).

Paidva

is that

mythical steed

Another

which

the

which
(i, iig10; 7, 7i5) and
to
object of the giftwas

Asvins

is

said

are

called

therefore

replace an inferior
be inferred
from
the descriptionof Pedu
horse, as may
as
agkds'va,'he who
has
bad
is
times
This
horse'
steed
several
a
(i, n66).
spoken of as 'white',
is praiseworthy (i, 119"; 10, 39"; cp. 4, 382) and
sveta
(i, n66, "c.). He
is to be invoked
like Bhaga
(i, n66) by men,
(10, 3910). He is compared
with Indra
is
and
called
(i, ii910)
(i, 1179. n89
a
'dragon-slayer',ahihan
is
in
He
a
epithet otherwise peculiar to Indra.
cp. 9, 884), an
conqueror
vincible
in battles,seeking heaven
(i, ii910). Here
again the evidence, as
it goes,
appears
symbolical of the sun12.
far

as

Etas

D.

meaning

times
often

who

measured

bright

as

with

sun,

the

favour

word

the

of
interpretation

etasa, which

occurs

few

the

steed

times

'steed' in the RV.


frequently signifies
horses
of the
sun
(7, 622; 10, 37^. 497).
in the
a
name
singular,,
always
proper

form

reference
out

of

to

the

wheel

of

the

sun.

Savitr

the

terrestrialregions (5,8i3). The

the

sun

(7, 66I4j.

Yoked

to

the

In
It

Pedu

of

an

as

'swift',
more

designates the
dozen

The

a.

to

The

the

adjective
plural it
about

occurs

connected
is the

with

Etasa

the

steed (etasa)

swift god Etasa

pole,

as

moves

draws
the

III. RELIGION,

150

of the

India

urged
contending in

sun

stray references

gained

his

before

of honour

and

sun

in the

lead, and

the

of

bolical

lead

said to

be

is indicated

sun,

white

In

sun14.

by

is said

particularform

the

car

Fire.

That

him

takes

has

now

the

place

is

is sym

which

another

fashioned

been

have

horse

the
in

the RV.

of

is

Dawn

(i, 163*) in

the

by

ritual,the horse

the Soma

symbolicalof the sun's.


Agni, the swift and agilegod,

Surya;

he

to

passage
is suggestedby
and

to

behind

impossibleto suggest any


however, hardly be doubted

and

of

at first

sun.

Sun

of

(7,77^,

steed

the sacrificial steed

which
the

the

of

symbolical

Horse

The

E.

of

be

It appears
to
It can,

steed

represents the

Etasa

(i, i2i'3; 5, 31").

sun

concede

to

seems

this myth.

of
satisfactoryinterpretation
that

Surya

MYTHOLOGY.

cp. 9,6s8). Indra helped


be
It may
gathered from

being

the

it to

fixes

end

car13.

own

(8, i11

that Etasa

mythicalcontest,

the

of

lost wheel

the

up

this

to

of the

wheel

sun

VEDIC

A.

Surya (i, 6iI5).

with

race

the

(etasd)of

steed

the

on

KUNST.

u.

brought the

(7,6.32);he

wheel

Etasa

WISSENSCH.

WELTL.

gods

of

out

also appears

to

(p.89),spoken
symbolical of Agni. A horse is
look
the
fire is produced by friction.
at
stationed so
to
as
place where
the east, it is deposited in the track
towards
of the
When
the fire is borne
of
the
in front16. In the ceremony
which
horse
the
piling
fire-altar,
goes
'In heaven
is thy highestbirth,in air thy
with the verse:
horse
is addressed
(VS. n, 12). Such a rite is explained in the SB.
navel, on earth thy home'
Brahmana
same
as
bringingAgni together with himself17. The
speaks of
from
the clouds
the waters
or
(SB. 5, i, 45;
lightningas a horse descended
a").
7, 5,
of

as

303HRI.

cp.
SEE.

Zoological Mythology
Gr.
Altind.
Cp. WACKERNAGEL,

"

note

55,
282.

5.
6 LRV.
"

46,
pretation 17"18.
PW.

i"

62"3;
BRV.

15

"

BRV.

51-2.

Transl.

6, 35

ORV.

81.

A.

The

1.

"c.;
16
"

i,

124;

KHF.
ORV.

"

52;
77.

3; ORV.
IS.
WEBER,
17

"

Indra

Bull.

cp.
9

--

in the SB.

the

bull

(2, 5, 3l8)the

"

KZ.

ORV.

is in

the

Indra2.

appears
In one

the god

Rudra3.

Mudgala

and

as

of

one

of the

the

plays

be

incarnations

sacrifices of the

bull

to

Vedic

RV.

part in

the

KZ.

GW.

s.

v.

MM.,
25, 471;
VedainterHILLEBRANDT,
ORV.

366

34,
3;

(1890)27.

RV.
7.
GVS.

"

i, 42;

Die

46, 282.

SEE.

71;
im

12

Cp.

2, 161

Naksatra

2,

ff.

270.

constantly designated a

Indra's
of

PW.;

JRAS.

169 f.; cp. PVS.


n.

ARNOLD,

V.

ROTH,

Metaphern

13, 247,
80.

is stated

bull

E.

"

MACDONELL,

"

330

ff.
"

42,

2,

shown

less frequentlyto Agni, and


applied much
as
Dyaus (p. 22). In the AV. (9, 4?) a bull

and

myth

15.

cp.

PVS.

--

283

i,

p.

462"3.
447"9.
Gleichnisse
und
HIRZEL,
of SV.
i.
69, note

BRV.

13

79.

4,

456"7;

2,

ZDMG.

498;

2,

"

AB.

bull, a term
gods, such

of

"

GRIFFITH,
2,

Cp.

--

BRV.

been

is

horse

the

Cp. GUBERNATIS,

34"

ritual

the

In

steed.

has

often,as

occasionallyto
is addressed
form1.

as

In the Avesta

Verethraghna, the

ritual,a
obscure

bull
and

other

Indra,

also
much

Avestan

represents
discussed

MudgalanI (RV. 10, io2)4.


on
earth, the cow
Owing to its great utility
naturally
enters
of Dawn
largelyinto the conceptions of Vedic mythology. The beams
draw
her
rain-cloud
is
are
The
personified as cows5, which
car
(p. 47).
the
mother
of
c
alf
This
personified as a cow,
a
(lightning)
(pp. 10. 12).
cloud-cow
is individualized as Prsni6,the mother
of the Maruts
(VS. 2, 16),
her milk
(6, 48") and udder being several times referred to (cp.p. 125). The
bountiful clouds
the
doubtless
are
prototypes of the many-coloured cows
which
all
desires
of the Blest (AV. 4, 348)
yield
(kdmadugha) in the heaven
and
which
the
of the
often
forerunners
Cow
of Plenty (kamaduK) so
are
mentioned
in post-Vedic
of
the
of
7.
the
Ida,
offering
personification
poetry
milk
and
Aditi
butter, has a tendency to be regarded as a cow
(p. 124).
B.

The

Cow.

ANIMALS

INANIMATE

AND

is

OBJECTS.

sometimes

spoken of
cow-born, gojdtdh. The
in the myth of the kine

also

61. THE

as

BULL

"c.

62. THE

GOAT

"c.

(p.122). The gods are


frequent applicationof the cow

cow

151

sometimes

is, how
released
the rock
from
by Indra (pp. 59. 61).
ever,
The
terrestrial cow
herself
has
already acquired a certain sanctity in
Aditi
the RV., being addressed
and
a
as
goddess, while the poet impresses
his
killed
hearers
should
she
be
that
not
on
(8, Qo15'l6 cp. VS. 4, 19. 20).
is further indicated
The
of the cow
by her designationaghnyd,
inviolability
'not to be slain',which
sixteen times in the RV.
occurs
(the corresponding
masculine
found
the worship
form
In
the
AV.
three
times).
being
only
aghnya
is
the
sacred
animal
as
cow
a
fully recognised (AV. 12, 4. 5.)8. In the
9f
SB.
is
beef
said
be born
eats
to
again (on, earth) as a
(3, i, 221) he who
for guests (SB. 3, 4, i2)9.
of evil fame; though beef is allowed
to be cooked
man
called

in

"

Pusan
in

being

v.

Goat

"c.

form

the

of

the

the

RV.

is several

goat

speciallyconnected

there
appears
one-footed
Goat
("

the

ekapad,

is

goat

also

It

(p. 35).

car

literature the

"

"

--In

Aja

"

times

as

27)1.

connected

divine
the

In

identified

or

Agni2.
The

Asvins

ass

in

appears

Vedic

mainly

mythology

drawing

as

the

car

of the

(p. 50) -3.


The

they

is found

dog4

brindled

hounds

of

is

There

conceived

in

descendants

as

nothing in

The

boar

gonic

character

earth

nation

out

in the

occurs

Marufs, "anoTTrtra
as

of

7.

the
the

in

the

as

and

TS.

form

Sarama6

later

Vedic

(p. 63),
directlyshowing that

is

25)
RV.

the

In

of

RV.

the

bitch, though
such
and
Yaska
by
(Nir. u,
(devaswii).
as

mythologicallyin the form of the


indicates
Sarameya (p.173). This name

RV.

the

called

Yama,

regarded

were

Indra.

the

"

his

drawing

as

of

KHF.

"

2
ORV.
76, note 2.
Ap. SS. 8, 1119.
(with reference to his predecessors)
by V. HENRY
6
Nir.
Cp. ROTH,
Cp. GRUPPE,
op. cit. i, 77.
8 HRT.
188.
SEE.
156; cp. BLOOMFIELD,
42,
Hochzeitsrituell
189; cp. WINTERNITZ,
33.

6, 74;

I,

treated

1894, p. 36; HRL

WVB.

Vedic

later

1016; TB.
Last

(6),516 "48.

The

62.

"

with

"

PW.'s.

145;

656.

the

i,

82.

JA. 1895

Erl.

with

Cp. MS.

ORV.

most

described

literature
as

this animal

by the Creator
later development

the

of
messenger
there
Sarama
was
she

is

'bitch

regarded as
the
gods'

of

figurativedesignationof Rudra,

TB.

assumed

waters.

the

two

that

appears

in

Prajapatiwhen
of

it is the

he
boar

the

cosmo-

raised
incar

of Vismi8.

is raised
the
tortoise
to a semi-divine
position
beside
or
(VS. 13, 3i)9, or, as Kasyapa, often appears
identical
with Prajapati in the AVV
the epithet svayambhu,
he receives
where
'self-existent'(AV. 19, 5310)10. In the AB.
(8, 2i10) the earth is said to have
been
In the SB. Prajapati is described
promised to Kasyapa by Visvakarman.
he produced all
tortoise
form
himself
into
as
a
(7, 4, 35), in which
changing
in postThis
became
the
creatures
assumed
form
of
creator
(7, 5, i1)11.
Vedic
In the TS.
mythology the tortoise incarnation of Visnu12.
(2, 6, 33)
In

as

the

'lord

the

of

later

sacrificial

cake

monkey
favourite,who
restored

to

Samhitas

waters'

is

favour

(purodasd) is
appears

in

expelled

for

("

22,

p.
the

said
late

his

to

become

hymn

of

mischievousness

the

tortoise.

(10, 86)
by Indram, but
RV.

Indra's

as

is

finally

64).

the objects of a pane


rains are
in RV.
Frogs awakened
by
7, 103
and
and
gyric as bestowing cows
as
to be conceived
seem
possessing
long life,
This
MAX
MtJLLER14
'3.
been
magical powers
interpretedby
hymn has, however,
satire
Brahmans.
BERGAIGNE
as
a
on
interpretsthe frogs as meteorological
phenomena^.

in. RELIGION,

152

WISSENSCH.

WELTL,

KUNST.

u.

MYTHOLOGY.

VEDIC

i A.

SEE.
thinks
i
ORV.
46, 62; BLOOMFIELD,
42, 625. 664, who
Aja
.72; SEE.
reference
TB.
to
3, I, 28 ('Ajaekapad. has
ekapad is undoubtedly the Sun, with
is not
which, however,
risen
in the east',"c.),a passage
cogent for the Rigvedic
4
2
WVB.
ORV.
3
1894, p. 26, n. 2.
78.
Cp. HOPKINS, The
conception.
SEE.
5 Cp. WHITNEY,
BLOOMFIELD,
42, 500.
Dog in the RV., AJP. 1894, 154"5;
"

"

"

"

1216.

Grammar2,

Sanskrit

"

cit. Ii66b;

Op.

14, 58313, 493"9;


149; ZDMG.
stufen
JAOS.
136; IS. i, 272, note; HOPKINS,
i"
9 Cp. IS. 13, 250.
178"89.
Cp. SPH.

KRV.

"

JRAS.

DONELL,

ASL.

14

166"7.

27,

494"5;

OST.

cp.

ORV.

'3

"

436.

5,

Cp.

"

"

"

"

15

"

Gr. " 52 a.;

KHF.

177"8; Entwicklungs8
MACDONELL,
17, 67.
JRAS. 27,
ii
12
8 1.
MAC
Cp. IS. i, 187.
BLOOMFIELD,
70;
JAOS. 17, 173"9.
BRV.
100"
i.
i, 292 "c.; cp. HRI.

n.

"

Altind.

WACKERNAGEL,

Birds figure largelyin Vedic


is
mythology. Soma
is frequently
compared with or called a bird1 (p.106). Agni in particular
likened to or directlydesignated a bird 2, once
being spoken of as the eagle
is
also
sometimes
conceived
bird (p.3i)4,
of the sky (p.89) 3. The
sun
as
a

" 63. TJae Bird.

often

twice

under

the

garutmat^.
Garuda, the chief

mythology is
notion (cp.p. 39). The
carries
the eagle which

Vedic
same
as

lightning6.In

represent

The

of

name

the

that

Visnu's

vehicle

in

birds,is probably based


applicationof the bird in the

main
the

off

fact

of

the

Soma

Indra

for

it is Indra

Kathaka

which

and

himself

who

postthe

on

is

Veda

appears
form

to

in the

of

Soma
amrta.
or
Similarly in the Avesta, Verethraghna
Varaghna, the swiftest of birds,and in Germanic
mythology,
the god Odhin
to the
transforminghimself into an eagle,flies with the mead
of the gods (p. H4)7.
realm
birds as well as beasts are occasionallyconnected
Ominous
with certain
they are supposed to be sent. Thus in the RV. the owl and
gods by whom
of Yama
the pigeon are
(" 77)8. In the Sutras
spoken of as messengers
of evil spirits';
the owl is 'the messenger
of prey
while the beast
besmeared
an

the

eagle captures
the form

assumes

with
RV.

and

blood
bird

"

75.

carrion

the

of

is

omen

"

v.

Cp.

the

demoniac

glossary,s.

traits.

"

"

Demons

"

These

are

Yama9.

In

the

give auspicioussigns (2,42^).

to
syena.

v.

40,

Animals.

generic term

of

messengers

2
BLOOMFIELD,
HRI.
5 GW.;
356.
45.
SEE.
42, 474.
31, 352 ff.;BLOOMFIELD,

ZDMG.

" 64. Noxious


show

called

are

invoked

ZDMG.

BRADKE,

vulture

once

SV.

Cp. BENFEY,

29.

of

FaR.
6

"

generally appear
in

sometimes

the

152.

BRL

RV.

"

II.

"

ORV.

KHF.

ORV.

76.

demons

as

referred

to

or

with

'wild

demon
beast' (i, 80?; 5, 29*. 323). One
who
(2, nl8; 8, 3226.662) is called Aurnavabha, 'Spiderreferred
to only once
brood'; another
Urana, 'Ram'.
(2,14*) is named
The
in
form
animal
most
this
is the serpent1
common
applied
way
Av.
(ahi
azhi)2. This is generallyonly another
designationof the demon
Vrtra, who
of
probably received his name
(cp." 68) as a formidable enemy

is mentioned

mrga,

three

times

mankind

enveloping his prey like a serpent in his coils3. The Vrtra-slayer


is said to have slain the serpent
Indra, who is also called the serpent-slayer,
82
the
of
and
Vrtra
Ahi
(8,
the terms
is clear where
identity
cp. 4, I71);
interchange(i,32I-2-7-I4)jand by the 'first-born of the serpents'(ib" 4) no
other can
be meant
than
Vrtra' (ib.5). In several passages,
'Vrtra,the most
2

too, the
When
the

words

Ahi
same

as

vering the
cribed

are

in

appositionand

is mentioned
in

seven

the

case

streams,

or

winning

the

'the serpent Vrtra'4.


him are
victory over

translated

be

may

alone, the results


of Vrtra, the god

of

Indra's

causing the

cows5.

The

to
are

flow, deli
also

des

being expressed by the


root
vr
others.
are
similarlysaid to be swallowed
They
(Vgras) by the serpent (4, i;1; 10, ui9).
Ahi
with lightning
is armed
thunder
and
hail (i, 3213). He
ahiis bright,for the Maruts
called
are
bhanavah, 'shining
like Ahi' (i, 172'); and the term
ahi is applied to Agni,
as

encompassed
(2, i92) among

by

the

serpent,

the

action

waters
waters

63. THE

is described

who
is

is

the Ahi

whom

The
Ahi

of Ahi