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THE LIBRARY
OF

WORK AND PLAY


Carpentry and Woodwork
By Edwin W. Foster
Electricity and Its Everyday Uses
By John F. Woodhull, Ph.D.

Gardening and Farming


By Ellen Eddy Shaw

Home Decoration
By

Charles Frankhn Warner, Sc.D.

Housekeeping

By

Elizabeth Hale Oilman

Mechanics, Indoors and Out


By Fred T. Hodgson

Needleciuft

By

EflSe

Archer Archer

Outdoor Sports, and Games

By Claude H.

Miller, Ph.B.

Outdoor Work
By Mary Rogers

Miller

Working in Metals
By Charles Conrad

Sleffel.

^ ^^H

THE KcW YOKK

PUBLIC LIBRAR\
wox
^Na

Hanging a Picture
The

wall space

is

a part of the framing of a picture

HOME DECORATION

PROF. CHARLES
For

F.

WARNER,

Sc.D.

Master of the Rindge Manual Training


Twelve years principal of the TechMaM'.
nical High School and Director of the Evening
School of Trades, Springfield, Mass.

eight

years

School,

m<-

#s^iAv^

."1

SE

i 3

T!'

:"!

-.'^

1.

TO THE BOYS AND GIRLS OF AMERICA


THIS BOOK
WHICH RECORDS WHAT SOME OF THEM HAVE DONE
IS HOPEFULLY DEDICATED

pure
SOME
Art

lovers of art discard the formula,

Progress,

for

Beautiful

the

Useful,

fearing
beautiful.

lest

the useful should deform

They tremble

to see the drudge's

They

attached to the muse's arm.


if

Ah! they are

in error.

are solicitous for

The

useful, far

from circum-

Aurora

scribing the sublime, enlarges

it.

splendid, clad less in purple

and emerald

she

any diminution

grace,

because,

of

Is

less

suffers

majesty and of radiant

foreseeing

an

insect's thirst,

carefully secretes in the flower the

by the bee

hand

descends as far as to humanity.

the sublime

it

the

she

dewdrop needed

Victor

Hugo.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This volume

the result of an effort to bring to-

is

gether in close relation with fundamental principles


of design a variety of practical

more or
problem

less

of

closely connected

home

problems which are


wuth the general

decoration and suited to the con-

and

structive ability of boys

eighteen years of age.

girls

from twelve to

While the book

is

mainly

a record of the author's experience and observation


in

this

received

same
all

department of educational work, he has

many

field.

suggestions from co-workers in the

It will

who have

be impossible to give credit to

directly or indirectly assisted in the

preparation of this book: but special acknowledg-

ments are due to Mr. Fred M, Watts, who furnished


the material for the chapter on Pottery and several

drawings for other parts of the book; to Miss Grace


L. Bell for the illustrations

and descriptions em-

bodied in the chapter on Block Printing; to

Burton A. Adams
to

for the

Mr.

problems in metal work;

Mr. Edwin A. Finch and Mr. Lewis O. Richardson

who

contributed

many

of the specifications for the

problems in furniture-making; to Miss Elizabeth

M. Morton

for

specific

the subject of dress as


of decoration;

suggestions
related

to

and to Mrs. Ruth B.

pertaining to

the principles
S.

Flower, of

who supplied several of the photographs and much of the descriptive matter for the
Florence, Mass.,

chapter on Weaving.
Springfield,

Mass.
C. F.

W.

CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I.

II.

III.

IV.

V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.

\>IX.
X.
XI.
XII.

Introductory

The

Story of a House

...

PAGE

Decorations and Furniture

34

Pictures

64

The Arrangement

of

Flowers

81

Decorative Fabrics

95

Dress and the Principles of Decoration

121

Furniture Making

129

Finishing and Re-finishing

212

Hand Weaving

244

Pottery

280

Decorative Work in Leather, Copper, and Other


Materials

321

Concluding Suggestions

Country

Homes

366

ILLUSTRATIONS

....

Hanging a Picture

Frontispiece
FACING PAGE

All the
of

Rough Carpentry was Assigned to the Boys


the Woodworking Sections of the Voca-

......

tional School

22

The Boys of the Forging Classes of the Technical


High School were not Overlooked in the Distribution of the

Table Runner

Work on

the

House

of

Cover with Geometrical Design

Window

...

Draperies with Stencilled Border

Work Bag

Crocheted Panels, a Linen


ventional

Landscape

Crash Table

in

Darning

Mat Embroidered

Couching Stitch

24

Russian Crash and Pillow

in

96

with ConStitch,

Darning and

.118

....
......

108

Finishing a Library Table

212

Weaving a Rug

244

252
Hand Made Rugs, Hand Made Towels
An Alcove with Window Draperies, Pillow Covers,
Window Seat and Moss Green Rug, All Hand
262
Woven
.

Xll

ILLUSTRATIONS
FACING PAGE

HOME DECORATION

^'"^^UC LIBRARY
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INTRODUCTORY
THE STORY OF A HOUSE

T" O DESIGN,

and build a house

plan,

a task

is

that rarely falls to the lot of boys and

-*-

of

In fact,

it is

men and women

not the

common

girls.

experience

to build houses without the aid

of architects, masons,

and carpenters.

Such a

task,

however, was recently offered to certain classes in

one of the public schools of a well-known


land city.

New

Eng-

It was, indeed, a school problem,

yet there was something about

it

and

that seemed to

suggest larger and more interesting things than are


ordinarily dealt with in the school-room.

not seem at

have homes of
learn

some school work. It was more


all boys and girls must some day

all like

like real life; for

to

how

their

own, and here was a chance

the house, which

part of every home,

is

you

like that

is

an important

planned and

hardly necessary to say that this


if

It did

built.

work or

It

is

play,

word better was undertaken with


3

HOME DECORATION

genuine enthusiasm.

It

the pleasure of interest


full of

was a task crammed full


and of accomphshment

of

worth while

the joy of doing something

from the beginning to the end.


The House a Work of Art.

One

of the first les-

sons learned by these young builders

perhaps the

was that a great many

most important one of all


things have to be thought
if

the thing

of in planning a house,

to be well done.

is

a question of deciding

It is not simply

how many rooms one

will

have, arranging them in some conventional order,

and building the house around them with whatever


external features style or fancy

many

houses,

it

is

may

goes into

them

Too

true, are planned, or at least

in this thoughtless fashion;

put up,

dictate.

and whatever

in decoration or furniture is gener-

chosen either for necessary use or for display


not with any thought of the real comfort and

ally

satisfaction that

People
to
of

come from

artistic

surroundings.

who

are satisfied with such dwellings seem

less

appreciation of art, the highest product

show

civilization,

than those uncivihzed tribes who

decorated their caves or huts with beautiful rugs


of their

own weaving and who ornamented

pottery

and

wonderfully

their

and implements with


and elaborately wrought

utensils

conceived

their

THE STORY OF A HOUSE


Modern

designs.

houses with

all

cave

dwellers

apartment

in

the conveniences of their ready-made

surroundings, are in danger of missing that


expression in their

home

self-

belongings that encouraged

and delighted even the savage. The most extreme


example of this form of degeneracy is found in the
suggestion of a certain great inventor, that the

now

age of concrete construction,


that

we

means

are to have concrete houses poured into a

standard mould, hardened

and

at hand,

finished for

occupancy

The boys and

twenty -four hours,

in
in a

day or two.

story would not have

girls of this

accepted a machine-made, standardized house

There

one had been offered them, ready for use.

was a

special purpose for

be planned and
case of

any

from any
could

which their house was to

built, as there generally is in the

No

real house.

style A, B, or C, chosen

series of pattern-built or

fulfil

moulded houses,

such a purpose; and even

would they willingly give up

all

and building and furnishing?

if

it

could,

the fun of planning

Would they

forego

the lessons of experience to be learned from


this

work?

satisfaction
his

own

if

This

is

all

always a large part of the

which comes to any one who builds

house.

chief motive,

In the present instance


since the

boys and

girls

it

was the

who were

HOME DECORATION

planning this house were not expecting to


their

home

Why

make

there.

House Was Built.


What, then, was the
purpose for which this house was to be built; and
what were the specific problems involved in realthe

izing this purpose?

It

was to be a practice house

for the girls of the household technology course.

This meant that

it

a model house; but

important

factor

the design.

$1000

omy

it

must

Economy, always a

one.

of

should be, so far as possible,

in

of necessity

safe guide,

determining

limited

was a most

the

character

appropriation

about

for building material was available.


of space

portant.

as well

The only

as

of expense

available land

in area.

was

Econalso im-

was a triangular

lot in the corner of the school yard,

to 24

be a simple

665 square feet

This limited the dimensions of the floor plan

by 35 feet.

It Avas decided to develop the design

within these dimensions, on a rectangular plan, with

one story and a hip

roof,

because such a design would

present comparatively easy problems in framing and


insure a building of pleasing external proportions.

THE GENERAL DESIGN AND THE PLAN


In attacking the problem of design the method
of approach

was determined by the

fact that school

THE STORY OF A HOUSE

and school-boys were

to be the architects and


House
planning,
builders.
home decoration, and
household management were important subjects of
girls

study on the part of the

girls

and various forms

drawing and constructive work were required of


the boys of this school; so they

all

felt

of
all

that they

had a right to contribute something out of their


study and experience that might be of value in
working out

this

problem.

The design must therefore

be a composite of the best features of

Composite Design,

The rooms

many

studies.

required for a

house of this character were thought to be a

hall,

a living room, a dining-room, a kitchen, a pantry,

bedroom with a closet, a bath room, and a linen


closet.
Nothing short of this outfit of rooms would
a

satisfy the

practical

demands

training

of a

in

all

house to be used to give


the

essentials

of

plain

housekeeping and in the entertainment of guests.

With

these requirements in

knowledge of

all

mind and with

full

the limitations of the problem,

the girls of the junior and senior classes,

who were

taking the course in household technology, entered


into a lively but friendly competition with each

other to produce the most acceptable design and

draw the best plan. So many excellent plans resulted from this competition that it was difficult

HOME DECORATION

to select the best.

combine

in a

of several

was therefore decided to

It

new and

final

studies that

ditions of the

plan the best features

seemed to meet the con-

problem with equal

success.

Two

Floor plan of the model house

of these were selected as having the greatest


of

good points.

From

these the final floor

was developed and the necessary

made

in the original drawings to

design of the building

fit

number

the plan.

plan

modifications

make

the general

THE STORY OF A HOUSE


9
The Hall. It may be of interest to note how some
of the details of the

out for the


it

was

final

problem of design were worked


Beginning with the

plan.

easily seen that

economy

hall,

of space required

room should have small dimensions. In


did not need to be a separate room at all.

that the
fact, it

It could easily be a space

between the living room

and the dining-room, separated from both by means


of portieres and joined upon occasion with either

room
room

or with both, thus

making

possible a reception

or a dining-room of good size, or one

Of course, the central idea

room.

of a hall

large

must

not be lost sight of in providing for a desirable


extension

other

of

rooms.

It

should

suggest

warm welcome to the guest; and here is where the


fireplace may fulfil the double function of giving
the cheer of the hearth-stone at

comfort

of

fire

when warmth

all
is

times and the

needed.

The

absence of a stairway, since none was needed, was


a

favourable

circumstance.

and furnishing

Appropriate

decora-

due time were to add a


few distinguishing marks so that the house could
tion

retain,

in

without any appreciable

the dignity of an entrance

The Living Room and

the

sacrifice of space,

hall.

Dining-room.

tive positions of the living

The rela-

room and the

dining-

HOME DECORATION

10

room, as already stated, were determined by the

The purpose

location of the hall.

and

tinct

self-evident,

that

design

of

appropriate

lent

of each

was

dis-

and determined the features


themselves most readily

decoration.

to

In the living room the

the wall spaces, and the ceiling needed con-

floor,

sideration with regard to their final treatment, to

give pleasing proportions and harmonious colour-

The same was

ing.
its

true of the dining-room, though

different purpose suggested a different design.

An abundance

of

light

was important

for

rooms, hence the large, multiple windows.

windows would
drapery

so

place

it

relatively

much study

as

it

No

the kitchen.

room
In the

was necessary to make provision for


larger kitchen than would ordinarily

be needed in a house of this


case

Such

for pleasing

effects.

demanded
a

good chance

Kitchen and Its Appointments.

The

first

also offer a

both

was designed to be used

size,

because in this

as a practice kitchen

and must therefore be large enough to accommodate


eight

considerable

at one time.

at

least

This point assumed so

much

number

of

girls

importance in the minds of the young designers


that they were constantly tempted to rob other

rooms

of the space that

was due them

in order to

THE STORY OF A HOUSE


get a "nice, big kitchen."

But by

11

clever adjust-

ments and combinations the necessary


sions

floor

dimen-

were secured without unduly cramping other

features

the plan.

of

The

range,

laundry tubs,

and sink were conveniently located near each other


with the tubs at such a height that when not in
use the cover was flush with the top of the range,

forming a shelf on which kettles and other kitchen


utensils could be easily placed as they

back and forth from the range.


that

have

it

would be very

desirable,

if

were moved

was thought

It

not necessary, to

this shelf covered with zinc or

some kind

of

sheet metal.
It will be noted as a possible fault in the plan

that the range

is

very near the door into the pas-

sageway leading to the bedroom, the

and the
tion;

but

hall.

in

living

room,

This point received due considera-

view of the compensating advantages

the arrangement was thought allowable, inasmuch


as the door into the

only occasionally.

passageway would be used

There seemed to be no more

convenient location for the passageway, which was

room and,
requiring

bedroom and bath


cases of sickness or any emergency
easy communication between the

give privacy to

designed to
in
it,

kitchen and the bedroom.

HOME DECORATION

12

The

pantry was located between the kitchen and the dining-room for obvious
Special Features.

reasons

to

give easy communication in serving


and to confine kitchen odours to their proper place.

In place of a kitchen closet a cabinet was provided


as being on the whole the

for

of

the two.

It

more serviceable

always desirable to have an

is

entry or lobby, with a convenient part of


for the

refrigerator;

much room
to

justify

it

reserved

but the need of providing as

as possible in the kitchen itself

the

unusual feature

omission

to be found in the

this

of

the

lobby.

seemed

Another

time not an omission

window

is

bedroom closet.
Such a window, although not common, was thought
to be very desirable on sanitary grounds and as a
of the

possible protection against moths.

Early Plans for Decorating and Furnishing.

were by no means

all

These

the features of design that

had to be considered. As already suggested, there


was much study given to the question of interior
decoration and furnishing, even at this early stage.

This was simply necessary forethought; for


of

the

attractiveness,

restfulness,

atmosphere of any house


tect,

is

created

much

and homelike

by the

archi-

who, in his arrangement of rooms, door-ways,

and windows, disposes

his wall areas so that they

THE STORY OF A HOUSE


may

IS

be divided symmetrically and lend themselves

naturally to colour toning, offering tempting spaces

few choice pictures and opening up beautiful

for a

vistas.

vision
detail,

begun

Such house-planning,

with

and followed with taste and delicacy

may

often lead to a

harmony

is

composition.

in every

of effects as

temperament as a

pleasing to people of artistic

symphony

clear

to those

who enjoy a

In

the parallel between sym-

fact,

musical

fine

pathetic gradations of form and colour and har-

mony

of musical tones

a very close one, and the

is

by no means

appreciation of

it

telligent person,

on seeing a

is

and arranged by a
understand why,

real artist,

will

of space divisions, the


of

suite of

Any

rare.

in-

rooms designed

though he

may

not

be impressed by the rhythm

harmony

of colours, the lack

any jarring or discordant notes

in the decoration,

the simplicity, fitness, and real beauty, not of any particular part, perhaps,

We

but of the whole combination.

same language
whether we are describing the work of an artistarchitect or the work of a musical composer.
often find ourselves using the

FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN


Adaptation
discovered

to

that

Purpose.
there

principles or laws that

Our

are

young

certain

architects

fundamental

must be observed at the

HOME DECORATION

14

very beginning,

of adaptation

if

a really good and true design

The

to be made.

to

of these laws

first

The

purpose.

is

the law

is

application of this

law was illustrated in the location of the various

rooms

in the plan of the house, in

the dimensions

agreed upon for each, and in the details of arrange-

ment, especially

in

connecting with

it.

its

application.

the kitchen and other rooms

But

this

law

is

universal in

It determines not only the broad

features of the plan but the details as well.

It

does not permit anything useless or superfluous


to exist, for that would

mean weakness.

at ejSiciency and strength.

It aims

It dictates the details

of construction all along the line,

and

of the building to its finish

from the framing

its

decoration.

It

even determines the character of the furniture and


the

amount

of

Adaptation to purpose

it.

is

ruling principle.
Simplicity.

vealed

may

itself

Another

great

principle

that

re-

as the plans of the house developed

be called the law of simplicity.

This

is

one

of the elementary laws of nature transferred to the

realm of craftsmanship.
that the straight line

two

points.

Not

is

It

is

an axiom of geometry

the shortest distance between

less

evident

when Nature undertakes

to

is

the

fact

that

do anything she goes

THE STORY OF A HOUSE


about

it

in the simplest

natural tendency of
line

so

reads the

and most

all

motion

first

is

15

The

direct way.

along a straight

Analyze

law of motion.

the most complex forms and processes of nature and

we

them due

shall find

to the harmonious combi-

nation of the simplest elementary lines and move-

But the same law

ments.

which

simplicity

of

invariably marks the works of nature gives strength


also to the

and beauty

the

discussing

various

works of man.

Thus, in

problems that developed

as the designing of the house progressed,

found

as

of course

the solution which

it

should have been

met the

Correlation.
ciple that

third

great

found expression

was

that

test of simplicity, while

satisfying the law of adaptation to purpose,

true one.

it

was the

fundamental prin-

in these studies of the

house plans was the principle of

correlation.

Not

only must each part of the design be adapted to


its

use in the simplest possible manner, but

support

all

return.

It

other parts and


is

like

cooperation or team-work
life.

in

Every room

a house bears some natural relation to every

other room, and even the objects in the same


or

must

receive support in

play or in the practical affairs of


in

it

in

adjoining

rooms must

assist

each

room
other,

HOME DECORATION

16

whether their purpose be


a combination of both.

utility or decoration or

Only by due attention

mutual relations of the various elements


must enter into the composition, can the

the

to

that

designer produce those pleasing space effects, those

blendings of colour tones, those manifest relations

between the various objects, useful or decorative,


that give order, unity, and sympathetic feeling to

a complete design.

THE COLOUR SCHEME


The Floor

the Foundation.

Almost unconsciously

our young architects found themselves under the


guidance of these three great fundamental principles of design.

When

they came to the problem

of specifying the finish

wood work

for the floors

of the hall, living room,

and other

and dining-room,

they found that this problem was intimately associated

with the larger question of the colour

scheme as a whole.

The mutual dependence

of all

the elements concerned could not be overlooked.


It

was evident that the

floor,

which

is

the foun-

dation of the room, should be darker than the walls

and

ceiling

and the general tone

of the furnishings,

in order to give the suggestion of suflScient

and firmness
all it

for the support of the entire

might contain.

The

weight

room and

effect of solidity

could

THE STORY OF A HOUSE


be produced by staining the

floor

17

boards or by pro-

viding a liberal supply of dark, rich-toned rugs, large

ones as well as small ones.

There was no question

These, of course, are not allowable in

of carpets.

a model house.

few rugs were already available,

and others could be procured by buying them or by


making them. A properly toned floor, however,
is desirable, even with a most generous covering
was therefore decided to give the floor
stain when it was ready to be finished.

It

of rugs.

a coat of

Importance of Colour Schemes.


colour to he?

The

But what was the

designers were thus brought

face to face with that difficult but important prob-

lem which

all

fore they can

who plan houses have


hope to bring

their

to solve be-

work

into har-

monious adjustment with the various natural and

human
final

conditions that

product,

if it

must be

satisfied

in

the

be made a good example of the

The problem of the colour scheme


fundamental. Upon this depends not only the

designer's art.
is

tone of the

floors,

the walls, and the ceilings, but also,

to a certain extent, as has already been suggested,

the kind of woods to be used in the interior finishing,


left

and whether they are to be painted,


in

their

natural

colours.

It

will

stained, or

determine

the material and the colours of the portieres, cur-

HOME DECORATION

18

lamp shades, picture frames, vases;

tains, cushions,

in fact, it will largely settle the decorative character

The

of every article placed in the rooms.

ation of movable objects, however,


till

the more substantial

and

may

consider-

be deferred

elements are

fixed

decided upon.
Southern Exposures and Cool Colours.

In settling

the all-important question of the colour scheme


the

first

of the

point to be considered was the location

rooms with reference to

Rooms

surroundings.

light

and to external

that have a southern expos-

ure and nothing to interfere with their being flooded

with sunlight need to be protected against the glare


of too

much

For such rooms

light.

colour are the best


tain blue tones,

dull tones of

dull browns, soft gray -greens, cer-

and the medium grays

light, cool

colours that counteract the overbrilliancy of

direct

sunlight and give a positively tempered feeling to

the

atmosphere

of

room.

Incidentally,

too,

perhaps because they are the tints associated with


distant views, the cool colours
larger than

it

really

make a room seem

is.

Northern Exposures and

Warm Colours. Northern

rooms, on the other hand, do not generally suffer

from excess of sunlight and heat.


are needed in such rooms.

Deep

Warm

colours

reds, rich yellows,

THE STORY OF A HOUSE


and golden browns
a

sunless

that

seem

Our

room.

many

will

to bring sunlight into

noted

designers

rooms

of the

19

in the

the

fact

house they were

planning must be comparatively dark.

The house

was to face the high brick walls of the neighbouring


school building, not more than twenty-five feet
distant,

and

its

principal

A warm

posure.

rooms had a northern extreatment,

colour

was unquestionably

Should red, brown,

needed-.

The

or yellow be the prevailing tone.^

point was the location of the hall and


the

to

rooms.

other

hall,

the place

was

dark.

Its

of all colours

of

must

luminous,

in

The

beamed or

for the

its relations

of

all,

the

guest; but

it

have the sunniest

living

The same

room, or perhaps

in it to

be well in tune.

pleasing

contrast
it

with

the

not, since they

golden

must not be decidedly

ceilings of these three rooms,

walls, could

deciding

could safely be darker and more

yellow of the hall; but


red.

first

rich golden yellow.

would serve the needs of the


a brown with yellow enough

The dining-room

was,

welcome

walls

It

therefore,

must be

lighter

whether
than the

have the same or nearly the same

tint.

This might well be a light corn yellow.

The

colouring of the walls of the bedroom, bath

room, and kitchen was not so important a ques-

HOME DECORATION

20

tion as the decoration of the three front rooms.


Utility

and sanitary conditions were important

things to be considered.

Light tints were decided

upon, which in the bedroom might be reheved, in


the finishing touches, by delicate stenciled figures
in

some warm tone.


Interior Woodwork.

settled

it

'

With

the colour scheme

was a comparatively

easy

matter to

decide what should be the general tone and char-

The

acter of the interior woodwork.

floors of

the

three front rooms, since they were to be closely


associated, required the

same

solid

colour,

which

could well be a walnut brown, darker than any of


the walls.
sirable for

living

Fumed oak trimmings were thought dethe dining-room and gum wood for the

room, either of which could be extended to

the hall; but ivory white for the living room and the
hall, leaving

much

the oak for the dining-room, found

favour.

to adopt

It

was

for the three front

nation of natural woods

decided, however,

finally

first

rooms the

suggested.

room and bath room, where suggestions


liness are peculiarly appropriate,

be finished in white.

The bedof clean-

were specified to

Yellow southern pine was

decided upon for the kitchen and

rooms.

combi-

its

accessory

THE STORY OF A HOUSE


ORGANIZING THE

As soon

as

the

21

WORK OF CONSTRUCTION

chief

of

design were

made

for carrying

features

decided upon, preparations were

them out in the actual work of building; for the


house was not to be a "castle in air." The first

ROCF flNO UALIS COVERED


V1TM sramts) jhimole.*.
RATTER EffPi OReiSED.

OoTSioE.

CHIMMEY

nmSH

light.

or ORICK WITtI

anowrisTOME. cap.

Front or north elevation of the model house

step was to put these ideas on paper and work out


the details of construction in clearly executed and

accurately dimensioned drawings.


as the

first

These included,

to be used, the working drawings for

the framing and other rough woodwork, blue print


copies of which were to be put into the hands of

the boys of the elementary vocational school,

were to carry out

who

this part of the builcling plans.

The Working Drawings.


of detailed drawings

A considerable number

had to be made before the

HOME DECORATION

22

work

of construction could

be wisely begun.

This

furnished an interesting set of problems for the

mechanical drawing groups of the technical high

The

school.

material for this work consisted of

rough sketches in pencil, but with the


dimensions

as

determined in the plan

correct

accepted

These

as the result of the competition in design.

preliminary sketches required


part of both boys and
in order to find

girls,

much study on

under proper guidance,

out what the elements of construc-

should be, what dimensions were

tion

the

required,

and how the various parts should be put together.


It

was an experience of great value to

especially to those

all,

but

boys who were looking forward

to architectural draughting as a possible vocation.

They got an

inside view of the importance,

on the

one hand, of accurate working drawings as a basis


for

good construction and, on the other hand,

a practical illustration of the necessity of a thorough

knowledge of constructive

make

principles,

correct working drawings.

in

order to

They saw that

the efficient architect must be a builder, acquainted

with

all

the detailed processes employed by the

carpenter or mason, informed upon

the condi-

and knowing the best ways of meetThey gained impressions which should

tions to be met,

ing them.

all

THE ^;.
PUBLIC LiiiKi^ivV
ASTOR. LCNOX
TILDE.N

FOUNDA IUN8
'

THE STORY OF A HOUSE

23

help them, in studying the work of great architects,

beyond the

to look

may

How

the

called that

the

house.

all

boys and

Distributed.

girls,

woodwork, including
and the making
do the wiring

It

planning, and

drawings,
the

and beauty

the

to

be

re-

be held

the

the

building of

decorating

and

will

were to be coworkers

girls

The boys were

made by

it

good workmanship.

Work Was

designing,

the

for

however pleasing

be, for those elements of strength

that characterize

in

exterior,

responsible

after

higher

designs

grades

of

the finishing of the rooms

of the furniture.

They were

for the electric lights, the bells,

to

and

the interior telephones; and they were to install


all

the

fixtures

in

connection

with this wiring.

Boys from the metal-working sections were to do


the necessary piping for gas and water and some
of the work of plumbing; but, since the laws regulating plumbing are strict and well enforced, as
they should be, it was necessary to keep this
most essential feature of the work under charge of
licensed plumbers.
But this requirement did not
remove even the plumbing of the building from the
field

of public school work; for, fortunately, this

city has

a well-equipped plumbing school in the

trades school department, under the direction of

HOME DECORATION

24

licensed plumbers of high standing,

who were

glad

to have given them, as an exercise for their classes,

a practical problem in house plumbing.

The boys

in the forging classes were not overlooked in the

work on the house. Many of


needed for use or ornament were de-

distribution of the

the fixtures
signed to be

made

designed and

girls

made

and cushions as a part


ing

and

stencilling;

decorative

articles

The

in the school forge shop.

rugs, curtains, portieres,

of their school

work

in

weav-

and they contributed many


in

clay,

copper,

Thus every
the school was brought

leather,

and

other materials.

technical

ment

into service; for in

of

the building of a house there

is

depart-

to be found some-

thing to enhst the interest of every boy and

girl.

Boy Foremen in Charge. To bring about the right


distribution of the work and to marshal the working
forces effectually required the oversight and management of an experienced instructor. But much
of the work of direction was delegated to competent boys. The preliminary tool work in the
school shops had revealed those who were especially
observant and capable as leaders, and those who
worked best under specific directions. Thus the
twenty boys of the vocational school who
posts

set the

and framed the house worked sometimes

TIL'

THE STORY OF A HOUSE


in pairs

one

being the chief

other the helper

sometimes

in

25

gangs of three or

The plan was

four under a foreman.

and the

foreman

varied ac-

When

cording to the nature of the work in hand.

more technical knowledge and skill were


needed, as was the case in setting the window frames
and directing the shinghng, capable boys from the
leaders of

technical high school were placed in charge of groups


of

younger boys from the vocational school.

way

In this

the work was advanced in several directions at

the same time; and the advantage was not

all

advancement

was a de-

lightful

and

of the house construction.

profitable experience for

unlike that which

all

It

in the

the boys, not

them will doubtless repeat


over and they take their place

some

of

when school days are


in the more serious affairs of life. In after years they
may look back upon the first house that they helped
to build

and

recall the

ions in the work,

part they took, their compan-

and the good time they had withal.

SOME DETAILS OF CONSTRUCTION


Setting Batter Boards, Posts,

step in actual construction

and

set the batter boards.

and

Sills.

The

was to mark

off

first

the lot

These were made by

driving three stakes to form a right angle about

four feet from the point where each of the four

main

HOME DECORATION

26

corners

of

house

the

was to be

Two

located.

rough boards, one for each side of each angle, were


nailed horizontally to each of the four sets of stakes,

with their upper edges


It is very

level.

all

brought to the same

important to set these batter boards

with accuracy, since their function

to carry the

is

which mark the dimensions and

lines

ground

floor.

level of the

In the present instance their

first

use was to locate the concrete posts on which the


of the house

sills

were to

Twenty-two

rest.

of

these posts, which were 4 feet long and 8 inches


square, were put in position

by

first

setting

moulds

or boxes, the interior dimensions of which were

those of the posts, 3 feet deep in the light


filling

rock.

soil

and

them with a mixture of concrete and crushed


It was not thought necessary to remove

the moulds after the hardening of the

In fact, the
resting

sills

concrete.

were framed and placed in position

on these boxes before

sufficient

given for the concrete to harden.

time had been

The

sides of the

boxes, however, were scored with a saw cut so that

they could be easily broken

off just

below the ground,

exposing the projecting ends of the concrete posts


for

about one

first

foot.

quality spruce.

face, the

two long

The sills were of 6 by


They were set on the
sills

8-inch

6-inch

being spliced over posts,

THE STORY OF A HOUSE

Mortise: dTtnoii Jbim

flTCORHCROrsiLL

Plate:
ifl ORDER TO

LAPPED
TIE

COROER

5TUD2"X-4"
5PIKEDT0SILL

Floor Joist 2"x8'

Halved JoiHT in 5iLL

GrtlMD) IMTO SILL


Plan A.

Framing

details

27

28

HOME DECORATION

using a long

halved

Mortise and tenon

joint.

draw-bored and pinned, were used at the

joints,

The

corners.

floor

timbers of 2 by 8-inch spruce

were gained into the


with the top of the

sill

sills

with the top faces flush

and crowning

upward if at all. The spacing


was taken off at the sill on a

spruce,

of

(i. e.,

bending)

of the floor timbers

wide

strip of furring

an inch thick by 2 inches

which was moved out to the centre near the


bridging

of

and

timbers into
in,

line.

lightly

The

line

bringing crooked

nailed,

bridging was then nailed

the outside last to prevent springing the

sills.

Referring to the accompanying sketch (Plan A)


it will

be noticed that the corner posts and centres

were not mortised into the

sills,

but were simply

butted on and heavily nailed or spiked.

There was

when carpenters would have regarded such


a method as altogether wrong; but those were the

a time

days of great corner posts and heavy studding,


placed two or three times as far apart as
practice

now.

It

in

the

was thought that placing the

studs 16 inches on centres, which


practice

is

is

the

common

modern house framing, removed the

necessity of mortising into the

sill.

Mortising

is

still

recognized, however, as a good thing to do

and

is

sometimes practised by

first-rate carpenters.

THE STORY OF A HOUSE

29

CORnid DETAIL
X .-:.!jmnrr..r,i:^ -.ins sm
S^EB

DJSTAMCe. fROtI TOP OF FLOOR


JOIST TO BOTTOM OF CElUflQ

JOIST IS S'-A-"

perspective: or CORNER
Emd OF Rafter Dressed
<a

SHOWinS HIPRAETER
T

SnitlGLES

b ROOr BOARDS
t
C RArTLR2x6"20"0.C.
D PLATL 4 x4"
tROUGnBOARDinO

rSTUD
6

tricze:

n CROWn HOLD
I

BDnOLD

JCE:iUn6J0IST2x6"

K (dROUHD
LLATtt 6 PLASTER
MBASE
h

nnistiED

riooR

LininG FLOOR

p ruRRino

QSILL
RC0nCRETLP0ST8''8"

SCORhLRPOST
TMIPRArTLR 3"'<8"
U FLOOR JOIST
Plan B.

Details of cornice,

SILL DETAIL
sill,

and

roof

HOME DECORATION

30

Plan
over

A also shows how the outside walls were trussed


openings; and Plan B shows how the corners

of the building

were tied by the lapping of the

double plate, and

how

the ceiling timbers and rafters

were placed on the top of the

The window frame


of cuts (Plan

ness are

plate.

details are

shown

in a series

C) which for the sake of complete-

drawn to show

also the interior finish, not

usually represented in the framing drawings.

detailed description of these features of construction


tions

is

unnecessary, since the dimensions and rela-

of

the various elements and the technical

terms by which they are known are

all

clearly indi-

cated in the illustrations.

In the same series of cuts a detail of the base

is

shown which includes the framing, the base board,


and the lath and plaster. It should be stated,
however, that a substitute for lath and plaster was

recommended

to the student architects

new

product in paper board especially designed for walls

and

ceilings,

which

it

was decided to

use.

The

removed the necessity of the


"grounds" shown in the drawings and always
use of this material

needed as a nailing base for the wood trim when


the walls and ceilings are lathed and plastered.

In the detail of the dado cap, which

will

be found

THE STORY OF A HOUSE

31

Ofx?"

5tock
In

Gemcral

^a" Thick

,5ectiom tmrp^Mullioh
(where MuLUOM Occurs)

o-

6ectioh

thro'

f-JErt)

Ceilimg Deiam

Dado Cap

Dotted Projection

5ow5 Plate Raiu

5ectiom tmr"' Jamb


o-

5ECTI0M THRO' ^jll

praiLorwiNDow-rwnt
Base:

A
5

C
D

HEADER
a SURBASE
&ACK BAUD
J GORMER BLOCK R SILL l34"Tri*K
HEAD
K ROUGH BOARDING S IMSIDE CASIMG
STOP Vthick l shingles
T SOFFIT
SASH l%" ^
U BED MOLD
M WEIGHT

OUT^roE CASING

F LATMPLASTER N PULLEY STYLE


G GROUND ^Tll'n O PAR.TIWG STRIP
H stud 2 X4P STOOL CAP
Plan C.

nniSHED FLOOR

LINING

BASE

Details of interior finish

FLOOR

HOME DECORATION

32

on the page
lines

of construction drawings, the dotted

show how the cap was to be expanded

a plate

rail,

the addition

requiring

into

brackets

of

with a bed moulding between, in the finishing of the


Among these drawings
walls of the dining-room.
will also

beamed

be found a detail showing a section of the


ceiling finish.

It will be readily understood that

work

finishing

was begun

none of the

called for in the detailed drawings

rough carpentry on the house

until the

was practically completed. All the rough work,


which included framing, boarding, shingling, laying of the lining floors, and putting up partitions,
was assigned to boys of the wood-working sections
of the vocational school.
industrial

or

trade

This

school,

is

an elementary

admitting

grades below the high school boys

from the

who have

attained

the age of fourteen years and wish to learn some

mechanical trade.
ising

experiment

It represents a
in

American

new and promeducation. The

building of this house furnished an excellent oppor-

tunity for the boys of this school to show the honesty


of their purpose in enrolling themselves to learn

the fundamentals of a trade and thus prove their


right to

have the chance.

So the house was

built

by the combined

efforts

THE STORY OF A HOUSE


and

of the boys

girls of

New England city,


tects

or paid

with their

the pubhc schools of this

by

professional archi-

How

they carried out

unassisted

labourers.

own hands

33

the designs for decorating

and furnishing the house

told in the succeeding

is

chapters of this book, which also suggests wider


applications of the principles

made

ration as possible to be

boys and

girls

household deco-

of

in the

homes

To

carry

work but

work

throughout the country.

out these suggestions

mean

will

of a kind that gives pleasure to the

many

others.

and builders
it

was

*'

It
of

was work

whom

of clever

for the

worker and to

young designers
but they said

this story tells,

great fun," and there really

no pleasure

is

quite equal to that found in doing with one's

hands

an

exceptionally

craftsmen of
these

master

all

good

thing.

time have found

workmen,

maker, so George Eliot

it

The true
so.
One of

Stradivarius,

tell us,

made

own

the violin

his confession

thus:
"
God be praised!
Antonio Stradivari has an eye

That winces at false work and loves the true.


With hand and arm that play upon the tool.
As willingly as any singing bird
Sets him to sing his morning roundelay.
Because he likes to sing and likes the song,"

II

DECORATIONS AND FURNITURE


Have nothing

in

your houses that you do not know to be


William Morris

useful, or

believe to be beautiful

THE

decorating and furnishing of a house

have their true beginning


tectural design.

It

good archi-

in

a mistake to pro-

is

ceed upon the theory that decoration necessarily


implies something added for

thing beautiful in

itself

without regard to the


the room in which
considering

the

own sake

some-

but selected and applied

lines,

it is

its

and colours

spaces,

and without

to be placed

relation of

this

of

room

to

neigh-

bouring rooms and to more remote surroundings.

The
be
it

truth

is,

a decorative object

intrinsically

may

be in

appropriate

may

or

may

not

beautiful; but however beautiful

itself, it

setting.

finds its truest

And

the

beauty in an

decorator

who

is

actuated by the true spirit looks to the architect


for
in

inspiration

and

finds

his

greatest

acknowledging that leadership.


34

successes

To attempt

to

DECORATIONS AND FURNITURE


lead

when one should

follow

is

35

neither good art nor

good sense.

There

is

danger, perhaps, that this truth

taken too seriously.

It

may be

would also be a mistake

to run to the other extreme

and adopt at the outset

a rigid plan of decoration and furnishing, specified like contract

work

to be carried out

and com-

pleted on a certain date soon after the house


built.

The problem

is

is

one of growing interest,

especially as regards furniture, pictures,

smaller objects of use or beauty, and for

and the
its

best

and happiest solution requires time and study.


Only the broad and fundamental features can

The important thing

be settled in advance.
to have the

main

lines,

and colour schemes


utility

is

dimensions, space relations,

with due regard to

settled

and appropriateness and, as the work

construction proceeds, to keep

all

details in

of

harmony

with this general plan.

THE FLOORS, THE WALLS, AND THE CEILINGS

Harmony

Model House. It will be


remembered that the colour scheme of the hall,
living room, and dining-room of our model house
was settled quite early in the development of the
Colour

design.

Standing

in the

near the centre of the living

room and looking through the

hall into the dining-

HOME DECORATION

36

may

room, one

details of decoration

were worked out

colour.

gives

the floors

of

of

browns and

The

the lower wall spaces.

all

keeping

in

a good foundation

It flows easily into the lighter

yellows of

the

of

The walnut brown

with the general treatment.


stain

how some

see at a glance

sug-

gestion of olive green in the frieze of the living

room

offers a pleasing contrast

with the prevailing

browns and harmonizes well with the woodwork


of this room, which, it will be remembered, was
designed to be finished in

when

wood,

ful

gum

properly

surface of satin-like texture

In the dining-room a
in

the

wood.

treated,

and

it

is

the fumed oak

needed and

trim.

presents

shown
lends a warmth of
is

is

in keeping with

The wide openings

the hall from the rooms on each side of

The

give

plain

the

wall

and relieved

of

impression

spaces,

varied

width.

in

monotonous spacings by the

tion of the necessary doors

to-

it,

of generous

though

into

beamed

gether with the long, unbroken lines of the


ceilings,

soft colour tone.

corner of which

frontispiece, the frieze

colour where

This beauti-

tone
loca-

and windows, are

of

great assistance in increasing the apparent size of

the room.

Plain walls are also the best of back-

grounds for pictures.

DECORATIONS AND FURNITURE


Old Houses.

Redecorating

It

is,

37

of course, true

that the decorating and furnishing of a house or

an apartment cannot always have a new and

origi-

nal architectural design as the basis for the solution of the problems involved.
fact, in the great

As a matter

of

majority of cases, the houses in

which homes are made are already built and have


Often they are very

been previously occupied.

old houses, presenting difficult

Sometimes, however,

ble tasks for the decorator.

such houses are

all

and even impossi-

the more desirable

if

they bear

the marks of age that suggest a past of dignity

and charm.

But the

spirit

which inspires the

and furnishing a house already


the same as that which controls his thought

artist in decorating

built

is

when he can begin with the foundation


and

original design.

His

first

thought

of a
is

new

to dis-

how beauty may be enhanced and at the


same time unity of purpose and harmony of treatcover

ment be

preserved.

His constant care

is

to avoid

incongruous elements, however beautiful they

may

be in themselves or however appropriate in other


houses.

His general aim

velop the design as


all,

it is, if

and make the most

of

is

to use his art to de-

there be any design at


it.

Decoration as a Corrective.

But

this

does not

HOME DECORATION

38

prevent him from attempting to counteract the


blunders of faulty design

and bad architecture.

Such correction, indeed, forms a large part of


the work of decorators and furnishers, both proIf the lines and space
fessional and amateur.

room be not good, the decoration

divisions of a

must be planned with a view


harmony of proportions, or
ance of

made

it.

to

If

to giving the needed

at least the appear-

the ceiling be too high,

"look"

paper or tinting

may

it

be

by carrying the ceiling


one or two feet down the walls
lower

meet the picture moulding. The


effect of reduced height is accentuated by a high
base board or by wainscoting. If the ceiling be

of the

room

to

too low, the depressing effect

come by extending the

may

be largely over-

picture moulding along the

top of the wall spaces close to the


is

a desirable thing to do

most modern
proper tones
effect

in

may
may

in the living

Striped

wall

This

rooms
papers

of
of

be used in low rooms with good

increasing

wall spacing

door-ways,

houses.

ceiling.

their

also

substituting

apparent height.

Bad

be corrected by enlarging
portieres

for

the

doors,

and by arranging the drapery over windows to


give the effect either of increasing or of diminish-

ing their height, as the conditions

may

require.

DECORATIONS AND FURNITURE


Wall Papers.

Probably

ration furnishes so

unwary

many

no element
It

is

victim to a captivating design as

deco-

of

to ensnare the

pitfalls

as wall papers do.

39

it

easy to

fall

appears in the

few square feet of wall paper displayed on the

The same

dealer's rack.

interesting iSgure, spread

out in endless repetition on the four walls of the


living

may

room,

create an atmosphere of unrest

and positive discomfort keenly


persons.

absence of

determine
is

felt

sensitive

made

wise choice cannot be

in

the

the conditions that should really

all

it.

by

After

all,

it is

not the paper which

beautiful in the roll that should

but only that which

hung upon the

will

be selected,

become beautiful when

walls of a certain room.

Papers

with large figures should be avoided unless there


is

a special reason for using them.

have the

effect

They always

of reducing the apparent size of

everything associated with them.

They make

room appear dwarfish and a large one over


decorated unless well relieved by plain spaces

small

harmonizing in colour with the large-figured


terns.

also

pat-

Strong contrasts in colour values should


be avoided, not only between the designs

and the ground colour

of

the wall paper

itself,

but also between the paper and other objects of

HOME DECORATION

40

The

importance in the room.

principle of grada-

tion in colour values, which does not as a general

thing allow the placing together of light and dark

shades or

tints, is

almost as important as harmony

of colour tones.

Nature

Design.

Decorative

of

The

one

never to be lost sight of by the decorator


real nature of true decorative design.

While

a picture.

it

may

decorative

is

the

never

aim to represent

Some

way.

a naturalistic

in

is

suggest the natural forms

of plants or animals, it does not

them

It

fact

of

the best

do not even suggest natural

designs

forms; but, whether they do or not, the central


idea
line

is

the

repetition

and form

on a

good combinations

of

in closely related colours


If natural

flat surface.

should be more or

less

same plane

is

and values

forms are used, they


conventionalized.

highly

Anything that destroys the idea


in the

of

of flat

surfaces

a false note in wall decoration.

In the nature of the case, a wall can have but one


Clusters

plane.

of

flowers

or

patterns

of

any

kind that seem to hang in front of this plane, or

back

of

it,

the sense of

are out of place and therefore offend


fitness.

Such incongruities are some-

times so pronounced that they positively shock


the

sensibilities

of

refined

people.

Extreme ex-

DECORATIONS AND FURNITURE

41

amples have been known to give such pain to sensitive persons as to drive them from the room.
Advantage of Plain Walls.

Decorative

designs,

The

however, are not essential in wall papers.

main point

in the treatment of walls

and preserve a good background.


doubt as to the kind of
is

leave

them out

figure or pattern to

altogether.

Plain

it is

walls

ways good if the colour tone is right;


is the main thing in wall decoration.
rative effects of form may be brought
portieres and window draperies, which
carry more elaborate patterns when
with plain walls than

In

decorations.
portieres

is

fact,

to secure

one

If

often a peiplexing question,

which

is

is

in

be used,
well to

are

al-

for colour

The

deco-

out in the

may

easily

associated

desirable with figured wall

with

figured

plain

walls

and curtains are much to be

preferred.

In our model house, as has been explained, the wall


decorations were designed to offer a plain back-

ground
portieres

of

colour.

and

The

curtains,

figured

ceiling,

of

the

combined with the careful

gradation in the colouring of the

and

borders

floors, wall spaces,

gave such a variety of tone to this

background that nothing further was needed to


avoid monotony.
Trial

Needed in Dotd)tful Cases.

It

is,

indeed,

HOME DECORATION

42

a good rule to omit whatever

observe this rule wisely

bad

positively

too

signs,

great

many

too

in

variety

too

direction

it

Overwrought dematerial,

many odd

pieces of furni-

atmosphere and a feeling of unrest

should always be 'the aim of

aside

set

is

many interesting things in whatever


one may turn, create an oppressive and

And

tion to dispel.

to

that

decorative objects, however great their

disquieting

which

much

decorative

in

To

unnecessary.

to escape

decoration.

individual beauty, too


ture,

is

is

yet

it

may

home

decora-

not always be best

our treasures because they do not

seem perfectly suited to the general scheme of


decoration or are not apparently needed to complete

it.

It

is,

in fact, often

very

difficult to de-

termine where the line should be drawn between

what

is

needed and

what

is

fact that nothing seems to be lacking


test

if

that

The

not needed.
is

not a

final

one has at hand useful or beautiful things

may

be introduced into a scheme of decora-

tion already well thought out

Such experimenting

will

and be given a

trial.

often reveal unsuspected

needs or add a new charm that at once proves


its

right to be retained.

To

take a step like

this,

somewhat out

with accepted rules as strictly interpreted,

of line
is

en-

DECORATIONS AND FURNITURE


tirely

safe

this

if

step

43

dictated by good taste

is

and does not lead the young decorator too far


Exceptional treatment of any kind should
afield.

show proper
it

is

itself

restraint,

an attractive feature.

Always

when

restraint,

any work of

plainly indicated in

Precise Rules not


is,

and such

Practicable.

art, is in

The truth

the rules of decoration, though founded upon

fundamental principles of
those

precision like

are

art,

founded upon

in their

application yield

stances.

It

is,

more

mathematical

or less to circum-

example, a good general rule

for

to determine the colour scheme

and background

and accommodate other decorative features


and yet

to these as a foundation;
for a situation to

case.

possessor

is

it

possible

be so exceptional as to justify

a complete reversal of this


crete

rules of

In the nature of the case they must

principles.

first

not

young

rule.

artist

Here

is

a con-

was the fortunate

a considerable number of Japanese

of

and Chinese embroideries and other Oriental

He

make

or-

the

main

decorative materials for one of his rooms.

The

naments.

embroidered

on a deep,
quite dark.

wished

figures

to

were

in

these

yellow

and

white

strong blue, the general effect being

There were

in the collection several

HOME DECORATION

44

showing the typical dull reds, dark blues,

prints,

and

yellows

itself

happened to be one

Japanese

of

Now

art.

room

the

that, under the general

principle of colour schemes as determined

by

ex-

posure and other fixed conditions, would demand

warm

colours on

walls.

its

would

It

easily sup-

port a rich red frieze with appropriate combinations in floor, dado,

This would set

ceiling.

the dark oak trim and the

off well

niture,

and

but

it

One

mahogany

fur-

would rule out the Oriental decora-

must give way; and,


since the value of these decorative materials was
beyond question, it was decided to try them, even
tions.

the

or

other

at the cost of setting aside the general rule.

whole matter resolved

itself

The

into selecting a proper

background for these beautiful pictures and embroideries;

gray blue

and

for

was a

these the best colour

the coldest

of colours.

But when the

whole decorative scheme was carried out to completion

and the cold background was

ployed in setting

workmanship
all

the

off

fully

em-

the rich colours and exquisite

of the Oriental prints

circumstances

that

and

ordinarily

draperies,

determine

the choice of backgrounds were forgotten in the

charm

of

exposure

originality.

as

requiring

No

one

warm

thought

colours,

of

the

the

dark

DECORATIONS AND FURNITURE


oak trim was not noticed, and the mahogany

was

niture

in

still

absolutely satisfying

fur-

The result was so


that no one who saw it could
keeping.

good taste displayed in

the

question

45

this

very

plan of decoration.

original

But such exceptional

cases

should

not shake

our confidence in the fundamental principles of


decoration.

It

true that these principles can-

is

not be reduced to formulas to be applied invariably in

all cases,

and

it is

unreasonable to assume

that any form of treatment


ble in

any given

plication

the only one possi-

Modifications in the ap-

case.

of these

is

principles are

but the principles themselves


as the Mosaic law.

One

is,

always possible,

are as unalterable

indeed, tempted to

summarize them thus as the

TEN COMMANDMENTS OF DECORATION


Thou

have no household gods except those that be

shalt

beautiful or those that be useful.

Thou

shalt not

make unto

thyself

any

likeness that

is

in

the heaven above or in the earth beneath, or in the waters

under the earth, that does not find an appropriate setting in


thine house.

Thou

shalt not look in vain

masters of decorative

upon the creations

of the great

art.

Remember

the colour scheme and keep a good background.

Honour the

original design,

the most of

it.

however old

it

may be, and make

HOME DECORATION

46

Thou

shalt not hesitate to correct the blunders of faulty

design and bad architecture.

Thou shalt not kill thy neighbours or thy friends with overdecorated wall papers or oppressive decorations of any kind.
Thou shalt not bring together incongruous articles nor
permit insane arrangements of anything that is thine.
Thou

shalt not permit any false note to mar the harmony


thy decorations.
Thou shalt not imitate thy neighbour's house or anything
that is thy neighbour's, for it is the glory of the good decorator to show originality but at the same time to acknowledge his dependence upon those who have preceded him.
of

THE FURNITURE
of Furniture to Decoration.

Relation
for

the treatment of floors, walls,

We may now

So

much

and ceiHngs.

turn to the more special considera-

tion of those objects of use or beauty that are

to

be associated with these backgrounds

fur-

lamp shades, and small orna-

niture,

pictures,

ments.

That these

are closely related to decoration

has been implied in


are, in fact, in

all

They

that has been said.

themselves elements in the deco-

rative

scheme and as such must obey the same

laws.

Their

less

seem
from

upon
to

require

depends

however,

their utility,

their

especially

value,

and

for this reason they

consideration

somewhat

merely decorative functions.


true

of

furniture,

more or
apart

This

which would

is

have

DECORATIONS AND FURNITURE


very

little

reason for being

if

it

47

were not for

its

usefulness.

In designing the furniture for the model house


the questions that constantly suggested themselves

What

were:

is

library desk in

this piece of furniture

sideration to be used for?

and

tion,

fumed oak

What

form, construc-

finish will enable it to give the best ser-

vice?

What

der

suited to its surroundings?

it

features of design are needed to ren-

In considering

was most
to the various rooms in

the furniture for the model house


natural to apply these tests
order.

Hall of the Model House.


hall.
first

his

This

is

it

First, there is the

the room into which a visitor

admitted, and from


first

under con-

impressions.

But

its

in

is

atmosphere he gets
this

house

it

is

very small room and designed to serve not merely

HOME DECORATION

48

welcome but

also

as an expansion of the rooms on either side.

Its

as a place for the formalities of

must

furniture

There

is

consist

no room

largely

the

of

for a hall settle nor

fireplace.

even for a

chair.

simply

but

mirror,
richly

framed, might hang

on the wall near the


front door, balanced

by a picture on the
opposite wall behind

the door;
la

An umbrel-

rack should stand

outside on the porch.

Hall Furniture in
General.
of

The

modern

halls

houses

vary greatly in their


relative importance.

In some

the tradi-

tions of the old


lish

A
vive.

hall chair

manor

Eng-

houses

sccm partially to sur-

In mediaeval England the hall was the princi-

pal room,

if

not the only one comfortably furnished.

When modern

houses combine the living room and

DECORATIONS AND FURNITURE


library or reception

room with the

49

hall, there is

need

something more than hall furniture of the formal


kind. The requirements of comfort must be met.
of

But, generally speaking, hall furniture

Odd

real use.

chairs, attractive

is

by reason

of little
of their

oddity, the richness of the materials used in their


construction, or

not

fit

to

sit in,

are suitable or at least excusable

The hat and

in the hall.

assertive quality, but

some other

hall settle

coat rack of our fathers

simplicity,

strength, dignity

has been declared insane and no longer appears


in

well-regulated houses.

In place of

the hall settle, which

is

be designed on simple

lines

sion

of

of

real

use.

it is

found

It

should

and give the impres-

strength and dignity.

If

the hall

is

to

be used as a waiting room for guests, a few good


chairs,

conveniently

placed,

will

be needed for

HOME DECORATION

50

and a choice picture or two on the


add greatly to their pleasure.

their comfort

walls will

Two

Living
there

is

Morris chairs that invite to solid comfort

Room Furniture.

In furnishing living rooms

bound to be a wide range

for the exer-

good taste be-

cise of

cause of the

variety

of needs to be

met and

the

facilities

large

afforded

the mar-

in

kets for meeting these

needs with due regard to


requirements.

artistic

It will

A
in

discussing so large

thing

satisfactory writing desk

is

living

to

room

gible tO

topic.

in

mind

the

place

keep

be quite impos-

the
of

gO iuto detail

The

important

central
all

places

idea

of

where

DECORATIONS AND FURNITURE


the

freedom,

life

are

to

51

and protection of home


enjoyed. The very atmosphere

comfort,

be

room should suggest simplicity, sincerity,


and good cheer. Every article of furniture should
of the

An ample

library table

be there to serve a genuine need, and it should


be strong enough to do its full duty. Spiderlegged, top-heavy tables; light,

weak

chairs; chairs

on casters or rockers; sofas with carved backs or


these have no place
couches with none at all,

in the hving room.

The

long, straight lines of the

craftsman or mission style of furniture are in the


these be used at

they

right direction; but

if

must be made quite

general, since few other styles

harmonize with them.

all

Wicker or reed furniture

HOME DECORATION

52

a notable exception.

is

will fit in

The

well

designed

it

almost anywhere.

frequent combination of the library with

the living
the

When

room

furniture

to

requires a suitable adjustment of


this

use.

plain,

serviceable

plain but useful magazine stand

magazine rack, which


relieve the tables of

and monthlies.

may

be easily made,

will

an accumulation of weeklies

Moderately low bookcases, with

DECORATIONS AND FURNITURE

53

or without doors, are to be preferred to the more

ordinary high ones because this form harmonizes


better with the Hues of a room, which are generally
If doors are

longer horizontally than vertically.


used,

it is

by heavy

well to break

up the

sash, the spacing of

glare of the glass

which

ranged in a very pleasing manner.

A
in

library

may

be ar-

Good

design

low bookcase with sash doors

tables calls for

and convenience as

well

ample
as

size.

Firmness

satisfactory

propor-

tions should control the choice of a writing desk.

Dining-room

Furniture.

Only a few elements

HOME DECORATION

54

enter

into

the

design

the

for

furnishing

of

dining-room; but they are evident and should have

The

a controlHng influence.
for a definite purpose
in

Heavy

good design.

ble

the chairs

since

and

table

and chairs are

this should

construction

are

to be

show

itself

permissi-

is

moved but

little

jiji^

and the table

is

round dining table

practically stationary.

Moreover,

weight and generous dimensions are suggestive of

bounty and good


sion table

is

service.

for a

rectangular exten-

most readily adjusted to varied demands,

but the round table

and

The

is

company

preferable for the family circle;


of twelve or

fifteen

a large,

round, temporary table top, placed on an ordinary


extension table, has been

found very attractive.

DECORATIONS AND FURNITURE


As comfort

is

55

the chief result to be obtained in

furnishing a Hving room, so richness, within one's

sideboard of good proportions.

means,

is

an appropriate aim

The

room.

Convenient and generous but not overdone

history

of

in furnishing a dining-

sideboard

be cited in proof of this statement,


needed.

has

Probably no single

been

subjected

to

article

greater

might

design
if

proof were

of

furniture

elaboration; but

the desirable suggestion of plenty with convenience

may

be secured without overdoing

unique purpose of the sideboard makes


teresting study for one

who

it.

it

an

The
in-

wishes to design and

HOME DECORATION

56

construct his

own

in conformity with the archi-

The

tecture of his dining-room.

A
table

buffet or serving

buffet of simple but effective design

an

furnishes

equally

interesting,

though

simpler, problem.
of the china,

For the care

the built-in cabinet

room

as a feature of the architecture of the

is

to be

preferred to the movable cabinet designed for this

purpose, because of
ties.

its

richer decorative possibili-

Large, glazed doors are desirable in either case,

not for the

full

display of china and glassware but

to give a suggestive glimpse of


is

for decoration

and not

it.

for show, it

plain glass doors unbroken

by

sash.

As
is

this cabinet

well to avoid

Leaded panes

DECORATIONS AND FURNITURE


are

employed with good

frequently

57

The

effect.

decorative effect of old and odd pieces of china

many

not too

_^u

feL

them

of
a

most appropriately

is

a
o

'A china cabinet.

part of the finish of the room

employed by the use

of the plate

rail;

but

it

is

better to leave the plate rail bare than to load

it

with

commonplace

and

crockery

inappropriate

ornaments.

Chamber Furniture.

itself.
is

The

conducive to sleep and

tinctive

bedroom speaks

dainty freshness in

all

rest,

its

which

for

appointments
it is

the dis-

purpose of this room to provide.

The

necessary articles of furniture are a bed, a dressing


table, a

bureau or

there be no bath

wash

stand.

chiffonier,

a few chairs, and,

room attached, a commode

couch

is

if

or

an appropriate addition;

HOME DECORATION

58

and

here,

anywhere, rocking chairs

if

When

able.

allow-

the bedroom must be used more or


less as

a living room or sewing

room, as

I
I

/\

are

A|

too often unfortu-

it

nately is, furniture to serve such


uses

[^"^fi^^^k^l

must be provided.

In

se-

lecting or designing all this furniture, lightness,

of

design,

and simplicity

with

combined

strength, should

be allowed a

The

controlling influence.

rec-

ognition of this idea has given

great popularity to the brass

or iron beds; but


to design

possible

and construct beds

of

oak, maple, or other woods that

'

'

it is

harmouize with the rest of the

Leaded panes

furniture, carry out the idea of daintiness,

and have

sufficient strength for service.

Many

of these suggestions

are being carried out in fitting

described

house

in

on furniture design

up the model house

our introductory chapter.

like this, limited to

mit great variety in

its

small

one story, does not per-

furnishings.

Certain stand-

ard conditions, however, were to be met here, as

everywhere

else,

and the young designers found

DECORATIONS AND FURNITURE


much

59

pleasure and great profit in working out the

Some

furniture problems.
tails will

be given

the later

chapters.

of the construction de-

in

ARRANGEMENT OF
THE FURNITURE
Arrangement Follows
Selection.

lem

tled

is

not fully

a
set-

when the

ques-

design

have

tions

of

been

answered

the

prob-

furnishing

of

home

The

selections

right

made.

and
a Duxbury

After selection

comes

chair

arrangement,

or,

more accurately, after a certain amount


selection a certain amount of arrangement;

to speak
of

for, as

has already been suggested, there

siderable
It

is

dependence

not

wise

the selection

is

to

of

drop

one
the

upon

the

con-

is

other.

arrangement

till

complete, for the simple reason

that the happiest choices are often the late ones,

determined by the disposition of the earlier ones.


yet in the main the order as stated is the

And

true one.

It should

be noted, too, that in arrange-

HOME DECORATION

60

ment

there

is

a larger

viduality and taste.

field for

While

the exercise of indi-

artistic principles still

dainty bed in white maple

hold sway, they yield more readily to exceptional

by the ruling spirit of the household, to the demands of style, and to the larger
number of possibilities for pleasing effects when
interpretation

the question

is

one of the arrangement of things

already well chosen for their usefulness and for


their artistic value.
Utility the Controlling Principle,

of arrangement, however, are

and uncertain.

The

natural

The

problems

by no means vague
law of adaptation

DECORATIONS AND FURNITURE


to purpose

not

is

obedience to

difficult to follow.

61

In some rooms

No

has become a settled custom.

it

one, for example, would think of placing the din-

ing table in any other place than the centre of the

dining-room

or,

room be a long one,


The sideboard, serving

the

if

centre of one end.

and china

likewise fall

closet

into

their

So also the bedroom and the

places.

perhaps to a

less

degree,

in the
table,

natural

hall,

though

present comparatively

easy problems in furniture arrangement when due


regard

is

paid to the purposes for which such rooms

are designed.

Importance of Appropriateness.
library
difficult

and the

and at

problems.

And

same law

of

But

it is

in the

room that we find the most


the same time the most interesting
living

this

is

due to the operation of the

adaptation to purpose.

It

the

is

variety of uses and the diversity of useful objects

that

make

the problem somewhat complex.

How-

ever refined and beautiful the different units

may

them

into

be,

there must be some arrangement

working groups.

The important elements should

dominate and those


fall

of

lesser

importance should

naturally into related but subordinate places.

The easy
low

of

corner with

its

couch, pillows, and

seats, has a definite function to perform.

its

So

HOME DECORATION

62
also

have the piano and the music rack, the book-

and library

cases

the

table,

Morris chairs and

tabourettes, the

window

ing desk and

proper lighting by window or lamp,

its

the fireplace

may

and

all

seats

the

and

screens, the writ-

accessories

of

comfort

The

various centres of

interest should be accentuated

by grouping around

that

belong to

it.

them the most appropriate furnishings and the


most suggestive decorative features. It may be
well to add one word of caution, and that is that a
proper balance should be maintained between the
various centres of arrrangement in order that no

part of the

room may seem neglected and

bare.

Overcrowding. Finally,

The Danger of
the one
great danger to be avoided in meeting the requirements of good arrangement
to overcrowding.

Many

is

the temptation

otherwise

excellently ap-

pointed living rooms suffer from an embarrass-

ment

of

riches.

Such

rooms

overcrowded

are

worse than an overloaded ship because they cannot


topple over and sink as one might well wish them
to.

of

To

secure the right things and just enough

them, arranged with a proper balance between

utility

and beauty,

to-day as
tifying

it

of

is

the true aim.

It

is

as true

ever was in the arrangement and beauthe

home, and,

for

that

matter,

in

DECORATIONS AND FURNITURE


everything that concerns e very-day hfe
true as

it

was

in ancient times

just

63

as

when men wrote

those famous inscriptions over the doors of the

temple at Delphi: over one,


over the other, the golden

know

thyself, and

mean of not too much.

Ill

PICTURES
I

now

require this of

all

pictures, that they domesticate me, not that they

must not be too picturesque. Nothing astonishes men


so much as common sense and plain dealing.
All great actions have been
simple, and all great pictures are.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
dazzle me.

Pictures

THE

decoration of a

room

is

complete without pictures.

There

is,

of

good pictures en-

course, great value in


tirely

generally not

aside from their decorative effect;

and too

great care cannot be exercised in their selection.

But our present purpose


decorative

as

pictures

important

scheme of decoration.
as regards matting
pictures

upon the

themselves
elements

And

them

as

decoration

is

to consider

though

features; for,

not a picture,
regarded

is

in

properly

are

the

general

this is especially true

and framing, the distribution

of

and the method

of

wall spaces,

hanging them.
Importance of Space Relations.

and frame are simply elements


function

is

A picture mat

of finish,

and

their

to give the picture a certain individu64

PICTURES
and yet connect

ality

space in which
is

it

it

hangs.

65

harmoniously with the


In

space

fact, the wall

a part of the framing of the picture.

The im-

portance of giving some study to the relations of


the spaces involved

all

is

evident.

The mat and

the frame should not be of equal width.


fine

Here

is

opportunity to secure variety in spacing.

No

can be given; sometimes the

one,

rules

definite

sometimes the other should give way.


speaking,

Generally

wall spaces require vertical pictures,

tall

and spaces longer horizontally demand horizontal


But variation from this rule is possible
pictures.

and even necessary through the grouping


pictures.

of being

In grouping, however, there

tempted to allow too many

of several
is

danger

pictures.

In

the houses of the well-to-do, and even in the homes

moderate means, too many pictures,


rather than too few, are often found. The example
of those of

of one

New

may be

England home, known to the author,

The house is new, of


and it is the home of an

mentioned.

ous proportions,

There are few pictures on the


distributed

many good
there

is

with

rare

pictures

artistic

stored in

artist.

but they are

effect.

There are

the attic because

in

which to hang them.

The

Japanese have taught

no suitable space

The Japanese Way.

walls,

gener-

HOME DECORATION

66

us

many

valuable lessons in art, and in the matter

number

of the

be displayed they have

of pictures to

very interesting lesson

practice to

hang a

in a space

where

to

teach.

It

their

is

single choice picture for a season


it

may

be best enjoyed, and then

after a time to replace it with another picture,


this,

perhaps, by another

if

and

circumstances permit.

There are many conditions that determine the


selection of the picture to be displayed.

the preference of a guest, or

certain

in

picture

singular

this

which the picture

special

It

may

be

be the season

There

significance.

is,

custom, a very definite service


is

made

an individuality which
in

may

any occasion that may give

of the year, or, in fact,

it

to perform,

perhaps

and

has

it is

no

given

parallel

our own practice.

Grouping of Small, Simple Pictures.


siderable
it is

number

If

a con-

of pictures are grouped together,

quite essential that

all

the pictures of the group

should be of similar character and tone and similarly

framed.
of the

It

same

desirable

is

hardly possible for them to be

size,

nor, indeed,

except in so far as

proper balance to the group.


light

frames

are,

for such grouping,

of

and

course,
if

such agreement

is
is

all

required to give

Small pictures in
the

most desirable

possible there should be

PICTURES

67

an evident reason

for the grouping.

photographs

certain

of

locality,

might form a group of four or

series

of

example,

for

even more

five or

pictures so that they could be easily seen together

and so more thoroughly enjoyed.


of

photographs in

cially

if

passe-partout

bindings,

they deal with subjects in any

may form an

attractive group.

any considerable

collection

way

But

in

related,

pictures

having decided

size or those

of
in-

any plan

dividuality are generally not suited to


of grouping.

espe-

They should appear by themselves,

frames and other surroundings which accentu-

ate their peculiar merits.

The Kind of Frame.


its colour,

The material of the frame,

and the colour

of the

mat

are determined

by the tone

of the picture.

support

frames and should be hung in good

light.

gilt

Oil paintings easily

Pictures of light values

with white mats

are well finished in narrow gilt frames.

Carbon

photographs and other pictures of dull tones, are


appropriately framed in
colour,
wall.

and appear best

The

wood of dark or medium


when hung against a dark

truth of these statements will hardly

be questioned by any one who has a good sense of


colour harmony.

But there

are

many

other ele-

ments that enter into a concrete problem

of pic-

HOME DECORATION

68

ture framing that cannot be brought under general


rules or formulas. It is generally best to

upon the

tures, as in

many

other things, observation and ex-

Some

perience are the best teachers.

may

be found

depend largely

In framing and hanging pic-

tests of trial.

suggestions

in the following record of

two actual

framing problems that were satisfactorily solved.

FRAMING AN OLD-TIME INTERIOR, DRAWN IN COLOURS

The

which had to be met

conditions

problem are plainly shown

in the

The

as it hangs on the wall.

in

this

framed picture

picture itself

is

small one, 8 inches wide and 13 inches long.


is

interesting

because of

its

representation

sewing room in one of the high-class

of

homes

a
It

a
of

The mistress and her two young

the colonial period.

daughters are engaged in sewing and embroidery.


Patterns are displayed upon the wall; the furniture
is

appropriate and

best of the period.


of the delightful

evidently

an example of the

All these details are suggestive

home

life

of our

grandmothers.

Such a picture needs a mat to give


to properly emphasize

its

a simple, narrow frame.

made 23^
The tone

details;

and

The mat was

inches wide and the frame


of the

mat

it

selected

was a

depth and
it

requires

accordingly
inch wide.
light bluish

PICTURES
a

forming

gray,

good

69

connecting

link

between

the bright colours of the picture and the gray of


the wall against which
it

was to hang

table, it

in

was to be placed.

directly over a fine old

was thought

mahogany

it

finish,

fitting to give

Since

mahogany

the frame a

connecting the furniture shown

the picture with that of the room.

The frame was made with mitred

corners

of

perfectly plain, square-edged birch, which readily

takes

mahogany

finish.

The

applied with a brush, rubbed


dry.

stain

in,

was

first

and allowed to

match
and then

surfacing coat of shellac, coloured to

the stain, was next put on, allowed to dry,

carefully sand-papered, special care being taken to

guard against rounding the edges and corners.

coat of varnish was next applied, which, after hard-

ening for one week, was rubbed


stone and

final

oil

and

finally

first

with pumice

with rotten stone and

oil.

coat of thin finishing varnish was then put

on, which

was

lightly

rubbed with rotten stone

and water to give the half dull effect required to


match the antique mahogany table.

FRAMING A CARBON PHOTOGRAPH "OF A MASTERPIECE

The

picture

is

a copy in sepia tones of Murillo*s

Saint Anthony, 16 inches in height by 20 inches

HOME DECORATION

70

The frame

horizontally.

made

is

of

quartered

oak 3 inches wide, sHghtly convex but smooth;


and it is well joined with mitred corners. A picture
of this character needs no mat.

have been the height

of

Indeed,

it

would

presumption to strive

to accentuate a masterpiece of such highly idealistic

meaning and treatment.

much

as

are

as possible.

picture

The

The dimensions

determined

therefore

must be

It

by

the

left

to itself

of the frame
of

size

the

itself.

picture hangs against a light gray wall in

somewhat apart from other pictures.


It was a happy thought thus to recognize its dignity.
It was given further distinction by finishgood

light,

ing the oak frame so that


itself

it

should not associate

with the other woodwork in the room.

Since

the room in which the picture was to hang has a


light ash trim

any

and most

finish, this

But there

of the furniture a

mahog-

requirement was easily met.

are

many ways

of finishing a

to avoid too close association with the

frame

common-

place that would have been anything but appropriate to such a picture as this.

gilt

surface,

a silver-gray tone, or a highly polished golden oak


are

possible

blunders.

Nothing should be done

to call attention to the frame of any picture, least

PICTURES
of

71

to one of such spiritual feeling as this one.

all

The frame should seem


repeating

picture,

be

to

tones

prevailing

its

part

of

with

the

richness in keeping with the composition of the

picture

The

itself.

colour should be a rich, dark

brown, but not so dark as to obscure the figure


The finish should be dull, but soft
of the wood.

and smooth.
There are several brown stains which, properly
For the
applied, would give the desired effect.
colour

it

was thought best to

brown, which
turpentine.

may

It

is

upon Van Dyke

rely

be used either with alcohol or

not desirable to use a water stain

in a case like this because it

would

raise the grain,

necessitating sand-papering, which should be avoided


as

much

keep

as possible

the

edges

on picture frames in order to

and

corners

fuming preserves the

figure

intact.

of

Ammonia

wood

the

better

was thought
that the oak might not take on a tone dark enough
It was decided, however,
to meet the requirements.
than any other form of staining, but

it

fuming method and to tone up with a


thin coat of stain if the effect proved to be not
to try the

sufficiently

dark.

The ammonia

in a rich, soft surface,

thin

process resulted

but in a colour too

Van Dyke brown

alcohol stain

light.

was therefore

HOME DECORATION

72

applied and
thin

to

when dry

coat of

match the

this

was followed by a very

shellac

mostly

stain.

This was to

alcohol

coloured

partially the

fill

t
A

group of passe-partouts

grain of the wood. Finally,

it

was thoroughly coated

with wax finish and well rubbed to restore the

soft,

satin-like surface.

PASSE- PARTOUTS

Framing pictures
one of the
is

little arts

in

of

passe-partout

home

decoration, though

by no means an unimportant one.

to learn and

it

money, but

it

many

binding

It

is

is

it

easy

involves small expense in time and


furnishes

a means

of

preserving

pictures of real worth in themselves or of

value to their owners because of pleasant associations;

and

It offers the

it is

in itself a delightful occupation.

same chances

for artistic effects in

PICTURES
harmony and

colour

73

contrasts, in spacing,

and

in

the arrangements for hanging that the more difficult

methods

of framing do, with the

added advantage

that one need not be deterred by the question of

from

expense

an

discarding

unsuccessful

result

and trying again.


Varieties

made

Passe-partout binding

of Binding.

in a great variety of colours.

ten to twenty cents per

roll of

use

the

inch

when

contrasting

and

silver

tures,

artists' supplies.

may

be pur-

For general

an

of

required; but extra narrow widths are

is

supplied

it

width of binding

ordinary

from

twelve yards, ac-

cording to colour and quality, and

chased of dealers in

It costs

is

it

is

desired to

add a margin

of a

For these margins the gold

colour.

narrow bindings

very effective;

are,

with certain pic-

but white and other light

colours are often used for this purpose.


Artistic Colour Effects.

The choice of the colour

for the principal binding should

by the tone
thing,

it

be controlled mainly

of the picture, with which, as a general

should blend.

If

no mat be used, more

or less of a contrast in colour between the picture

and the binding


tistic

effects

are

is

permissible; but the

ar-

when mats are used.


be in harmony with the

obtained

These should, of course,

most

HOME DECORATION

74

colour tones and general character of the picture.

may

It

be a harmony of agreement

if

there

is

border of light tone between the picture and the

mat, as illustrated in the accompanying drawing.

Without such a border

it will

a pleasing contrast of tone.

when a mat

is

be necessary to show

But

in almost all cases

used the outer binding should repeat

the predominant colour or some other prominent


characteristic of the picture.

For example,

if

it

be a picture of an English hunting scene with

mat may be

mounted sportsmen

in red coats, the

of a light greenish

hue and the binding

it

red.

If

be a landscape photograph in sepia tones, a white

or light

binding

coffee-coloured

mat with

a good combination.

is

a dark brown

Scotch scene

appropriately framed in a plaid binding.

is

this case it is the subject of the picture rather

But

the colour that suggests the binding.


cases opportunity

the

colour

is

combinations,

Thus one

than

in all

offered for carefully selecting

and arranging the grouping


acter.

In

of

the

planning

the

spacing,

of pictures of like char-

simplest

of

decorative

processes presents large artistic possibilities.

An

Actual Problem.

The

various steps in the

process of framing a picture in passe-partout bind-

ing

may

perhaps be best understood by giving

PICTURES
an example
a silhouette

of

The

it.

an

75

actual problem

original

is

to frame

drawing in black India

ink on light gray paper, 8 by 10 inches in

size,

with the longer dimension vertical.


Materials and

Tools.

The

required are as follows:


of the picture (8

by 10

materials and tools

piece of glass the size

inches), since

no border

may

needed; two pieces of thin pasteboard, which

be cut from an old box cover, the same


glass; a

size as

the

generous yard of black passe-partout bind-

two passe-partout rings, which

ing;

is

cost five cents per

dozen; a httle photographers' paste; a sharp knife


or a pair of

and an awl or

scissors;

pointed

nail.

The Process.
will

With

these materials in hand

it

require scarcely more than twenty minutes

The

to complete the work.


of the rings.

This

two small holes

in

is

first

step

is

the setting

accompHshed by punching

one of the pieces of pasteboard

two inches from the edge chosen for the top and about
one inch from each side. Through these holes the
points of the rings are pushed until the ring is close
to

the

pasteboard.

Bending the points over

opposite directions fastens the ring firmly.


is

a comparatively large picture.

Had

it

say 4 by 5 inches or smaller only

in

This

been small
one ring in

HOME DECORATION

76

the centre, fastened about

inches

13/^

from

the

edge, would have been needed.

The
of

picture

is

now mounted on

pasteboard by fastening

with a httle paste.

It

is

at the upper corners

it

desirable to use as

The two

paste as possible.

the second piece

little

pieces of pasteboard

are then brought together, care

being taken

that

the rings are on the outside, and the glass laid over

These parts are now ready to be bound

the picture.
together.

The

sides are

bound

first.

This

is

done

by cutting two pieces

of the binding J^ of an inch


longer than the short edges of the picture, wetting

the

gummed

and laying

side

the glass so that

it will

along the edge of

lap J^ of an inch over the

Each end

face of the glass.

it

of this binding will

extend Vs of an inch beyond the


of the binding

is

now

The

glass.

folded over

board back, taking pains to draw

upon the pasteit

down

close to

the edge of the glass and pasteboard before

permanently fastened.
projects at each end

and pressed down


of the glass

is

The

Vs

rest

of

an

inch

it

is

that

then folded over the corner

as close as possible to the edge

and pasteboard.

The upper and lower

edges are bound in the same way, excepting that the


pieces of binding are first cut the

same length

as

the edges over which they are to be pasted, and,

PICTURES

77

before they are pasted on, the two corners on the

be pasted to the glass are cut

side to

off }/i of

an

inch back at an angle of 45 degrees, and the other


corners are also trimmed back to about

Ys.

of an

The accompanying drawing shows more

inch.

T^^H.

i^

How the binding


clearly

how

purpose of

strips are

trimmed

these binding strips are trimmed.


it

is

when the

evident; for

The

strips are

pasted over the top and bottom edges of the glass,


the apit is seen that they have been cut to give

pearance of mitred corners, and that when folded


over the edges upon the back of the pasteboard

no rough edges

of binding are left exposed at the

corners.

One
that

of the lessons of experience in this

it

is

well

to

take great pains

in

work

is

centring

the binding strips accurately before pasting them


on, as they do not stick well
to correct a mistake

pasting

it

on again.

if

the attempt

is

made

by removing the binding and

HOME DECORATION

78

The more elaborate passe-partouts, requiring mats,


and double bindings, are scarcely more difficult than the simple example just described, though
borders,

they

will require

the

easier

more time.

It

When

problems.

is

well to begin with

and double

borders

bindings are used the narrow passe-partout strips


are pasted on

first,

with proper care to

cut the

mitres correctly and to centre the strips accurately

them down upon the glass. The


bound last. This partly covers the

before pasting

edges

are

brighter -coloured

strips

previously

pasted

along

the edge of the glass, and leaves a narrow line of

exposed

colour

as

border

just

inside

the

binding.

HANGING PICTURES

How

to

Hang

ing pictures,
as possible.

which

may

it

Pictures.

be used for hang-

In place of the braided

steel

be needed for large pictures, a


is

those of lighter weight.


it

If wire

should be as small and inconspicuous

brass or copper wire

shows

much
In

all

wire,
single

to be preferred for
cases where the wire

should appear as two vertical lines against

the wall and not as a single wire bent over a single

hook

in the

form of an inverted V, so commonly

seen and so manifestly failing to conform with any

PICTURES
lines of a

room.

79

Levelling the picture

managed by using only one

wire,

may

making

it

be easily
continu-

ous through the screw eyes on the back of the picture.

These screw eyes should be placed near the

about one sixth the whole vertical


width of the picture from the top so that the picture
top of the frame

may

'hang nearly

flat

correct

against the wall.

method

of

Whenever

hanging pictures

hung without
showing the wire at all. This may be easily managed
without seriously marring the finish of some rooms by

possible, however, pictures should be

driving two fine finishing nails in the part of the lower

come directly behind the top


allowing them to project about 3^

wall which
picture,

is

to

of the
of

an

HOME DECORATION

80

inch and bending

them up a

pliers so that the wires will

small pictures

may

upholstery tacks.

little

not

with a pair of

slip off.

Choice,

be hung in this way on


It

is

often possible,

fine

when the

must be exposed, to stop it just below the dado


cap and thus avoid showing the wire over the frieze.
Whenever it is necessary, as it often is, to suspend
wires by means of the so-called picture hooks
wire

from a picture moulding or cornice

some

the frieze,

attention

be

should

above

paid

to

Bright metal hooks

colour of these hooks.

the

strip placed

showing over a delicately coloured moulding are

bad

in

taste.

inverted

Some people

wires

the

and

use

suspension in order to reduce the

ber of these picture hooks.


retain

prefer to

straight,

colour

fine,

But

it

and

the hooks to

is

the

num-

far better to

nearly

invisible

make them

less

conspicuous.

In determining the height of pictures

it is

only

necessary to remember that they are placed upon the


walls to be enjoyed.
is

be

While monotony

in height

to be avoided, the average eye level should not

disregarded.

The

frontispiece

effective placing of a picture in the

the model house.

illustrates

an

dining-room of

IV
THE ARRANGEMENT OF FLOWERS
"I know not which

love the most.

Nor which the comeliest shows;


The timid, bashful violet.
Or the royal-hearted rose;
"The pansy in her purple dress.
The pink with cheek of red.
Or the faint, fair heliotrope who hangs.
Like a bashful maid, her head."

Phcebe

Cary

FORMERLY when the furniture, pictures, and


draperies had been arranged in our rooms, with

perhaps a few pieces of bric-a-brac, we considered their decoration quite complete.


learned

how much

properly

But we have

cheerfulness a few simple flowers,

arranged, impart

to

the

same

rooms;

and so flowers have come to be considered as almost


essential to the complete decoration of the home.

Lesson

much from

From

the

Japanese.

If

we have learned

the Japanese in regard to the arrange-

ment and hanging of pictures, from them we have


learned more about the artistic arrangement of
flowers.

They have taught


81

us to value the stem

HOME DECORATION

82

and leaves

of the flower as essential to

an

artistic

arrangement, that flowers of the same kind should

be grouped together, and that harmony and blending of colour are necessary to secure the most artistic
effects.

Flowers of a

have been

Kind Grouped

Together.

We

may

in the habit of putting several different

kinds of flowers together and of being satisfied with

such a composition but the Japanese would


;

that

when

tell

several different kinds of flowers are

bined in one grouping the

full

com-

beauty of each

few experiments we

us

is

come to
see the truth of this.
Here is an illustration: At a
summer camp with which I am familiar it was the

lost;

daily

and

after a

duty

of

shall

one of the younger boys to go for the

we used for keeping the camp gay. He


brought home snug little bunches of the flower

wild flowers
often

of the wild convolvulus

and the wild

rose, to

be

used together.

No

made from such

a handful, so he was asked to bring

pleasing arrangement could be

long pieces of the vine of the convolvulus and

gather branches of the rose, especially those with


the buds.

The convolvulus we arranged

in a flat

dish at one end of a gray stone mantel, letting the

vine hang over the mantel, and he quickly saw that


it

"looked prettier

more

as though

it

were grow-

ing."

THE ARRANGEMENT OF FLOWERS


When a few of the stalks of the wild

83

rose

were arranged by themselves in a green glass vase


he pronounced them much "prettier

when

than

mixed up with other flowers."


The

Way

of the Garden.

In our gardens we plant

the sunshiny daffodils by themselves, the sweet

peas grow in a mass together, and


roses.

ment

we

If

follow the

same plan

of our flowers indoors

we

we have beds

in the arrange-

shall realize their

So we may

decorative qualities to the utmost.


consider

it

of

a safe rule to follow in arranging flowers,

to use only one kind of flower, with

its

stems and

them loosely, rather than to have


a compact grouping. One single, long-

leaves, arranging

many

in

stemmed

rose,

slender glass

is

with

its

beautiful foliage, in a

more decorative and

gives us

tall,

more

pleasure than a dozen roses stripped of their foliage

and crowded into a small


Exceptions.

While

vase.

the

above rule should be

generally followed, there are exceptional instances

harmonious arrangement of flowers


two or more kinds together. Among these we
may mention the combining of field daisies and
of the perfectly

of

buttercups, or buttercups with the grasses

which they grow.


wild carrot

among

So, too, the lacy flower of the

may sometimes

be effectively combined

HOME DECORATION

84

with some other flower.

The

spikes of the cardinal

flower, for example, are gorgeous in colour, but very


stiff

and

difficult to

arrange; so the addition of a

few sprays of the wild carrot softens the

makes

it

more

effect

and

pleasing.

COLOUR ARRANGEMENT

We

have just considered the grouping

by themselves.
considered before

that

is

There

is

of flowers

another element to be

we can have

artistic results,

arrangement as to colour.

Colour Grouping.

We may

not

all

be sensitive

to colour ourselves, but in arranging flowers

should always keep in mind the pleasure that


given others, and so

grouping that
is

and

keen.

we wish nothing

will offend those

is

we

to be

in our colour

whose colour sense

There are three colour schemes that can be

followed with success and satisfaction to

all.

In

one we group together only flowers of the same


colour, as red roses, pink sweet peas, yellow

not red, pink, and white roses, nor

all

iris,

of the various

colours of sweet pea.


xA.nother

of the

arrangement

same

colour.

ble to get exquisite

calls for

shades ana' tints

With many flowers it is possieffects by following this scheme.

For instance, pansies ranging from a pale lavender

THE ARRANGEMENT OF FLOWERS

85

to deep purple are lovely arranged in a low basket of

damp

moss.

Sweet peas have beautiful shades

of pink that can be combined, as well as shades


of red

and

of lavender.

Nasturtiums are never so

when the various shades of yellow, orange


and brown are used together. The garden aster

effective as

of to-day
in

is

another flower that affords

colour arrangement; for

it

much pleasure

has lavenders and

purples, a variety of pink tones, beautiful reds,

and

perfect white ones.

And
these?

the white ones!

What

shall

we do with

Three or four pure white asters of the same

may be used together; or two or three white


may be grouped with a few lavender ones, or
ones.
White may be combined with any

variety

ones

pink

colour with good results.

Nature

is

a good teacher

here for she gives us both the coloured and the white
in

almost every variety of flower.

For example there

are crimson cosmos' and white cosmos, scarlet geran-

iums and white geraniums, blue


violets,

and white

violets

and so on through a great many

varieties.

Comhination of Complementary Colours.


colour grouping that

is

sometimes desirable makes

use of the complementary colours.

The

a garden flower that ought to be better


it is,

Another

salpiglossis,

known than

gives us examples of these, with its blue

and

HOME DECORATION

86

orange-yellow flowers that are so effective together.

The

iris

also has flowers of

complementary

yellow and violet blue being

colours,

common among

them.

THE FLOWER HOLDERS

Flower Composition

as

Picture.

Having

learned something about the artistic use of colour,

we come

to the consideration of the arrangement of

the flowers, and this includes the vase or other receptacle

used for holding them.

composition

is

An

artistic

flower

mat and frame

a picture; and as the

give finish to a picture hanging on the wall, so the


vessel holding flowers should give the required finish

to the flower picture.

Like the frame,

simple in design, have graceful


as a

medium

off

and when

should be

and serve only

the flowers to the best ad-

There should be as

vantage.
possible,

to set

lines,

it

little

decoration as

jars or vases of colour are used

they must blend or harmonize with the colour

schemes of the flowers placed in them.


Receptacles for Flowers.

It often

is

a problem

to find the most fitting thing for holding flowers;

but in the
find

reliable

some simple

Japanese shops one can always

holders,

and there are very good

designs in the clear and in the green glass that are

inexpensive and appropriate.

As a

rule the less ex-

THE ARRANGEMENT OF FLOWERS


pensive the article the better adapted
able holder for flowers.

it is

87

as a suit-

One need never mourn that

she cannot afford cut glass vases for flowers, as they

and

their cheap

imitations are

unsuitable of holders.

among the most

Let us suppose our


simple receptacles, a

Four Typical Flower Holders.


equipment includes four

small, clear glass fish globe such as

may

be had for

twenty-five cents; a clear glass vase, about twelve


inches in height, cylindrical in shape though flaring

little

at the top, costing

twenty-five cents; a

large cylindrical Japanese jar of a pale green tint,

eighteen inches in height and costing about one dol-

and a quarter; and a deep green one, about eight


inches in height, which may be bought for sixty or

lar

seventy cents.

The
and

fish

globe

is

very effective when nasturtiums

their leaves are loosely arranged in

it.

The

stems show through the water and glass and form


a part of the composition. Short stemmed roses

may be most

artistically

grouped in

it.

have seen

a very charming combination of mignonette and


bachelor's buttons in the same bowl, as well as a

harmonious picture in yellow, composed of the


various shades of California poppies and their
foliage.

HOME DECORATION

88

The
roses:

tall glass sets off

and a few yellow

two or three long stemmed

daffodils or the narcissus with

their leaves look equally well in

it.

Poppies for a day,

in the

same

have

vase,

given pleasure to the

At Easter

beholder.
it

has joyously borne

a stalk of two perfect

and

lilies,

autumn

equally at

jar

is

fish

Our

globe with daisies

been

home in

tall

suited to larger arrangements, for

remember that

spikes of

tall

have

salvia

the

in

it.

Japanese

we need

to

in tall or vertical compositions the

vase should be about one third the height of the

whole combination; so

this

is

adapted to holding

branches of apple blossoms or mountain laurel

one is fortunate enough to find


three

branches

from these

tall lilac

are

or, if

bushes, about

effective

in

it.

Tall-growing golden-rod looks equally well placed


here.

It furnishes a

modest setting

for dahlias

and

chrysanthemums, and one of its most decorative compositions has been

two or three branches

of pine

bearing their brown cones.

The

possibilities

of

the

smaller

green jar

are

THE ARRANGEMENT OF FLOWERS

89

numerous, and only a few are given as suggestions.

and

loose arrangement of jonquils

or of white narcissus,

stemmed
ones,

may

the

or

be placed

An arrangement
field

daisies,

of

The

effective.

either the

lilacs,

ones

purple

is

their leaves,

shorter

xl.

white
in

it.

white

and one

of

yellow roses, have been found


equally

One
the harmony

successful.

soon discovers

and balance that exist between the flower and holder.

THE BACKGROUND
and

Space

Harmonious

Surroundings. To

obtain

the largest decorative effect

we

must

artistic

have

not

only

tali

vase with narcissus

grouping and harmonious setting of flowers,

but space and background, just as are needed for the

Many

hanging of pictures.
has lost

all

floral

composition

decorative effect from being placed in

too small a space and


objects.

surrounded by distracting

few days ago I stepped into a room on

an errand and forgot

my

errand in the pleasure

HOME DECORATION

90

derived from seeing some beautiful yellow chry-

santhemums, three or

brown

jar

four, I think, in a yellowish

on a large mahogany

table,

having for

a background the upturned leaf of the table.

An

stood some

arrangement for the

little

tall

Japanese jar

distance from anything else, a shaft

of sunlight lay across the whole,


it

I thought: Here

tive

is all

room that held

and as

I looked at

that constitutes a decora-

arrangement of flowers.

of the

It

It

was the feature

one's attention.

THE ARRANGEMENT OF FLOWERS


Flowers for the Dining Table.
flowers in but one
difficult
it

room

If

we can have

in the house, it

to decide which one

it

where

may

be.

shall

often happens that the dining-room

room

91

is

be

Since

the only

busy

family comes together


for

any length

of time,

flowers should certainly

be introduced here that


all

may

share

their

beauty and cheer.

arrangement

home

Any
the

for

table should be

moderately
there are

and

low;

many

simple

An arrangement of roses in a small jar

flowers that can be used in this

way

to advantage.

For instance, one can gather a quantity of the innocence or common bluet (root and all), to be
found in any

field in

the spring, and put

them

in a

shallow glass dish.

Simple and effective decora-

tion for the table

the result.

is

Flowers with any

degree of fragrance should never be used in the

The fragrance of some flowers is


many people, and when combined with

dining-room.
offensive to

the odour of food doubly

At a luncheon

so.

served by the girls in the model

HOME DECORATION

92

house the

dozen

floral

single,

decoration for the table was a half

yellow

with

jonquils

placed in a creamy brown vase

their

foliage,

made by one

of the

Their dishes being in white with a gold edge

girls.

and the walls and furniture

in

browns, nothing could

have been more harmonious than these few simple


flowers.

Expensive Flowers not Necessary.


that for

decoration

floral

is

evident

expensive nor

neither

are necessary,

displays

lavish

It

that simplicity

is

the thing to strive for, and that a few sprays of


wild flowers in their season are

than

many

more truly

artistic

In this

expensive hot-house flowers.

make a
but if we

country we do not, as the Japanese do,


festival

in

honour

rightly appreciate

season,

we may

of

and

certain flowers;

utilize the flowers of

each

give a touch of festivity to the

life

of every day.

In the early spring nothing can be more appropriate than an arrangement of pussy willows or

branches of the alder with

maple when
will

its tassels,

while the red

in flower gives a touch of colour that

brighten any room.

clump

of blood root

in a small jardiniere is as decorative as the

plants one

The

may

see in the

flowers of the field

home

of

and the garden

expensive

some

friend.

offer so

many

THE ARRANGEMENT OF FLOWERS


possibilities for decorative results that

93

no one's home

need lack the cheery touch which they can give.

There
is

is

a personal element in flowers such as

not found in any other means of decoration,

not even in pictures, with the single exception of

They seem

good portraits.

to speak to us.

almost believe that they

feel

we have said about them.

If

an interest

We can

in all that

they really could know,

would they not approve the principles that we have


laid

We may fancy that they would approve

down?

and that,
listen,

if

they could really speak and we would

they would

tell

us so in

some such language

as the following:

WHAT THE FLOWERS SAY ABOUT IT


Don't mix us; we are exclusive and prefer
own kind.
Don't make a confusion of colour with us.
Don't arrange us in snug,

our

solid masses.

Don't neglect to use our stems and foliage as a


part of the decoration.

Don't
around

tie

us with ribbons, nor put paper-lace

us.

Don't crowd us
goods;

we need

in with

an assortment of household

space and a background.

Don't arrange us in
table.

frills

tall, stiff

forms for the dining

HOME DECORATION

94

Do

love us and use us in the

as possible.

not only
artistic

This

will

in beauty, will
light; she

as

much

so doing

your love of us increase, but your

perception

poorest

By

well for you.

is

of

constantly enlarge.

"The

home

woman

the

For truly has


in the world,

always be able to

fill

things

of

fitness

it

if

been

will

said,

she has faith

her

home with

can always place there some flowers."

DECORATIVE FABRICS
PORTIERES,

WINDOW DRAPERIES, CUSHION COVERS,


TABLE MATS

The very need


plain,

of ornament arises out


Lewis F. Day
smooth surfaces

NO

KIND

a certain innate discontent with

of decorative art offers greater

possibilities for

wrong

of

touching the right

or the

chord than that which makes use

Portieres, curtains, cushion covers, table

of fabrics.

runners and mats, lamp shades, and


nishings, in

many

other fur-

which fabrics are involved, present prob-

lems that quickly engage the interest of the amateur


decorator

who wishes to avoid

when well worked

out,

add greatly to the

ness of artistic surroundings.

comes a studio

for

the commonplace and,

And

attractive-

every house be-

problems peculiar to

itself,

when

the possibilities of development in this direction are


realized.
is

Here, as everywhere

else,

decorative art

secondary to architectural design and must never

fail

to acknowledge

follow.

its

dependence.

Its glory

is

to

To attempt to 4ead means miserable failure.


95

HOME DECORATION

96

Example

of the

connecting the

Model House.
hall,

The wide doorways

the living room, and dining-

room

of our model house made doors undesirable


and portieres necessary to assist in marking the divi-

rooms and to soften the lines of the


They were made to harmonize with

sion between the

wood

finish.

the colour scheme but were darker and richer in


tone.

The

multiple windows, with the absence of

direct sunshine, suggested the light style of drapery;

and the preference given


stantial furniture,

made

to straight-lined, sub-

in the school shops, led as

a natural consequence to cushions and coverings


of leather or coarse fabric, in order to bear out the

idea of simplicity,

craftsmanship.

and durability

directness,

and

Velvets

would

satins

in

have

been out of place.


Utility

to

be Regarded.

The

highly decorative

function of such accessories makes

it

doubly neces-

sary to exercise care in selecting materials, designing the ornamental features, and properly placing

the completed article, in order that the requirements


of use
It

of

be not subordinated to the demands of

must never be forgotten that


all

true decoration.

a substitute for doors

art.

utility is the basis

Portieres were originally

opening between rooms.

It

means of
must be

closing an

possible al-

THE Nr:W YORK

PUB Lie LI BR AIRY


Til. DC

M rrM'vn^ '"IONS

DECORATIVE FABRICS
ways

for

them

97

Hence

easily to serve this purpose.

loops or rings, which slide easily over a pole, should

be used.
cloth

may

Portieres

properly be

and they may have a

in pleasing contrast

lining

Window

draperies,

shut out the light but soften

material,

made

at least opaque.

on the other hand, are not a

substitute for shades or curtains.

therefore, be

harmonizing or

with the tone of the principal

They should always be

fabric.

made of heavy

They should not


it.
They should,
and durable

of light, washable,

and be hung so that they can be

easily

taken down for cleaning. The simplest style of


hanging, by means of a brass rod and plain brackets,
is

the best.

Since there

is

no need of frequently

them over the rod, it is well to hang them


by means of a hem, stitched two or three inches from
sliding

the top of the drapery, through which the rod

be easily pushed.

made

may

Cushion covers and table runners,

of durable material

and decorated with colours

that are washable, are manifestly more serviceable

than those that look fresh only when new, and


hence

are

sincerity

more
in

in

keeping

household

with

the

decoration.

necessity for honesty in decoration as

plumbing

How

if it is

to

meet the

idea

of

There

is

well

as in

tests with equal success.

such decorative features are worked out

HOME DECORATION

98

from beginning to end,

is

told in the following direc-

tions for a few practical problems

which are known

to be practical, because they have been actually


carried through from the design to the completed
article.

This detailed and complete explanation,

with the accompanying illustrations, will suggest

many

similar problems which every

home

offers.

BLOCK PRINTING

Problem
problem

and
(1)

Table

Runner.

This

easily separated into four distinct parts

is

making

Decorating

the design, cutting the block, printing,

finishing.

The

Making the design

materials needed are as follows


(2)

Cutting the block

Ordinary drawing paper


Rice paper
Charcoal

Gum wood

Pencil

Sand-paper, fine

Small penknife
Vise

Japanese or sable brush,

medium

size

Water-proof India ink


(3)

Printing the design

Printing board

Sheet of glass
Oil paints

Turpentine
Palette knife

Cotton batting
Cheese cloth

(4)

Finishing the runner

Embroidery

silk

or

cerized cotton

mer-

DECORATIVE FABRICS
The Design.
trated,

it is

99

To carry out the problem as

necessary,

first of all,

to

make

illus-

the design.

Geometry, nature, and the imagination are

satis-

factory sources upon which to draw for the motif.


If the inventive faculty is quite

undeveloped, one

should study for suggestions the figures in Oriental


rugs,

photographs of early Eastern

The peacock

fine

old tapestries in

pillow cover

and the

design

museum

good geometrical designs,

art,

like

collections.

Some

that used on the

on page 104, were made


drawing many figures found in

illustrated

by schooLgirls after
rugs; and interesting bird patterns, after studying numerous reproductions of Coptic designs. In
no case was the block pattern in the least like the

780S86

HOME DECORATION

100

designs studied.

They served only

as ideas to start

with and led to the production of truly original


work.
in

mind

keep a few simple principles

It

is

in

working out the design:

essential to

and

Both the dark

light shades in the pat-

terns
size

(1)

should

be

and form

monotonous

varied

avoid

to

result

in

and should

be as beautiful in proportion
as possible.

(2)

be a centre of
Block used in printing the

peacock design

other.

lost

interest,

if

one

part of the design dominant

more

attractive than

The design must be a unit


must hold together. All feeling

(3)

the parts
is

There should

the parts of the design

call

any

i.

e.,

of unity

attention to

themselves to the exclusion of the whole.


Preliminary Sketches and the Drawing.

found desirable to make

many

It

will

be

preliminary sketches

rubbing in a part of each

in charcoal or soft pencil,

sketch with a tone in order to secure immediately


the dark and light

effect.

pared, keeping clearly in

above.

When

These should be com-

mind the

one possessing the right qualifica-

draw on a
paper an accurate 3-inch square and

tions has been found, the next step


fresh piece of

principles stated

is

to

DECORATIVE FABRICS
copy upon

it

101

the satisfactory design in pencil outline.

This should be done very carefully, that the


the original charcoal sketch

may

not be

lost.

spirit of

When

must be put into shape


To do this we fasten
to be transferred to the block.
a piece of rice-paper over the drawing and trace

the drawing

is

completed

with very light pencil

it

lines, filling in

the dark spaces

Bird pattern

with black ink, using a brush.

may

This brush work

be done directly without the pencil

line if the

drawing underneath shows very plainly through the


paper.

may

When the ink has thoroughly dried, the design

be cut out on the edge of the 3-inch square.

Laying

the Pattern arid Cutting the Block.

A block

HOME DECORATION

102

X 3 X

inches

will

now be

should be procured and sand-papered.


of

it

One

should then be covered with a coating of

paste, the pattern laid

smooth.

upon

If the design is

it,

This

required.

face

library-

and rubbed down

symmetrical

it

should be

pasted on the block, ink side up, but otherwise with


the ink side down, or the design will be reversed upon

the cloth.

When

flower

and

leaf

design

the paste gets quite dry one

may

then fasten the block in the vise and, holding the


blade of the knife at a slight angle and always

away from the dark


along the outlines.

and sharp.

All of

spots, proceed to cut the design

These must be kept very smooth


the white shapes should be cut

DECORATIVE FABRICS
black

the

leaving

out,

ones

in

lOS

relief.

Usually

be deep enough for the back-

an eighth of an inch

will

ground, but

be found after practise in print-

it will

ing that the larger spaces should be cut deeper and


that,

when the edges

or corners of

the block form a part of the back-

ground instead

of the

dark pattern,

The

they also need a deeper cut.

paper that
,

the block

still

adheres to the face of

may now

be removed by

Block used

in

printing this

rubbing it upon a sheet of sand-paper

<isJe

upon something hard and smooth like glass in


order that the block may have an absolutely

laid

level surface.

The Padded Board.

All block printing should be

done upon a padded board. A very convenient


one can be made by laying upon a bread board three
or four sheets of blotting paper, and tacking over

these several thicknesses of cheese cloth.


of these

an ironing board

Material Required.

It

may
is

In place

be used.

essential to select for

the runner a piece of crash of fine texture and even

weave.

This

crash and

is

is

name

of Russian

from 15 to 16 inches wide but varies

considerably in
print well

sold under the

quality.

It

upon the coarser

is

very

grades.

difficult

to

HOME DECORATION

104

Trying the Colours.

After deciding upon a colour

which will harmonize with the general colour scheme


of the room in which the table runner is to be used,
it is

in order to

mix the paint and try the block upon

a small piece of crash.

To prepare the paint, squeeze

a small quantity of the true colours chosen upon a


sheet of glass and blend thoroughly with the palette

Alternating animal and geometrical design

knife, thinning with turpentine to the consistency

of cream.

It

the tube will

seldom that a colour right from


prove a pleasing one to use. Other
is

colours mixed with


sity; black or

white

it will

change

its

hue and inten-

will alter the value.

Tie a

little

cotton batting up in a small square of cheese cloth

DECORATIVE FABRICS

105

or old handkerchief linen, being careful to remove

from the raw edges all raveUings that might drop


Spread out quite thin upon the
into the paint.
glass a small portion of the prepared paint

the pad into

sorbed

it

all it will.

pounding

its

number

Now

will it

it

has ab-

charge the block by lightly

surface with the pad.

upon the cloth evenly.

ment

of times until

and press

Press the block

Only by repeated experi-

be possible to determine just the right

quantity of paint to mix,

its brilliancy

of

tone, its

Blocks used in printing this design

consistency,

A
it,

how

heavily to charge the block, etc.

good print shows the texture of the cloth through


is

even in tone, and has clear-cut

the print looks like a painted spot, or

charged.

treatment.

when

If

quite

has stiffened the cloth, the paint

you find it
used was too thick or

dry,

if,

edges.

Different

else the

block was too heavily

materials

For a thin

silk

require

different

the block should be

very lightly charged and lightly though evenly


pressed upon the material.

In printing upon crash

HOME DECORATION

106
it is

necessary to press the block very firmly upon

the material; and frequently, to insure getting a


sufficiently

strong impression,

it

is

advisable to

hammer

tap the block lightly with a

or

wooden

one has a steady hand, the block can


easily be lifted at one side to determine just where
the extra pressure is needed. The block should be

mallet.

If

thoroughly rubbed with old cloth after each impression is made and occasionally sand-papered
to

remove any paint that may adhere to

first

print

liable to

made

after

be a Httle

Centring the Work.

extra piece of the

A good way to plan the plac-

ing of the panel design

is

the centre of

to run a basting thread

woven threads.
the runner upon this thread,

across the crash between

Mark

is

than the others and

made upon an

material.

The

sand-papering the block

less distinct

should therefore be

it.

two

of the

and, using these guides, print the design, beginning

with one of the central units.


Additional Features.

Considerable charm can be

added to the pattern by

filling

some

of the spaces

with a simple darning or running stitch in some


bright colour. The embroidery thread used should

be rather

fine.

It

is

well to finish the ends of the

runner by button-holing with ravellings of the crash.

DECORATIVE FABRICS
Tiny dots

in the panel

some colour used

of

107

may be

embroidered at intervals just above the buttonholed edge.


.

Colours. The following


found practical

crimson

chrome green, permanent

be

flake white, burnt

ivory black,

red,

light

sienna,

of oil colours will

list

lake,

chrome yellow,

blue.

Materials. Linen, cotton,

soisette, all or part silk

pongee, crepe de chine, cheese cloth, and unbleached

muslin are excellent materials for block printing.


Beautiful background tones can be obtained by

dyeing the two latter with easy dyes.

In place of the
maple, or holly

gum wood for


may be used.

the block, basswood,


It

is

possible to get

along without a vise by fastening the block between


two cleats nailed to an old table or heavy board.
Success

is

sometimes achieved in cutting blocks

while simply held in the hand.

Laundering.
dation

is

least.

water.

If the material

used for the foun-

washable, block printed articles can be

satisfactorily

warm

and

easily laundered in soapy, luke-

The

colours are not injured in the

liquid called stencil

mordant

used in place of turpentine, insuring

permanency

of colour.

Other Applications of Block Printing.

is

sometimes

still

greater

Other

ar-

HOME DECORATION

108

by block printing are

tides suitable for decoration

curtains, pillow covers, table cavers, cushion covers,

bureau

Printing

sorts, etc.

may

also

be used to ornament

such as aprons and

articles for personal use,

many

mats, bags of

scarfs, Portieres, table

scarfs.

STENCILING

Problem

Window

Draperies.

Making

sign, cutting the stencil, printing,

and

the de-

form

finishing

the divisions of the problem to be worked out.

A list

of necessary materials follows:


(1)

Making the

(2)

design

Cutting the

(3)

Printing

stencil

Charcoal

Sheet of glass

Pencil

Sharp penknife

Reflector

Ordinary drawing
paper
Tracing paper
Carbon paper
Stencil paper

The Design.

Large board
Blotting paper
Turpentine
Oil paints
Bristle brushes

Pins

Suggestions

as to the

method

of

procedure in making a design have been already


given in the section on block printing.
ciples of design to
also.

new

The

prin-

be considered are outlined there

In working out this problem, however, several


things

difference

come up

for

explanation:

(1)

The

between a design to be stenciled and one

Window
[Plate IV]

Draperies With Stenciled JSi.i.Kr.


Executed by a School Girl

Designed and

NEW YORK
PUBLIC LIBRARY
TiHE

ASTOR. LENOX
TILDE.N F0LIMDA"'I0m8

DECORATIVE FABRICS
by means

to be printed

method
method
The

of a

of joining units to

wood

109

block; (2) the

form a border;

(3)

the

of turning a corner in a border design.

Stencil

Bands.

accompanying

this

By studying the
section

with the charcoal or soft pencil,


in a stencil design the

illustrations

and by experimenting
it will

be seen that

dark spots which stand for the

%.:

stencilled pattern

portion

of pillow cover

work are completely separated


from one another by bands of varying widths.
These bands, or bridges, as they are called, serve
color in the finished

to

hold the stencil together

throughout the design.

wide as one

desires, it is

and are connected

Though they may be as


seldom wise to make them

HOME DECORATION

110

much narrower than one

eighth of an inch, as they

are easily broken; and, unless carefully pinned

down

when stencilling, the paint is liable to run under


them and ruin the work. In a block print design
no connection

of the light or separation of the dark

parts has to be considered.

In the illustration of

the stencil observe that the dark and light are re-

The

stencil for this pattern

versed as compared with the stencilled pattern


i. e.,

the dark represents the stencil paper, the light

the openings through which the paint

The Complete Unit.


that a border

may

one unit which

is

It

will

is

applied.

be readily understood

be made up by repetition of

a complete thing in

itself.

The

DECORATIVE FABRICS
unit in such a case

may

be

111

long and

made very

narrow, so that in repeating it along the vertical


edge of a curtain it produces a narrow band, while
along the horizontal edge the band

border worked out in


straight

this

broad.

is

way, with perfectly

and practically continuous margins,

structural

in

character,

emphasizing, as

is

very
does,

it

the vertical and horizontal edges of the drapery.

and

The

effect is strong

this

kind of border presents no

dignified.

The Subordinate Unit. By

tion in Plate

IV

it will

border in this case

is

The

corner in

difficulty.

studying the

illustra-

be seen that the unit of the

not complete in

itself,

but that

the very conventional flower and stem composing


it

are joined to the next unit

by what might be

called

a subordinate unit, composed, in this case, of a


The units are so closely spaced that a
leaf form.
structural effect

is

fairly well

obtained

i.

e.,

the

upper and lower edges of the border are nearly


straight, giving a feeling of restfulness to the design

that never accompanies one with broken or


edges.

Designing the Corner.

Having planned

wavy

a design

for the straight running border of the curtains, take

a reflector and experiment with the corner.


reflector

The

can easily be made by cutting from an old

HOME DECORATION

112

a small rectangular piece,

discarded looking-glass

33^ by 6 inches being a convenient

size.

The edges

should be very straight and the corners square.

Hold the

reflector at various points along the border

and always at an angle

of 45 degrees.

Study these

possible corners which will be reflected in the glass,

and when one


is

found draw a

reflector.

This

strong and interesting

sufficiently

light line along the

edge of the

exactly bisects the

line, of course,

corner of the border to be made.

Avoid making a

border of this kind too deep

when turned

the vertical edges,

will

it

or,

for

form a very broad and

heavy band.
The Outline Drawing.

The dark and light design

having thus been worked out


thing to do

is

to

make

drawing of the same.

in charcoal, the next

a very careful pencil-outline


It

is

well to

draw the corner

and one unit free-hand and trace the

rest.

To do

the tracing, pin a piece of very thin paper over the


finished part,

and trace with a

fairly soft pencil.

down,

Turn the

tracing paper upside

fitting a part of the tracing to the

underneath.

After tacking

it

and

well sharpened

drawing

down, trace the

re-

mainder, using a firm, even pressure and being careful


exactly to follow the

line.

Strengthen the part of

the pattern thus transferred by going over

it

with

DECORATIVE FABRICS

113

a sharp, hard point, and continue as before until you

have a border of which both the vertical and horizontal sections are from 9 to 12 inches long.

Transfer to Stencil Paper.


stencil

Now,

take a piece of

paper and square up one corner.

Fasten

the pencil drawing securely to the stencil paper

along one edge,

a piece of carbon paper between

slip

the two, and trace the design.


Cutting the Stencil.

Before

cutting the stencil

for the curtain a beginner should

upon an extra piece

do a little practising
Trace a portion

of the paper.

of the design

upon

glass or very

hard wood, and with a sharp penknife

this piece, lay it

upon a sheet

of

The

knife

should be held at a slight angle and the cut

made

cut along the outline of the pattern.

The

completely through the paper.

pieces of stencil

paper should never be pulled out but


without aid when the cutting
a

little

practice

it will

is

will fallout

completed.

After

be found a simple matter to

cut the design with perfectly smooth edges.


Suitable Materials for Stencilling.
fine cheese cloth or batiste will

For the curtains

be found

excellent.

Even unbleached muslin will make attractive curtains where expense must be carefully considered.
Unless the woodwork of the room is white, the pure
white materials will be found

less pleasing

than those

HOME DECORATION

114

that are quite creamy in tone.


grayish tan colour
quality,

is

Scrim in a charming,

obtainable, and,

makes most

of good, soft

if

satisfactory curtains.

It

is

not advisable to hemstitch this material before


stencilling as in case of accident or failure so

work

is

lost;

much

but the hems should be carefully

planned and basted, those along the inner edges of


the curtains being narrower than the bottom hems.

The Colours.

The color scheme of the room should

be carefully considered in deciding upon the colour


or colours to be used in stencilling.

If

two colours

are chosen, they should be of the same value


i. e.,

the two colours should form equally dark spots

in order that the pattern of the border


in the

same dark and

may

appear

light as the original charcoal

sketch.

Pinning

the Stencil.

When

ready for the actual

process of stencilling, lay a large sheet of blotting

paper upon a board and over this place the corner


of

the curtain.

Pin the

stencil

securely to the

curtain so that the edge of the border


shall

be about half an inch from the

when printed

hem and

edges of both shall be absolutely parallel.

the

Use as

few pins as possible but enough to keep the

stencil

close to the cloth.

Testing the Paint.

Having

mixed the

oil

paint

DECOEATIVE FABRICS

115

with turpentine or stencil mordant, using an old cup


or glass for each colour, practise stencilling upon a

Put blotting-paper under the

small piece of cloth.

and pin the

cloth

Use

stencil

down with

great care.

short, stiff bristle brushes for the stenciling,

Remove almost

one for each colour.

all

the paint

from the brush by pressing it upon blotting-paper.


When it leaves scarcely a mark, proceed to stencil
the pattern by pounding the brush upon the ex-

posed portions of the cloth, working close to the


edge of each spot. If, upon removing the stencil,
the edges are blurred, the paint was too
the stencil not carefully pinned down.

thin or

on the

If,

other hand, the coloured spots look thick and painty,

upon drying, the cloth is found stiffened in


these places, you may be sure that the paint
used was too thick or that the brush was too wet.
so that

The

secret of

good

stencilling

is

to use the paint as

and the brush as dry as possible. Hold the


stencilled sample up to the window and see whether,
thin

when the

light shines

right.

The Real Process.


process

is

through

it,

When

the colour appears

confident

that

understood and that the colour

the

is satis-

factory, proceed to stencil the corner of the curtain.

Always have at hand a bottle

of turpentine

and a

HOME DECORATION

116

clean piece of cloth to use in case of accident.

When removing

the pins from the stencil wipe each

one carefully.

Clean the

too, handling

stencil,

may

with care that none of the slender bridges

Replace the

broken.
it

stencil,

Put the pins

to the finished work.

already made, otherwise

them and
cilling,

in the holes

the paint will get

disfigure the work.

Do not fold

thoroughly dry.

If

com-

the threads of the material


will

hemming

make

will look

like fine batiste.

The curtains should hang

The Valance.

is

the curtains until the stencilling

the best finish; but careful hand

upon material

into

Continue the sten-

can be easily pulled, a hemstitched edge

well

be

a section of

a section at a time, until the border

pleted.
is

fitting

it

in vertical

window to a point slightly


below the window sill. They should be drawn back
at each side of the window and the space between at
the top filled by a valance about a foot deep, perhaps deeper if the window is very high. This valance
should have the border stencilled upon it and should
folds

from the top

of the

be tacked just underneath the edge of the curtains.


Sometimes, as

in the

illustration in Plate IV, a

valance running across the entire width of the

window

is

used.

In this case

it is

rod in front of the one from

run upon an extra

which

the curtain

DECORATIVE FABRICS
Double

hangs.

rods

for

this

Other Possible Problems.

As

117

purpose

can

be

bought.

employed

in practically the

stencilling

same place and upon

the same materials as block printing,


necessary to refer to the

can be

lists

it

is

only

given at the end of

that section of this chapter for suggestions as to

way

further possibilities in the

by

of

home

decoration

stencilling.

EMBROIDERY
Problem: Table Mat.
lems, the

first

As in the preceding prob-

thing to do

to plan the design roughly

is

dark and

in charcoal or soft pencil in order to get the


light relations
If

and the best proportions

convenient, the

some

special

mat should be made

lamp or

of this object it

is

vase.

or square in shape.

may

to keep

alone

for use with

By measuring
may be

The forms

either circular

in the decorated

be made of various shapes, but

them very simple

may

in outline.

it is

well

Straight lines

be employed, as in the mats illustrated

in Plate V, or a combination of straight


lines, as in

the base

easy to determine the size of the

plain central space, which

part

possible.

the one

shown

and curved

in Plate III. After

working

out the design very accurately with a hard pencil,


the next thing in order

is

to transfer

it

to a piece of

HOME DECORATION

118

coarse Russian crash or heavy Hnen

by means

of

carbon paper, taking great care to get the straight


edges of the design even with the threads of the
crash.

Desirable Combinations of Colour and Stitches.

The

simple running or darning stitch should be employed

Two

more colours
may be used. Darning in dull green and outlining
with black in the same stitch makes a very attracin embroidering the pattern.

or

Other good combinations are green and

tive mat.

white, blue and white, blue and green, soft dull

the pleasing contrasts that

hausts

The

This by no means ex-

and pinkish orange.

blue,

may

be found.

brighter colour should always be employed in

The mat

the smaller quantities.

Plate

was embroidered

it

in

green and red

After the darning was com-

mercerized cotton.
pleted

dull

in

illustrated

was found that the red used

in the small

was too conspicuous, although it was


This defect was completely
in tone.

circles alone

very dull

remedied and a perfect unity given to the design

by

the

outlining

using

both

colours.

a green thread

and taking a
intervals.

forms

along
stitch

This
the
of

in

couching

stitch,

was done by laying


edge

red

each

of

over

it

at

spot

equal

"T'

.-c^'

YORK

PUBLIC LIBRARY

DECORATIVE FABRICS
After the embroidered pattern

the

finish

mat with

fine, close

119

done one

is

may

hemstitching or by

button-hohng the edge with ravellings of the crash.

The

latter

method

usually

is

more

pleasing.

simple darning stitch can also be used

borders

very attractive

decorations

pillows,

for

table

to

runners,

work bags, as

for

ted in Plate V, besides being

used

The
make
sofa

illustra-

enrich

to

great variety of block printed or stencilled articles.

The Satin

Stitch.

Another

effective

and easy

embroidery stitch to be used in decorating articles

home

for the

When
in

is

the over-and-over or satin stitch.

planning to use this stitch upon coarse linen

which the threads can be easily counted, transfer

the design, after having carefully drawn


to paper

outline,

marked

off

into

it

in pencil

little

squares.

This can be bought where kindergarten supplies


are sold.

Redraw the

outline of the design, fol-

lowing exactly the

lines

same time keep as

close as possible to the original

on the paper, and at the

Let a certain number of threads of linen

form.

represent a square of the design and copy the pattern in the satin stitch or even the cross stitch
preferred.

cloth

is

No

if

transferring of the pattern to the

necessary.

pattern worked out on cross section paper in

HOME DECORATION

120

this

way can

also be crocheted, as illustrated

Plate V, and set into linen

or some

imitations to decorate numberless articles

or personal

adornment.

This crocheted work,

evenly done in fine thread,


the Italian

filet lace.

is

in

many
for home

of its

if

quite suggestive of

VI
DRESS AND THE PRINCIPLES OF DECORATION
maiden had a foolish little bonnet
and a ribbon and a bit of lace upon it;
And that the other maidens of the little town might know it.
She thought she'd go to meeting of a Sunday just to show it.

"A

foolish little

With a

feather

sang the choir above her head.


knew you!' were the words she

'Elallelujah! hallelujah!'

'Hardly knew you! hardly

thought they said."

IN

considering the dress of the person as related


to

home

decoration one

may seem

as one

is

to be at

not so far afield

first

thought.

It is

true that dress has a variety of functions to perform

that have no connection with the subject of decoration;

and yet there

is

much

that

is

common

to both.

Well-dressed people of whatever age or sex, in the


design and general make-up of their costumes, must

observe the same laws that govern design wherever


is

it

applied, as an expression of the artistic sense in

the affairs of every-day


proportion,

harmony

life.

Beauty

of line

and

of colour, adaptation to use

and to a great variety of special conditions, simplicity, symmetry, restraint, are all involved in
121

HOME DECORATION

122

personal attire, as they are in the decoration of a

room; and
field

has

most eases success or

in

its

failure in

counterpart in the other.

not often remarked of a house or of


it

one

Have we
a room that

looks "just like her" or perhaps "just like him";

and do not attractive costumes give pleasure to


others than those who wear them for the same
reasons that properly decorated and well-arranged

rooms afford similar enjoyment to those who


in them?
Art a7id the Fashions.

between art
of

home

in

questions; for

In discussing the parallel

clothing and the

more

stable art

must be admitted, of course,


dress introduces some embarrassing
the styles, especially for women, suffer

decoration

that style in

live

it

wonderful changes with every season.

And

yet

people of artistic feeling and good taste, succeed


in maintaining a fair degree of

harmony between

the changing demands of fashion and the established


principles of art as applied in dress.

How to Be Well Dressed. The

well-dressed

woman

knows how to select her clothes and how to wear


them. She must study her own figure and know
her defects as well as her good points. With this
knowledge she can learn to subdue the one and bring
out the other.

She should have a clear conception

DRESS AND PRINCIPLES OF DECORATION


of the ideal figure

To

and

strive to

123

adapt herself to

it.

acquire this training the principles of the art

must be understood and applied.


She should never wear a garment of a certain style
of

decoration

simply because
it

it is

the fashion, but strive to

make

conform to her individual type.

Decorative

must
follow the construction lines of the figure and not
destroy them. These are the much discussed good
Good Lines.

lines of

design

in

dress

which we hear and read so much.

zontal lines break the figure

Hori-

and increase the breadth,

while vertical lines give the appearance of height.


It

is

the simple

lines,

conforming to and following

The

the lines of the ideal figure, which are the best.


taste of
clothes;

many
stout

most women leads them to desire simple


through ignorance

but

of these

woman

wearing a

women

fail

with lapels or

In
essential

Unity and Harmony.

to be

is

i. e.,

sometimes seen

ruffles

over the

forms of decoration

all

all

the parts that are

combined must agree with one another and

with their surroundings.


is

is

This only serves to accentuate her defect.

shoulders.

harmony

inexperience

to achieve that aim.

with a round back

dress

or

To

secure this in dress

to give unity to the entire costume.

dress

hat with plumes should not be worn with a tailored

HOME DECORATION

124

morning; and yet we often see such a

suit in the

combination.

Here the lack

of

harmony

is

between

the parts of the costume; but the entire costume

must be suited
are

women who

never look well in the straight lines

of a tailored suit: the severity

them.

by

There

to the pecuharities of figure.

They must tone down the

well in fluffy things.

effects of the lines

some such
dress.
Others do not look
Each must know what is

ruchings, ruffles, a

softening elements of

not becoming to

is

soft stock,

or

becoming and dress accordingly.


Importance of Colours.

Every season we hear that

certain colours are to be worn.

choose a colour because they like


ing whether

it is

suitable for

Many women
it

them

without considerto wear.

attention to a few well-known facts


to avoid failures of this kind.

It

will

is

will

A little

help

them

generally rec-

ognized that light colours seem to increase the

size.

Striped materials should not be worn by the stout

women

unless the stripes are very indistinct.

Dots

may

choose

are also very dangerous for her; but she

a pattern with pin-point dots scattered over the


surface at

some distance from each

other.

She

is

always safe in a plain, dark colour.


Colour and Complexion.
ing colour one

must take

In deciding on a becominto account the colour of

DRESS AND PRINCIPLES OF DECORATION

125

the hair and eyes and the tone of the complexion.

been thought that young

It has

light shades

girls

can wear

clear,

and that older women should keep to

dark, quiet colours; yet there are older

women who

wear pale gray, mauve, and lavender charmingly


and many young girls who cannot wear blue or
pink.
rules,

It

quite impossible to

is

because

it

make accurate colour

would be hard to find two complex-

ions that require exactly the


It

well,

is

same colour

setting.

however, to study combinations of

dif-

ferent colours with the idea of finding the right


colour, to use in

any costume, the amount

of each,

and

arrangement

proper

the

best

balance.
Proportion.

The

give

to

importance

of the

of proportion is often overlooked,

dress

is

never

well-dressed

possible

woman,

it

if

be

selecting

in

principle

but beauty of
neglected.

her hat,

must

have given consideration to the relation of the

and shape of the head to the


Strictly speaking, a hat

and
it,

it

is

A
size

lines of the entire figure.

a covering for the head,

should seem to belong to the head, to protect

and, through

harmony

of colour

and proportion

and mass, to improve the appearance of the


whole costume. The artist, when drawing a figure,
uses the head as the unit of measure. Therefore
of line

HOME DECORATION

126

hat one should select a style that

in choosing a
in

good proportion to the

height of the figure.

size of the

the entire figure

is

head

of the

by too

large

a hat,

One

often wonders

of people with hats

on look so

old-fashioned and sometimes so ridiculous.

because the hat

is

not in good proportion.

Gainsborough and Reynolds


look queer.

is

apparently shortened and the

natural proportions destroyed.

why photographs

head and to the

mass

If the

increased disproportionately

is

It

is

The

ladies with hats never

Their hats bear the right relation to

the head and the figure.


Appropriateness.

The

general proportions of a

may be good, but the


may destroy all the good

hat or a gown

addition of the

decoration

effect

obtained

by securing the right relation of line and mass. The


aim of all decoration should be to harmonize and
strengthen the whole. Beauty of dress, therefore,
depends upon simplicity and appropriateness of
the material used as well as upon the form and
arrangement of the material. Wherever ornament
is used it must fulfil the condition of fitness to place;
otherwise

it is

a hat, the one

not really decorative.

who

is

to wear

it

In trimming

should take her seat

before a mirror, and place the hat comfortably upon

her head; then with the aid of a hand glass she

DRESS AND PRINCIPLES OF DECORATION

127

should try the trimming in different positions until


the best effect

The

is

designs in trimming should be appropriate

The

to the garment.
of

size of the design

and the kind

form used should be considered. Simple forms are

the best for


is

obtained.

all

decorative art work.

In fact, there

great advantage in plain materials.

work to greater economy than


Influence of Occupation.

how

should realize

great

They always

stripes or plaids.

The well-dressed woman

is

the influence of occasion

Some gowns were intended only


for afternoon wear in the house; but we often see
them worn on the street cars or for shopping. I
and occupation.

have always approved

of the rule in

many

shops

which requires the clerks to wear plain black gowns.

Formerly

it

was the old

every-day wear.

Now

finery

the

which was used

for

woman

to

business

be successful has to exercise more thought upon her


clothes than the

woman

at home.

Her clothes have

harder wear and must be appropriate for her work.

The

dress of school-girls

be overlooked.

and above

all

It should
else it

and children must not


be as simple as possible

should be comfortable.

It

should never bind or pinch; indeed, the clothing


should not interfere with any function of the body.

But we often

see children dressed with

much

lace>

HOME DECORATION

128

with

many

we have
plumed

seen

hats,

infraction
in dress!

ruffles,

is

and even with jewellery; and

school girls wearing net waists,

and high-heeled

shoes.

What an

this of the principle of appropriateness

VII
FURNITURE MAKING
It is only

by labour that thought can be made healthy, and only by thought


John Ruskin
made happy

that labour can be

THE

chief purpose of this chapter

is

to out-

most important general facts upon


which good furniture making is based and
to give specific directions for working out a number
of typical problems, following designs which have
line the

been proved

most

part,

attempt

is

in

completed

by school-boys and tested by

made

many problems

for the

use.

No

to give this great subject complete

and systematic treatment;


responding

made,

articles

for this

would involve

in constructive design

number

of

working

specifications for the selection

materials and for the

work

subject so extensive that

it

cor-

with

drawings,

and preparation of
of

construction

would

the limits of a single chapter.

and a

easily overrun

The aim

is

rather

to select a few of the most suggestive lessons of

experience in constructive work with special refer-

ence to our main subject of household decoration.


129

HOME DECORATION

130

It is

taken for granted that the interested reader

familiar with the use of the


for

common hand

woodworking or that he can, with some

ance, perhaps,

easily

command

their

is

tools
assist-

It is

use.

not thought necessary, therefore, to describe in


detail the proper

to

offer

method

practical

of using tools, but rather

on

suggestions

the

selection,

preparation and constructive use of woodworking


materials

and,

follow, to give

in

some

the

series

of

problems which

helpful hints on the

working tools should be used.

It

is

way wood-

also

assumed

that in most cases the very great advantage of

woodworking machinery may be


in

preparing

the

materials

utilized, especially

and

bringing

within easy reach of the hand-tool processes.

them
The

true art-craft spirit, which always honours hand-

work as the supreme method, may not

command

hesitate to

the services of machines so long as

it

does not become slavishly dependent upon them.

SELECTION AND PREPARATION OF STOCK

The

first

thing that should claim the attention

woodworker is the

of the artistic

aration of his materials,


stock.

greatest

The

and prep-

commonly known

as

the

sculptor selects his marbles with the

care.

sure that his

selection

So should the cabinetmaker make

woods are taken from the

right parts

FURNITURE MAKING

and that they are properly

timber

selected

of

The importance of this


Hard wood boards, cut

sawed and well seasoned.


cannot be overestimated.

from the

sides

of

131

tree, will in drying,

bly curve across their grain.

It

is

invaria-

only those that

are cut from the centre to the outside of the tree

that

may be depended upon to remain approximately

true; for, after this cutting, the grain runs directly

through the thickness of the board, or nearly

Boards taken from timber

in this

way

so.

are said to

be "quarter sawed"; those cut by sawing through


the logs from side to side, as
soft

is

always done with

woods and often with hard woods, are


This

be "plain sawed."

is

said to

illustrated in the ac-

companying drawings.
Quartered Oak.

In

the case

of oak, the quarter sawing not

only maintains a

flat

surface

but greatly improves the

ap-

pearance of the stock when

fin-

ished.
quartered

may

The

popularity

oak

therefore

for

be said to be

well founded, for


is

as

good as

it

of

furniture

it is

Quarter sawed log

the sincerest of woods.

It

looks.

Quarter sawing, however,

is

very largely confined

HOME DECORATION

132

to oak because the appearance of the grain

the strength of most woods

is

far

and

from being im1

End

proved by

of quarter

method

this

sawed board

of cutting.

Thus ash and

gum wood and


in furniture

therefore,

all the softer woods sometimes used


making are plain sawed. We shall,

generally find stock from these

curved

and

that

will

it

selecting

woods

twisted badly so

be

necessary,

material

for

in

large

surfaces such as table tops, to

pick out the straight parts for

Plain sawed log

the

remainder to be cut into

the

smaller

ways be needed.
without

much

and

save

these surfaces

pieces

which

These pieces can be

will

al-

easily planed

loss of thickness.

Kiln-dried Lumber.

End

This
of plain

bending and twisting

sawed board

of the boards does not take place as soon as they

are sawed out of the log, but gradually during the


process

of

seasoning;

and,

unless the

lumber

is

FURNITURE MAKING
kiln-dried, the

the bending.

with

more gradual the seasoning the less


Lumber is kiln-dried by stacking it,

spaces

air

left

heated closets or
is

between the boards,

kilns,

lumber, therefore, retains

which

But whether

is

in

steam-

where the process of drying

evenly though rapidly.

carried on

as that

133

Kiln-dried

shape quite as well

its

dried slowly in the lumber

kiln-dried or not,

it

pile.

should be allowed

to remain in a dry place as long as possible before

using

that

it
it

so that

likely to

is

shrinking

it will

and

have a chance to change

and so

warping.

never undertakes to

make

all

lessen the subsequent

good

cabinet-maker

furniture from stock that

he does not know to be perfectly dry and well


seasoned, not only because unseasoned lumber

more

and crack, but also


cannot be depended upon to hold the

likely to

because

it

is

shrink, warp,

glue, take varnish well, or respond readily to other

methods of
Planing

finishing.

Down

to

are seldom perfectly

a Flat Surface.
flat,

even

if

Since

boards

one has taken the

greatest pains to select well-seasoned stock,

it will

almost invariably be necessary to work them down


to a plane surface

when they

together in any way.


it is

To

are glued

up

or joined

accomplish this result

necessary to plan the arrangement of the pieces

HOME DECORATION

184

in such a
fall

way

that the concave of the bend shall

on the same

side, as

and thus provide

shown

for the final

in the illustration,

working down with

Boards placed for planing to

flat

surfaces

the least possible removal of stock.

They can be

arranged on a level bench top or floor with the

convex side down so that they


possible.

The boards

will lie

as flat as

should then be taken out

one by one and their edges should be carefully planed


so that they will

which they are

match together
It will

laid.

each board from

its

be necessary to take

place and return

times in order that this matching


perfect as possible.

in the position in

The

object of

may

it

be made as

all this is

vent the entire arrangement from springing

from acquiring
parts are glued

any new bend

several

or twist

to pre-

i.

In joining boards to form

up.

large pieces of glued-up work, like table tops,


is

may

it

by means
Small table tops and similar work

customary to strengthen the

of dowel pins.

e.,

when the

joints

be safely glued up without dowelling.

Fastenirig

Glued-up

understood upon a

Work.

little

It

will

be

readily

reflection that all plain

glued-up work should be allowed to

move

slightly

FURNITURE MAKING
upon the framework to which it
even after it is well seasoned and
woods

will

slightly

swell

and shrink

slightly

movement

being

therefore,

tops,

when the
across

in

is

135

attached; for

well finished all

damp atmosphere

air is dry,

the

Solid

table

fastened

down

grain.

should never be

the greatest

upon the framework with glue or with screws,


but should be secured by means of buttons screwed
firmly

to the under side of the top

which travel

in grooves

cut in the framework and thus allow for expansion

>^^^^^i:mm,

Method

and contraction.
the

method

Much

of the

due to the

of

of fastening table tops

drawing

is

shown to

illustrate

attaching the table-top buttons.

warping and splitting of furniture

failure of the designer or

serve this precaution.

is

maker to ob-


HOME DECORATION

136

In planing up stock, whether

it

be a single piece

or several glued together as just described,

cabinet-maker planes

off

one side

first

the

and then,

using this side as the working face, gauges to the


required thickness and planes
necessary.
it is

If

off

the other side

the work be upon glued-up stock,

well to plane off the projecting edges of the

concave sides
easier

If

it

as that

first,

and may be

essary.

is

generally

somewhat

the planing that will be nec-

all

be single pieces of stock that need

to be planed up, the natural twist or


first

if

planed out to a

flat

"wind"

is

working face on one side

before putting the plane to the opposite side.


TJie

Surface Plate.

Planing to

flat surface re-

some device to guide the eye. If the surface


be very uneven at first, a beginning may be made
quires

in

the planing without

much

point will finally be reached

assistance;

when

but a

neither the un-

aided eye nor the hand can determine whether or

To

determine this a surface

not a surface

is flat.

plate, as it

called, is needed.

block

of

is

cast-iron,

from being bent


a somewhat

i.

This consists of a

thick enough
e.,

to

an inch or more

rough but perfectly

one

side.

This surface

the

wood

surface which

is

flat

prevent

and with
surface on

well chalked over.


is

it

being planed

When
down

is

FURNITURE MAKING
upon

laid
it is

this chalked surface

and

137

moved
on the wood

slightly

readily seen that the highest places

become marked with the chalk and so indicate


to the cabinet-maker what parts are to be removed.
By making several tests of this kind he is able to
will

plane to a good

Winding

flat surface.

Sticks.

not provided

amateur's workshop

If the

of testing for a flat surface

is

by means

narrow straight edges or **winding"

them on
piece,

their

as

shown

in

in the surfaces of the

way and planed

The

slight

sticks are simply

may

be

placing

board can be determined in


off

wooden

faces

projections

sticks

until the

of the sticks are found to be level.

opposite

two

the illustration, and sighting

Winding

with

sticks,

of

narrow edges across each end of the

across their upper edges.

this

is

with a surface plate, a simple means

strips,

parallel.

x 2J^ x 30 inches.

two top edges


These winding

accurately made,

Their

dimensions


HOME DECORATION

138

Importance of True Surfaces.

add that
surfaces

all this
is

It may

be well to

care to produce flat and parallel

not merely for the purpose of giving a

good appearance to these surfaces.


are necessary for the good of the

True surfaces

work

as a whole,

form the basis from which other surfaces


are gauged and other parts *' trued up"
i. e.,

for they

made square

When

or

otherwise geometrically

the main surfaces of a piece of cabinet work

are properly shaped,

may

parts

correct.

the framework and other

all

be brought into

or twisting.

line

without bending

All such strains should be religiously

avoided in good cabinet work.

The

natural curves,

twists, or projections of the stock used should

removed by the use


be

strained

proper

their

to

places

produce strains which


parts,

or

displacing

and never

of the proper tools

any

force

or

are

them,

of

shapes.

the

parts

Such

transmitted
causing

be

new

into

efforts

to

other
defects

a general failure of the parts to support each

other.

Systematic Plan of Work.

maker undertakes to make

When the cabinet-

either a single piece of

furniture or several pieces, he goes about

systematic way.

it

in a very

Consulting his working drawing

he makes an accurate

list

of the different pieces

FURNITURE MAKING
For example,

that will be required.

139

if

he

is

make

to

a Morris chair he notes the fact that he will need


four legs or posts 2>^ inches square by ^^%

inches long, a front rail and a back rail each

2 34 X 22 inches, two side rails J^ x 234 x 24


inches, and so on until the list of necessary parts is

With

completed.

this list in

hand he makes a

care-

lumber and prepares the pieces

ful selection of the

in the rough, allowing economically for the necessary

Economy

working waste.

of time

secured by keeping together


lar

work

is

all

Thus,

to be done.

and labour

is

also

parts on which simi-

if

several parts are to

be sawed to the same width or fashioned to the same


curves,

it is

generally the best plan to

work these

parts out together while the machines and tools

Such a plan not only

are set for this purpose.

saves time but, partially at least,

danger of mistakes.

It

should

dressed

are

latter

operations

pleted before

As

to

the

be

obviates the

important also to follow

is

All sawing to rough

a systematic order of work.

dimensions

it

done

generally

all

progresses

time

and

toward

joints.

completion

much comfort

great

saving

result

from keeping the completed parts

of

the

be com-

laying out and cutting the

work

pieces

and

dimensions,

drawing
should

the

before

in

will

good

HOME DECORATION

140

condition and so arranged that they can be easily

assembled.

GLUING
Necessity

Good

of

and preparation

Joints.

After

the

selection

of the material for the stock, the

next important general process that demands attention

is

gluing;

for

good cabinet work implies

good glue and a knowledge of how to use it. Prepared glue, such as is sold in bottles, is unsatisfactory
for

work

of

any consequence.

good woodworker

always has his own glue pot and sees to

may

glue should be fresh, thin, and hot.


applied quickly in a

which
glue

it

that

be made ready for use on short notice.

it is

chills.

warm room and

it

The

It should

be

the parts to

applied clamped up quickly before the


It

is

the glue which penetrates the

wood

that holds the parts together and not a layer of


glue

between the joined edges or surfaces.

therefore evident not only that joints

It

is

and surfaces

should be well smeared with glue, hot and thin

enough to be quickly absorbed, but also that the


parts should be clamped up quickly while the glue is
still

hot so as to prevent any surplus from remaining

in the joint.

This

ing close

in all joints

fits

is

an additional reason for mak-

in

those which are to

be glued up as well as in those which are not.

It

FURNITURE MAKING
is

common

loose mortise

glue to

found

fill

and tenon

up the

in the

reason.

fault of beginners to
joints,

spaces.

markets

falls

141

be

satisfied

with

counting upon the

Much

of the furniture

to pieces for the

Such work should never be allowed to

same
pass.

based upon an entirely mistaken notion of


the true office of glue and is nothing more nor less

It

is

than a falsehood in wood.


Systematic Methods Required.

As

in the prepara-

and working it up, so in gluing, system


The hand screws or clamps should
is all important.
be made ready and adjusted to the required width
tion of stock

so that they

may be

soon as the glue

must be managed

Method

is

quickly placed in position as


applied.

The whole

process

as quickly as possible because

of holding framing parts square while glue is setting

the joints must be tested before the glue has had

time to

set.

carpenter's large square should be

used for testing the right angles, since

it is

more

re-

HOME DECORATION

142

than the small try squares. It

liable

will

frequently be

found necessary to hold framing pieces square while


the glue

is

This can easily be done by

hardening.

nailing small strips of waste stock across the parts,

as

shown

in the drawing.

beginner should be cau-

tioned not to attempt to glue

Two

one time.

up too many

should be glued up separately and


the attempt
together.

made

is

joints at

opposite corners of a framing piece


to set before

whole rectangle

to glue the

The two remaining

left

joints,

however, should

be glued and clamped together at the same time.

PICTURE FRAMING
Inexpensive Framing Stock.

Picture-frame

can be easily obtained of dealers in

and

stock

artists' supplies

in furniture stores in a great variety of styles.

Much
that

of

it

it is

so well prepared

leaves

little

and so nicely finished

to be desired.

It

is,

therefore,

often best to secure the stock for frames in this way.


It

is,

however, somewhat expensive, so that, when

economy

is

important,

it

behooves the young wood-

worker to prepare his own framing stock.

Very satisfactory frames 2 inches in width or


less may be made from matched oak flooring, a
section of which

is

here illustrated, by planing

the tongue and cutting

away one

off

side of the groove

FURNITURE MAKING
to furnish the inset for the glass.
of

any thickness can,

inset

is

stock.

desirable

Wider

flat

of course, be cut out

Picture framing stock

ordinary

143

made from oak

special

tool

from the

flooring

cutting

for

but not necessary.

saw cut may be made with a

frames

circular

the

J^-inch

saw or even

with a hand saw and the necessary removal of the

wood accomplished by means of careful chiselling.


Mitres.
Frames may be joined at the corners
in various ways.
A common way is by the mitre

joint illustrated in the drawing.

The mitre

joints of this kind

it

is

To

secure good

joint

necessary that the mitres

be cut on an angle of exactly 45 degrees and that

HOME DECORATION

144

the pieces for the corresponding sides of the frame

Hand sawing

be precisely of the same length.

is

generally not exact enough to produce angles of


sufficient

box

is

Hand-sawed

used.

require a
care

accuracy even when an ordinary mitre

little

enough to

therefore,

truing with a small plane.

must be exercised

together.

mitres,

will

Great

also in fitting the corners

The common bench square is not large


prove the work. A better way is to lay

a carpenter's framing square on the bench and

fit

the two pieces of the frame against the sides of the


square, testing each corner in that way.

Gluing the Joints.

If the corners are

made by

well fitted, a good joint can be

unusually
first sizing

the ends with glue and then firmly pressing the pieces
together upon a true surface, leaving

them undis-

turbed for four or five hours until the glue

By

sizing the ends of the joints

filling

pores

is

however,

it

another
is

block.

necessary to

clamping device.

Generally

make

If a special

hard.

meant thoroughly

the end pores with glue, rubbing

with

is

it

into the

speaking,

use of a mitre-

clamping device

is

not available, one can be easily made by gluing small

wood blocks to the parts of the frame near the


corners, as shown in the accompanying drawing.
In a half hour or so these blocks will become firmly
soft

FURNITURE MAKING
set so that the mitre joints

may

145

be glued together,

clamping them up with a hand screw.

V^
Clamping mitre

As already

\
joints

explained under the general directions on gluing,


it

is

good practice for a beginner to glue up op-

posite corners

and not attempt to glue up the two

remaining corners until the

When

the

be nailed;

first

two are well

set.

two corners are well set they should


and before the two remaining corners

first

HOME DECORATION

146

are glued
if

it is

well to try the parts together to see

they do not

gluing.

These

require a

have

joints also should

after the glue has

should be

correcting before

little

been

light nailing

In nailing, small holes

set.

made with a brad awl

or drill in order to

avoid splitting the comers, and long finishing nails


should be used.

The Defect of Shrinking.


With proper tools the
mitre joint is the easiest one to make, but it has
one unavoidable defect, especially in wide frames.
It is very difiicult to get stock well seasoned

almost impossible to get

it

and

perfectly seasoned, so

must be

that wide frames, however

well finished,

expected to shrink a

after they are joined

together.

As most

width of the stock

little

of this shrinking
it

evident that

is

is
it

across the
will

tend

to open the mitre joints on the inside of the corners.

what happens almost invariably with joints


made in this way from wide stock in picture framThe same defect is also frequently observed
ing.
in the interior finishing around windows and doors.

This

is

There are three other methods


ners of picture frames

viz.,

of joining the cor-

the halved lap joint,

the mortise and tenon joint, and the dowelled joint.

drawing

of

comer

is

shown to

joints,

and

illustrate these three kinds

it is

hardly necessary to say

FURNITURE MAKING
that no one of

them

is

147

open to the same objection

that attaches to the mitre joint. All these joints


require accurate cutting and rather more of it

than the

mitre

requires,

but

more

joint

they

easily glued up.

halved lap joint

is

are

The
easily

clamped up with a

common

hand

when the

frame

screw, even
is

a very large one.

Halved lap joint

But the other two require long clamps


pull the joints up well.
Character of the Frame.

in order to

^The kind of joint required

Mortise and tenon Joint

depends upon the general character of the frame


whether it is to be heavy or hght, wide or narrow,

and whether made

of picture

frame moulding or of

the plain framing stock with round or

and the character of the frame

is

flat

face;

a matter

of

HOME DECORATION

148

design,

determined by the kind of picture, by

setting,

and by other considerations discussed in


Chapter III. How the plan for
the

construction of

for

any given picture

frame

the
is

its

influenced

by such considerations may be


seen

example

the

in

which

follows

MAKING A FRAME FOR A LARGE


PHOTOGRAPHIC REPRODUCTION
This photograph

/ y

60 inches

is

long by 16 inches wide.

C^J/

copy

Doweiied joint

Education

painting

Athenian

of

which hangs

in

brown tones of a
by Otto Kneille
Youth,

the

original

represents a spacious hall or court

It

three of the
sive

seat

another old

him and

to

around.

which

man

The
of

in Berlin.

showing

marble columns and a mas-

large

in

is

classic

Royal Gymnasium

in the

It

an old

is

man

expounding

reclines

while

some

doctrine

men

gathered

to a group of younger

In the centre of the scene a boy

lies

upon the pavement reading a manuscript.


Near him several youths under the direction of

flat

master, are

contending

The composition

is

in

feats

of strength.

one that suggests weight and

FURNITURE MAKING
power.

It

may

appropriately hang in the hall or

in the library over a wide,

149

low bookcase.

mat and must

picture of this character needs no

The

have a wide, heavy frame.

stock chosen was

oak, 4 inches wide, 13/^ inches thick, and flat faced.

The

size

glass,

and weight

demand

consideration.

of such a frame, including the

firmness of construction as the

The

stock

is

first

too wide for success-

mitring because shrinking would naturally open

ful

and weaken such

It

joints.

was therefore framed

together with mortise and tenon joints, well glued.

dowelled joint might have sufficed, but

not have the same strength.

The

it

would

mortises were

cut in the vertical ends and the tenons were

on the long horizontal


ity with the usual

for

example,

pieces.

method

left

This was in conform-

framework

of joining

door frames, window frames, panel

frames, and other interior woodwork; for the greatest

possible

length

is

invariably

given

to

the

vertical parts.

The frame was given a dark brown

finish, repeat-

ing the darkest tones of the picture.

Long screw

eyes were fastened to the back 2 inches from the top,


so that the picture might

the wall.

hang nearly

flat

against

strong braided wire about 75 inches

long was run through the eyes and securely looped

HOME DECORATION

150

at each end, so that a Httle

more than an inch

wire on each side passed through the eyes.

of

Since

the picture was to have a prominent place on a


certain

wall,

for the

two

two widths

nails

66 inches apart allowing

of the

frame as well as for the

length of the picture were driven into this wall,

and the heavy photograph was

easily

hung and

balanced without exposing the wire to view.

TO MAKE A KNOCK-DOWN BOOKCASE

The Design.

The problem of design was to plan


a simple, inexpensive

bookcase which could


be

easily

transported

and set up in a student's


room and which would

hold

approximately

two

hundred

books.

The

drawings

show

how these requirements


were met in the design.

When

in use it

together

knock-down bookcase

bottom. The necessary

by

is

held

keyed

shclvCS at the top and


stiffness is

given to

it

by

the base pieces which are fastened both to the sides

FURNITURE MAKING

151

and to the bottom shelf by screws. Additional


stiffness is given by drawing up the three middle

by means of screws. Upon


removing the screws and the keys the bookcase is
easily taken apart so that it may be crated in comshelves to the sides

pact form for transportation.


it

Its contour
plicity

ings

equally easy

is

up again. It has no back and may therestand away from the wall as well as against it.

to set
fore

It

plain,

is

which

will

with few curves, giving a sim-

harmonize with modest surround-

and yet not bar it from keeping company with

more pretentious

The

furnishings.

original of this design

was actually made up

in

white wood, stained and finished to harmonize with


black walnut furniture but
;

ash, cherry, or

furniture.

any

of the

may be made up in oak,


common woods used for
it

For one bookcase the stock required

is

as follows, the sizes allowing for finishing to the

dimensions as given in the drawing:

two pieces J^ inch x

lO^^^ inches

x 4 feet

for the short shelves, three pieces

inches x 3 feet

inch; for the

For the ends,

%}/2 inches;

inch x lOj^

long shelves, two

pieces, J^ inch x 103^ inches x 3 feet 5 inches; for

the base pieces, two pieces

x 6J^ inches x 3
feet; for the keys, one piece J^ inch x J^ inch x 1 foot.
In addition to this there should be two dozen No. 10
J/g

iiich

HOME DECORATION

152

round-headed blued screws, and


13^ inch No. 10

The

tools

flat

one half

dozen

headed blued screws.

needed are as follows: Rip saw, cross

cut saw, back saw, compass, jack-plane, smoothing


plane, block plane,

spokeshave,

try square,

steel

hammer, mallet, screw-driver,


5^, 3^, and %6 inch bits and bitstock, Y2 and J^
inch chisels, gauges, and sand-paper.
square,

rule,

knife,

ra

lO*.

.S&i-

J
s

'^

^^

^m
t:

k
--3u

V'i'

Details and dimensions for a knock-down bookcase

Construction.

All

the stock should be jointed,

planed to width, and smoothed with sand-paper.

The two end

pieces should be squared to length,

the top comers rounded, and the curve at the

bottom cut as shown

in the drawing.

Care should

FURNITURE MAKING
be

exercised

sand-papering not to round the

in

The correct spacing for


then be marked off on the end

edges.

To do this

the shelves should


pieces

and squared

have both ends spaced

across, care being taken to


alike.

153

plane the ends together, with their

edges flush; and, beginning at the bottom, measure


off

each of the spaces with correct allowance for the

thickness of the shelf and

mark

these spaces across

Then, separate the end pieces and with

the edge.

the marks on the edges as a guide, square across

each of the end pieces on the inside

and mark with a

knife.

In allowing

for the thickness of the shelves it

be

should

remembered

though

stock,

originally

that

oi

the

an

inch in thickness, has been planed

and

sand-papered,

some

of

the

shelves perhaps having been finished

down more than


therefore

others.

It

Method

will

of gaining-ia

the shelves

be necessary to measure and allow for

the thickness of each shelf separately.

The

three middle shelves are "gained" in

set into

grooves in the upright ends

inch deep, as shown in the sketch.

craftsmanship
the

full

if

J^

It will

i. e.,

of

an

be better

the grooves are not carried across

width of the end pieces but stopped, say,

HOME DECORATION

154

one inch from the


to

shown

as

fit,

done, the grooves

with a
the

edge, the

should be

saw
To insure a good fit
back
not

exercised

so

cut

width of the end, they

Chisel

drawing.

If the grooves

chisel.

full

with

the

in

cut

to

they

If

out

cut

be

this

carefully

be carried across

may

then

be cut down

chiselled

out.

in either case care should

bottom

the

that

and

being

shelves

outside

of

the

the

knife

grooves

be

lines.

carefully

be uniformly 34 of an inch

will

deep.

The next

step

and bottom
should
gauge.

first

is

to cut the mortises for the top

The dimensions

shelves.

be

laid off

these

on the stock by means

They should then be bored

marks and

for

of a

well inside the

carefully chiselled out. Before this chisel-

ling is done, however, knife lines should

be marked

on the outside of the end pieces exactly opposite the


gauge lines. In mortising, as in cutting the grooves,
the greatest care will need to be exercised that the
chisel

does not cut outside the knife

working for a close


of

removing too

err at

more

all,

since

fit it is

little
it is

in the final

In

better to err on the side

stock at

first,

quite easy to

fitting.

lines.

It

to replace stock once removed.

is

if

one must

remove a

little

quite impossible

FURNITURE MAKING

155

In measuring for the length of the shelves

it

should

not be overlooked that the top and bottom shelves


are to carry the tenons to be keyed through the end

These tenons should be cut out accurately

pieces.

with a rip saw, and the stock between them removed

with a chisel after a deep knife line has been made.


After fitting these tenons to the mortises and
ishing them, the mortises for the keys
cut, using a small chisel.

be over-

It should not

cut on an angle, as illustrated.

The

three middle

shelves are

i'

then cut to length, the ends

squared by means of a block

and corners cut out to fit

plane,

the grooves.

The
to

should be

that the outside face of each key mortise

looked
is

fin-

parts

be

porarily
pieces

put

are

tem-

together

It will

and back
all

Details of the keya

in order to

fit

add a pleasing

back these base pieces


After

t3

in the base

perfectly than could be done

measurement.

front

now ready

and squared up

more

Vidb(-4-

of

by mere

detail to set

an inch from the

faces.

the parts are carefully fitted they should

be assembled and the key and screw fastenings


inserted.

When

this is

accomplished the bookcase

HOME DECORATION

156
is

As

ready for finishing.

of furniture

making

it

is

this is a distinct part

reserved

for

treatment

in a later chapter.

A HANGING BOOK RACK


The Design.

It

is

designed to plan a light but

strong book rack, to be fastened to the wall of a


/<^

chamber.

Since

hanging book rack

it is

intended to occupy the space

that might be given to pictures

it

is

properly as

simple in construction as a picture frame, depending

upon good proportions and symmetry to give a


pleasing effect.

which

is

The

straight lines of the design,

illustrated

above,

meet

these

re-

FURNITURE MAKING
quirements and
ral

and

form

may be

157

harmonize with

also

outline

the

gene-

of

books.

Both shelves

if

desired,

but the design

used for books,

permits them to be confined to the lower shelf,


reserving the upper one as a suitable place for a

some other choice bit of


The mortise and tenon joints give

bit of pottery or two, or

bric-a-brac.

the essential stiffness and strength without requiring

the use of heavy stock.


Materials and
ness

is

an

Tools.

Since strength with

essential feature to realize in the

light-

working

out of this design, soft woods should be avoided.

Ash

is

probably the strongest of the light woods in

common

Oak

use.

comparatively light

is

wood

is

closer

grained.

to be used in a

chamber

strong.

excepting

that

wood trim

stronger but heavy and

Gum

and very

is

much

White wood

hard to work.

book rack

is

is

in

it

is

classified

with ash

Since
in

this

which the

enamelled white and most of the

mahogany finish, it will be equally


appropriate to make it of white wood, to be finished
in enamelled white, or of bay wood as a basis for
mahogany finish. It was decided to adopt the
furniture of a

latter course.

The

stock

requirements for carrying out this

design are as follows:

back

posts,

1^^ inch x


HOME DECORATION

158

134 inch X 24 inches;

front

134 X 18 inches; 2

centre

inches; 1 back

rail,

posts,

uprights,

134 inch x

x 18

x 134 x 37 inches;

end

It

36

r
?

MOO

J
vr.

*tilH

iJ

"1
'M<0

=?]
Construction details and dimensions for hanging book rack (front)

rail, 1

X 1J4 x 44 inches; and 2 shelves,

by 37

inches.

The

tools

needed are much

in the previous

problem

i.

like

e.,

]/^

x 7

those required

the same planes,

saws, bitstock, squares, and the gauge; but there


will

be needed a %-inch

chisels, a knife rule, a

and a

bit,

%-inch and %-inch

rabbet plane, a mitre box,

mallet.

Construction.

The

details

of

construction

re-

quired are as follows: Dressing the stock pieces,


cutting the posts to length, cutting the points on

the posts, rabbeting the cross

rails

and cutting them

FURNITURE MAKING

159

to length, cutting the mortise and tenons, halving

on the end
cutting,

cutting and fitting the shelves,

rails,

and

fitting,

and

clamps

the

arranging

fastening

back

the

rail,

other
i-

appliances for gluing up, and cleaning off the glue after hardening.

The

stock pieces should be

first

:j

"dressed" down to the drawing di


:^.
This means that they
mensions.

T
'^

should be planed and sand-papered


z

preparatory to laying out the cut-

The

dimensions.

ting

'-It

and

front

back posts should be cut to length


care being taken

in the mitre box,

to allow an extra 3^

inch for the

pointed ends at the top and bot-

tom.

These pointed ends are

_i

t.

Construction detaila
and dimensions for
hanging book
rack (end)

cut in the mitre

box by raising one end of the post and


to lines squared around the

the other

uniform
post
of

on

end.

by
a

The

the mitre box,

tion for

piece

for

all

is

of

34

lightly

nailed

i^ch.

cut

the

raised

end

is

of

from

made
the

on the

inside

thus giving the same

eleva-

the posts.

rails

angle

the

resting

block

post

sawing

The

1-inch

by

Ij^^-inch

rabbeted out, using the plane

designed for that purpose, and afterward cut to

HOME DECORATION

160

length

called

as

for.

The

blind

mortises should

be made not more than J^ of an inch deep, and the


tenons Vie of an inch shorter in order not to strike
the bottom

of

the mortise.

One

of

these

rails

should be accurately laid out with knife lines and


the

marked

rest

from

as

this

The

pattern.

drawing shows the


location

the

of

tenon with reference to the part of


the
How

This

is

the tenon

is

applied to the

rail

rail

the

on which

shclf r C S t

S.

the most convenient position for cutting the

tenon and

it

also gives greater strength.

The

centre

uprights should be halved on after the end

rails

are in position, being cut for this purpose as

illus-

trated in the drawing.

stand out
rail,

and

stock

is

upright.

}/$

in

to

of

They may be allowed

an inch beyond the face of the end

making the joint an equal amount of


be taken from the rail and from the

The

shelves are then easily cut to length

with the block plane and dropped

and the ends

fitted

into

being lightly glued

place,

to

and nailed with

brads from the under side of the rabbet.

Finally

FURNITURE MAKING
the top back

should be halved

rail

to the last in order that the

may

of the shelves

161
in,

being

more important

left

fitting

be more easily accomplished.

In gluing up the mortise and tenon joints care

must be exercised
before the glue

parts

may

is

to set

clamps out ready for use

applied so that the

be promptly drawn up

in

After gluing they should be

position.

allowed to remain about ten hours in


order that the glue

may

properly hard-

en before the clamps are

out

squeezed

glue

All the extra

taken

off.

of

the joints in clamping must be scraped


off

with a

hardened a
ing spots

after

chisel,

the centre
and any remain- How
uprights are

little;

glue

of

removed with

the glue has

must be

fine

halved on

carefully

sand-paper so

anything to interfere with the

as

filling

not to leave

and

finishing.

AN UMBRELLA STAND

The

Design. So

far as the question of use

is

concerned, no problem of design could be more


definite

than this one, since an umbrella rack can

have but one

use.

The only elements

of

beauty

possible are found in simplicity, proportion,

the general

eft'ectiveness

of

meeting the demands of use.

and

the construction for

The drawing shows

HOME DECORATION

162

four square, straight posts, squared at

which are allowed to project a

little

to avoid a box-like

the ends,

above the top


the

All

effect.

joints are mortised except the division

The

bars at the top.

made wider not only

the base are


conceal

more

cross pieces at

to

the drip pan but to give a

stable appearance to the whole

rack.

Materials and Tools.

ed as perhaps the

Oak

is

select-

most appropriate

wood but other woods, if the surround;

An umbrella stand

advantage.
able of the

^^^^ require

woods used

for furniture
It

is

The stock requirements


3^^

may

be used to good

Oak is one of the strongest and most

great variety of finish.

posts 134

it,

dur-

and takes well a

also quite easily obtained.

are as follows Four corner


:

X 134 X 273^ inches;

X 134 X 9 inches; four base

four top

rails

x 3

rails

x 9

two division bars 34 x 134 x 9 34 inches;


four cleats }/2 x 3^ x 9 inches; and one board J^ x
inches;

73^2

X 73^ inches to support the pan.

The same

tools in general will be required as in

the previous exercises, but

add a 34-iiich bit, a 34


and two short clamps.

it

will

i^^ch chisel,

be necessary to
a steel scraper,

r
FURNITURE MAKING

163

TT
<o

A-

-4
0

ilii

lO

lO

T
to

4-

i.

Details

and dimensions

for umbrella rack

0'

HOME DECORATION

164

Construction.

All

to size, scraped,

the stock should be planed

and sand-papered with the excep-

tion of the base board for the pan, since that

The

den from view.

scraper

corrects

is

hid-

slight

all

unevenness of surface and removes scratches and

Care should be taken

other blemishes.

in sand-

papering to rub always with the grain of the wood

The

and to avoid rounding the corners.


posts should

tops

first

be cut to proper length and

and bottoms

slightly

chamfered.

are then to be located, bored,

The top and bottom

^
Top

rail

them too

Mortises

chiselled up.

should be laid

off

f7y

Bottom

tenons

long.

and

the

and the
care being taken not to have

rails

tenons gauged and cut,

corner

The

rail

tenons

inside edges of the tenons

have

to be pared off slightly, as illustrated in the drawing,

to allow

room

The next

for each

step

is

to

when they come

together.

assemble the parts, clamp

FURNITURE MAKING
them up, and

them

test

165

for accuracy.

While these

parts are in the clamps, measurements should be

taken for the cross pieces, which may then be made,


allowing extra length of 34 of an inch in each end

These cross

for the tenons to enter the top rails.

pieces are to be halved together at the centre, as

shown

The base rails are designed to


take up all the space on the inside

in the drawing.

be thick enough to

of the posts so as to hide the corner, as illustrated


in the sketch

The next

showing the bottom construction.

step

is

to assemble the parts for gluing.

It is not necessary to explain this process in detail,

since it has already been thoroughly explained in

It is not necessary

the general section on gluing.

to glue on the cleats on which the

may

be nailed

When

in.

the base

pan
is

rests;

they

glued together

measurements may be taken for the pan.

A MAGAZINE STAND
The Design.

This problem

article of furniture

calls for

an attractive

which should also be useful as

a receptacle for magazines and current newspapers.

An
is

enclosed

portion between two of the shelves

desired to conceal from view

and preserve

for

time the more valuable papers, parts of magazines,


or clippings, as

may

be found convenient.

The

HOME DECORATION

166

same page shows how

perspective sketch on this

requirements are

simple

these

The

met.

over-

hanging top adds character and strength to what

might otherwise seem too Hght


for the load it

intended to

is

carry.

Materials and Tools.


selected as a suitable

cause

of

is

for

The

stock

itemized

as

list,

be-

and
stand

this

light

finished,

cately
magazine stand

is

be in almost con-

likely to

stant use.
A

wood

strength

its

durability;

Oak

wood,

would

deli-

soon

shoW WCar.
according to the drawmg,

follows:

corner posts

36 inches; 4 upright slats

^x

1^

may

be

x Ij^ x

x 34 inches; four

shelves J^ x 10)^ x 17 inches; one piece for the


x
top J/8 X 14 X 21 inches; 2 top rails 1 x

1^

12 inches;! piece for the door

%xSx

of the closet 1 piece

for the ends

and the back

X 36 inches;

1 pair Ij^-inch brass

for the hinges,

The

tools

15}/2 inches

^x8

butts with screws

and one brass knob or catch.

needed are a

smoothing plane,

steel

jointer, a block plane, a

square,

try square, knife

gauge, fine cross cut saw, 3^-inch bit and bit stock.

FURNITURE MAKING
key-hole

hammer,

The

saw,

3^-inch

screw-driver,

chisel,

and

167
nail

mallet,

set,

steel scraper.

principal operations are as follows: Planing

to size; scraping

and sand-papering stock; squaring

ends and smoothing them to the required length;

making mortises
assembling the main

laying out gains at corner posts;


for top rails;

making the

rails;

1^

I*

-\"

Hod

T
1

(0

l-fr
J|

10

<V

T
Details and dimensions for magazine stand

parts; jBtting ends

and

sides of the closets;

hanging

the door and putting on the fixtures.

The Construction.

Smoothing

with

the

plane

HOME DECORATION

168

and scraping are very important and they should be


completed before any sand-papering is done because
particles of sand (silica), adhering to the wood,
will dull

the steel tools.

All three operations are

needed to remove the marks of the machine tools


of the factory, in order to give a

end.

The

follows

scraper

good

the

finish in the

plane,

removing

the unevenness which the latter leaves on board


surfaces.

Sand-papering gives the finishing touches.

After the stock

is

well smoothed, the top

shelves should be squared

off,

and the

cut to length, and block

The posts should then be cut and accurately


trimmed to dimensions. They may be marked with

planed.

a knife line for the gains into which the corners


of the shelves are to be fastened.

Since the posts

are perfectly square, no attention will have to be

given to their exact location in marking or cutting


the

I'-H

""I
"!?

i
Method

of mortising

the mortises will

7
J

gains;

but when

the mortising for the


rails is laid

out, care

must be exercised to
mark them so that

come on the proper

faces for

In mortising for the top rail it is well


not to work up to the end of the post but to cut
of an inch, as shown in one of the
back, say

assembling.

FURNITURE MAKING
The rails may now be laid

details.

cut and

It

fitted.

shoulders of the

is

and the tenons

exactly 8J inches between the

Since the shelves are lOj

rails.

inches wide, one inch

off

169

is

thus

left

on each side to be

gained into the posts.

The

To do

parts are
this it

now ready

is

for the first assembling.

convenient to have a clear bench

top on which the posts

may

be laid on one

side, face

and shelves may then be slipped


into place, the other two posts placed on top, and
the whole clamped firmly together. This is the

The

down.

rails

preliminary assembling for the purpose of testing


the accuracy of the work.
it

If it

be found

all right,

should be taken apart again, and, after glue has

been applied to the tenons and to the ends of the


shelves, the parts should be quickly re-assembled

and clamped up as

before, with the angles kept true.

Before

hardens

the

glue

the

shelves should be nailed into the


posts, as indicated in the
ing.

that
is
.,

In this case
is

draw-

the nail

it is

The glue
adding much to

the main stay.

accessory,
../

p ,1

..

Method

of fastening shelf

the stillness of the construction.

The top may now be set on and fastened by screws


or by brads driven through into the posts and well set

HOME DECORATION

170

so that tliey

may be

concealed by putty, coloured to

match the stain used. The end slats should be fastened on in the same way. The back and ends of the
closet are next cut to size and bradded in. The door
is

then fitted and, to break the surface a

little,

ornamental

an
de-

is

cut in the

centre.

Still fur-

sign

ther relief

is

giv-

en by setting in
Method

the door J^ of an
inch from the

of fastening posts to the top

edge of the shelf and ends of

door

is

closet.

The

brass hinges, the stop and

now hung on

catch added, and the stand

and

the

is

ready for staining

finishing.

A LIGHT LIBRARY TABLE


The Design.

This

is

to be a table designed on

simple lines and of good proportions.

It

is

to have

no drawer but as much shelf room as conveniently


The under shelf is designed to be cut
possible.
out to allow a chair to be drawn up on either side.

The end

shelves

may

be regarded as designed to

combine a bookcase with the

much

to

table, thus

adding

its usefulness.

Materials and Tools,

For

a table of this kind

FURNITURE MAKING
oak

is

the

stock

The

very appropriate.
required

for

and the thickness are

one

171

following
table.

gives

list

The widths

as called for in the drawing,

but the lengths are given a

little

long to allow

for

cutting.

not

less

wide
will

board

than 9 inches

and 10

feet

be needed as stock

for the top, the

sions of

dimen-

which are J^ x

26 X 39 inches.
inch

long

board,

43^2

f^^t

required for the shelves.


four legs

1%

1^

10in

light library table

length,

There

will

will also

also

ba

be needed

X 30 inches; eight slats 3^ x Ij^

X 18 inches; two back pieces 3^ x 2 x 20)^ inches;

two

rails

J^ x 3 x 32 inches; and two

rails

x 3 x

20 inches.

The same

tools will be required as in the fore-

going problems excepting that a J/^-inch bit and

a }^-inch chisel will be required for mortising, and

two 3-foot clamps.


Construction.
is

The

first

step in the construction

to dress the stock, smoothing, scraping,

papering

The

it,

and sand-

and working the various parts to

size.

lengths, however, of all parts excepting the

HOME DECORATION

172

not cut accurately

legs are

construction,

are

these parts

the process of

until, in

needed.

The

legs

are at once cut to length and the mortises laid outj


3

;?>

Vto

'"

OO

*.z

XO

-1

T-T

to"-*J

^l

'I
\

Construction details and dimensions (a) front; (b) end

bored, and cut.


leg,

gain should also be cut in each

into which the

glued,

and

bottom

shelf is

side.

The end

off for

shoulders

and bradded from the under

side rails

may

then be laid

to be fitted,

and tenons, and cut. In this case the tenons should


be made }^ of an inch wide.
In gluing up, the top should receive attention
first, in order to allow the longest possible time

work under the inevitable changes


due to continued seasoning. Great care must always be exercised in making the glued joints. It
is often necessary to make them over on account
for testing the

of the

development of cracks. Proper

care,

however.

FURNITURE MAKING
prevent

will

this.

The

173

general directions for gluing,

given at the beginning of this chapter, will be of


service.

As soon

as the top has been glued the four short

may

side pieces

make good

to

be glued to the
before

joints

shelf,

taking pains

applying

the

glue.

be noted that the inside ends of these

It should

short pieces are to be 15 inches apart, and

it is

impor-

tant that the ends on opposite sides should be exactly

squared across, as indicated in the drawings.

may

be accomplished by

first

This

locating the centre

of the shelf, at the intersection of

lines,

marked

and measuring 73^ inches each way


the back pieces, which are to run

in the drawing,

to the line of

across the whole


is

bottom

shelf.

As soon

as the glue

hardened the ends should be squared and made

when the

true to set into the gains

Finally, the legs, the rails,

and

table

is

assembled.

the shelf

may

be

assembled, glued, squared up, clamped, and set aside


to harden before the clamps are removed.
It

side

is

a good plan to brad the shelf in from the under

before

the glue hardens.

few hours the table


strip

will

After standing a

be ready for the J^-inch

which forms the back of the

to be fitted

and bradded

cut to length.

They

in.

shelf.

Then the

slats

This

is

may be

project slightly below

the

HOME DECORATION

174

and are fastened

shelf,

top

may be

after

which

means

cut to length and


it

may

by

in position

its

The

screws.

ends smoothed,

be fastened on the frame by

and buttons, as already described

of screws

in the early part of this chapter.

A HEAVY LIBRARY TABLE

The Design.
is

This

table, as the illustration shows,

designed to be of simple style, without a drawer

bottom

or side shelves, and with the

into

shelf

keyed

the base

rail.

Heavy,

square

legs,

and mortise and tenon


joints are called for.

Materials and Tools,

The

mission

type

of furniture, to

which

design

this

oak as

suggests

heavy

library table

fitting

belongs,

the

W O O d.

The

stock for the top, the dimensions of which are to

be

J/g

X 28 X

44 inches,

pieces from

the shelf a

board

There

quired.

2^

x 30

inches;

10-inch

are

inches;

two end

J^

may

board,

cut

in

side

three

For

12 feet long.

12 x 43 inches

needed

two

be

is

also four legs 2J^


rails

top-rails J^ x 4

J/g

x 4 x

re-

x
36

x 22 inches; two

FURNITURE MAKING
end bottom
keys a strip

rails Ij/^

175

x 4 x 22 inches; and for

x 2 x 28 inches.

^3

J=^

<^

T
*-i

'T

^i

I-

>w

1
Construction details and dimensions (front)

The same

tools are required as

were needed in

the foregoing problem.


Construction.

Since

this

table

has

larger

top than the light library table, even greater pains

must be taken than


to join

the boards for gluing up.

should be laid
tises

case.
first

in the case of the smaller table

off

All like parts

together and the necessary mor-

and tenons cut and

The two end

rails

fitted, as in

may

the previous

be glued into the legs

and clamped, leaving the side rails to be put

when the bottom shelf may also be fastwithout gluing by means of the tenons

in place last,

ened in

HOME DECORATION

176

The

and keys.
longer than

is

should be

latter

needed so that they

really

to be as effective as they

somewhat

cut

really

may

are;

appear

and they

ZQ

e^ t

%
12

^------11
0

Construction details and dimensions (end)

should be tapered at least


to drive

up

to keep

in

well.

them from

J/^

small

of

brad

an inch in order

may

getting loose

be driven

when the work

shrinks.

A BOOKCASE WITH GLAZED DOORS


The Design,

^This is to

be an upright bookcase,

with five shelves and an overhanging top.

by the arrangement of
indicated in the drawing. The shelves
be adjustable, and not fixed as in other

variety of surface

the sash, as
are

made

problems.

to

Some

is

afforded

FURNITURE MAKING
Materials and Tools.

177

The stock required for one

bookcase of this pattern

is

as follows

two end pieces

J^ X 113^ X 483^2 inches; for the top and bottom,


two pieces J/g x 12 x 40
inches; four shelves

J/g

11 x 40 inches; for the


doors, four

sides of the

45

inches; for the top

and

pieces

bottom

J^

rails of

the doors,

four pieces J^ x 23^ x 18


inches;
rail,

the

for

one piece

J/g

middle

x 2 x

18 inches; for the sash,

one piece

for the back,

6 feet;

x }^ inch

enough 3^ inch stock to


cover the space 38 x
46 inches.

Bookcase with glazed door3

In addition

to this there will be required four hinges,

a lock, and glass for the


the drawing.

It

is

cut the small lights.

be set in the

full

as dimensioned in

not necessary,

however,

One

of glass

large

pane

to

may

width of the door so that the

small sash divisions


real.

sash

two catches,

may

be apparent rather than

HOME DECORATION

178

The

problem are the same as those


used in previous problems with the addition of a
tools for this

J^-inch bit and 34-inch chisel, and a rabbet plane,

or a universal

plane for

cutting out

the

rabbet

for the glass.

It

is

not necessary to give directions for the treat12-

t=^

JL

to

T
I

-2
L

J
~i

GV

it

-*-2

to

Details

ment
as

details

employed
for

and dimensions

cutting

in

bookcase

for

same
preceding problems. The

of the stock, since

that

nl:

-J7

it is

practically the

dimensions are given in the

accompanying drawings.

It

would be well

young woodworker to study these

for the

carefully

and

FURNITURE MAKING
make out a working plan

179

of procedure similar to

that which has been outlined in other problems.

The
bookcase

Construction.

the

i.

e.,

first

thing to do

is

to erect

to cut the sides, the top,

the bottom, and the back pieces to proper form and

dimensions, bring

them.

It will

rabbeted

out,

them

into position,

and fasten

be noticed that the sides and top are


as

indicated

in

one of the small

HOME DECORATION

180

When the doors


may be held in
bradded

in

are ready for setting the glass

by small 34 round

place

behind

it

strips,

Great care should, of course,

it.

be exercised in gluing up the doors to avoid strains

which might

give

them such a

could not be fitted to the case.


all

twist

Careful fitting of

the mortises and tenons and the usual assembling

of the parts of each door before gluing


is

that they

a wise precaution.
little

It will also

stock for trimming

off,

is

attempted

be wise to allow

both on the sides

and on the ends, when the doors are

finally fitted in.

A ROUND CENTRE TABLE


The Design.

This

problem

calls for

a table of

mission style with square legs set into the circum-

Details and dimensions for round


centre table

Detail of top mortise

FURNITURE MAKING

181

table
Details ami dimensions for roiiud centre

Sep

^y

JL
!0

7^41-

-^m

H2^

^
^

-
to
I--'-.

-JL

;??

Ii

HOME DECORATION

182

and having

ference of the table flush with the top

tenons exposed on the face of the

Simplicity

legs.

form combined with strength characterizes the

of

design.

Materials and Tools.

mended

oak

inches;

two

is

recom-

is

The stock

a table of this design.

for

required for one table

2^ X 27

Quartered

as follows: four legs 2^^ x

cross rails 134 x 3 x 29 inches;

one piece of 3 x 12 x 20 inches for the curved

and stock enough to make a round top

Ij/g

rails;

inches

thick and 27 inches in diameter.

The only

tools desirable to provide, in addition

to those previously used, are a

shave or a

trammel and spoke-

circle plane.

Construction.

The

glue the top so that

it

first

step

is

may have ample

den and dry while the other work


plished.

The

to join

stock for the legs

may

is

up and

time to har-

being accom-

then be dressed

and the bottom mortises marked and cut through


the posts.

Care must be taken to transfer the

marks to the opposite

side so that the mortises

be accurately outlined on the


also

be taken

make

good,

face.

may

Care must

in cutting the mortises, in order to

clean

of the top mortises,

of the curved

rail,

joints.

dimensioned detail

which are to receive the tenons


shown on page 180, should be

FURNITURE MAKING

183

It should

consulted before laying out this work.

be noticed that the legs project 134 inches above


the top

After the top mortises are cut the

rail.

bottom

cross

should be halved together and

rails

the tenons laid

off

and

cut.

the projecting end of the tenons


off,

but

this should

be noticed that

It will
is

to be bevelled

not be done until the fitting

is

completed.

In laying out the plan of work for the construction of the curved

into use.

With

rails

mark

this,

the trammel comes

off carefully

the inside

and outside curves on a thin piece of board and, with


a large steel square, draw straight lines from the
centre or pivot point,

This

is

shown

parallel

inside,

mark

the

leg.

circle.

one of the drawings on page 180.

in

Then,

making an exact quarter

with each straight line and on the


other lines one half the thickness of

off

This locates the shoulder of the tenon. The

pattern should then be carefully cut out of the


thin board and used as a template for marking out

on the stock the form


these

rails

are

of the

curved

rails.

After

band sawed and smoothed, the

may be cut.
When the framing

tenons

parts of the table have

been cut and fitted they


Finally the top

is

all

may be assembled and glued.

placed face

down on a bench

top

HOME DECORATION

184

or on horses, and the inverted frame laid over

it

and centred to give the correct position of the


These should be laid off with
insets for the legs.
great care, the outline reproduced exactly on the
opposite side, and the stock cut out.

The top and

frame should then be fastened together from the


under side. After a few finishing touches have
been given to the projecting ends and exposed
surfaces, the table will be ready for the filling and
varnishing.

A LIBRARY DESK
This

is

the most ambitious of the special prob-

lems in furniture making here suggested.

Details

are given in the drawings on the opposite page.

young woodworker can give sufficient time


and can command the services of a few machine

If the

to

it

tools

it will

Most

take.

struction

and

not be an unreasonable task to underof the operations required in its con-

have already been carefully explained

need not be repeated as detailed directions.

There

are,

making

however, one or two principles of cabinet-

called for in this

required in the others.

problem which were not

They

will therefore

need

explanation.
Panelling.
result

To avoid the

from the

difficulties

swelling, shrinking,

which would

and warping

FURNITURE MAKING

185

HOME DECORATION

186

of

wide surfaces in furniture

to

make

is

easily understood.

common

is

The

use of the panel.

of ordinary

it

practice

design of the panel

It consists of

framework

put together usAally with

thickness,

mortise and tenon joints.

The

framework

and into the groove

are

grooved,

inside edges of this

than the

fitted a piece of stock generally thinner

frame which

of

the space between the sides of

fills

The panel board may be

the frame.

wide stock or

may be

it

of very thin stock inset

or

it

may

one piece

in

glued up.

It

on either

inset

side, in

made

problem the panel board

and

of the panel

all

around to run

of

the

off

thin enough

and,

come warped

board

is
if

In this

of ^/2-inch

an inch.

flush with the

frame

to give the necessary tongue

The narrow

stock

not likely to swell or shrink


well

or twisted.

greater width,

constructed,

The

may and

and shrink considerably; but

move

is

made

inset 34 of

in the groove.

framework

appreciably

its

to be

on the outside, and

chamfered

is

is

side,

which case

to run in the groove of the panel frame.

The back

be

on both sides of the panel,

only the edges of the board are

stock, flat

may

be of thicker stock inset only on one

and perhaps not

is

cannot be-

panel, on account

generally does swell


it

should be fitted to

easily in the grooves so that its

changes

may

FURNITURE MAKING
Should

not be noticeable.

it

187

be desired to

finish

the panels with a moulding this should be nailed to


the

rails,

not to the panel board.

Danger in

may

The

be constructed by hand, but

saw be available
Beginners,
of

Power Saw.

the

it

if

frame

a circular

be found of great service.

will

however,

panel

employ the

should

services

an expert sawyer and not assume the great

risk

involved in the use of a circular saw or even a band


saw, especially

if

these saws are without guards.

The

necessary operations should be carefully laid out

on the partially finished stock, with a good square

and gauge.

combination plane

and

for cutting the grooves;

quite essential

is

this carries its

Care should be taken to make

gauge.

ments from the centre

of the piece,

all

own

measure-

and gauge and

square always from the face sides and from the face
edges of the joints.

make for

The

cuts that

it is

necessary to

the joints are indicated in the drawing.

In

gluing up, the directions already given in the section

on gluing should be followed.

Sand-papering.

There

is

a legitimate

use

for

sand-paper in the finishing stages of the work on


this desk, as there

of fine

woodwork.

is,

in fact, in

Its use

almost every kind

has already been advised

in the directions for furniture

making.

In furniture

HOME DECORATION

188

manufactories sand-papering machines are

among

the most expensive machines to be found in the


shops; and their high cost
their productive value.

is

It

is

work down

large pieces to a

process

planing.

is

of

of course justified

by

quite impossible to

good surface by the

a sand-papering machine

If

within easy reach of the amateur cabinet-maker,

it will

be very desirable for him to send

machine.

The expense

is

large

and panel boards to

pieces like the tops of tables

the factory in order to have

all

them run through the

very

slight.

In sand-

papering by hand considerable pressure should be


applied as evenly as possible and always along the
grain.

Any movements

directly across the

grain

or at an angle are sure to show through the finish.

The

process

is

paper around a block of


diameter

by wrapping the sandwood about 2x4 inches in


a block of cork of the same

facilitated

or, better still,

dimensions.

A MORRIS CHAIR
History of the Design.

Among furniture designs

the Morris chair has become a

name

for its originator,

classic.

It takes its

William Morris, the great

English designer and reformer, to

whom, perhaps

more than to any other person, we are indebted for


sane and honest work in furniture design and in

FURNITURE MAKING
of household

forms

all

England but

in other

decoration,

not

only in

European countries and

And probably no one

America.

189

of his

in

creations

has done more to


teach the lesson of
simplicity,
fort,

and

com-

utility in

furniture than the

Morris chair.
It

may be well to

add, however, that


like

many

other

famous works
art,

the

of

original

design of William

Morris chair

Morris has suffered

much

in countless imitations.

The

furniture shops

display carved and otherwise embelHshed monstrosi-

under the name of Morris chairs which are


nothing less than an insult to the great name they
ties

bear.

But the

really great ideas

good and

true,

of all imitations of original

life
is

bound

which are the

to be short.

Only the

original, survive.

really valuable features of the original

and

The

Morris chair

design, combining beauty of material with simplicity


of

form and construction, have taken a lasting hold

HOME DECORATION

190

upon the hearts

of all people

who have found

solid

The chairs contemplated

comfort in these chairs.

in

Tenons \

f Vlo

T"cno/vs

,/
_i

-I

n
U
f-"fhicK

r-ifl

3"
"^"^^
I

1"

'

3'

II

II

/a

i!

li

"

/A/cK
Ijlj

Z:^

23s

curv

2i

-22Details

and dimeasions

of

Morris chair (front)

FURNITURE MAKING

191

problem are illustrated on page 50, chapter II.


Both are in quartered oak. The one on the right is
this

brown and has a box cushion for the


and a pillow cushion for the back, in medium
brown leather. The one on the left is in light fumed
stained in dark

seat

oak with cushions


of its
in

of

mahogany

smaller dimensions

it

velour.
is

On

somewhat

account
lighter

weight than the one on the right, and the dimen-

sions of the smaller one will be followed in this

problem.

This chair

is

an exact copy of one

Details and dimensions for Morris chair (side)

in

HOME DECORATION

192

ash which, with a centre table and


designed and

made

for a college girl's

stool,

were

room; and a

work of constructing the three


furniture was done by the girl herself.

large part of the

pieces of

By
ing

careful examination of the dimensioned draw-

shown on the preceding page the young wood-

worker who undertakes this problem should


his stock according to the following

list:

select

4 legs

^^2 X 24 inches; two arms 3 x 53^| x 38


inches; two bottom side rails \y^ x 6 x 26 inches;

2M

X
t^'

/i"

lli-X-2- r^
Detail of pins

two top side rails 5^ x 234 x 26


inches; two bottom rails (front and
back)

1}/^

X 6 X 24 inches one top


;

rail

(back) Ys X 234 X 24 inches; two


back uprights 13/8 ^ 1% x 25 inches;
three cross pieces for back (lower)

^ X 25^ X 20 inches
for

one cross piece

back (top) J^ x 6 x 20 inches;

one bracket

x 3 x 18 inches; four

pins 43^2 X 434 inches square.

In sawing up the stock, allowance


Detail of Morris
chair arm

should be

made

of course, for neces-

FURNITURE MAKING
down

sary waste in working

193

to the drawing dimen-

The arms are drawn with a curve and may be


fashioned by band sawing them out of 3-inch stock.
sions.

There

will

be a considerable saving in material and

labour, of course,
effect of the

may

curve

if

is

made flat; but the


very pleasing. The back slats

the arms are

be sawed to a slight curve, which

is

another

attractive feature; but flat slats are easier to

and

make

just as serviceable.

The

process of construction

does not differ in

general from that already described in

some

of the

foregoing problems, and need not be repeated here


in

The method

detail.

of finishing this

and

all

other furniture referred to in the problems will

be explained in the following chapter.


Since the Morris chair

is

a heavy piece of furniture,

The

it will

be necessary to provide casters for

Acme

Pin caster, so-called, was used in the chair

makes use of a
bearings, and is set up

referred to in this problem.


ball turning

upon

ball

it.

It

the legs so as to leave only about

}/i

of

steel

into

an inch of

the ball exposed.

A HALL CLOCK
Design.

This clock was designed and built to con-

form to the requirements of the space allotted to

it.

194

HOME DECORATION

in
A
Note.
of

hall clock

The

original

the hall clock was

designed and

made by
Mac-

Mr. Egbert E.
Nary.

r-'

'i-

FURNITURE MAKING
The

195

lines of the case are all straight; there are

spires or gables or fantastic curves

clock

indoors,

is

A hall

on the top.

and the top should be horizontal;

for all the other lines such as tops of

window

casings,

picture moulding,
etc.,

are horizon-

tal.

If the clock

stood out of doors

under the

stars,

then the top might

be

spired

or

pointed.

The construction, as indicated

in the sketches,

and

simple
stantial.

is

sub-

The long

sides extend the

entire height of
the

being

clock,

firmly joined into

the base and head.

The works are supported

between

these sides.

wood

is

no

The

54~i^ch

Ctniet!oii detail of a kail

dock

HOME DECORATION

196

quartered oak, hand dressed, and stained a

The

brown.

warm

pendulum, and

dial, hinges, catches,

weight are of brass.


Cutting Glass with a Wheel Cutter.

has a panel

transparent

of

leaded glass work

The

is

leaded

it

concerns are usually willing to

drawing was made

pattern.

One

and the

This

were purchased of a

Stained

dealer in lead specialties.

glass panel

glass.

a most fascinating process.

lead strips required for

full-size

The long door

sell

glass

window

this lead.

of the design for the

match the
cutter was used.

glass cut in pieces to

ten-cent wheel glass

caution, kept in mind, will enable one to use

a wheel cutter of this kind without injuring


should never be used twice in the same

cut.

stroke of a few inches over a cut previously


will ruin the

wheel; but

by tracing over a

cut,

glass should be laid

if

the wheel

it will

on a

last

is

it.

One
made

not abused

a long time.

level table

It

The

and the cutter

used with a firm hand, making a continuous cut


against a straight edge.
Soldering.
piece;

edge.

The long

and there

To

is

lines of the design are in

one

a strip around the entire outside

solder the pieces together, the glass and

lead strips are laid in position on a board, and brads

(about

inch long) are driven part

way

into the

FURNITURE MAKING
board close against the outside
the pieces in position.

paste

is

used.

wire.
solder,

A small

hold

bead of soldering

small soldering

and wire solder are


The copper may be "tinned" by filing the
is

really copper)

point bright, heating


paste,

strips, so as to

placed on each joint.

"iron" (which

197

it,

dipping

it

and then quickly touching

The point
or, as we

will

it

to the solder

become coated with the

say, "tinned."

need frequent heating.

in the soldering

The

iron will

quick, light touch of

the iron and solder wire to the joints will give the
best result.

Method

The two

of holding glass

and lead

strips for soldering

rings in the brass dial were "raised"

by

driving the brass into a groove in a piece of oak with

HOME DECORATION

198

The

a hard wood wedge.

around the

dial

piece of oak

of a nail driven through

by means

When a short

the centre of the dial into the oak piece.

Method

was revolved

of raising the dial rings

arc of the ring had been raised, the grooved piece

was

swung around about 1 inch and the groove continued.


The length of the pendulum depends upon the
number of teeth in the escape wheel. It was necessary in the case of this clock to take out the escape
wheel, which
teeth to

had 32

teeth,

and substitute one of 22

accommodate the length of pendulum desired.

OUT DOOR FURNITURE

The
season
is

greatest
is

charm

rarely

of

home

life

in the

summer

found within the house.

This

especially true in the village or in the country,

where nature

is

at her best; but even in city

homes

FURNITURE MAKING

199

that are fortunate enough to include in their sur-

roundings a small yard, a bit

means

of connecting the

with

"God's

great

though

doors,'*

it

home

out-of-

be but a

sheltered balcony or a

window

garden, the touch of nature

not

It

lost.

possible,

is

any

of garden, or

is

how-

ever, for art to assist nature;

and

in

ance

many
^

is

very

cases her assist-

much

r^-

Uimensioned

needed.

,
i
dial piece of dock
before edges are turned

true that nature cannot

be

left

wholly to herself in the neighbourhood

of

the

It

is

village

much
it

certainly

or city home.

If

be a garden, as

there

forethought must be exercised in planning

and as much pains taken

for it as is called for in


interior decoration.

in

developing and caring

working out any form of

There are problems of design

and construction suggested by the need


chairs

and

settles for the piazza,

of suitable

comfortable ham-

mocks and couches for the balcony, awnings for the


windows on the sunny side, and the right furniture,
perhaps, for an out-door dining-room. The more
decorative features are found in the rose arbours,

the

trellises,

the garden

screens,

the

the pergola, and the garden gate; and

all

lawn

tent,

these offer

HOME DECORATION

200

problems that easily come within the reach of


enterprising

General

Types.

In

designing

the

may

idea

in the hills

and

weight,

solidity,

embodied

is

On

appropriately find expression.

one hand large masses, as seen


suggest

of out -door

there are two suggestions from nature

furniture

that

and capable young craftsmen.

in walls of

the

and rocks,

permanence.

This

masonry, stone posts,

iron gates, stone or concrete pedestals, or in

other kind of heavy construction.

On

some

the other

hand, there are the suggestions of lightness, delicacy,

and growth, seen


and small

trees,

in the

growing vines, shrubbery,


carried out in the so-

which are

called rustic furniture, trellises, arbours,

and garden

screens.

A
Heavy Furniture in Wood.
settle designed for comparatively permanent use
in some cool or retired corner of the garden may be
An Example

made

of

of native pine, white

wood, or spruce, well

protected by several coats of paint.


is

suggestion

here given for such a design, laid out on substan-

tial lines.

Ordinary

4x4

spruce, planed,

may

be

used for the posts, pine or white wood for the rest
of the construction, 2-inch stock being used for the

back pieces and arms, and J^-inch boards for the


rails and seat. Mortise and tenon joints should be

FURNITURE MAKING
The

used in the framing.

illustration

201

shows also

a simple design cut in the back pieces and repeated


in the

two front

posts.

It is a decorative feature

which seems to counteract, somewhat successfully,


the general severity of the lines on which the settle
is

designed to be built.
Concrete Furniture.

door furniture

may

Still

more substantial out-

be made of concrete cement.

This material has come into use for sidewalks and

garden

settle

pavements and as a substitute for brick and stone


masonry in retaining walls, bridge abutments, and in
a great variety of heavy building construction.
crete

is,

in fact,

an

artificial stone,

Con-

made by mixing

HOME DECORATION

202

Portland cement with sand or pulverized rock in


the right proportions, thoroughly wetting the mixture

with water, and allowing

commonly
it

is

it

to harden.

easy

to believe that

it

so

is

work that

associated with heavy, crude

not

It

may be

also

fashioned into anything of an artistic or decora-

and yet

it is

capable of a wide range

of out-door decorative uses.

Gate posts, pedestals,

tive character;

window

fountains,

garden pottery

boxes, urns,

and other forms

in great variety, tables,

of

and garden

have been successfully moulded in this material.


natural stone gray colour and surface are well

seats,

Its

suited to

many

of these uses;

but

it

may

variety of colour effects in bold design


requires

it.

In

weight and

be given a
if

durability

occasion
it

leaves

nothing to be desired.

The Wire Form.


modelled

like clay.

Concrete
In

its

cement cannot be

formative state

it is

too

must be supported
being worked into the de-

soft for such manipulation.

It

some way while it is


In gensired shape and until it has hardened.
eral there are two methods of giving the necessary
support: viz., by employing an interior framework
in

or skeleton, generally of wire lath, which

manently encased
plaster or

in

is

per-

the cement; or by using a

wooden mould

into which the

material

FURNITURE MAKING
and

in a soft

plastic state

is

203

poured and from which

removed when hardened.

The

method
has been elaborated quite extensively for comit is

mercial purposes, because

it

latter

readily yields an indef-

number of marketable results from the same


moulds. The simpler wooden moulds may be easily
made by a clever boy; and after a little experience
inite

he can soon learn how to mix the cement properly

and mould a form

successfully.

For

of concrete work, however, the wire

preferred.
is

found

single pieces

forms are to be

suggestive illustration of this

in the following

method

problem:

A CYLINDRICAL GARDEN VASE

The dimensions

called for in this design are a

diameter of 10 inches and a height of 8 inches.


wire form must therefore be

made

quite closely to these dimensions.


for the

mesh.

form

is

galvanized

This problem

will

wire
require

The

to approximate

good material

lath

of

J^-inch

a piece about

8 inches wide and 34 inches long for the convex


side,

and a piece about 10 inches square

From

the square piece a circle 10 inches in diameter

should be cut out.


will

for the base.

be needed for

strong pair of tinners' shears

this

purpose.

In bending the

long piece into the cylindrical form

it

is

well to

proceed slowly in order to produce an evenly curved

HOME DECORATION

204

surface

i.

e.,

one

free

good way to accomplish

down on

from angular bends.

this result is to lay the piece

a bench top and bend

up over a

it

wooden

drical

nothing better
p^w.-'X;.

is

is

If

available

will

serve

When

purpose.

bending

cylin-

block.

pm

rolling

this

the

nearly complete,

-.-~sv*

the two ends of the piece

.AmW

should be brought together,

lapped over about an inch,


A

and bound together with

garden vase

free

ends of the strands of wire.

will

be of great assistance.

part of the proc-

ess

has been

cylindrical

carefully

done, there will result a

form 10 inches

cular piece should


this

If this

pair of pliers

in

diameter.

now be attached

form by means of the

The

to one

cir-

end of

ends of the strands

free

found there, bending the projecting wires over and


clinching

them

at convenient points on the circum-

ference of the circular piece where there are uncut

meshes of the wire.

The form

is

now ready

for

covering with the cement.

is

The first step is


known as the

the mixing of the cement for what


scratch coat.

mixing Portland cement with

This

fine,

is

made by

clean sand in

FURNITURE MAKING
the

proportion

sand.

These

of

one part

205

should be

ingredients

two

cement to

of

thoroughly

mixed together in the dry state, and then there


should be added a small quantity of goats' hair,
For the problem at hand about
well picked apart.
five pounds of cement will be needed and as much

The whole

goats' hair as can be held in the hand.

should be thoroughly wet

amount

of water. It

should

not

is

be made

down with

important that the mixture

too soft.

should be given a consistency that


to be easily spread over the wire

same time,

to

hang

just the right

scratch coat
will

enable

it

form and, at the

well together.

When

a sufficient amount of the right mixture


has been obtained, it should be spread upon the
wire form by means of a small mason's trowel
It is well to begin at the

or a large knife.

bottom

convex side of the cy finder, working upward,


taking no pains to make this first coat smooth,

of the

since roughness

is

desirable,

and paying no attention

whatever to the inside of the cylinder, excepting


to see that the cement is forced well through the

meshes so that the whole mass


firmly

when

dry.

The

inside

will

be held together

is

given a smooth

coat as a part of the later finishing process. When


the convex surface has been well covered, the form

HOME DECORATION

206

should be turned bottom up and the cement spread

upon the base

of the

cyhnder

same way.

in the

After the wire has been completely covered, the form,

which

is likely

to be

somewhat

distorted, should be

corrected by careful manipulation

This

has been obtained.

about

five

hardened.

for

the

is

allowed to stand for

is

then ready for the finishing coat.

step in the process

finishing

is

to

To produce

the cement
variety

is

upon the colour and other


In this design a

surface effects that are desired.

when

sparkling surface

make

Considerable

coat.

possible here, depending

light,

a true cylinder

hours until the cement has thoroughly


It

The next

till

this effect a

finished

is

required.

mixture of one part Port-

land cement and two parts marble dust will be


needed.

This should be mixed without hair to a

consistency like that used for the scratch coat.

Before applying the finishing coat the surfaces


should be thoroughly moistened by means of a

brush well

methods

of

filled

with water.

applying this coat.

carefully spreading

ing

it

There are various

it

has hardened sufficiently

paper or a coarse

file.

simplest

is

on with a trowel and smooth-

with the moistened hand.

to improve the finish

The

is

it

by the
It

is

When

the surface

sometimes possible

judicious use of sand-

not possible to produce

FURNITURE MAKING

207

way; and yet the


method has the characteristic freedom of handwork
in general, and yields very satisfactory results.

perfectly even surfaces in this

The Decoration.

other articles

great variety of decorative

obtained in concrete pottery and in

may be

effects

made

material for outdoor

this

of

In pottery these decorations

use.

form of raised

may

take the

figures or ornaments, of borders or

designs cut in the surface, and of inlays in colour.


of design, the necessary cutting

Whatever the form


for

it is

best

but not very hard

set

the cement has become well

made when

after the finishing coat

pointed knife blade


tool

that will

narrow

may be

the

is all

however,

chisel,

the

of

guided

depth of the cut


that

given, a depth of

used on

if

and
will

somewhat upon the

by

which

ruler,

surfaces;

to

The

cuts.

should be flexible

similar

stout, sharp,

be required.

knife should be

curved

applied.

is

found desirable for

deepening

means

from 6 to 10 hours

e.,

i.

the

size

of

described

%6

depend

vase with blocked rim

the piece.
in

the

In work

problem

or J^ of an inch

just

is sufficient.

HOME DECORATION

208

be made after the

can

This cutting, of course

cement has hardened, by the use


chisel; but it will be much more
The Colours.
is

made by

Colour

cement

of

hammer and

difficult.

for inlaid designs

using the best quality of white Portland

cement as a base, colouring

with dry mineral

it

pigments which are sold by dealers under the name

Among

of lime or cement-proof colours.

ments suitable

for this

the pig-

purpose are red oxide of

which produces a red; oxide

of cobalt,

a good blue; chromate of lead,

iron,

which gives

which produces

yellow; carbonate of copper, which gives a good

dark green; and burnt umber, which yields a good


brown.

These come as dry powders

and should be mixed with the dry


cement and marble dust, making a
mixture of uniform colour, before
the water

determine

is

applied.

the

right

In order to
colour

with

it

is

small

quantity of the various ingredients until a

satis-

square form

well

to

experiment

factory shade has been found.

Then with

this as a

guide a sufficiently large quantity should be mixed,


in the

same proportions,

to the consistency of a thick

and applied to the design, which has been


previously cut in the surface to be decorated- To
paste,

FURNITURE MAKING

09

insure thorough adhesion of the paste to the con-

be well moistened with

crete, the cutting should

a wet brush.

shown

are

number

ture can be easily

The

in

a great variety of

and chairs

of rustic settles

determined largely by the material which


able.

designs

lighter out-door furni-

made up

The form

designs.

suggestive

the accompanying drawings.

in

Furniture.

Rustic

of

Very useful and ornamental

is

is

avail-

effects are pro-

duced by using sticks cut from the tops or from


branches

of

found

the second growth of some

in

afford a

small

Birch

trees.

saplings,

good supply of material.

It

is

easily

wood

lots,

not neces-

sary that the sticks be straight; the natural crooks

and notches are often very

useful in bracing the

framework.

tables,

Chairs,

and other

flower boxes,

be

made out
Lattice

settles,

articles of furniture

of this rough

Work.

standards for

Trellises

mav

and unfinished material.


and garden screens have

been made in an almost endless variety of forms.

Among
work

the most satisfactory

in

squares

and

is

the plain lattice

rectangles.

and evident durability are points

Its
in

simplicity
its

favour.

Experience proves also that vines and other plants


needing support are readily adjusted to this form
of trellis.

The

size of the stock required in

making

HOME DECORATION

210

uprights need to be of

work depends upon the


For a garden screen the
2 x 2 inch stock and of

any convenient

End

the

right-angled

uses to be

lattice

made

of

it.

length.

posts of 3 x 3 inch

stock will be required, to give necessary stiffness;

and,

if

the screen be a long one, intermediate posts

"L**

A
of the

same

size

ten or twelve

U >.ti.

garden screen

should be placed at intervals of

feet.

The

horizontal pieces

may

be

strips of J^-inch stock, 2 inches wide, set their full

thickness into the uprights.

Spruce furring, which

lumber dealers supply in 2-inch widths, is suitable


for the small rails; but if chestnut be used for the

FURNITURE MAKING
uprights
of

the

it is

211

same wood for the rest


The top and bottom rails

well to use the

construction.

should be of heavier stock, not less than 2 by 3

The

inches.

best foundation

a line of concrete

ground at intervals of 6

posts, firmly set into the


feet, to

is

which the bottom

rail

or the uprights are

fastened by means of irons set into the cement

the posts are formed.


paint will protect the

Two

when

coats of dull green

wood and properly subordinate

the lattice work to the trailing branches which


supports.

Ml

it

vm
FINISHING

reward that sweetens industry

'Tis toil's

THE

AND RE-FINISHING

Ebenezer

Elliot

commercial production of furniture the

IN cabinet-maker has nothing to do with the


ing of his work.

making
by

is

who

cleaning

and to whatever

is

the finishing of

all

joiner.

and

hardly

wood
the work of

of the

filHng

finish is applied

It

to

necessary to add that

kinds of woodwork

important as any other feature in


for,

are finishers

In a separate part of the factory they

attend to the

the

This essential part of furniture

turned over to artisans

trade.

finish-

however good the

its

is

quite as

production;

may

lines of design

be and

however thoroughly the design may be carried out


in

the construction of any piece

other woodwork,

it

may

furniture

of

be and often

is

or

spoiled as

a work of art in the finishing.

But the amateur cabinet-maker should be

own

finisher.

He

his

should familiarize himself with

the various kinds of finish that


212

may

be applied to

,V

YORK

.._..UBRAR\
A3TOH. LENOX
TII-DtN FOUNDATIONS^

AND RE-FINISHING
213
He should know the object of
the different woods.
filling wood and how it is done.
He should underFINISHING

stand the processes of fuming, staining, and varnishing so well that he can produce with certainty

the results desired.

CLEANING, SURFACING, AND FILLING


First Steps in Finishing.

The

first

step in finishing

woodwork is to clean it up and prepare it for the


filler.
Too great care cannot be taken in examining
all

surfaces for slight oversights that have occurred

work or for blemishes that have been


any part of the process of construction.

in the joinery

acquired in

Light planing, chiselling, or scraping, and perhaps


a

little

may

sand-papering, always with the grain,

be needed to remove these faults and blemishes.

The most
ing.

serious of these generally result

from glu-

be carefully removed,

All surplus glue should

even to the film that soaks into the surface of the


wood.

The

slightest spot of glue

filler

any kind

of finish.

Importance of Filling.

As

thoroughly cleaned,

if it is

soon as the furniture

natural color, the grain of the

with a

known

light,

as the

will

out of the wood and show through

keep the

is

remaining

transparent,
filler,

to be finished in the

wood must be

semi-liquid

filled

substance,

which, after standing from five

HOME DECORATION

214

to seven minutes, should be thoroughly rubbed off

with a piece of coarse cloth or a handful of shavings.

This process, as

tion of
is

name

indicates,

fills

the pores

them against the absorpmoisture and the consequent swelling. But


by no means its chief purpose. Strictly

wood and

of the

this

its

speaking,

protects

filling is

the ground-work of

all

finishing processes and, for that reason,

subsequent
it

may be

most important operation connected


with wood finishing. If improperly done, no amount
of good work with the varnish brush will remove the

said to be the

In fact, good work

fault.

beginning.

Good

is

impossible after a bad

varnishing or good finishing of any


final finishing

kind requires that, before the


esses begin, the surface should
level

and smooth,

free

from

all

be made perfectly

unevenness or rough-

ness or minute openings of any kind

allow the varnish

penetrate the wood.

proc-

that might

or other finishing material to


If

the

filling

has not been so

thorough that no part of the subsequent finishing


material can be absorbed by the wood, a rough
surface will be sure to follow.

This may, of course,

be rubbed down and re-finished, but never with


that perfection of result which is assured by laying
a good foundation in correct filling. It may be set

down

as a fundamental principle of

wood

finishing

AND RE-FINISHING

FINISHING
that the best result

is

215

obtained when the filhng or

surfacing has been so thoroughly done that the

thinnest of finishing coats, few in number, are re-

quired to produce the desired result.

Liquid Fillers or Surfaces.


of fillers in

common

use,

There are many kinds


may

but they

all

be con-

sidered as belonging to one or the other of


classes.
fillers.

They
Woods

are

either

liquid

fillers

or

two

paste

differ greatly in the coarseness or

The

fineness of their grain.

woods require a
the pores of the

filler

coarse or open-grained

with body enough to close up

wood and

give that perfectly even

surface necessary as a foundation for good finishing.

The

close-grained woods, on the other hand, do not

present the same

absorb a paste

filling

filler.

problem.

In fact,

it is

They could not


hardly too much

to say that the fine, close-grained woods, like maple,

gum

wood, and birch, do not need a

and there are some coarse-grained

filler

at

woods,

all;

like

southern or hard pine and cypress, the pores of

which are naturally

filled

with

gummy

substances and will not absorb an

But

all

or resinous

artificial filler.

such woods do need to be given a finish-

ing surface which will prevent the finishing coats

from soaking into the


the

office

of

fibre of the

the so-called liquid

wood.
fillers,

This

is

which

HOME DECORATION

216

properly called "first coaters" or '*sur-

are very
facers."

H(yw

to

Make a Liquid Filler.

A standard formula

for the preparation of a liquid filler

Mix

is

as follows:

four parts by weight of carbonate of soda with

china clay, and grind this mixture in

six parts of

about eight parts of japan, thinning the product


with turpentine or benzine to the consistency of
Laundry starch may be used in place
linseed oil.
of china clay, giving

filler

which

easier of application than the clay


it

does not

especially

settle.
if

it

is

somewhat

filler

because

It lacks in durabihty, however,

is

not well covered.

The

finest

grained woods do not require the addition of any


material to the
of liquids

may

to give body.

filler

great variety

be easily obtained which, without

being mixed with anything,

will give

the necessary

surface.

Glue
of

size,

water

glass,

varnish, thinned

if

and the cheaper grades

necessary with benzine or

turpentine, are often used for this purpose.

these are

all inferior

to the standard surfacers

But
and

never should be used on the best grades of wood-work.


Shellac is always preferred as a first coater for hard
it

keeps the resinous sap in the pores of the

wood and

preserves the natural colour of the grain.

pine, as

AND RE-FINISHING

FINISHING

hard pine without

If oil is applied to

Shellac

is

other woods also.

It

an excellent

coater for

first

commonly used

is

applying

first

wood blackens

this protecting coat of shellac, the

with age.

217

in

house

But

finishing as the surfacer for the interior trims.

dries rapidly,

it

The
ful

first

and generally with a rough

coating of shellac, therefore, requires care-

sand-papering before the varnish

is

put on.

Time Needed for a Shellac Coat to Dry.


well to caution the amateur finisher as

It

may

drying

may

While

be truly said to dry very rapidly, the


is

upon the outer

necessarily

be

to the time

required for the thorough drying of shellac.


it

surface.

first

surface, form-

somewhat the dry-

ing a hard coating which delays

ing throughout, so that a shellac filling

is

not really

dry enough to sand-paper a half hour or so after


it

has been applied, though

It

is

may

it

appear to be.

a good rule to allow at least twenty -four hours

for

thorough drying; and

all

methods of

filling,

may

it

rubbing

be well to add that

off, etc.,

require for

the best results more time than energetic workers

sometimes allow.
Cost of Surfacing

amateur

A practical

finisher will ask

advance how much


of work,

and what

is,

filler is

will

question that the

how can one know

in

needed for given pieces

be

its

cost.'^

For a good

HOME DECORATION

218

quality of liquid
will

filler it is

safe to say that

one pint

The

cover eight square yards with one coat.


greatly,

varies

cost

of the

filler

depending upon the quality

and whether

of a dealer.

it is

home-made

good commercial

filler

or obtained
or surfacer

can be bought for $1.50 per gallon, making the cost


per square yard of one-coat surfacing

about ^V^

A small can costs 15 cents. Good work cannot

cents.

be done with the cheaper grades of

which

Shellac,

can be

in all, the best of surfacers,

all

is,

filler.

bought for $1.85 a gallon, which would make the cost


of surfacing

Hoic

to

such as

somewhat under

Make

3 cents a square yard.

a Paste Filler.

good paste

filler,

required for the open-grained woods like

is

oak, ash, baywood, and poplar or white wood,

be made from pulverized and floated

silica as

thoroughly mixed with raw linseed

oil,

and japan

in equal parts, with

enough

may

a base,

turpentine,
silica

added

to the liquid mixture to form a good paste of a con-

somewhat thicker than

sistency

If the

paste.
thick,

The

it

final

hand

mixture should prove to be a


easily

filler

too

requires grinding in a

Unless a considerable quantity of

it is

filler

little

be thinned with turpentine.

mixing of this

mill.

needed
paste

may

paper-hangers*

it is

quite as well to purchase a can of the

of a dealer in painters' or finishers' sup-

FINISHING

AND RE-FINISHING

plies,

though commercial

quite

so

They

often contain

i>19

are not generally

fillers

good as a one made on

this

formula.

wax and whiting and other

materials as a base which are not so satisfactory


in the long

run as the floated

silica.

How a Paste Filler is Applied. Paste


be spread on the surface to be
with a wide,

stiff

filled

fillers

should

very liberally

brush, allowed to stand from five

and then rubbed

to seven minutes,

off

with a piece

of burlap or a handful of fine shavings or excelsior.

But

it

must not

the grain.

be rubbed

all

This

it

in

smooth.

or

drawn out

of

an easy mistake for an inex-

is

perienced worker to make.

rub

oft'

The

thing to do

is

to

and at the same time leave the surfaces

The

surfaces should then be allowed to

dry for about twenty-four hours before receiving


the final finishing coats.

VARNISHING

The importance

of a

good foundation surface

even, smooth, and free from unsealed pores that

would absorb and thus undermine the


of

varnish has been

filling

and surfacing.

well laid, the

amateur

first

coat

explained in the section on

foundation has been

If this

finisher

may

enter

upon the

varnishing stage of his work with confidence; but

he

will

soon learn that there

is

much

call for skill

HOME DECORATION

220
in order to

of the
tion,

produce the desired results

finishing process.

and application

and great

skill

The

of varnish

comes only as the

in this part

selection, preparais

a special calling,

result of experience;

but certain main facts and principles are easily


learned.

How

a Good Varnish is Recognized.

It

is

hardly

necessary to say that a superior varnish must be


clear,

transparent, and brilliant.

These

qualities

But

are always associated with this kind of finish.


durability

is

also a necessary quality.

An expert will,

with his eyes shut, recognize a high-grade varnish

by

its

He

one.

him an agreeable
once detect inferior grades by the

peculiar odour, which


will at

is

to

rank, sharp odour of resin and benzine used


their manufacture.
in varnishes is

The range

of quality

artistic

work only the best varnish

and

may be bought for $3.00 a gallon.

''Sag''

easily

and

and cost

probably greater and more varied

than in any other finishing material.

this

in

How

Corrected.

is

For

fine,

allowable;

A good varnish flows

from the brush, spreads evenly, and dries

slowly, thus allowing plenty of time for its proper

distribution over the surface.

And time enough

should be taken to apply an even coat which will

not dry unequally and lead to cracking due to

FINISHING

AND RE-FINISHING

2^1

irregular contraction in the process of hardening.


It

is

of the

utmost importance that each coat be

spread evenly over the surface

when

applied.

first

Great care should be taken not to brush long in one


Re-brushing after a brief interval leaves

place.

brush

Unequal

marks which are objectionable.

spreading on broad surfaces often causes


nish to run or "sag."

brushed out
is

if

the var-

tendency to sag

attended to promptly.

may

But,

if

not noticed until the varnish has begun to

the only way to prevent a bad blemish

is

be
it

set,

to absorb

the thickening parts of the coat by means of a partly


dried brush; and this

must not be attempted three

or four minutes after the varnish has been put on.

By

that time

it will

have become quite well

set

and

a sag will be beyond repairing by any simple means.

Time Required Between Varnish

Coats.

The best

varnishes, as has been stated, dry quite slowly,

and they seem to dry and harden not, as shellac


does, on the top first, but from the under surface
outward.
allowing

This peculiarity emphasizes the need of


suflicient

time between coats.

should be added that mere drying

is

not

And
all

it

that

Each coat must harden; and during


the process of hardening slight movements take
place throughout the mass of the coat until it be-

is

required.

HOME DECORATION

222

comes permanently

set

The time

or hardened.

required for this permanent setting or seasoning,


as

it

may

be called, varies with the character of

the under coat, with the temperature of the


in

which the finishing

of the varnish

is

coat

done, and with the thickness

itself.

Five days

usually

is

As many

thought to be a short seasoning period.

weeks would not be too long for the best


It

is

folly to

attempt to hurry up a job

In the nature of the case

out yielding disastrous

room

it

results.

of varnishing.

cannot be hurried with-

There

results.

no other

is

kind of work in which "haste makes waste" with


the certainty that

it

does in varnishing.

pains must be taken with each coat.

Great

Least of

all

should the under coats be slighted, for solidity and

depth

in

the appearance of the finished surfaces

depend upon there being plenty


well
is

of evenly laid

and

final or finish

coat

hardened varnish before the

applied.

All this

work should be done

lighted room, free from dust,


of fresh air, kept at

70 degrees

in a well-

and with a good supply

an even temperature, of about

certainly

not colder than

this, since

a lower temperature prevents varnish from spreading


evenly.

Number

of Coats Needed.

The

number

of coats

of varnish required vary with the character of the

FINISHING

What

work.

is

AND RE-FINISHING

223

as piano finish requires from

known

three to seven under coats of good elastic rubbing


A-^arnish,

each well hardened and rubbed down to give

under surfaces more even than the best brushing can


In addition to these under coats a

give.

coat

needed to give brilhancy and

is

How

Rub Doion

to

varnish

is

lustre.

Rubbing

The beginning of

the operation consists


pulverized

long and persistent rubbing with

pumice stone mixed with

work

is

down

a unique and important part in the process

of finishing.

of

Variiish.

final finish

oil

or with water,

if

the

such that water would have no chance to

soak into the pores of the wood. Whichever liquid


is used, a rubbing pad will be found necessary.

This

is

a block about 4 inches square,

In use

loose cloth like felt or hair cloth.

moistened

in the oil or

made

of thick,
it is first

water and then dipped into

a box containing a quantity of powdered pumice.

With

this the varnished surface

giving a circular

down

movement

the broad surfaces.

gresses, less

and

Near the end

less of

is

rubbed vigorously,

to the
x\s

pad

in

the smoothing pro-

the pumice powder

of the process

rubbing

enough

will

is

used.

be found

on the surface or adhering to the rubbing pad.


What remains on the surface is finally all wiped off
carefully with chamois skin, when it will be found

HOME DECORATION

224

that the surface has been levelled

down but

that

it

covered with fine scratches due to the grains of

is

These are removed by a second rub-

the pumice.

bing in rotten stone and

oil

or water.

Dull Finish and Flat Varnish.

For many purposes

good finishing requires but one under coat rubbed


down and covered with a finish coat; and this finish
coat

is

lustre.

For furniture a dull

its

retain

finish

is

its

natural

much

to be

more durable, it harmonizes better


surroundings, and it is more in keeping with

preferred.

with

not allowed to

often

It

is

the idea of simplicity and usefulness.


for a dull finish

it is

In working

not so essential to secure depth

and evenness of surface as it is when a high lustre is


required, and therefore fewer coats are necessary.
In

fact,

a dull finish

out any varnish at


lac,

all.

be given to furniture with-

Two

or three coats of shel-

each well rubbed down, give a very satisfactory

result.

Wax

finish,

beautiful effects.
flat

may

to

be described

later,

gives

There are varnishes known as

varnishes which give a dull finish without rub-

bing.

They

are

made by

dissolving beeswax in

turpentine in the proportion of two ounces of the


solid to a pint of the liquid, using

warm with
warm varnish. What

mixing the wax solution while


the quantity of

moderate heat and


four times
is

known

AND RE-FINISHING

FINISHING

Dutch

as the old

finish is

obtained by using over the

proper stain one coat of wax varnish.

no kind

225

But

there

of dull finish so durable as that given

is

by

several coats of high-grade varnish, each well rubbed

down.

WAX

How

Prepare and Apply Finishing Wax.

to

simplest and at the

with finishing wax.

which has of

esses

arts

and

is

and

is

one of the old procbeen revived by the

becoming deservedly

wax may be purchased ready


may be made by dissolving yellow

Finishing

for use or it

parts

This

late years

crafts societies

popular.

beeswax

in turpentine

wax and one

wax should be

in

the proportion of two

of turpentine.

To do

this the

cut into small pieces or shavings,

placed in a dish, and covered with the liquid.


solution

The

same time one of the most


finishing woodwork is rubbing

methods of

attractive
it

FINISH

may

bath; but,

if

The

be hastened by heating in a water


a gas flame be used for heating the

water, care should be exercised to extinguish the

flame before bringing the turpentine near, on account


of the inflammable character of turpentine vapor.

This mixture, which


brush,

may

is

too thick to spread with a

be applied either hot or cold by means

of a piece of soft cloth.

Soft cloths, like clean

HOME DECORATION

226

The

cheese cloth, should be used also in rubbing.

rubbing should be continued for a considerable time,

by no means so tedious a process as the


rubbing down of the several coats of varnish. Less
rubbing is required if the wax is applied hot. One
of the greatest advantages of the wax finish is that
it may be quickly applied and immediately rubbed

but

is

it

down,

after

Filling

and

is

which the furniture

is

ready for use.

finishing are accomplished together.

also easy to apply a fresh coat of

In fact,

time.

is

it

pieces of furniture in this

the

first

to

desirable

way

wax

at

re-finish

It

any

new

several times during

few months of their use, and after that about

once a year.

STAINING
Object of Staining.
of

considered

finishing

wood

treated

ing that

it

Up to

is

this point the processes

assumed that the

have

to retain its natural colour, except-

may darken

with age.

desirable to give artificial colours


i.

e.,

to dye or stain

of purposes

to

it.

This

is

But it is often
to woodwork

done

for a variety

reduce to one tone the different

shades of the natural colour often found in the same

kind of wood, to bring out the natural beauty of


the grain and texture, to give an entirely
to the cheaper kinds of

wood

in

new

colour

imitation of the

FINISHING AND RE-FINISHING


more expensive
will

kinds,

227

and to produce tones that

harmonize with various colour schemes.

To

accomplish this great variety of results, scores of


have been put
different kind of wood dyes or stains
the market in almost countless shades and

upon

but they are

tints,

heads.

They

are

all

easily classified

oil stains,

under three

water stains, or alcohol

stains.

Perfect

Stain.

perfect stain,

if

it

could be

free from
obtained, would be a clear, limpid liquid,
specks of colouring matter
all solid particles or

and interfere
that might clog the pores of the wood
so clear and
with the absorption of the filler

transparent that

it

would

in

no way obscure the

is the
grain of the wood, which in many varieties
so limpid that it would
chief element of beauty

deep into the pores of the wood, carrysurface an


ing to a considerable depth below the
on exposure.
artificial colour which will not fade

easily soak

Water, Alcohol, and Oil Stains Compared. The


water and alcohol stains on the whole meet these

requirements better than the oil stains do. They


have great
are clear, and without body, and they
are not free from faults.

penetration.

But they

Many

water stains are made from aniline

of the

dyes which are not durable.

The

alcohol stains.

HOME DECORATION

228

Both the water

however, are generally permanent.

and the alcohol stains raise the grain of the


wood and are liable to show darker in corners and
on end grains and to show laps from re-brushing.

stains

on the other hand, are free from these


They spread easily and evenly, they do
faults.
not raise the grain, they do not double up or show

The

oil stains,

and they do not fade; but they have


a few defects which overbalance these good qualiThey have considerable body which prevents
ties.
laps or streaks,

them from penetrating equally


surface, so that they

parts of

all

do not carry

the

in the colouring

Their

as either the water or the alcohol stains do.

nature causes them partly to close up the


filaments of the wood and thus interfere with the

oily

subsequent process of

filling.

This

defect that oil stains are not to be


for open-grained woods,

is

so

bad a

recommended

the fine finish of which

depends so much on correct

filling.

They

are

more

successful with the close-grained woods, which need

only to be surfaced with shellac or the ordinary


liquid

filler.

Haw

woodwork

of
is

Stain

the

to.

first of

The

is
is

Applied.

If furniture or

any kind

to be artificially coloured, staining

the finishing operations to be attended

stain should be spread

upon well-cleaned

AND RE-FINISHING

FINISHING
surfaces

by means

of a brush, a cloth, or a sponge,

and allowed to stand

may

229

for a

penetrate well into

few minutes so that

should then be carefully wiped


cloths or cotton waste to

The

the wood.

it

surfaces

with clean, soft

off

remove any

stain that

may

not have soaked into the wood, and thus prevent


streaked or painted effect.

surface

is

thoroughly dry, a

After the stained

filler,

coloured to match

the stain, should be applied and rubbed well into


the pores, as already explained in the section on

natural finish.

The beginner

need to be cau-

will

tioned again and again not to rub the

filler all off

draw

it

it

out of the grain, but to rub

He

as possible.

will also

in as

need to be on

his

or

much
guard

against the presence of moisture or grease, which


will interfere

with good

results.

Excellent prepared stains in great variety

be easily obtained of dealers

They
for

will

in painters' supplies.

not always produce the

them, but with a

little

may

effects

experimenting

claimed

it is

possi-

ble to find prepared stains that will give almost

any desired

result.

They

are

somewhat expensive,

however, and the amateur finisher


develop his

own

stain.

may

prefer to

Following are some sugges-

tions along this line:

Asphaltum and Golden Oak Stain,

A good choco-

HOME DECORATION

280
late

brown

may

stain

light-coloured

be produced on almost any

wood by a very

thin varnish

made by

colouring turpentine with asphaltum and applying

with a brush.

tum should be
or

used, but liM enough to

This

sticky liquid.
shellac

considerable quantity of asphal-

will

finishing

quartered oak

it

as golden oak.

make

need to be finished with

When

varnish.

applied

to

produces the beautiful effect known


It

may

also be used

on white wood

to give an imitation of black walnut;

and Georgia

pine under this stain takes on a very attractive tone

without obscuring the natural figure of the wood.

Mahogany.

A clever imitation

of

mahogany may

be made by staining birch of the right grain with

logwood

stain.

The

stain

is

made by

boiling to-

gether equal parts of logwood chips and water for

about

three

hours.

chloride of tin

shade of colour

is
is

is

hot,

added gradually

until the right

The

stain should be

produced.

allowed to cool before


coats

While the mixture

may be needed

it is

applied,

and then several

to secure the right depth of

The filler used should be coloured with


burnt umber and sienna. The finish may be a
shade.

brilliant or a flat varnish, or

BayiDOod as Mahogany.

wax.

Mahogany

applied to baywood, resulting in

stain

is

also

what commonlv

FINISHING AND RE-FINISHING

231

The genuine article,


an imported wood coming from South

passes for real mahogany.

however,

is

America, Mexico, and Africa in several varieties;

and

it is

the American

much harder wood than

baywood imitation. Both the birch and the baywood imitations of mahogany may be so well stained
and finished that it is difficult to distinguish them
from the imported
Flemish Oak.
of special

The various oak stains are worthy


Flemish oak

mention.

almost black.
stain

varieties.

made

It

of

is

very dark,

finish is

prepared by

first

applying a

bichromate of potash dissolved in

water in the proportion of one half pound of

chromate to a gallon

of water.

The

bi-

solution should

be strained and applied with a stiff brush. After


drying, the surface is well sand-papered and a coat
of thin black stain

is

applied,

made by

japan drop-black in turpentine.

This

to stand a few minutes, then wiped

the surface
is

applied.

the surface

and

is

is

allowed

and when

thoroughly dry a coat of thin shellac

After a thorough drying and hardening


is

smoothed down with

fine

sand-paper

finished with wax.

Mission Oak.

may

off,

dissolving

be

The

so-called mission

in several colours,

but as a rule

oak

it is

gray with the flakes slightly reddish.

finish

of a dull

The

stain

HOME DECORATION

232
is

made from drop-black

in

oil,

tinged with a

and thinned with japan and turpentine.

rose pink,

The mixture should be

through cheese

strained

cloth

and applied with a staining brush.

finish

is

Wax

invariably used for mission oak.

Forest Green Oak.

Forest

green oak

the best of the green effects in this wood.


is

little

made by mixing two

among
The stain

is

parts of chrome green with

one part of chrome yellow for the colouring material.


This

is

added to a mixture

and one

The

raw

linseed

oil,

with a

resulting stain should be

linseed

rubbed in and dried,

thin

very

shellac

little

little

white japan.

somewhat thinner than

After this has been applied to the oak

oil.

surface,
of

of

of three parts turpentine

coloured

green aniline.

it

with

is

given a coat

tumeric

and a

This should have a wax

finish.

Gray Oak.

A gray stain may be given to oak by

a solution of iron sulphate,

made by

dissolving a

small quantity of chemically pure crystals in water,

and giving the solution a strongly acid quality by


adding a little sulphuric acid. This solution is most
conveniently used by placing it in a box tank large
enough to contain the pieces of wood to be stained,
as they

must soak

in the solution until they are

thoroughly saturated.

The

pieces

may be

kept

FINISHING

AND RE-FINISHING

233

separate by stout cords tied around them, and they

may be held under the solution by means of weights.


When taken out they should be allowed to dry before they are

rubbed down.

Weathered Oak.

Weathered oak stain

is

made by

taking two ounces of copperas and the same quantity


of dry tannin, dissolving

them separately

in

about

a quart of water, and when thoroughly dissolved

mixing them together.


gives

it

slight

shellaced

the

natural

bluish

cast.

and

finished

When

applied to oak

weathered
It

may

with

it

tone

with

then be

oiled,

flat

varnish

or

wax.

Fumed Oak and

Chestnut.

But

the most satis-

method of giving a brown tone to furniture


or other woodwork, is without question, by fuming
with ammonia, though this process is limited to
two woods, viz., white oak and chestnut. All

factory

other woods, including red oak, are deficient in


tannic acid, the essential element to combine with

the

ammonia gas

in the production of the stain.

This method requires a fuming box of

sufl^icient

dimensions to contain the article of furniture to

be fumed.
all

It

its joints

them

must be

carefully constructed with

made vapour

strips of

proof by pasting over

paper and covering them with shel-

HOME DECORATION

234

The top

box should be
fastened with screws, so that it may be vapour proof
when the box is in use and yet easily removed.
The operation of fuming consists simply in placing
lac.

or one side of the

the furniture in the box with one or more shallow

pans

filled

not the
too weak screwing

with the strongest ammonia

household ammonia, which

is

the top or cover on, and allowing the apparatus


to stand
desired.

glass
light

from 12 to 24 hours, according to the shade


If the

fuming box be provided with small

windows in its adjacent corners, a good


will be thrown across the furniture so that

may be
When the

the development of colour

out

opening

the box.

has been obtained


it is

best to give

desired

shade

and the furniture removed,

a good

it

observed with-

wax

which

finish

will

develop a beautiful velvety texture.


Peculiarities of Fumed Finish.

It

will

be observed

that the toning of quartered oak by the fuming process develops the

beauty of the grain far better than

any other process


be noted the

of staining;

still

and there should

more remarkable

also

fact that the

contrasts of tone are the reverse of those given


staining;

i.e.,

the

by

parts that appear lighter in the

one case are the darker parts in the other.


gives a certain distinction to the

fumed

finish

This

and

AND RE-FINISHING

FINISHING
furnishes a

means

of detecting that

which

235

not

is

genuine.

WHITE ENAMEL

vivid

and very

effective finish for furniture

some rooms is white enamel.


It is used on new work and also in re-finishing old
In the latter case
furniture and other woodwork.
the old finish, whatever it may be, must be removed
and the surfaces thoroughly sand-papered. But
as well as for the trim of

whether the wood be old or not, a satisfactory enamel


be produced

carniot

finish

varnish alone, since, like

all

by using the white


other varnishes,

it

is

somewhat transparent. It is necessary, first, to


a paint made of
coat the wood with flat white
white lead with some zinc oxide for hardening and

thinned with turpentine.


in

any part

of the process.

will generally

Oil should not be used

Three coats

of this paint

be needed to produce the right surface

Each of these coats should be


dry and become well hardened. Two

for the final finish.

allowed to

or three days, better


for

hardening

still

between

a week, should be allowed


coats,

since

insufficient

hardening leads to cracks in the subsequent coats

and develops a tendency to chip


face

is

off.

When

a sur-

ready for the enamel, only one coat of

should be applied, and that should be given not

it

less

HOME DECORATION

236

than one week to harden before

Enamel

wear.

is

it

simply a good varnish coloured

with zinc oxide ground in varnish.


thinned,

with

necessary,

if

exposed to

is

may

It

and

turpentine,

be

it

is

applied with a brush like any other varnish.

PROBLEMS
Problems

in filling

and

in the series of furniture

VII.

It

is

finishing

were developed

making problems

in

Chapter

only necessary to bring forward the un-

work there described and apply to it the


finishing methods outlined in this chapter.
Our
finished

problems

are, therefore, the following:

The Knock-down Bookcase.

wood

it

may,

of black

like its original,

If

in white

be stained in imitation

walnut and waxed.

be of oak, ash, or cherry,

made up

It

and

may, however,

finished

monize with the furniture with which

it

har-

to
is

to be

used.

The Hanging Book Rack.


rack

it

was suggested that

In the design for

it

might be made

wood and given a white enamel finish,


with a mahogany stain and varnish.
The Umbrella Stand.
piece of furniture.

a paste

filler

rubbed down.

Oak was

It needs to

and given two coats

or of

this

of white

baywood

advised for this

be treated with
of varnish, well

AND RE-FINISHING

FINISHING

The Magazine Stand.

The

this stand.

roundings.
if it

Oak

was suggested

depend upon the

color will

and varnishing

Filling

237
for
sur-

be required

will

be given a liquid stain, and wax finish

if it

be

fumed.
The Light Library Table.

wood

a very appropriate
lighter

wood

like

remembered that

Oak was mentioned as

ash
all

treatment with a paste

for this table,

may

suitable wood.
sion

It

filler

before they are finished.

may be

oak stain and a wax


of the

As

given the so-called mis-

finish.

This may be

woods commonly used

in

golden oak

be found very satisfactory.

The Bookcase with Glazed Doors.

This may be

made up in ash, in quartered oak, or


The finish will depend upon the kind
and the furniture with which
The Library Desk and
originals

made

for furniture,

but quartered oak was mentioned.


finish will

was designed

this

oak was chosen as the most

The Round Centre Table.

any

It will be

open-grained woods require

The Heavy Library Table.


in the mission style,

be used.

but some

were made

the

it is

in

gum wood.

of

wood used

to be associated.

Morris Chair.

The

in quartered oak,

fumed, and

This may be made

in quartered

waxed.

The Hall Clock.

HOME DECORATION

238

oak and given a weathered oak stain and

wax

finish,

RE-FINISHING OLD FURNITURE

There

is

nothing that affords more satisfaction

to one looking for pleasing effects in household


fittings

than the occasional piece of genuine old

furniture repaired

and

re-finished.

Some

of

the

rare old colonial designs are of exceptional merit.

proved by the high prices which they often


command. These designs originated in the days

This

is

of the genuine

hand

crafts, before the

machine-made, cheap furniture.

of

invention

The work

of

the older designers was characterized by a certain


individuality which gave

craftsmen

it artistic

who worked out

value; and the

these designs did their

work with such care and thoroughness that what


they produced has had a lasting quality. It is
for these reasons that we find it still in existence
and so much
Caution as
old

desired.

to

Repairs.

furniture,

different

In the work of renovating

problems are met which are very

from those which have to be considered

in the production of

design are settled.

new work.
There

is

All questions of

generally enough of

the original article to show what the design was.

The problem

is

one of restoration; we must supply

AND RE-FINISHING

FINISHING

239

The

the missing parts and re-finish the whole.

any piece

thing to do, therefore, with

antique furniture

to look

is

over carefully from the

it

point of view of the cabinet-maker, note

its

supply the missing or loosened parts, and


It will be

breaks.

found that the wood

is

it will

carefully than

generally
its

therefore need to be handled

new wood;

the

age,

more

and, in matching up,

it

be found desirable to make use of parts

will often

than to add new wood

of other old pieces rather

to the old.

This

is

especially true of veneering,

which cannot be well matched


Old

defects,

mend

exceedingly dry and brittle on account of

and that

first

of genuine

bits of veneer,

is

any other way.

on the other hand,

may

be so

where they are needed

deftly fitted into the spaces

that the grafting

in

entirely obscured

by subsequent

finishing.

Scraping.

After the necessary repairs have been

made, the next thing to be done


old finish.

If the

somewhat cracked,

varnish
it

may

is

is

to

remove the

dry and brittle and

be removed by means

of a well-sharpened scraper, great care being taken,

however, not to injure the wood surface, especially


at the corners

take

off

and edges.

If the scraper

does not

the varnish well at certain points, fine sand-

papering

may

be resorted

to.

It

is

generally wise,

HOME DECORATION

240

also, to give the entire surface

before

it is

a light sand-papering

cleaned up for finishing.

The Varnish Reinover.

It often happens, however,

that the scraper will not accomplish


result.
is

In that case the liquid varnish remover

necessary.

may be found at the paint stores.

This

best formulas for producing these varnish and

The

paint removers are


It

the desired

is

known only

to the manufacturers.

therefore not wise for the

young

finisher to

attempt to make his own remover. He should provide himself with a can of it and a bristle brush
with which to apply

to

it

After

the furniture.

putting on a good coat he should

let

it

remain a

few minutes and then try to scrape off the softened


If it doesn't come off
finish with a putty knife.
readily,

it

should stand a

of time required

But

in

due time

and can be very quickly and

putty knife, however,

After scraping
plain surfaces

The amount

longer.

depends entirely upon the hardness

of the old finish.


soft

little

off

as

will

much

it will

effectually

removed.

not remove

as possible

and from the corners, a

become
it

all.

from the

careful wash-

what
remains. It is of the greatest importance that none
of the old varnish nor any of the varnish remover
should be permitted to remain. Either of them will
ing with turpentine or benzine will clean off

AND RE-FINISHING

FINISHING
show through the
faces
is

and

finish as stains

collect in the corners

241

on the broad sur-

when the new

finish

process

much

put on.
Re-finishing.

The

re-finishing

is

Uke that described for new work, the chief exception


being that there
it

is

generally no need of filling unless

has been found necessary to add new wood in

making the

Generally speaking, the re-

repairs.

finishing begins with the surfacing,

which

may be

done with thin shellac coloured to match the stain


the

of

This

furniture.

is

before receiving the one or

sand-papered lightly

more coats

of finishing

varnish necessary to produce the desired

Very often

wax

all

that

is

needed

is

a well rubbed

effect.

down

finish.

re-finishing an antique mahogany

problem:

TABLE

The

table with which this problem deals

was

found in an old furniture shop among a large number


of pieces probably of equal antiquity

design; for

all

beautiful lines.

some

of the

old furniture

Much

modern

of

it

furniture.

but of poor

was not conceived on

was quite as ugly as


This table, however,

when separated from the rubbish which almost


concealed

it,

was found to have good proportions,

HOME DECORATION

242

with simple but graceful elements designed to


it

It

useful as well as attractive.

The

stock and fluted, terminating

One

with casters.
leaves

leg

legs
in

was broken

had broken away

was a drop-leaf

with a double curve

table, the leaves being cut in

at each of the four corners.

make

entirely

were of turned
thimbles

brass
off,

from

one of the
hinges

its

and the other was partly broken, the table top had
received some hard knocks, and the entire surface
was so begrimed with dust and dirt that it was with
difficulty that

one could

tell

which the table was made.

the kind of

wood

of

It took some imagina-

tion to conceive the possibilities which lay in this

much abused and dilapidated old relic.


The first thing to do was to wipe off the dust and
The
dirt as well as possible with a damp sponge.
part of the top that remained on the frame was then

removed so that the repairs could be easily made.


The broken leg was replaced by boring each of the
broken parts and setting them together with a
J^-inch dowel, glued

were removed and

in.

The

brass tips and casters

set aside to

be burnished.

The

new

pieces

missing parts of the top were replaced by


of

baywood,

the

original

fitted in, glued,

wood.

had been made the

After

and stained to match


the

entire table

necessary

repairs

was treated with

FINISHING

AND RE-FINISHING

243

varnish remover and the old finish scraped

with

This part of the process was com-

a putty knife.
pleted

off

by washing

all

the surfaces thoroughly with

turpentine, carefully picking out with a pointed


knife
kind,

from corners, cracks, and openings of any


all

remnants of the old

remover.

After carefully

finish

and of the varnish

wiping

off

the

results

of this treatment with clean cheese cloth all the

broad surfaces were then smoothed


sand-paper.
filled,

It

so that

with wax.

off

with fine

was found that the wood was well

all it

now needed was a

final finishing

The transformation from the begrimed

old table found in the shop to a graceful


tiful article of

and beau-

antique furniture was complete.

IX
HAND WEAVING
And Aphrodite came

them
and fragrant wine;
And Here gave them beauty of face and soul
Beyond all women; purest Artemis
Endowed them with her stature and white grace;
And Pallas taught their hands to flash along
Her famous looms.
The "Daughters of Pandarua" (from the "Odyssey," Lib. XX).
tion by Mrs. Browning.
With

to comfort

incense, luscious honey,

4 MONG

the

home

Transla-

industries which the arts

and

Zjk crafts societies have lately revived, perhaps


-*^- none invite more interest or deserve greater
honour than weaving with the hand loom.
is

an ancient

art.

If

we were

to seek

its

Weaving
origin we

men adopted
rude coverings made

should have to go back to the time when

homespun clothing
from the skins
for

it

in place of

That was a great change,

of animals.

meant the beginning not only

industries but of civilization

itself.

of the textile

It

is

no wonder

that the distaff and the loom were highly honoured


in ancient mythologies.

Not

less

honour

is

due the

spinning wheels and looms of our grandmothers,


244

:!7

ME^W YORK

PUBLIC LIBRARY
,8TOR.

LENOX

HAND WEAVING
which played an important part
nings

own

our

of

was then

largely a

home

honourable women.

It

communities which

weaving

in the

of

of cloth;

and

this

industry in the hands of

was a work

not without love and devotion.

remain

in the early begin-

The New England

history.

colonists spoke with pride of

showed progress

245

but

of necessity,

Many

evidences

in beautiful coverlets or bedspreads, in towels

homespun

flax, in

cloths examples

durable linen sheets and table-

of unfailing patience, great in-

genuity, and marvellous

skill

handed down

from

generation to generation to their present fortunate

and proud

possessors.

The Primitive Loom.

In

choicest rugs are made,

each other, some strings

and a few simple


quires.

This

hand loom

is

is

it is

two trees growing near


and pieces of bamboo,

accessories, are all the

do not

differ

from

worker

re-

The modern

a primitive loom.

the same in principle; and

of our factories

While

the Orient, where our

it

the looms
essentially.

power has been


great improvement,

true that their productive

enormously

multiplied,

this

which was actually one of the chief causes of a great


industrial revolution,

genius of

two

was due mainly to the inventive

men who

harnessed

the

powers of nature to the English hand looms.

motive

HOME DECORATION

46

Warp and Woof.


all

weaving

is

The

fundamental process

and

essentially the same;

it is

in

exceed-

ingly simple. It consists in passing one set of threads

between two other

sets of threads

other alternately and are

down

moved

which cross each


first

up and then

to allow the passage of the shuttle with

The

bobbin and thread.

set of threads

its

which cross

each other and which, by being moved up and

Shuttle and bobbin

down, interlock the thread which is passed between


them, is known as the warp. The thread w^hich
the shuttle carries across and between the warp
threads

is

called

of materials,

by

By

the woof.
skilful

careful

selection

design in the dyeing and

arrangement of these materials, and by proper management of the warp and woof to express the design,
the most

beautiful

and, though
in our

Oriental

we may not be

rugs

are fashioned;

able to reproduce these

homes, very beautiful and very useful things

may be made upon the hand loom by those who have


the necessary enthusiasm and patience.

HAND WEAVING
What

the

Hand Loom

is.

247

The hand loom consists

of four uprights or posts, joined

on two sides at the

top and bottom by cross pieces.

Attached to the

lower cross piece are two other uprights, one on each

The band loom

side of the loom, bolted in such a

manner

back and

is

free

play

forth.

This

as to give

the

beater.

These cross pieces are grooved on their inner edges,

and into

this

groove

is

slipped the reed, which

frame divided into sections by short,

making from 10

to 25 or

more

stiff

is

wires,

sections to the inch.

HOME DECORATION

248
It

is

from

called a reed because

The

reeds.

was formerly made

sections of the reed are called

and through each one

dents,

it

is

From

strand of the warp.

to be threaded a single

the upper cross pieces

extend two other uprights, one on each

side, to

The

reed

height of about two feet above the general frame-

They

work.

the

called

are united at the top

roll,

by a round piece

over which, near each

end, are

passed cords attached to pulleys which in turn


carry other cords fastened by means of screw eyes
to

inch- wide

of the loom.

extending across the width

sticks

These

sticks are in pairs

and carry

cords or wires of uniform length through the centre


of each of

means
of

of

which a thread

an eye

the reed.

of the

warp

in each wire, as

This

is

called

is

passed by

through the dent

the harness.

There

must be at least two of them, and there may be more.

Two

are necessary for the simplest weaving of a

plain surface, and

more than two

be more complex, as

is

if

the work

is

to

required for scarfs with

fancy borders, cushions, or any figured products


of the loom.

Near each end

of the

loom are two

HAND WEAVING
rollers to

which the two ends

when the loom

249

warp threads

of the

up for weaving.
These rollers are called beams. Over one of them
the woven product passes as the loom is operated,
while the other holds the unwoven warp. At the
are attached

back of the loom

is still

set

is

another cross piece, under-

neath which pedals are fastened.

These pedals

connect by chains with the harnesses in such a manner


that

when

the foot

attached to

it

is

placed on one of

them the cords

play over the pulleys, throwing the

harness and the warp threads which

it

carries

below

the level of the other set or sets of warp threads.

An

ingenious device of cogs at the side of the loom

holds the work taut and enables the worker to let

out fresh warp and also to

roll

up completed work.

THE PROCESS
Preparing the Warp.

When

the essential parts

hand loom and their uses are understood,


the amateur weaver is prepared to make ready the
warp and attach it to the machine. The thread or
warp is taken from spools or cones, four threads at one
of the

time, which constitute

what

is

called a bout.

After

how many threads will be required,


many threads to form one inch of the
woven cloth, the operator must decide how wide

determining
allowing so

HOME DECORATION

250

her warp

to be

is

and how

the length, and the

long.

number

With the width,

of threads to the inch

mind, she proceeds to wind upon her warping


bars or frame the requisite amount until she has it
in

all in

In putting this upon the bars

one great skein.

or frames she should be very careful to cross each

so

bout

shall

go above and one below, in order to allow the

i. e.y

each four threads

that one bout

introduction of a pair of sticks, called lease-sticks

These attachments keep the order


of the threads so that they may be drawn into the
harness in the same order in which they are wound
or leash-sticks.

on the beam.

Warping

the

Loom.

To warp the loom the oper-

ator loosens one end of the skein and, passing

from the warping bars to the loom, attaches


the roller or beam at the back of the loom,
carefully dividing

tributed.

rake

is

At

it

this

so that

it

may

it

it

to

after

be evenly dis-

point an attachment called a

firmly fastened to the loom

by cords and

a certain number of threads placed in each division.


the aid of the lease-sticks, which are inserted,
and with the assistance of a second person to hold

By

the skein firm, the threads are

beam.

The rake

is

wound upon

now removed and

proceeds to set up the piece.

the

the worker

HAND WEAVING
Drawing in

the

Warp.

has

two harnesses only

explained,

threads, the weaver draws

four

through the centre of the


ness, or the

centre of the

one

the

be

to

first

bout of

first

thread

first

har-

one to which the right-hand pedal

The next thread

attached.

need

will

loop in the

first

been

already

Taking the

used for simple weaving.

the

As

Srfl

first

is

is

put through the

loop of the second harness, or

attached to the left-hand pedal.

The

drawn through the second loop of the harness


connected with the right-hand pedal, and the fourth,
third

is

in turn, through the

second loop of the harness

attached to the left-hand pedal.

be exercised that no mistakes


single

Great care must


are

made;

for

misplaced thread means that the work of

drawing

in

must be

kind of hook

is

all

done over again.

special

used to assist in drawing in the

<=
Warping hook

warp.

When

the drawing in

is

completed properly,

the operator begins at the right-hand side of the

loom and, measuring the

reed, allows one half the

width of web from the centre of the reed and draws


each thread through each dent in regular order.

When

this is

done

it is

only necessary to connect

HOME DECORATION

252

the warp threads to the canvas of the

means

of

heavier threads which hold

beam by
the warp

out in the loom, test the work, and proceed joyously


with the weaving.
Beating

Up

Woof.

the

The

weaver presses the

right-hand pedal, and every alternate thread separates from the other, leaving a space between the

two

sets of

warp threads

from right to

left,

for the shuttle to

be thrown

carrying the woof threads through.

The operator then draws this thread up at the


side to make a good selvedge and brings home the
beater, thus pressing the

woof into the warp.

sheer fabric requires a light stroke of the beater, while


firm cloth requires

more

Releasing the right

force.

which causes the

pedal, the operator presses the

left,

warp threads to

more firmly the woof

cross, holding

threads just thrown.


left to right,

The

shuttle

now

passes from

carrying through another woof thread

which, in turn,

is

So the work

beaten up as before.

goes merrily on with the throws of the shuttle alter-

nating from right to

left

and from

to right,

left

interspersed with the strokes of the beater.

problem:
The Design.
house

This

decoration,

making a rug
problem, like

involves

in

its

all

others in

initial

stages

Hand-Made Towels
[Plate VIII]

[Plate

I-^

Hand-Made Rugs

liih;

:^a

NEW YORK

BUG LIBRARY
ASTOI^.

LENOX

TILDtN FOUNDATIOWU

HAND WEAVING
Before planning the rug

questions of design.
is

necessary to

whether

it is

25S

know what

use the rug

it

to have

is

to be for a hall, a living room, a dining-

room, or a chamber, and whether

upon hard wood

it is

to be used

with a carpet.

floors or

This

is

a question of colours, and of materials; for the


designer

must avoid too sharp contrasts

not only in the rug


other

colours

itself

but

which

with

in colour,

in its relation to the

should

it

harmonize,

and the materials used must not display glaring


inconsistencies of texture.

Unless the beginner has

special talent as a colourist

it is

many

the introduction of too

warp

of work.

If the

light or

medium

in the

body

is

dark

woof.

If

not wise to attempt


colours in one piece

it is

usually better to use

several shades are used

of the rug, better results are obtained

by using for the border or end decoration one or


more plain colours which match or readily blend
with the principal colours of the body of the rug.
Materials: Denim.

There

suitable for rug making.

green makes a rug

fit

many

are

Denim

in

for a queen.

materials

moss or

forest

This should

be woven on a blue or green warp thread of carpet


size.

In preparing the woof

it

will

be necessary to

cut the denim on a true bias into strips from 3^ to


of an inch wide.
The latter width is better.

HOME DECORATION

254

In cutting, the best method

to fold back one

is

corner of a square cut end along the selvedge, forming a fold across the cloth at an angle of 45 degrees.

Crease this fold carefully and

make

the

first

With a yardstick or a

along the fold.

edge of some kind rule

off lightly

cut

straight

with a piece of

chalk or soft pencil strips of the proper width for


the succeeding cuts, taking great pains to maintain

a true bias.

When

a sufficient

amount has been

cut, the pieces should be ravelled or fringed

on each

edge by drawing them quickly through a button


hook. There is a certain knack in this, but it is

The

soon acquired.

fringed strips should then be

fastened together at the ends by means of over-

hand

stitching,

The

corners.

proved
rolled
filling

if

trimming

neatly

off

moss-like effect

the woof, as soon as

into balls but left in

the shuttle.

special

all

projecting

when woven
it is

prepared,

is
is

im-

not

suitable lengths for

form

of shuttle with-

Shuttle for woof cloth

out a bobbin or spool


cloth

for

is

rug weaving.

used for carrying the woof


Its

simple

construction

HAND WEAVING
is

shown

The woof

in the illustration.

unwound

endwise and

255
is

wound

weaving by turning tne

in

shuttle.

Another good material

for rug

and handsome

effects

may be

making

Warm,

in various kinds of woollen cloth.

end decoration, with

body

of the rug.

tika,

the pine tree,

possible.

warm shade

set figures for the

Geometric designs, arrows, swas-

and many other forms are

Very dainty colours

bined in rugs for chamber use.

may

found

obtained by using a

gray wool with catawba or some other


of red as the

is

durable,

also

may

be com-

Materials for these

be obtained from worn lawn dresses, discarded

silkaleen

and mull, which work up beautifully

with one or two plain colours reserved for use in


the borders.

Combination of Blue and White.


is

Blue and white

always a happy combination and exceedingly


;

dainty creations

haps

may

in the guest

blue with

be woven, to be placed per-

chamber, by using a woof of old

a white warp,

combined with white

borders and a white knotted fringe.


effect

may

be otained

vine-like

by twisting
opposite ways and weav-

in the border

blue and white together in

ing in a plain thread of white or blue between the

two.

Another happy

combination

of

blue

and

HOME DECORATION

256

white results from weaving on a blue warp a woof


of white outing flannel, cut and fringed as described

moss rug

for the

of denim, with a border of old blue

and

figures of the

for

a bath

room

same

For a chamber or

colour.

white such a rug as this will

in

leave nothing to be desired.

Weaving Design.

design in rug making


materials.

than that.

It
It

It

a question of colours and of

is

more

is

already apparent that

is

largely a question of procedure in

the process of weaving.

shown

has just been said that

this is so

may be

account of the making of a

in the following

blue and white rug.

That

it is

The thought was

to produce

a rug with five stripes of blue running lengthwise,

with white figures at regular intervals through the

middle of the rug.

To

accomplish this result two

threads of white warp were removed from the reed

and harness every two inches


inches on each side, thus
called a

for a space of ten

making what may be

weaving design; for the blue

stripes, it will

be easily seen, had to appear to the number of


five

on each side when the rug was woven. The white

figures

were formed by

or woof through the

first

throwing the blue cloth

warp by the usual throw

the shuttle and, before beating

it

of

up, threading into

the warp white cloth in the desired pattern, after

HAND WEAVING

257

which the woof and pattern were beaten up together.

For the pattern

five threads or pieces of

white cloth were used, two of which were 6 inches


in length

and three 2

White

inches, the

two longer ones

figure in blue rug

being placed between the shorter ones as illustrated.

space of 7 inches was

figures, the location of

left

between the white

which was carefully deter-

mined by counting the threads, both of warp and

of

woof, so that in weaving the figures should appear


at the right place.

The

was a very beautiful

result of this

weaving design

rug.

Another Example of Weaving Design.


ture of rug designing
pansion. Perhaps one

is

This fea-

capable of indefinite ex-

more example may be

given.

was to produce a rug of medium dark


centre with an 8-inch border all around of a darker

The

object

colour. This effect

was produced by

first

weaving

8 inches of the dark end border, which was of mixed

goods

showing

several

dark colours

contrasting

HOME DECORATION

258

Having

where the
begin,
was
to
a
woof
thread
of this
medium
medium colour and of the right length was joined
each time to short pieces of woof of the border colour
happily.

reached

the

place

centre

so that, as the

weaving progressed along the length

of the centre, not only the centre colour appeared


in its

proper place but 8 inches of border on each

side.

When

the proper length of the centre had

been woven, the rug was finished by weaving another


8 inches of the border colour.

The

result

was a

rug of individuality and charm.


Great Variety of Material.
will

occur to any one

this captivating art.


is

almost without

useless as to

Endless combinations

who becomes interested in


The field for colour design

limit.

No

material

is

so old

and

be despised by the clever rug maker.

Old bed ticking with

its

blue and white stripes cut

on the bias makes a very desirable combination


when woven on a blue warp with a plain blue border.

charming mottled

effect

in

one instance was

produced by a yarn which was ravelled from an old


raw silk portiere of a mahogany shade and wound
into balls with finely cut strips of tan cloth, the balls

being rewound several times.

This was used as

the woof for the centre of the rug.

was made of a weaving thread

The border

of the unravelled

HAND WEAVING
mahogany yarn, doubled

259

times

several

to

thread of a size equal to that of the tan cloth.

give

Dis-

carded clothing in which the prevailing colours


are red,

when made up

into

woof threads and woven

on a white warp, gives a charming

effect

which

may

be strengthened or toned down by a border com-

Dyes may,

bination as desired.
if

of course, be used

the colours of the weaving threads

old cloths

and discarded clothing are not suited

to the design that

Weaving

made up from

the

is

to be worked out.

Rug. When

the design for the rug

has been thoroughly worked out, determining the


colours, materials to be used,

and the method

of

procedure, the warp and the woof threads should be

prepared and the warp attached to the loom, as


already explained in the discussion of the general
process of weaving.

Further details of procedure

are not needed here.

The thing to do is to weave


The next thing to do is to

a rug as designed.

design and weave another rug, and then another and


so on.
is

the

As

in

great

faithful work,

failure

Some

most

crafts so in weaving, experience

teacher

who

teacher

finds lessons of value in every

and abundant

satisfaction in every success.

of these successes were

illustrated opposite

who demands

page 252.

found in the rugs

HOME DECORATION

260

Rug weaving

is

probably the simplest of

all

weaving and therefore a good problem with which


to begin.

After serving a satisfactory apprentice-

ship in this field the amateur will have acquired


sufficient

knowledge of design and

in the art to pass to


will

more

difficult

take her out into a large

Portieres,

window

and covers

problems.

field of

skill

This

opportunity.

draperies, table scarfs, bedspreads,

and cushions

pillows

for

sufficient

endless

in

variety will suggest themselves to the ambitious

In

worker.
of rug

these, as has been seen in the case

making, design

agement
weaving.
for the

all

of the

loom

What

most

is

is

all

important.

much

The man-

the same in

all

plain

differences there are will be found,

part, in the

weaving designs.

following problems are described

some

In the

of the special

features involved in the other forms of weaving.

problem:

portieres and couch covers

Suggestions for the Design.

If the

loom

is

wide

enough these may be woven in one piece; but usually it is necessary to weave them in sections or
breadths.

In this case, of course, they must be

afterward neatly joined.

The

design are naturally varied.

possibilities in colour

They may be woven

with a woof of plain colour contrasting with the

col-

HAND WEAVING

261

our of the warp, in stripes, or with plain centres with


Harmony of colour effects is always
striped ends.
to be sought.

Depth and

richness

may

sometimes

be obtained to a highly satisfactory degree by a


generous use of black. Materials may be yarns,
bits of silk or velvet, or pieces of fine, soft woollen

The warp may be

goods.

cerized cotton.

silk

or linen or mer-

Beautiful portieres have been

woven

by leaving out two threads of warp at regular


Silk and
intervals, giving a loose and fluffy effect.
wool pieces

may be

used in the woof, alternating

with one or more threads of wool yarn of any desired shade; and,

if

of the

same colour

as the

warp

used, they will impart a very decided tone to the

whole product.

In portieres, the general appear-

much improved if the woof is not beaten up


hard into the warp. The soft beating gives a result-

ance

is

ing texture that


for

is

more

pliable

and more suitable

hanging in easy folds such as

is

demanded

in

Couch covers, however, which will have


to resist more wear and tear, should be beaten up
In preparing the silk and wool pieces the
harder.
cloth should be cut into very fine strips, joined by
carefully lapping the ends, and, by cutting away

portieres.

a part of the cloth, making the joint uniform in


size.

If the material is cloth of ordinary thickness

HOME DECORATION

262

^^ inch

3^2

is

The

quite wide enough for strips.

may vary greatly, though


may be somewhat different in colour. They
may vary all the way from a few inches to a length
length of the pieces used

they

long enough to weave an inch in the portiere or cover.

This makes

it

very easy to secure a source of supply

garments and short

for the material in saving old

pieces of cloth for the specific purpose of

up the woof threads

for these products of the loom.

Almost any household


in a short

making

be able to save enough

will

time to furnish the material for a beautiful

pair of portieres or a couch cover which will be dur-

able in quality, easy to clean, attractive in colour,

and

satisfactory

from every point

of view.

problem:

window draperies and curtains

The Design.

Curtains of one colour or of several

woven on the simple loom with two harnesses.


They may be of the soft cream tint, the material
for which is easily obtained and the effect of which,
are

in softening the light passing


little

to be desired.

But

if

quired, the weaving design

to secure this result.


at

first

give

through them, leaves


a

may be

One may,

inches of the plain

woven material enough

little

colour be reeasily

changed

for example,

cream.

for a 2-inch

weave

This

hem

will

at the

An

Alcove With

Window
All

Window
Rug

Draperies, Pillow Covers,

Seat Cover, Chair Seat and Moss Green

Hand Woven

HAND WEAVING
bottom

of the

and 5 inches before the

curtain

The border may-

beginning of a coloured border.

two threads

consist of

two threads

263

of colour alternating with

making a

of the cream, thus

about 7 inches in width.

Following this

stripe of

may come

8 to 10 inches of the plain cream, followed in turn

by a narrow

same colour as the border,


3 inches wide, in turn followed by another 10 inches
of the plain cream and another narrow stripe, and
stripe of the

so on, alternately, until the required length of the

curtain has been woven.

may

be woven

in,

though

If desired, a
it is

well to

top border

make

it

some-

bottom say

what narrower than the one at the


about 5 inches
and it must be added so that it
will show below the hem.
In any case the top of the
curtain should be woven plain, allowing for hemming, and also for shirring if a rod is to be inserted

for hanging the curtain.

Vertical stripes are often

desirable in curtains, especially

if

the

room

is

so

low studded as to invite the employment of every


possible
stripes

means

may

warp
as,
and white

for

making

it

seem higher.

for example, blue

with one

and white or green

of these colours as woof.

Importance of Selecting Good Warp.


cessful

Such

be made by using two colours for the

working out of

this

The

suc-

problem depends very

HOME DECORATION

264

upon the proper

largely

While many

may

things

selection

of

be used for

materials.

warp with a

certain degree of success, there are fine points to

be observed in weaving as in

and the

real

the art-crafts,

all

beauty of the result depends upon

giving due attention to these points.

remember that

well to

in

all

weaving the warp

plays a most important part.

warp works out

It is always

Mercerized cotton

effectively with silk or linen

or with a combination of both, and retains


after being laundered

shade

it

But

if

silk

may

beauty

In the soft cream

has almost the appearance of

less cost.

price

many times.

its

woof

silk,

at a

much

often be obtained at a low

the weaver lives in the neighbourhood of a

silk mill.

Bargains in small lots of unsalable colours

may be secured with which the weaver may do wonders; and if the colours are not good the silk may be
Our grandmothers saved
a week or more, boiled them,

dyed at small expense.


their tea

grounds for

and made a dye which gave a beautiful gray warp.


They were, in fact, very particular about their warp-

Not everything would

ing threads.

learned from
of goods

is

experience

them

them. They

that the wearing quality

improved by having the warp stronger

and harder twisted than the


for

suit

filling.

It

was common

to spin a certain thread for this purpose.

HAND WEAVING

265

Exquisite results follow the use of a fine linen

warp

in white or natural colour with linen or silk

Striking and beautiful also, in

for filling.
is

its

way,

the very coarse linen warp.


Variety in

Woof

Threads.

very pleasing effect

in sash curtains or in full length

window

draperies

produced by weaving heavy threads alternately


with fine threads, using two shuttles or bobbins, one
is

holding the heavy thread and the other the fine

Two

one.

and

more threads may be alternated

in

as the fancy of the designer prompts;

way

this

or

this style of

weaving

may be

confined to borders,

leaving the body of the fabric plain, or the borders

may
body

be woven of the

heavy threads and the

of the curtains or draperies ribbed

alternate coarse

and

are very beautiful in

be used

may

solid,

if

fine threads.

with the

Such curtains

cream white; but colour may

the colours are fast so that the curtains

be successfully laundered.

PATTERN WEAVING
Before undertaking more

weaving

it will

two important

difficult

problems

in

be necessary to explain in general


processes.

The

first

one

is

the

process of pattern weaving; the second,

dyeing.

by many

families

Among

the heirlooms treasured

HOME DECORATION

266

are

the

beautiful

blue

and white

coverlets

or

bedspreads and the hand-woven table-cloths and


towels.

No

who

one with strong domestic tastes

has been fortunate enough to see these products


of

home

industry can have failed to be charmed with

wrought designs and with the


quaint names by which they were once well known;
the

wonderfully

for our

grandmothers designated these designs by

such names as Spring Flowers, Governor's Garden,


the Path of the Roses, Flowers of Lebanon, Ladies'

by many more
names which have been lost. This work in pattern
design is wrought by the use not of two pedals
Delight, Fairies Ring, and doubtless

and harnesses, right and left, as used in the first


three problems, but by the use of several additional
harnesses.

To Be Learned by Experimenting.
in

If

the beginner

weaving has mastered the use of the simple loom

with two harnesses

edge and

skill to

weaving loom.

it is

possible to extend her knowl-

the successful operation of a pattern

But the procedure

is

too technical

and too varied to be described in detail as


tions for a practical problem for amateurs.
far better to experiment with a

loom of

direc-

It

is

this kind

under the guidance of some person competent to


point out the

way

step

by

step.

Nor

will

it

be

THE NEW YORK


PUBLIC LIBRARY
ASTOH. LFNOX

TIUDtN FCL'NDATIQNB

HAND WEAVING

267

a brief description of this somewhat

possible, in

intricate subject, to suggest ideas for original

ing designs to ambitious beginners

up pattern
designs

may

of

to take

traditional

the

be otained as material for study and

After a

practice.

Copies

weaving.

who wish

weav-

little it will

be possible to make

and so lead to the delight of originating


simple and perhaps more elaborate new patterns.
Complete working
Hoio Patterns Are Written.
variations

directions for pattern

be attempted in

weaving

this chapter;

but

will
it

therefore not

may be

possible

to point out a few leading facts and principles which


will

be of assistance to the experimenter who ven-

tures to take

up by

herself this interesting applica-

Patterns for this work

tion of the art of weaving.

are plainly written out from right to left on cross section paper, as

panying

shown

illustration,

in the

upper part of the accom-

each horizontal section of which

corresponds to one of the harnesses of the loom and


the pedal attached to

it.

If

we have a

four-harness

loom, as would be required for working the pattern

and weaving the

figures illustrated, the

pedal and the harness connected with

right-hand
it,

which

is

the one farthest from the operator, are designated

by the number 1, and correspond to that harness


number in the pattern. Following in order, the

HOME DECORATION

268

-I

Repeat

-4

i-*

written pattern with a variety of figures

woven from

it

2-5


HAND WEAVING
next

pedals

three

269

and connected harnesses are

numbered 2, 3, and 4 to correspond with the same


numbers in the pattern. Turning now to the vertical sections of

we

the pattern,

shall find that

each

one corresponds to a certain warp thread, so that

when the pattern is "drawn in" i. e., when the


warp for weaving the pattern is attached to the
we shall find the thread of the warp which
loom
is to be drawn through the first loop or wire indicated
by a mark on the section of the pattern corresponding to that warp thread and to the number of the

harness through which


ing

the

to
first

the

pattern

thread

is

drawn.

it is

shown

to be

in

drawn

Thus, accord-

the

illustration,

into the 3d harness,

the 2d thread into the 4th harness, and 3d thread


into the 3d harness, and so on alternately until we

reach the 8th thread, which

is

drawn

into the

2d

harness; the 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th, and 12th threads are

drawn

alternately into the 2d

and 3d harnesses, and

the 13th, 14th, 15th, 16th, and 17th are drawn alternately into the 1st and 2d harnesses. This process is

by

now

continued, as will be clearly understood

reference to the pattern,

the 42d thread,


will

up to and including

when one drawing

have been completed.

in of the pattern

further study of the

pattern shows that the marks on lines 3 and 4 form

HOME DECORATION

270

continuously

alternating

that those on 2 and

3, 1

and

a continuously alternating

and

series;
2,

and

and 4 form also

But

series.

similarly

these

num-

however paired, correspond to the harnesses


into which the warp threads, indicated by the num-

bers,

bers 1 to 42, are drawn.

we have drawn

in as

It thus appears that after

many warp

threads as the

pattern calls for once around in the order indicated


in

the pattern,

we have prepared

the loom for

We

must therefore
draw in the rest of the warp threads in the same
order as those already drawn in, thus repeating
weaving one

of these patterns.

the drawing in of the pattern as

many

times as

required for the width of the piece to be woven.

The

illustration

shows two "repeats" of the pat-

tern.

Operation of the

Harnesses.

Having

the method of drawing in the pattern,

explained

we may now

study the movement of the harnesses necessary to


guide the warp properly for the weaving of the
pattern.

It has been noted that, with the pattern

under consideration, harnesses

and 3 hold a con-

tinuous line of alternating warp threads, leaving


harnesses 2 and 4 to take up

warp threads.

down

pedals

If
1

all

the intervening

then the operator should throw

and 3 together, and alternately 2

HAND WEAVING
and 4

271

the warp threads would be

also together,

crossed exactly as in plain weaving.

Bringing out

a pattern in weaving must, of course, require a


variation of the pedal

Now, upon

in plain weaving.

tration

it will

tern, or in

also

movement from that used


reference to the illus-

be noted that in writing the pat-

drawing

it in,

no two threads have ever

come together on the same harness. If the 1st


thread has been drawn into the 3d harness, and
the 2d thread into the 4th harness, as shown in the
pattern illustrated, the operator begins the weaving

by throwing down the 3d and 4th


pedals together and throwing the shuttle which
of the pattern

carries the pattern thread.

weavers
thread

is

a "pick."

call

This operation

Each pick

is

what

of the pattern

represented in the diagram (page 268)

by

a broken black line running across the pattern.

Thus the diagram

of the first design

shown indicates

that there are 6 throws of the shuttle alternately

over and back, or 6 picks of the pattern thread,


for each corresponding section of this design.

But

between every two picks of the pattern thread


there

must be a pick

of the plain weave, requiring,

down of
together when

as has already been explained, the pressing


either the 1st

the shuttle

is

and 3d pair of pedals

thrown from the right

side, or of

HOME DECORATION

272

the 2d and 4th

if

thrown from the

left side.

It is

must be two shuttles prepared for carrying the woof threads. One of these
is to be used for the plain weave and the other for
evident, then, that there

the

The

weave.

pattern

shuttle

used

for

the

weave is usually threaded with a fine thread


linen, though this, of course, is subject to varia-

plain
of

tion according to the design of the weaver.

pattern

weaving

thread, which

shuttle

may

be of

should
silk,

The

a coarser

carry

hnen, wool, or mer-

cerized cotton.

Variations in Pattern.
carefully written pattern

From
is

the fact that a

necessary in preparing

a four-harness loom for pattern weaving, one would


naturally infer that the pattern must be closely

And

followed in the weaving process.


if

so

it

must

the pattern be woven as written; but, after the

by no means necessary to follow


the written pattern. As the weaving progresses
drawing

it is

in, it is

easy to see

many

may be woven upon

variations in pattern which

one drawing in

so varied as to seem to hold very

each other.

In

fact,

with a pattern loom

little

producing

relation to

one of the delights of weaving


is

to devise

ways

simple patterns, elaborating them into


designs,

patterns

unique

and

of

modifying

new weaving

sometimes

very

HAND WEAVING

273

We

have only to remember that patterns are made by the order and
interesting original figures.

number

of the overshots

i.

pattern

shuttle carrying the

e.,

the throws of the

threads

and that

the overshots in the same horizontal and vertical lines


are produced

by the same

trated the overshots are

pair.

In the pattern

illus-

made by 2 and 3, by 1 and

2,

by 1 and 4, or by 3 and 4, not counting 1 and 3 and 2


and 4, which are the pairs for plain weaves. We
should also remember that the last end in one overshot

usually the

is

two variations

first

one in the next.

in design that

original written pattern, to

which we have already


possible.

a bordered table scarf


require the use of the four-

will

The

harness loom.

diagram and probably

more variations are

problem:
This problem

first

thing to do

is

to procure

the written pattern for the border and draw

When
is

the drawing in

begun, the

first

is

we

shall,

will

is

to

In doing

weave a
how-

this,

of course, find that the pressing

of the right-hand

weaving

it in.

completed and the weaving

step in the process

few inches of the plain cloth.


ever,

of

may be woven from the

referred, are illustrated in the

at least a dozen

Examples

and left-hand pedals as

in simple

not accomplish the desired result;

HOME DECORATION

274

for

it

has already been explained that the pedals of

a four-harness loom must be worked in certain pairs


to produce a plain weave.

It will

be remembered

that to do plain weaving with the warp drawn in


as required
it

by the pattern

illustrated

necessary to press pedals

is

alternately with 2 and 4

i. e.,

on page 268,

and 3 together

both pedals of each

same time to produce the


same effect as that produced by the alternate movements of the right and left pedals in simple weaving.
pair

must be pressed

When
woven,

at the

a sufficient length of plain cloth has been


pattern for

the^ written

the border design

must be

the

weaving of

faithfully

consulted

and the right pairs of pedals pressed down in proper


order for the weaving of the pattern. The second
or weaving shuttle carries the bobbin, which is
filled

with the colour required in the pattern.

Any

changes of colour required by the design are easily


produced by inserting a new bobbin filled with the
desired colour.

The Design.

A great variety

common to weave in a narrow


whatever colour may have been chosen,

in table scarfs.

beading of

of design is possible

It

is

by a few threads of white, and this


in turn by a narrow band of the colour of the border
with some slight suggestion of the pattern, then more

following this

HAND WEAVING
of the plain white

The

the border.

and

275

finally the full

pattern of

centre of the table scarf

is

simply

a matter of plain weaving in white or possibly in

some solid colour, while the other end of the scarf


must be woven with the same border and bands
as were woven at first, but in the reverse order.
in

Variations

decoration

is

times with

Design.

found

One

pleasing

style

of

in repeating the border several

inch- wide

spaces

Another

between.

variety requires a heavy border at the ends, with nar-

row ones at short intervals throughout the length.


Shadow borders, so-called, are also common, and

may

alternate with borders of colour or

in the

con-

Shadow borders

stitute the entire decoration.

heavy borders woven

may

are

cream or body colour

of the scarf instead of being in a contrasting shade.

In order to make them stand out well


to use a coarser thread than

colour borders.

is

also a

borders.

gray linen plain weave

heavy linen thread which


It

is

necessary

required for the

embellished in white with delicate


is

it is

is

is

effect.

good

often

There

for scarf

obtainable in dainty colours, and

the heavy thread seems to bring out the patterns


in greater perfection.

are

also

Darning

silks in fast colours

employed, but these should be woven

double in order to obtain the best

effect.

They

HOME DECORATION

276

are found in the market in short lengths and in such


attractive colours as Delft blue, reseda green, pink,

and catawba. The

last

in the natural shade,

Scarfs should be

two

colours, used with linen

make a happy combination.

woven from 20

and about 1}^ yards

long, unless

to 24 inches wide

some

special use

requires that they should be of different length.

Not only do they make

pleasing table covers, but

they are useful as tray cloths, and from them

charming sewing or embroidery aprons


fashioned by folding one end over, tying

may
it

be

with

and arranging pockets to hold the work.


One scarf will make two aprons. Fancy bags are
also woven on the same general lines as scarfs,
but the width needs to be only 8 or 10 inches. These
ribbons,

or they

may

Lined with

silk

may be woven of the pattern throughout,


be striped with bands or borders.

and

finished with ribbons or cords, they are very

much admired

for

embroidery and other fancy

work.

DYEING
In the discussion of the problem of hand weaving,
frequent reference has been
coloured materials.

many good

While

it

made
is

possible to obtain

colours in the market,

satisfactory to

make

to the use of

much more
home by the

it is

these colours at

HAND WEAVING

77

In former times, when hand

use of the dye pot.

weaving was general, there was no other way; and,


in fact, dyeing

and weaving

now, as they were then,

may

well be considered

sister arts.

When

the wool

was washed, carded into rolls, spun into yarn, and


again doubled and twisted, it was, generally speaking,
still

necessary to treat the yarn with some perma-

nent dye before weaving


exception

was found

spun, which was of

it

in

yam

One notable

into cloth.

the

gray home-

natural

spun from the wool of both

the black and the white sheep carded together.

The modern worker with

the hand loom will find

almost the same necessity as our grandmothers did


for a

Seldom

knowledge of the art of dyeing.

will

she find at hand just the shade or colour required

by the design

of the piece to

the material that

is

for example, will be

that

it

worked up

for the

it

up

it

woof of rugs,

is

for the labour of

And even

in that condition.

material, which

of

found to be so faded or spotted

would poorly repay one

weaving

Much

be woven.

new

often necessary to procure

for plain weaving, for pattern weaving,


in borders, will often

the

need a bath

and

in the

for use

dye pot

in

order to furnish the tone of colour needed.

Some Good Points in Dyeing.


Good results
dyeing are obtained by using the prepared dyes

in

of

HOME DECORATION

278

the markets, mixing together more than one colour

some experimenting,

often, after

the desired shade.

may,
off

if

in order to

produce

Instead of mixing the dye one

she chooses, dye

one colour and top

first in

A fine permanent green is obtained

with another.

by dyeing thread

or cloth a good yellow

ping with a blue bath.

and top-

Green and blue dye used

together give neither green nor blue but a blending

both

of

In

all

colours,

cases

which

better to

it is

exceedingly

is

make

pleasing.

the dye bath weak,

leaving the article to be dyed in the bath a long

time rather than to keep


stronger dye.

permanency

a shorter time in a

it

The advantage

of colour

is

not only greater

but also greater certainty

in

the result; for one can watch the process of dyeing

more

easily

The

too dark.

bath until

may

and guard against the colours becoming

it

material which remains in the dye

takes practically

generally be depended

all

the colour from

it

upon neither to fade

nor crock.

Some Common Dyes.

The

dull, soft colours,

made

generations ago from barks and teas with alum as

a mordant, had

artistic qualities

permanent.

is

It

in this direction.

and were generally

well worth while to experiment

Straw colour

may

be made from

the old-fashioned herb saffron; orange comes from

HAND WEAVING
madder and fustic; yellow
dock root; rusty

is

279

obtained from powdered

nails boiled in vinegar

with a bit

of copperas give a good black dye, useful also in

freshening black yarns that have acquired a dull

White maple bark boiled in water


medium brown which may be made

or faded colour.

makes a fine
fast by first treating the
in it

cloth or yarn to be

with a solution of alum.

dyed

A permanent and

nankeen colour may be made from a

fine

pail of lye with

a piece of copperas half the size of an egg boiled in


it.

In

fact, nearly

may be

everything which possesses colour

considered a dye.

are generally in themselves

Vegetable substances

more permanent, but


or "set" by the use of

most dyes need to be fixed


some mordant. All this will mean much
menting, of course, unless one
to possess an old receipt

fortunate enough

is

book with

its

lusions to mordants, kettles of brass,

The

of pewter.

may

experi-

quaint

and

vessels

use of the prepared dyes, which

be easily obtained with explicit directions,

generally
easier;

satisfactory

and yet the

cultivate the art of

to master

all

this ancient

al-

and

interest

of

course

is

somewhat

which inspires one to

hand weaving

leads to a desire

of the arts intimately associated with

and fascinating home industry.

X
POTTERY
To watch

a potter thumping his wet clay

THE

boy who makes

Ruhaiyat of

his

Omar Khayyam

mud pie, baking it

in

the sun, and the Indian who, ages ago, coiled

clay in a basket which he burned away, are

but two widely separated links


for

men

of all time

clay that

is

a continuous chain

have found a fascination

so easily

manner of things

in

of

wet

in the

moulded and fashioned into all


beauty and of use. And, beside

the joy of exercising the creative faculty, there has


also been the spur of a

common need

to inspire

men

of different races, independently of each other, to

develop the primitive household

and rug making, by the use


remarkable for
cleverness.

man

The

their

of

similarity

impressions

arts, like

methods no
than

that

for

the

less

their

primitive

received from his natural surroundings were

easily expressed in the plastic

mud, and

it

ably not long before he discovered that

them

pottery

permanent

and

practically
280

was probfire

made

indestructible.

Girls at
[Plate XI]

Work on

Pottery

;mE\V YORK
,.[C

LIBRARY!

POTTERY
Improvement was bound

By washing
mud through

281

come

to

due time.

in

the grosser impurities from the clay

a process in which the heavier particles

settled, leaving the silt or finer clay to

be poured

some artist of a very early time found a material


that became one of his most valuable helps in adding

off,

the furnishings of his tribal household.

to
it

was simply burned

or glazed

clay; but in

work found

use in

its

First

due time enamel


tiles for

purposes, in grain jars, in wine jugs, in

building

many

kinds

of table ware; for the uses of ancient terra cotta

and porcelain were numerous.

The

primitive arts, however, were not confined

We

to objects of necessary use.

the ruins of ancient


potter's craft,

many

cities,

and among them

buried with

find,

evidences of the

articles for decora-

ting the home, for personal adornment,

and for re~


and scarabs of Egypt.

ligious use, like the rings

And

in

modern decorative

art,

as applied in the

household, the one final touch which gives that


indescribable charm, which
to give,

few

is

the aim of

perhaps to be found in a few

choice

all

art

very

bits of pottery.

All of this use of clay,

from the rude art of pre-

historic times to the finest


is

it is

based on a plain

product of modern

scientific fact, viz.,

skill,

that a small

HOME DECORATION

282

quantity of water in the clay, not removable by

any ordinary means

by

of drying, can be driven out

permanent change

intense heat so as to cause a

This water

in the character of the clay.

the water of combination.

more than enough to dry


restores

it

to

burned has

it,

called

not heated

a later mixing with water

former plastic state; but clay once

water of combination and never

lost its

can return to

Most

its

If the clay is

is

its original

beginners

condition.

clay

in

modelling will expect,

perhaps in the early stages of their work, to be made


acquainted with the potter's wheel; for
this interesting device

heard of

chiefly because of

its

facture of pottery;
potter's

song with

beautiful

.^^

It

who has not

is

of

interest

practical utility in the

manu-

and yet no one can forget the


which Longfellow begins his

poem Keramos, making

sermon on the philosophy

it

a text for a

of life

"Turn, turn, my wheel! Turn round and round


Without a pause, without a sound;
So spins the flying world away
This clay, well mixed with marl and sand,
Follows the motion of my hand;
For some must follow, and some command,

Though
Potter's

was used

all

are

made

of clay!"

Wheel Unnecessary.
in comparatively

The potter's wheel

early times

and has

POTTERY
been

intimately

But

since.

considerable

skill

Indians of our
expert

in

method

much

to use

by no means

has been

with the

associated

requires

it

283

it

ever

art

and

physical strength

effectively;

universal.

and

We

its

find

use
the

own time and

people of other races,

pottery

by hand, using the

building

seems best, therefore, to

It

of coiling.

method and
to forego the use of the potter's wheel.
The comparative inexpensiveness of the hand method of
advise beginners to adopt the simpler

building

is

another point in

The

favour.

and simple.

are few

required

its

tools

Inexpensive and

easy methods are favourable to the experimental


stage;

and

it is

well for the

encouragement

methods

for

to

amateur to have every

experiment

building

and

freely

both

with

with designs for his

mind always that the beautiful is


generally the simple and strong, not the fantastic
and complicated.
ware, keeping in

The Method of Coiling.

It

will

be understood,

therefore, that in general the process to be followed

consists in building

the design

may

up the bowl or

be by using

consistency, welding

jar or

coils of clay of

whatever
the right

and shaping them together,

and scraping them down,


are ready to receive the

if

necessary, until they

first firing.

After this they

HOME DECORATION

284

may
At

and be

receive a coating of glaze

fired again.

the beginner will find his chief interest sim-

first

ply in experimenting with the building up process.

MATERIALS AND TOOLS

The
Clay;

materials and tools needed are as follows:


18 inches square; cotton cloth or

oil-cloth,

flannelette, 18 inches square; a


tools;

few simple modelling

a soft pencil; drawing paper; card-board, 6

ply; a plaster of paris "bat," or a piece of slate.


Clays.

It

will

be necessary to add a word of

explanation in order that these materials and tools

may be

well selected.

There

a great variety

is

from a very coarse red clay used

clays, ranging

in

for

flower pots to the finest white clay used for porcelain.

The

latter

is

called kaolin

from

or

A good

very pure.

is

may be obtained from dealers in school

modelling clay
supplies

and

potteries.

some

In

especially in the neighbourhood

localities,

of brick-yards or

other

clay industries, a satisfactory clay

easily

found.

perimenting

But, however

will

The modelling

clay

is

some

obtained,

be necessary to test

its

may

be
ex-

suitabihty.

probably the least

liable to

yield disappointing results.

The cotton

cloth or flannelette

and used to wrap up the clay

is

to be moistened

in order to

keep

it

POTTERY

285

from drying too rapidly during the intervals when


it is

set aside.

This

will

not be necessary during the

early part of the process, for then

it is

desirable for

the clay to stiffen as rapidly as possible by natural

means.

Of the modelling

tools

needed some can be whittled

u
C

<j

Simple tools used in pottery

from hard wood.

They

are not expensive, however,

and the beginner will perhaps


most of them from a dealer

The accompanying
among them a very

find

it

well to obtain

in artists' materials.

illustration'shows

some

of these,

useful tool (F) with brass wire

HOME DECORATION

286

wound with

loops which are in turn

F and C

wire.

finer

are especially useful for scraping clay too

be easily managed with smooth edges. The


thumb-like tool A is perhaps the most generally
soft to

useful of those

shown

In this connection
that the greatest of

here.

it is

all

well to emphasize the fact


tools

is

the

human thumb.

Most modelling and building can


be managed with the thumb, assisted by the fingers.

Cultivate

its use.

The Bat and

How Made. A

plaster of paris bat

be found exceedingly useful. A sheet of thin,


unsized paper serves well, however, for a surface

will

on which to build; but the dry plaster of the bat


absorbs the moisture of the clay at the bottom and
hastens the stiffening process.

This bat can be

Take a small quantity of water (a


half pint or more according to the size of the bat
required), sift into this from the hand an equal

easily

made.

amount

of plaster of paris,

and

stir it in until

little

dry plaster appears at the surface. After a little


more vigorous stirring let it rest a few minutes and
then pour

it

in diameter

into tin pans which are 4 or 5

by

inch deep.

inches

The pans should be

previously coated on the inside with a thick soap


solution, made by dissolving soap in hot water to

the

consistency of a thick cream.

The bats

will

POTTERY

287

may

10 or 15 minutes and

harden in

removed from the pan, ready

for use.

a bowl for flowers

problem:

This problem naturally divides

important steps, as follows:


building

The

itself

The Design or
decoration the

and

first

As

step

six

if

any; firing

the glaze.

firing

Profile.

into

design or profile;

and shaping; decoration,

(bisque); glazing;

be easily

is

in

all

found

problems of

For

in design.

Variety in dimeasions

present purposes

we may

consider a bowl as having

a diameter as great as or greater than the height.

The bowl

will

be more interesting from the stand-

point of variety
height and
its

its

if

there

is

a difference between

greatest diameter,

and

also

between

diameters at the top and at the bottom.

accompanying drawing shows such

its

differences.

The

HOME DECORATION

S88

Another example of the value of variety


found

in the

curve of the

profile.

simple but constantly changing in

curvature
is

as, for

example, an

more pleasing than an arc

its

to be

line that is

degree of

elliptical

of

is

curve

circle,

which

It
sometimes called the curve of limitation.
should be noted that a curved form, in order to be

is

forceful, should

have some dominant curve in com-

bination with others which are subordinate.


profiles illustrated in the following

The

drawings have

Suggestive profiles

dominant element and are in no case composed


These varied, interesting, yet
of arcs of circles.
five lines as they are sometimes called
simple lines

this

POTTERY

consisting

in

280

each case of only two or three

ele-

ments, are given here merely as suggestive material.

httle experimenting will


in strong, forceful

bilities

student

is

advised to

show unsuspected possicurves, and the young

make many experiments

An example

the effort to discover such possibilities.


of profiles to be avoided

in

given in Problem II,

is

That these are vase forms and not


bowl contours is immaterial. A is commonplace
because the two parts of the curve are too much
on page 309.

alike.

equal

size.

is

unrestful in its three curves of nearly


If the suggestive profiles illustrated in

the foregoing drawing be turned upside


will

down

it

be noted that very few of them seem as pleasing

as before.

It will be

found also that a different

ratio of height to diameter will give very different


effects

with the same

and bottom

alike

may, so

be classed with the


is

the top until

profile.

pill

bowl having top

far as design

We

box.

we have

is

don't

concerned,

know which

spilled the pills.

tive pieces of pottery are

found with the top and

bottom of equal diameter and with curves


selves objectionable,

it will

If attrac-

in

them-

invariably be found that

the attractiveness consists in some beauty of glaze,


colour, or decoration

which

is

conceal the defects of form.

prominent enough

t<>

HOME DECORATION

290

Natural Forms.

It may be well to add a word here

in regard to the imitation of natural forms in design-

ing the general shape of any piece of pottery; and

that word
is

is

Avoid them. Nature

a very brief one.

a great teacher in

all

branches of art; but in pot-

tery her suggestions are to be used as decorative

elements rather than for fundamental shapes.


fish

with a flower in

priate;

mouth does not seem appro-

its

but a bowl for

take the form of a

fish,

as an element of

its

Testing Profiles.

may

not

might reasonably have a

fish

water-lilies, while it

decoration.

A good way to study the

of the profile of both sides of the

the paper on which the profile

is

bowl

drawn

through the centre and transfer the

is

effect

to fold

vertically

line reversed

by

rubbing the back of the paper, thus giving the other


half of

the

drawing

in

exact symmetry.

When

the general shape of the profile has been tested in


this

way one

side

should be redrawn carefully;

then, with the paper folded along the centre line,


so that the pencil line falls outside, the whole form

may

be cut out; and then

The next

step

is

it

may

to begin to build

be unfolded.

up the design

in

clay.

The Building.

Roll

out a

coil

thicker than the bottom of the bowl

of clay a little
is

to be; perhaps

POTTERY

^ or J^ of an inch

291

will serve, since

be hollowed slightly by scraping.

the bottom

The

roll

is

to

should

be uniform in diameter and rolled as little as possible, in order that it may not become too dry.

Upon
coil
is

the piece of paper or the plaster bat start to

the

roll

from the centre

until the desired size

reached, then smear the rolls together, working

toward the centre.

Turn the

coil

over and work

the other side together, truing up the circle and

making the bottom

of uniform thickness.

Avoid

the use of water in smoothing the coils together.


It

may seem

to

make the work

easier,

but

it

softens

the clay and invites careless work.

With another coil begin to build up the sides,


making a complete circle, and, having pinched off

Manipulating the

coil

the ends where they meet, join

Lay two

them

carefully.

or three coils in this fashion, pressing each

292

HOME DECORATION

coil firmly into

place as

it is laid,

The

together as in the base.


in the drawing.

may
is

the clay

If

be set aside to harden a

made upon

process

is

very

is

illustrated

the work

soft,

while a beginning

little,

It

other pieces.

and smooth them

well to

is

have two

or three pieces in the process of construction at

the same time.


Testing the Work.

needed to

test the

template or gauge

work

as

it

will

be

progresses from the


first

rough stages

to the finish. This


is

made

of card-

board by cutting
out an exact copy
of the profile, leav-

ing at the bottom


sufficient

insure

width to

rigidity

when the template


is

As the work goes

held upright on

the table or bat.

template

on,

if

the design requires that

the form should be "brought in" toward the top,


the coil must be laid a
desired,

diameter

little

inside of the profile

as the smoothing tends


slightly.

In

ail

to

increase the

the building, allowance

POTTERY
should be
coil

is

made

293

When

for this enlargement.

the

high enough and of the shape desired,

should be allowed to stiffen until

With the various modelling

to handle.

then

should

surface

it is rigid

be

scraped

it

enough

tools the

wherever

it

is

necessary to remove the hardened clay in order to


give a symmetrical shape to the desired profile.

Scraping a square form

drawing

scraping.

shown to

is

The

even; and this

surface should be left

may be

The

or sponge.

illustrate the process of

smooth and

accomplished without water

flat sides of

the scraping tool

be used to polish the clay as soon as


leather hard

i.

e.,

hard and

stiff,

it

but

may

becomes
before

it

begins to whiten and dry.

The

lip

attention.

or top of the bowl will require special


It will probably

down and have

all

need

to

sharp edges removed.

be thinned

Then the

bowl should be turned upside down and the bottom

HOME DECORATION

294

hollowed out to a depth of Vie to J^ of an inch,


leaving a "foot" or rim around the outside of the
circle to give it steadiness.

The Decoration.

After the bowl

to its general form, the problem of


if

there

is

to be any,

must be

studied during the intervals

bowl aside to harden.

to set the

colour are good, the bowl

may

This

may

be

is

necessary

If the

form and

it

possess a

not be improved by decoration.

will

decoration,

its

solved.

when

complete as

is

charm that

On

the whole,

decoration, rather than more, should be the

less

The

aim.

three

vases

illustrated at

the top of

a following page are examples of pottery without


decoration.

(See page 308.)

Generally speaking, bowls like the one we are


building

may be

decorated by one of three methods:

By

sinking lines or channels in

of

its

sharpened, chisel-Hke stick

by modelling or carving the

surface

by means

(D,

page 285);

surface; or

by painting

the surface with coloured "slip" or with coloured


glaze.

It

should be explained that "slip"

is

mixture of clay and water of the consistency of

cream;

it

may

be coloured or uncoloured.

com-

more of these methods is, of


course, possible.
Examples of the first two methods
are shown in the illustrations of bowls, vases, and
bination of two or

'

^--.i,
.*?*""

Bowls
[Plate XII]

T-'fE

NEW YORK

AfTOH. LENOX

POTTERY

tiles.

combination of the

was used

shown

in Plate

and third methods

XIV

middle row

opposite page 316.

The form

of the decora-

simply a matter of space division, as

is

trated

first

in decorating the tiles of the

Classes of Decoration.

tion

295

by two examples shown below.

too, that decoration, so far as

It

form

is

is

illus-

evident,

concerned,

divides itself naturally into three general classes:


(a)

The

(c)

a combination of these two.

horizontal band; (b) the vertical division;

The

last

will

of the three.

It

B
Spacing in decoration

prove to be the most

common

should be noted that an all-over pattern, which has

been

left

out of consideration as tending to monot-

ony, would
horizontal

commonly be a combination
and

vertical

methods

of

of both

division.

It

should be noted also that the presence of other than


vertical

and horizontal

lines in

pottery decoration

does not affect the main classification.

Typical

HOME DECORATIONS

296

examples of these divisions are illustrated in both


bowls and vases, as well as in the cuts
will

and B.

It

be seen in each case that one scheme or the

other predominates and that there are possibiHties


for great variation in treatment.

Analyzing the patterns shown


trations,
offers

we

in all these illus-

band or horizontal scheme


large and small spaces, giving

find that the

a succession of

variety and rhythm.

In

many

of those patterns

showing the combination type there

is

a concentra-

tion or "knotting" of the line at regular intervals,

frequently at the intersection of both horizontal

and

vertical elements.

This

is

well illustrated

by

row shown in this


When the method of painted

the left-hand bowl of the middle


plate opposite page 294.

decoration

composed

is

of

employed the concentration point


mass instead

to give emphasis

All this serves

and rhythm.

For subject matter

may

of line.

is

in decoration natural forms

be used as shown in the vase at the

left of

the top row illustrated in Plate XIII, opposite page

Or an abstract arrangement of lines may be


employed, as shown in its nearest neighbour,
which may or may rou have had its origin in a
312.

very

much conventionah zed

essential thing to

remember

natural motif.
is

The

that the divisions

POTTERY

297

must be varied and rhythmic and the decoration suited to the method of appUcation.
of spaces

How

the

Design

is

Applied

to the

much

design has been studied as

paper

it

Clay.

After

the

as possible on

should be planned out on the bowl with a

soft pencil, allowing sufficient space for the incised


line or

clay should be

The spacaround the circumference should be made exact,

leather-hard
ing

The

channel to be made.
i.

e.,

deviating somewhat,
of the
this

stiff

if

paper drawing.

but not dry.

necessary, from the spacing

good way to manage

important step in the process

is

to measure the

circumference at the point of greatest width with

a narrow

strip of

by folding the paper evenly

circumference
the

paper and then to divide this

number

of units desired.

By wrapping

into

the

paper around the bowl again the points of division

may

be transferred to the clay and then projected

upward
is

or

downward

desired to meet.

vertically to the belt that


It is necessary to

make

it

sure

that the vertical lines are true "meridians" and do

not swerve to the right or the


the horizontal

lines,

from top or bottom.

In order to test

left.

measurements may be made


All of this work is best done

free-hand; for, aside from the value of the eye train-

ing derived,

hand-built pottery

is

seldom exact

HOME DECORATION

298

enough to permit
planning

its

more mechanical method

of a

decoration.

The drawing on the


the next point

is

clay having been completed,

to choose the tool best fitted for

make the

the work and carefully

them from time


that

be worked out

illustrated

in

cuts, deepening

work progresses

to time as the

If the design is to
like

of

in line, a chisel,

(page 285),

whittled from a pine stick.

It

is

may

be

held nearly up-

and used as a scraper to cut out at first a shallow


channel. Reserve should be exercised in cutting,
right

because,

generally

there

speaking,

making the design too

insistent.

designs are very subtle and

the hollow by the glaze

when

Modelling a Decoration.

be modelled

it

Some

quiet.

be taken, however, to allow for a

danger

is

work

is

of the best

Care should

slight filling in of

it is

applied.

If the decoration is to

would seem wise to do

or in part, as the

of

it,

in

whole

built up; but in this case

great care will be needed to keep a firm hold on the


relief

and unity of the decoration.

to over-model the work.

How

Under-glaze is Applied.

It will be easy

For decoration with

under glaze the colours given under the head of


glazing (page 304) are mixed in different proportions with dry

powdered clay and water to form a

POTTERY
colour

This

paste.

is

299

painted on the

'*

green'*

or moist clay, forming a smooth and even surface.

Experience

will

teach the proportions of colour to

be mixed with the clay.

These proportions vary

A very

greatly with different colours.


like cobalt will give

a deep blue

by weight

of one part

if

strong colour

mixed

in the ratio

of cobalt to ten parts of clay.

Colours like the oxides of iron and copper are of

medium

strength,

and antimony

Before the work


to

make

sure that

smoothed

is

all

left

to dry

The use

through the glaze.

quite weak.
it

would be well

corners and rough edges are

as they will

off

is

not advised, though

show

and rough

light

of sand-paper, however,

may

occasionally be used
emergency of an accidental roughness remaining after the piece is dry.
The aim should
is

it

in the

be to have

all

clay

work show something

plastic nature of the material out of

of

which

the
it

is

must be "bone" dry before

it

made.
Firing.
is fired.

may

Pottery
A

firing

be purchased for from $34 to $175, according

to the size.
in the
of

very satisfactory portable kiln for

The

smallest size, which

is

illustrated

next drawing, will be ample for the needs

one or two persons.

If,

however, the amateur

does not care to go to the expense of purchasing

HOME DECORATION

300

a kiln,

it

is

generally possible to find a pottery

factory in the vicinity that will undertake the firing

and perhaps the

glazing.

Temperature

Required.

Pottery

at

fired

is

temperature v a r ying, according to the

clay and

the

glaze

used, from approxi-

mately 1800 to 2000


Fahrenheit.

degrees

Modelling clay

fires

at 1958 degrees Fahrenheit, or

term

is

04."

"cone

called

This

what

comes

from the fact that


the heat

is

gauged

by pyrometric cones,
A

which can be seen

portable kiln

through a spy hole attached to the


cones are

and possess

terials

ance

graded

to

heat.

it

different

They

in groups of three

melts

compositions

kiln.

various

of

degrees

are usually set

or more.

When

bends over, as illustrated

These

of

up

ma-

resist-

in

clay

one of them

in

panying drawing, which shows cone 05

the

accom-

the most

POTTERY

one

fusible

completely

point indicating that

from the

and the

This

time to shut

the heat

off

done

must be allowed to

kiln

gradually

cool complete-

opened.

is

especially

is

necessary

"down," and 04 at a

must be

This

kiln.

ly before it

it is

301

when

firing the

in the

glazes described

following section, which

a s modelling

perature

clay.

same tem-

the

require

Further

about

and caring

firing

for the
course,

details

kiln

may,

of
Pyrometric cones

be learned from

accompanying the apparatus.

descriptions

comes out

of the first

firing

the kiln a dull

in

porous ware and in colour either cream,


red,

buff,

or

according to the amount of iron in the clay.

In this state
Glazing,

"bisque" or "biscuit."

it is

called

It

necessary to bring the pottery up

is

to the condition of bisque before


or, to

it

speak more accurately, before

glazed; for

it

subject

can be glazed;
it

has already been shown

called under-glaze

The

Pottery

is

is

can be over-

how

put on before the

somewhat

technical,

and

the so-

first firing.
it will

not

HOME DECORATION

302

be possible in a single chapter to take up the details


Briefly speaking, the glazes most used
extensively.
for this class of

work are the lead

glazes

tions of "white lead'* or carbonate

combina-

of lead as

and other
powdered form

flux with kaolin, flint, whiting, feldspar,

ingredients.

These are supplied

in

and are ground together in water by means of a mill


or a large mortar and pestle; a mortar 8 inches in
diameter

will serve.

Grinding the Glaze.

about an hour.
there

is

The grinding should continue

It should be said, however, that

such a thing as grinding too

fine.

After

the glaze has been properly ground a small quantity


of

gum

tragacanth, dissolved in water,

is

to be

added as a binder to prevent flaking and rubbing


It is also a good plan, though
off in handhng.
not always necessary, to strain the glaze, as soon
as it is ground, through fine muslin.

The

tools

and

work may be itemized as


Lead carbonate, whiting, Canadian feldspar,

materials needed for this


follows:

Florida kaolin, French

flint,

white oxide of zinc,

and various other oxides and colours noted


text;

for

in the

earthenware bowls, 10 or 12 inches in diameter,


holding

the

glaze;

large

aluminum; agate mortar and


diameter.

spoons,
pestle,

preferably

8 inches in

POTTERY
Example

303

Matt Glaze and Bright Glaze Mixes.

of

Two mixes are given below calculated to


One has a "matt"

fuse at cone

or dull velvety

surface,

and the other has a "bright" or shiny

surface.

04.

The matt

be found more desirable for general

will

work because
and

foliage.

of weight.

harmonizes better with flowers

it

The

figures given

below

refer to units

Metric weights (grams) are most con-

venient to use, but any units will serve so long as

the same one

is

used throughout.

The matt

glaze

should be of the consistency of thick cream, the


bright glaze

somewhat

MATT BASE

thinner.

304

HOME DECORATION

decorator will

make

use of these colour mixtures

simply as an introduction to quite extensive ex-

perimenting

COLOUR MATERIALS
Black oxide of cobalt

POTTERY

305

be soaked in clear water for about


until the air
this

expelled from the pores.

is

has been accomplished

from the water and


from

When

should be removed

it

moisture should be wiped

all

The piece is then ready to be dipped

its surface.

into the glaze, or to


if

minutes or

five

have the glaze poured over

the size and shape of the piece

make

venient to apply the glaze in this way.


best to glaze the inside

it

more con-

It

is

shaking out

first,

it,

usually
all

the

superfluous glaze before applying the glaze to the


outside.

During

the

process

this

piece

must

be held firmly but by as few points of contact


as possible.

These points

of

contact

need to be touched up before

erally

it is

will

gen-

ready for

firing.

It

is

sometimes necessary to glaze large pieces

with a brush, putting on several coats in order to


cover the surface with an even thickness.

The matt

glaze requires a greater thickness than the bright


glaze in order to develop
texture.

The

greater

secured, because

it

its

characteristic velvety

thickness

flows

thinner bright glaze and

is

that

it

be

easily

more slowly than the


less likely to drip from

the sides of the piece to which


but, on the other hand,

may

it is

it is

being applied;

at a disadvantage in

does not, in flowing slowly, correct inequali-

HOME DECORATION

306
ties

of thickness

bright glaze does.


is

essential;

glaze

and

if,

certain thickness, however,

after firing,

was put on too

it is

found that the

may

thin, a second coat

applied and the article again


Firing the Glaze.

the more mobile

as

readily

so

be

fired.

Before the glazed piece

the glaze should be dried and what runs

is

fired

down and

about the bottom or foot should be scraped


It should then be set in the kiln on a kind of
off.
pointed tripod of hard burned clay, called the

collects

which prevents the glaze from sticking to


the floor or shelves of the kiln. All glazed ware
should be placed in the kiln with at least 3^ an
"stilt,"

inch of space between the pieces to prevent

them

from sticking together during the fusing state


the glaze,

The

when

it is

of

apt to bubble or "boil."

firing of glaze is

a process very similar to

that employed in the production of bisque, already


Greater care, however, must be taken
described.
in controlling the increase in temperature so that
shall

be even and steady

flashes of heat.

The

free

from

all

it

sudden

cooling also should be very

gradual and, as in bisque

firing,

allowed to get cool before

second firing the pottery

is

happen that a second coat

it is

the kiln should be

opened.

With

finished unless
of glaze

is

it

this

should

found to be

POTTERY
necessary.

If

this second coat

307

need attention,

only a few spots


is

best applied with a brush.

a vase for long stemmed flowers


The tools required for making this vase are the
same as those used for the bowl, and the process of
problem:

building
is

in

that

much

is

it

is

more

the

chief difference

preserve the profile

difficult to

building because

greater weight

The

the same.

added height and the

To

tend to bulge the lower part.

will be necessary to set the

meet

this difficulty it

work

aside quite often in order to let the lower part

harden

The

sufficiently to
Profile.

In

support the upper part.

preparing the profile the same

rules hold as were applied in


of the bowl.

It will

working up the problem

be well to remember, however,

that the curves of a vase must be treated with


greater reserve as to their lateral projection than

necessary in the case of the bowl

its

in

is

e.,

the curve

height than

The reason

case with the curve of a bowl.


of course,

i.

within a rectangle

of a vase should be enclosed

narrower in comparison with

was

is

the

for this,

found in the greater height of a vase

comparison with

its

diameter.

The

ure shows three typical vase forms.

following

If these

curves

be compared with those shown on page 288,


trating bowl contours,

it will

fig-

illus-

be observed how the

HOME DECORATION

308

height of the vase


restraint

emphasised

is

and subtlety

the greater

in

In the next

of its curves.

Typical vase forms

illustration

we have two "horrible" examples

which attention has already been called

be improved

if,

show how these curves may

in either

or B, one element of the

compound curve be made dominant


of the other.

made

If at

at the expense

the same time the diameter be

smaller in comparison with

its

attractiveness of the contours will be

proved.

Indeed,

the

The dotted

suggestions for the design of bowls.


lines in the illustration

in

to

it will

profile that is positively

height the

still

more im-

be a transformation from a

bad to one that

is

very good.

POTTERY

The

Decoration.

309

problem of decoration

very different from that of the bowl.

however, the added height seems to

is

not

Here again,

call for

greater

Profile to be avoided

accent by means of vertical or panel divisions.

some danger that


seem to offer simply

Unless this be understood there


the larger vertical spaces will

more room
barber pole
Handles.

for

is

horizontal bands,

resulting

in

effect.

If

handles or buttresses are desired,

care should be taken that they are designed as an


integral part of the vase

or reinforce

ment

its lines.

of the

problem

i. e.,

that they continue

Two suggestions for the treatof handles are given in the

accompanying drawing.

It will

be be noted how

sympathetically these handles conform to the lines

HOME DECORATION

310

of the vases to which they are attached.

that give the impression of being

made

Handles

for another

vase should be avoided.

Suggestions for handles

problem:

The

the fern dish

process of building the fern dish

tially different

bowl described

from that employed

in the first problem.

dish

is

to be round, the coiling

but

if

the dish

is

not essen-

making the
If

the fern

method may be used;

to be square or rectangular

not necessary to use this method.


process of "piecing

one piece of

in

is

In place of

on" may be employed

soft clay

may

it is

it
i.

the
e.,

be added to another and

POTTERY

311

the different pieces welded together as the work


proceeds.

The Lining.

The

fern dish requires a separate

inner dish or lining with a hole in the bottom of


like that in the

ordinary flower pot.

it

This feature

forms the unique part of the problem.

Generally

speaking, the presence of this lining seems to call


for a little closer

approach to the vertical in the

and yet some latitude is


shown in the right hand dish illus-

sides of the outer bowl;

allowable, as

is

LLVAriOn
Development

trated in Plate

XIII

HALF 5ECTIOfS
of the fern dish

following,

which

is

somewhat

similar in profile to that illustrated in the accom-

panying drawing. This drawing shows the develop-

HOME DECORATION

312

ment

of the

Much

problem as applied to a round fern

freedom, however,

may

be used

dish.

in the plan

round or the rectangular fern dish

as either the

The

seems to give satisfaction.

half section in the

drawing shows a very narrow space between the


inner and outer bowls at the top edges.

This adds

greatly to the good appearance of the completed

The

fern dish.
vertical,

since

it

sides of the inner dish are


is

necessary for

it

made

to be easily

removed.
Decoration.

very

little

The

problem

of decoration

differs

from that discussed under the problem


Either the fern

of the bowl.

neighbours
times there

may
is

itself

or its woodland

easily furnish the motif.

Some-

occasion for designing similar dishes

Thus the smaller


Plate XIII opposite, was

not for ferns but for other plants.


square dish, illustrated in
designed and

made for

the familiar " bluets," and the

its

design was found in that

rules

already given for glazing

subject matter for


flower.

Glazing.

The

apply in this case, but

it will

the outside fern dish only.

be necessary to glaze
It

is

well,

however,

to glaze a narrow strip along the upper edge of the


it

should be

It hardly needs to be

added that

inner dish; but the rest of


glazed.

left

un-

in firing

v-m

Vases and Fern Dishes


[Plate XIII]

THEf^'EW YORK

PUBLIC LIBRARY
ASTOH.
Tltr^-.N

Lt NOX
FOUNDATIONd

POTTERY
it

313

necessary to keep the inner [and outer dishes

is

separate.

the candlestick

problem:
The Design.

This

problem introduces several

points in design that need to be especially


sized.

The

will easily

empha-

candlestick should be of such size that

support the average candle without put-

ting the user to great inconvenience in fitting

paring

it

off or

melting

it

down.

It

is

to provide a lip to catch the stray drops of


will

it

run down the sides of the candle; and

it

by

necessary

wax that
it will

be

a convenience to have this supplemented by a slight


dishing of the base

about.

If a

if

handle

the candlestick

is

to be carried

to be added

it

should seem

is

to be a natural outgrowth of the candlestick itself, as

was explained

and

it

in the discussion of handles for vases;

should, at the

same time,

a firm and comfortable grasp.

drawing shows how handles


to

form a part

of

offer

a place for

The accompanying

may be

designed really

the candlestick and at the same

time, by means of a sharp bend or elbow at the

provide a natural place for the

thumb

top, to

to assist in

grasping the handle.

Whether the candlestick is to be high or low


depends entirely upon the use intended for it or
upon the preference

of the user.

Generally speaking,

HOME DECORATION

314

a low candlestick

is

better for carrying about

and a

high one more desirable for standing in a cabinet or on

some definite idea of


Merely
utility to manifest itself in the form chosen.
planning a tube and a handle upon a base, without
shelf or table.

carefully

It

relating

is

well for

these

three

different

elements

according to the requirements of use, can hardlj'

be called designing a candlestick.

Suggestive designs for candlesticks

The

building of the candlestick

the bowl in the


centre,

first

is

started, like

problem, by coiling from the

and the rim may be added

in the

same way.

Care should be taken, however, to attach the central


tube firmly. This may be coiled or j^imply modelled
from a single lump of clay. If there is to be a

POTTERY
handle
tube

it is

well to build

is built,

as

it

is

it

315

at the time the central

then easier to

make a

firm

attachment.

PROBLEM

The

TILES

varied and extensive uses of

the scope of this problem.

difficult to limit

are used for paving.

wall

facings,

ings,

coverings

ceil-

for

facings

it

Tiles

"t^

^C

for

and

linings

stoves,

make

tiles

fi

r e-

rests for
flower pots and teapots, and for various
places,

other purposes. Tiles


figure

promi-

very

nently

in

tory of

the his-

art.

They
^

are objects of interest

and

study

in

many

^'^^ ^^^"^^

public

museums throughout

the civilized world.

problem

itself

will confine

to

and

buildings

two

varieties of tiles, viz.y tiles designed

of
for

But
the

this

many

bowls

or

used for the facing of fireplaces.


The Tile Frame. In building tiles a frame is used

teapots and

tiles

measuring about 6 inches square by

of

an inch

HOME DECORATION

316

The

thick.

strips

forming the frame

may

be

1 inch

wide, hghtly nailed together at the corners so that,


if

necessary, the frame can be easily taken apart

while the clay

This frame

moist.

is

its

the centre,
It

is

placed on a

and the clay forced

plaster bat or piece of paper

firmly into

is

corners and sides, working toward

the frame

until

is

completely

filled.

then turned over in order to 'make sure that the

under side of the clay

is

thoroughly welded together.


sufficient clay to bring

Care should be taken to use

both surfaces well up to the surface of the frame,


scraping

While

edge.

surplus clay

the

off

the

clay

moist,

is

chosen for the back, and this


prevent

Plate

XIV,

is

it

one

straight
side

may

is

hollowed out to

in the right-hand tile

or

The hollowing may take

warping.

form shown

with

the

at the top of

be in the shape of channels

^ of an inch or more in width, separated by ridges


J^ of an inch wide running across the back of the
Whichever method is used, the depth should
tile.

be about

%6 of an

Even when
is

inch and not over J^ of an inch.


the utmost precaution is taken, the tile

very liable to warp.

It should therefore be dried

slowly and with the greatest possible evenness of

exposure on both

sides.

The

greatest help of

all is

found in the use of the so-called " grog." This is made

m*e

fit

;/"

\.

'^^^

Lit::::.:;.;ij
i

[Plate

XIV]

Tiles

TKE NEW YORK


'UBLIC

LIBRARY

A.8TO.

LPNOX

TlLDtN FOUNDA ION8


'


POTTERY

317

by grinding to a powder clay that has been fired once


and shrunk, but not glazed. It is used by mixing it
with the clay before it

in the proportion of

moulded,

is

one part grog to three of the clay.

It

may be added

here that grog will be found of great assistance not

making other ware. It


will not be necessary, however, to burn clay for the
express purpose of making grog. The occasional
only in making

failures

tiles

Decoration.

it

first

the

tile is

be easily taken from the frame, but

applied.

methods

general

modelled surface, and

tile.

If it is to

are

may

before dec-

painting

the

be a tea

The

considered

the sunken

viz.,

all

be studied.

decoration

of

under the flower bowl


glaze or over glaze

stiff

While the hardening process

going on the decoration

three

every

dried and shrunk

should be allowed to get quite


is

firing of

furnish an adequate supply.

will

When

may

little it

oration
is

in

which develop at the

batch of pottery

but

line,

the

with under-

available for use with the


tile

the modelled surface

must be treated with considerable caution, otherwise


there may result an uneven surface for the teapot
to rest upon.
Firing.

In

safer to stand

giving the
it

the floor of the

tile

on one edge

kiln, as

its first firing

in the kiln,

it

is

but not on

the intense heat of the fioor

HOME DECORATION

318

would be

liable to shrink that side

It

others.

may be supported on two

more than the


stilts

or

it

be placed on one of the shelves. For the glaze


the tile should be placed flat on the stilt.

Tea

tom

Tiles.

The

of Plate

XIV

at the top

tiles illustrated

noticed that the centre


is

firing

and bot-

were designed and made to serve

as rests for a teapot, a bowl, or a vase.

which

may

is left

free

It will

be

with one exception,

given as an interesting variation from the

general rule.

The

free space

is

an advantage in

giving relief to the design and in furnishing an even


surface for the teapot or bowl to rest upon.

the decoration of rectangular

tile

In

forms the general

principles as to variety of measure or shape in space

Emphasis should be concen-

divisions hold true.

trated at the corners in order to strengthen the


design.

Fireplace Tiles.

Plate

XIV

Some of

would be

the

tiles illustrated in

entirely appropriate for facing

a border around the opening of a fireplace.


especially true of the middle design

This

is

shown at the

top of the plate, on account of the lines which project through the corner design nearly to the edges
of the

tile.

This makes

it

especially adapted to

repetition in a facing or border.

Decoration of Tiles.

It

is

in the field of painted

o
o

a
01

>

THE NEW YORK

"USLICLIBRARY
A3TOR. LENOX
'LP.

FOUNOATIONC

POTTERY

319

decoration, however, that the most attractive possibilities

The

in fireplace tile designs are found.

framed
illustrated
Plate XV opposite an example of over-glaze painting intended for use as
in

tile

is

This

a colour accent for the wall.

matt glaze between


tiles

is

row

one, like the

framed

painted in

Three similar

raised outlines.

are illustrated in the middle

The right-hand

tile is

in Plate

tile

XIV.

of Plate

XV,

a matt over-glaze, but the outline instead of being

raised

was

The

slightly depressed.

other two are

examples of under-glaze painting. They were painted

on moist clay, as described in the problem of the


bowl, and afterwards covered with a bright glaze.

In this case the glaze was

itself

coloured, thus add-

ing richness to the colour scheme.

The

repetition

in a tile facing of landscapes, designed to

would be tiresome.

plete or nearly so,

so to design the entire facing that

it will

It

be

be comis

better

made up

of a series of very simple landscape motifs, each


fairly

complete in

other as to form,

but

itself,

when

The

itself

to

so related to each

joined, a larger,

conventionalized, landscape.

kind lends

all

many

somewhat

treatment of this

other decorative schemes.

fireplace offers a great opportunity for de-

sign,

not only in

tive

scheme

itself,

of the

but as related to the decora-

room

in

which

it is

placed.

It

HOME DECORATION

320

should not be forgotten that


focal centre of the
its

give

it

This

room.

comparatively small

it is,

size,

in a sense, the

with

fact, together

makes

it

possible to

a strong and rich note of colour, accenting

the prevailing colour scheme of the room.

properly designed and applied,


varied
texture.

field

for

charming

Tiles,

offer

a rich

and

in

colour

and

effects

XI
DECORATIVE WORK IN LEATHER, COPPER, AND OTHER
MATERIALS
To become an

artist in dealing

choice or privilege;
skill

and a man's

it is

with tools and materials

is

not a matter of

a moral necessity; for a man's heart must be in his

soul in his craftsmanship

Hamilton

Wright Mabie

LEATHER WORK
work,
ETHER
very

weaving and pottery,

like

ancient origin.

in old bottles"

referred to bottles of leather, or wine skins.


of leather as having been used in
for

shields,

saddles,

harnesses,

and as an accessory to

of

The New Testament

"new wine

text concerning

is

still

We

read

earlier times

parts of chariots,

clothing.

In the middle

ages the "gentle craft of leather" was not confined


to the shoemakers' useful productions but included

much ornamental work.


of

leather

There were wall coverings

with designs

stamped with hot

carved,

tools; seats

work was

richly

modelled, or

were upholstered and

books were covered with tooled


this

or

leather.

Some

adqrned with painted and

figures like the celebrated Spanish leather.


321

of

gilt

HOME DECORATION

322

Why

Leather

is

Suited

seems, therefore, to have


place

among

to

Leather

Decoration.

won the

right to a high

the materials suited to decoration.

Its beautiful texture, the rich

brown tones

natural colour, the ease with which

it

of its

takes dyes,

and the readiness with which under proper


ment,

and retain the marks

receives

it

treat-

of the

mod-

elling tool, qualify it to minister to the artistic sense

no

than

less

durability enables

its

more common

uses.

Limited Decoration Desirable.


leather
fibre

is

to serve the

it

The

tooling

based upon the fact that, when wet, the

yields

readily

compression and receives

to

impressions that are retained after the leather


dry.

of

But the beauty

is

upon the

of design depends

much

colour and texture of the surface quite as

upon the figured impressions upon it. It is therefore a good point in design not to cover the surface
as

so

completely

material

itself

be bold and

that

be

rich,

the

The

lost.

decorations

Calf skin and cow-

hide are well suited to tooling.


in

two

general

forms,

generally as Russia calf,

cowhides,

known

should

but the tooling should be confined

to a small part of the surface.

plied

beauty of the

peculiar

as ooze.

They

are sup-

the

smooth,

viz.,

and the rough or


Leather

may

split

be stained

DECORATIVE WORK
by

colours

a variety of

dyes; but since

aniline

the natural colour of leather

82S

brown, brownish

is

tones are more satisfactory than the blues, greens.

c=r

A AMD
or

>

3flMii.

3HOW
TOOL

VIEWS

OlFFEREriT
.

tmoc'

<.Ex:Tiori

RIOHTHflnO

EJiP "V-

loC

J
Leather-working tools

grays,

violets,

more

seem

they

because

etc.,

sincere.

Tools.

The

required for tooling

simple tools

may be purchased at small cost, or


may be made from cheap nut picks by filing

leather

they
these

The

them.

each

tools,

them,

poHshing

shape,

to

illustrations

double

different views of the first tool;


tool.

tool

is

The

narrow

for

outlining

The broad,
and
used
the

for general use;

whenever
left

end

of

pointed

is

the

possible.

is

end

and working

end

flat

two

show

pointed.

for

broad

and

buffing
different

and
is

the second
the

of

into

The round

first

corners.

smoothing
tool

are

down

should

be

point

on

used for outlining and trans-

HOME DECORATION

S24

fering the design to leather.

of

out

is

known

set, as

section just above

extreme right; in

large

surfaces,

is

cupped

by the lengthwise

a nail set

may

The background

to be used sparingly.

on

indicated

It

hand end

and by the end view at the

fact,

the same purpose.


is

right

as the background tool.

a nail

like

The

be used for

tool,

however,

If used to excess, especially

the

result

is likely

to have

a mechanical and "shoppy" appearance.

Problems
to design and tool a belt

The

sizes

typical,

given in the illustration on page 325 are

but it is expected that in this and other prob-

lems, dimensions will be varied to suit conditions.

When

the size has been determined the leather

should be cut a
final

little

longer and wider than the

dimensions are to be, to allow for attaching

the belt pin or buckle.

The

strip of leather should

be thoroughly soaked in cold water and then rolled


in

dry cloth until the leather

tooling.

If

on applying the

water follows pressure, the leather

too wet.

mark

dry enough for

It is essential that there should be abso-

lute uniformity of moisture.


tool,

is

If it should

of the tool it

is

still

get too dry to retain the

may

be sponged on the back.

DECORATIVE WORK
There

is

danger of water

back

entire

is

An

however,

stains,

if

the

not wet.

The Design.
ments.

325

The

illustration

interlaced pattern

shows two treat-

shown

is

in

which

concentrates the interest at the ends and in the

Two

The pattern shown

middle of the back.


solid

belt designs

and the background

left

is

pattern be tooled in outline

it is

is

untooled.

tooled
If the

well to shade these

outlines out into the background in order to give


relief to

the interlaced bands.

Modelled natural forms are shown


this the

background

is

tooled down, but

in
is

B.

In

heaviest

at the ends or in the spaces against the raised

forms.

This gives the background a richer ap-

pearance than

it

has when

tooled

Both patterns here shown are


sides.

absolutely

flat.

straight with parallel

Other shapes are possible

for

example,

HOME DECORATION

326

those wider

the

in

middle and tapering toward

the ends.

When

satisfactory

out and drawn

it is

whenever

desired to

has been worked

design

bond paper.
The greatest care should be taken not to have any
pencil marks on the back of this paper, for they
leave a dirty gray stain on the leather which is
It may be added here that
difficult to remove.
it is

transferred to thin

mark the

leather for

any

purpose a tool should be used, not a pencil.

The Process.

As

soon as the leather has dried

enough to retain the marks, the pattern should

just

be placed upon
being

made

for

it,

pencilled

side

up,

allowance

trimming to the desired width.

The paper may be

held in position by

thumb

tacks,

which must not, however, pass through the leather


inside the part that

may now
will

to be cut

off.

The pattern

be traced through the paper,

lines of the

Care

is

over the

drawing, with the round pointed tool.

have to be exercised to make sure that

the pattern

is

completely transferred to the leather.

When this is accomplished the pattern


moved and

should be

re-

the lines, which will be found somewhat

dimly traced on the leather, should be immediately deepened by going over them with the

same

tool.

DECORATIVE WORK
The next
in

step

to tool

is

down

327

the design; and

doing this the work should be turned under

the tool rather than the tool

itself

on the work,

in order that the pressure of the tool

may

plied at the edge of the pattern farthest

be ap-

from the

This not only insures a correct and con-

hand.

venient position of the tool, but allows a perfect

In this part of the process the

view of the work.

broad tool should be used, moved sidewise, as shown

by the direction of the arrow in the accompanying


In working up into
cut.
the

corners

may
The

be used

narrow
if

necessary.

movement may be

described as ''ironing
-

leather down.

Ihe

"shoulders."

It

One should not

"

'**"'

'
broad tool

of using the

sur-

roughed up
is

---.-'-^

^'

'^"^
Method

process

or

cut

up into

requiring

time.

try to get the full depth with the

pressure of the tool.

surface

the

_,,

,,

face should not be

first

tool

fJ

One should coax the

and add pressure with each succeeding

stroke, taking care that the tool does not scrape.


It should glide;

ginners
to

will

and

perhaps

yet,

on the other hand, be-

need to be cautioned not

wear out the surface by feeble scratching and

HOME DECORATION

328

patting.

work.

As the

leather dries

tooling has given

the process

even gliding pressure does the

firm,

is

down with a

it

it will

be seen that the

a dark, glossy surface.

completed the belt

may

When

be trimmed

firm, sure cut of the knife, using a

straight edge wherever straight lines are desired.

TO DESIGN AND TOOL A MAT


The Design and
which a mat

is

the

Process.

The

purpose for

used requires as one condition of

design that there should be a plain surface in the


middle.

If the general

form be square the design

at the corners should be strengthened.

Supported and unsupported

circles

the design should be so arranged that

support to the perfect curves of the

than weaken them.


below,

and

it will

lend

circle rather

In the three outlines given

shows a form supporting the

show forms tending

Conditions

If circular.

determining

to

size

circle;

weaken the circle.


are more variable

DECORATIVE WORK
in

this

problem than

in

others,

great variety of uses which a

a design Hke that shown in


ing illustration, the portions

the leaves and fruit

by pressing out the


of a tool.
face

down

may

329

because of the

mat may

of the

left

In

serve.

accompany-

untooled

be raised

i. e.,

more
by means

still

leather from the back

-To do this the leather should be placed


in the

palm

of the

hand

or on modelling

wax, which has been covered with a piece of chamois


or sheepskin.

down with

Then by

gently forcing the leather

a round, blunt tool such as the blunt

end of a nut pick the desired relief


may be obtained. After this is done it

in the figure
will

probably

HfB,l-B&\%ll^

HOME DECORATION

330

relief it is well to

back

soaked in paste, and

back with a lining of

it

up with cotton

batting,

to cover the entire

finally

silk or leather.

TO DESIGN AND TOOL A PEN WIPEB

A
case

pen wiper consists

must be made

of a cover,

which

in this

of leather suitable for tooling,

and several leaves of soft material like sheepskin or


chamois, which should match the cover in colour.
The process of tooling the pen wiper does not differ
essentially

from that already employed

going problems.

It should,

in the fore-

be carried

of course,

through to completion before the book

is

made

These parts are to be tied together with knots


sheepskin thongs of the same colour.

The

series of cuts given

up.
of

below show^the progres-

Steps In tylns a knot

sive steps in forming the knot,

take the shape of Figure

5.

which should
After

it

finally

has been

formed the thongs are passed through holes punched


in the cover and leaves of the pen wiper, and
secured by a second knot formed on the back, re-

DECORATIVE WORK

331

sembling Figure 4 with the ends cut as close as


leave

them

will

securely tied.

two suggestions for


the design: A, a rectangular pen wiper tied with
two knots at the end; B, a circular pen wiper tied
Another

illustration

gives

with one knot in the middle.

and indeed

in all others, decoration should recog-

Two

designs for pen wipers

nize (not antagonize!) the outer

to which

In these designs,

it is

applied.

form

This point

is

of the article

made

in the

illustration.

TO MAKE A SLIP COVER FOR A NOTE-BOOK FILLER


Planning

the

Cover. The object

in this

problem

make a permanent protection for fillers. It


may be
is well known that the fillers themselves
purchased for a trifling sum and that they are pro-

is

to

vided with a backing of

stiff

paper which

is

designed

HOME DECORATION

S32

to be slipped into a pocket in the back of a leather

cover and thus form a neat pocket note-book.

A
Design for

is

slip

cover

evident that the dimensions of the

mine the

size

It

of the cover;

filler

deter-

but, in planning the

DECORATIVE WORK

333

cover, care should be exercised to allow sufficient

play for width, length, and thickness after

This means that

sewing are done.

cutting and

the

all

the stock for the cover and lining should be cut a

The

in the final size.

than called for

Httle larger

design illustrated shows both the outside (A) and

As

the inside (B) of the cover.

cover

is

course,

of

may

be

left

out

much

gives

it in.

if

tool

it,

if it is

is

to have

piece of leather should be cut for

The edges

the edge (C) shaped.

though

step after cut-

first

ting out the leather for the cover

and

desired,

better finish to put

The

Assembling the Parts.

leather

planned the

to be lined with sheepskin of harmonizing

colour; but this


it,

it is

to prepare the

any decoration.
the pocket, and

of the lining

and

the pocket should next be lightly pasted and pressed


on the cover. A line is then to be ruled with a
leather tool

on the outside to

(not with pencil)

serve as a guide for stitching.

may

be employed or

by the

latter

line.

Hand

than

the

Stitching.

method
at

the leather

it

may

it will

machine

stitch

be done by hand.

If

be necessary to pierce

equal distances along the tooled

stitches

machine

may

safely

be a

little

longer

stitches.

A good way to secure equally spaced

HOME DECORATION

334
stitches

by hand sewing

springs

or

spacing

is

dividers

to

make

set

to

use of

the

bow

required

more rapid way to accomplish the


same thing is possible by making use of a tracing
wheel, if one is available of suitable size and of the
distance.

right spacing

ing

between the teeth.

may be done

two.

If

with one

The hand

stitch-

either with one needle or with


it is

best to sew a running stitch

A
Stitching with

two needles

once around the seam and then return, covering


the alternate spaces left on the first round. It is
each
better, however, to use two needles, one on

end of one thread, selected long enough to finish


the sewing without piecing it, and to proceed as
illustrated in A and B, i. e., to draw one needle
with

its

thread through to the middle of the thread,

DECORATIVE WORK
as

tions,

B.

and then the other through the next


and so on alternately from opposite direc-

shown

hole,

335

in A,

producing a stitch

It will, of course,

that illustrated in

like

be understood that, in the

illustration, the length of the stitch is

in order to

show the process

Trimming and Finishing.


finished the thread

is

exaggerated

plainly.

When

the sewing

is

fastened by doubling over

one or two of the stitches and drawing the ends


inside

between the cover and

lining.

Then a

line

should be tooled on the cover about Viq of an inch


outside of the stitching, and on this line the cover,
lining

edges

and pocket are trimmed together.

may be

finish.

treated with water colour to

Finally the cover

is

The raw
give them

moistened a

little

and

folded back with firm pressure in order to establish

an even and permanent bend in the leather.

TO DESIGN AND MAKE A DESK PAD


The Design,
first of all,

The problem of design in this case

is,

to determine the dimensions of the pad,

which depend, of course, upon the use to be made of


Then a dimensioned sketch should be drawn
it.
in outline,

including the spacing for the corners

The only detail


The shape
corner.

as illustrated in the drawing (A).

that will need elaboration

is

the

HOME DECORATION

336

and decoration of one of the corners should be carefully laid out on thin paper, from which in due time
it may be transferred to the leather and tooled as in
other problems.

Material and the Process.

T
Detail of the leather

it

will

required
it

binder's.
of

comer

i. e.,

Outline of desk pad

size.

may

heavy pulp or straw board

The medium weight

is

of the

the best,

generally be obtained at the book-

If this

cannot be obtained, two sheets

10-ply card-board

size

making the pad

be necessary to secure a piece of binders'

board

and

For

may be

used instead.

The

given in the drawing will carry a half sheet

of^commercial blotting paper.

The edges

of the

paper board should be bound with passe-partout


binding of a colour to harmonize with the leather
that

is

to be used; the strips of binding should

"

DECORATIVE WORK

337

be long enough to extend under the leather corners but they need not reach up to the corners
After the binding has been put on,
of the board.
the top of the board should be covered with paper

harmonizing in colour with the leather, and


the paper should be cut of such size as to lap
over the edge of the binding and yet leave a suitable
also

The

width of the binding.


will

"cover papers

be found satisfactory.

Making
ess

so-called

the Corners.

to lay out

is

The next step in the proc-

and cut

according to the original

which the leather


sions are
flap at

shown

is

to

leather

the

The form

design.

in the illustration B.

It

leather at x should be "skived" or

down

the edges S

will

S and

little

to

The edges of
thinned down

add to the neat appearance

improvement

The

designed

is

tuck under and close the corner.

Further

in

be cut and the dimen-

X should be noted.

so as to

corners

of the work.

from skiving

result

T VT

of the large

which are to be folded over underneath


and pasted down to the back of the board. The

flaps,

ordinary photographers' paste


this

work.

When

satisfactory for

the leather corners are placed

in position for pasting,

of blotting

is

two or three thicknesses

paper should be used at each corner.

HOME DECORATION

338

in order to secure the necessary space for the re-

when the board

ception of the blotters

in use.

is

After the corners are pasted on, the back of the

board should be covered with paper in the same

way
of

as the front, care being taken to leave a portion

the binding

and leather exposed.

Finally

of blotters of full size should be inserted

number

in position

under the corners to keep them

and the whole placed under

in

shape

light pressure until dry.

TO DESIGN AND MAKE A CARD-CASE


The Design.

In

the

illustration

showing

(A),

a card-case unfolded, the dimensions give the


ished

The same

size.

B somewhat
turned

at the corners.

design on

is

In this case, as

similar forms, the design

binding,

is

in

illustrated

reduced in scale and with the flaps

The

in.

card-case

fin-

extending

across

is

a rectangle broken
it

may

be with

all

treated as a sort of

the

middle

fold.

shows an alternative design which is treated as a


panel and may be placed on one or on both sides
of the card-case.

and bottom

The

question of which

is

in such a design as that in

the top

can

be determined only by the owner's habit of holding


a case. Sometimes a monogram is placed in one
of the inner flaps, as illustrated in A, or

the outer surfaces.

on one

of

DECORATIVE WORK
The Process.
case

it

is

3S9

In cutting the leather for a card-

necessary to provide a piece a

little

Design for a card-case

larger

than the finished dimensions in order to

allow for trimming.

The

design should be trans-

ferred, the line of stitching determined,

tooling done, according to the

and the

description already

given for the other problems.

The Lining.
with

silk

card-case

may

be lined either

or with sheepskin, in a colour to har-

monize with the outside.

must be trimmed down to

If

lined

with

silk

it

size accurately after tool-

HOME DECORATION

340

care being exercised to have the sides

ing, great

parallel

Then

and the corners true and square.

silk is to

be turned

the

and lightly pasted


Vs of an inch, care

in at the edges

along the edges to a 'width of

being taken, however, not to paste those portions of


the edges that
the

cover

the

fold

because

little

in,

i.

e.,.

may
The

middle of

the

be taken

should

precaution

paste

lining.

moistened a
sure;

This

the

be visible when the flaps of

turned

are

B.

the

spot

will

should

flaps

and

through

strike

be

then

and folded down with firm

pres-

but before stitching they should be fastened

down with a

little

paste to form pockets.

takes the place of basting and

is

This

followed by stitch-

ing as described in the problem of the note-book.


lined

If

with sheepskin, the ooze

the cover need not be trimmed


the stitching; then both

may

showing,

side

down

until after

be trimmed at once.

TO MAKE A LEATHER PURSE


The Design.
are

shown

The details of design and construction

in the

the outer flap

is

accompanying

shown

tooled.

illustrations.

The

It will be noticed

that the cap of the snap fastener


central point in design.

In

is

taken as the

tooling

is

done as

directed in the other examples of this class of work.

DECORATIVE WORK
The purse

is

lined

It has bellows ends, as

at

and

in the

341

with

throughout

shown

in the perspective

end view at B.

the bellows end shown in

is

leather.

The pattern

of

intended to fold in

Design for a purse

the middle, bringing both ends of the leather to-

gether and thus giving an end of double thickness.

With

thin leather, such as

instance,

this

pattern

is

is

used in the present

practicable.

If

thicker

must be made of single


In this case the pattern would simply
thickness.
be like that shown in the lower half of D.
leather be used the bellows

The Process.

After the

lining

is

pasted to the

HOME DECORATION

342

Proper

cover a snap fastener should be attached.

be taken to see that the

care, of course, should

fast-

ener comes in the right place so that the purse will

The cover and

fold properly.

lining should then

trimmed and the leather surface ruled


It

is

for stitching.

well to fold the inner flap of the purse while

moist from pasting.

Finally a

little

be

paste

is

it is

applied

along the edges of the bellows ends and they are


placed in position.
Stitching

is

Hand

perspective.
cable.

The

started at the point


stitching

direction

is

side,

up the

other,

flap to the other bellows

When

end, stopping at the point F.


is

in the

the most practi-

is

down one

and around the outside

E shown

the stitching

completed the inside flap should be folded down.

TO MAKE A LIMP LEATHER BOOK COVER


The Design.

The

first

step

to be bound.

For the sake

haps the

piece of

it

first

is

to choose the

of simplicity, as per-

in

undertaken,

bookbinding

And

should be a folio or "section."

be worth binding

book

leather.

The

it

should

subject,

the

paper, and the typography should be worthy of

the distinction.

The Process.

If the

bound or "cased"

it

is

book selected

is

already

necessary

to

remove

first

DECORATIVE WORK

343

LMTOELFV

S^-^ FOLIO

^^

In
l5T(TCMinCt

FDRE.-EDGL

5^C^:

COVLR

E.riD

PAPERS

ItiG

5riTaiinG

LfhLli

LEATfitK

HOME DECORATION

344

Then at least three fly


should be added, made up to match the

the binding or casing.


leaves

other leaves of the

folio.

piece of bookbinders'

buckram is now cut to the size of the open


placed upon it like a cover, and, with the

linen or
folio,

and the

leaves

fly

folio

itself,

stitched

through

the back with silk of a colour to harmonize with


the

leather.

The next

To do

this,

step
first

to prepare the leather cover.

is

the

place

leather

in

position

on the closed folio and, allowing 34 o^ an inch


of an inch at the
at the top and bottom and

cover.

mark and cut out the stock for the


The decoration, if there is to be any, may

now be

tooled on.

fore edge,

If the design is

need a backing,

relief to

it

heavy enough "in

may be

at once filled

with cotton batting, pasted in as directed in the

problem of the mat, and covered with thin paper.


Stock for the end papers

may

is

be of cover paper, or of

harmonize

formed

of

in colour

now
silk,

selected.

and they should

with the leather.

two thicknesses

They

They

are

of the material chosen,

by folding it over to fit into the part between the


If of paper they are
linen and the first fly leaf.
to be cut to the length of the folio leaves, but the

width

is

to be left with

an allowance for adjust-

DECORATIVE WORK
ment

after the linen

are to be of

pasted

is

must be left for turning


and the fore edge.

end leaves

If the

in.

an allowance

silk,

345

of

li of an inch

bottom

in at the top, the

We are now ready to paste the linen to the leather.


Strong paste, with perhaps a
is

needed for

little

thin glue added,

Now

this part of the process.

paste

the outside end leaves to the linen on the inside


of the cover; and,

leaves, paste the other

Finally,

has been used for these

silk

if

two to the outer

the book should be placed under very

gentle pressure and kept

in

this

condition until

Care should be exercised to adjust

dry.

sure to the character of the tooling,


so as not to crush

is

if

this pres-

there

is

any,

it.

Copper
There

fly leaves.

a limited

Work

field for

decoration; but there

are

metal work in

some things

of

home
metal

that combine beauty and utility to a remarkable

degree and, in their making, introduce us to most


interesting

which

operations.

may be

knocker, which
find

in

every

ing work

in

of

Beginning with the gate,

wrought

may be

of antique brass,

home problems
metals.

with the door

iron, or

of

we may

design involv-

Ornamental

hinges,

key

HOME DECORATION

346

escutcheons, fastenings of various kinds, andirons,

and other accessories of the hearth, lamp holders, card


trays,

crumb

trays,

useful things that

bon bon

may

suggest themselves.

may

made

is

and many other

be made in attractive forms

readily

be

dishes,

How

some

of these

suggested in the following simple

problems

TO MAKE A LETTER RACK


This

is

an easy problem.

operations are required,

viz.y

Only four constructive


cutting out the stock,

sawing the design,


bending, and finishing.

The

illustration

shows

the form and the dimensions

and suggests a

simple design. The


material required

is

18-

gauge soft copper.

The

Design for a letter rack

If necessary the edges

first

step in the

to cut out a

process

is

strip of

copper 8 inches

long and 4 inches wide.

may be trimmed

then the round corners should be cut.

even and

The

design

is

traced on strong, thin paper and securely pasted

DECORATIVE WORK
on the copper

of the design

by means

hole

drilled

is

of a

through each unit

hand

and the design

inserted,

by using cold

in the proper position

liquid glue.

saw

347

cut.

drill,

a jewellers'

Time and paSaws

tience will be required for this operation.

are easily broken,

and new

ones must be attached

saw frame and again applied to the work.

to the

After sawing the design

it

the edges a smooth finish.

The

file.

the rack

surface which

is

is

necessary to give

This

done with a

is

to form the inside of

then thoroughly cleaned and polished

is

with water and pumice.

The copper
quired shape.

wood 8
bench

now ready to be bent to


To do this prepare a block

the re-

is

of hard

inches long and 2 inches wide, grip

vise,

and clamp the

strip of

it

copper squarely

across the block in such a position that the sides

be bent over the edges of the block.

been done
face

and

it

When

may

this has

only remains to clean the outside sur-

finish it

on the

felt buffing

fine polish is desired, the buffing

by

in a

wheel.

If a

should be preceded

careful grinding with a Scotch water stone

and

water.

TO MAKE A LETTER OPENER


This requires the same kind of material as the
letter rack

and the same operations, with the addition

HOME DECORATION

348

of riveting.

After the stock

is

cut out, tpimmed and

trued up at the edges, an outline of the design

Design for a

letter

is

opener

pasted on, as in the previous problem, and the design


cut out.

The top is then bent over and

riveted with a

copper tack, having shaped the head of the tack


the vise before inserting

it.

While the tack

is

being

riveted the finished head should be protected

placing

be

it

on a lead block.

filed to

in

by

Finally the edge should

the shape shown in the cross section, and

the whole cleaned and polished.

TO MAKE A HAT PIN


For

The

this

problem 12-gauge copper

will

be needed.

operations required are cutting out, sawing, and

DECORATIVE WORK
soft soldering.

After the necessary stock has been cut

to the required shape

and the edges

outlined, pasted on, sawed,


is

349

and

filed,

the design

finished as before.

desirable to grind with the Scotch stone

to a

good

polish.

The head

will

is

It

and water

then be ready to be

attached to the pin.


Carefully scrape with a knife the portions of the

surface
the pin

is

where
to be at-

tached (shown in
the drawing), select a steel pin of

desired

length,

the

sur-

face of the

little

scrape

disk attached to

one end of it, ap'^^^ ^'' P'

ply to this disk


a httle soldering paste

by means

of a small stick,

then, with a gas (or alcohol) blowpipe, melt

and

on a

bit

of soft solder, which should cover the whole disk.


Now place the copper, outside face down, on an

asbestos pad, applying the soldering paste to the


central portion, place the disk with its bit of solder

on

this portion of the copper,

When

and fuse as

the copper has cooled, clean

off

before.

the oxide.

HOME DECORATION

350

which

will

have formed, by dipping

in diluted sul-

phuric acid, and polish on the buffing wheel.

TO MAKE A BELT PIN


Eighteen-gauge copper

The

required for this problem.

is

operations are like those for the hat pin except

that hard soldering

is

necessary.

The

The

bending

belt pin

of the copper, required in this case,


of a horn mallet

slight

and a sand pad.

is

done by means

For hard soldering,

the surface must be scraped as before and covered

with a

little

borax ground in water and applied

with a small brush.

The

belt plate should then

be placed on the asbestos pad, with


face down, and blocked

the soldering

is

up

to be done

is

its

convex

so that the

end where

horizontal.

The

catch

DECORATIVE WORK

351

should then be placed in position with a small


piece of silver solder at the base.

The

solder should

be melted as before by means of a mouth blowpipe

The hinge

and gas or alcohol flame.


in the

same way, and

is

soldered on

finally the pin is cleaned

and

polished for use.

TO MAKE A SET OF BOOK ENDS


This problem

is

much

like the first

one described

under metal work. Sixteen-gauge copper

is

required.

Design for book ends

It

may be bent by

placing

blocks in a vise and

it

between two hard wood

hammering

it

with a rawhide

mallet.

TO MAKE A TEAPOT STAND

Twenty -gauge copper is required for this problem.


The operations are similar to those already described;

HOME DECORATION

352

but the cutting and bending are much more


After determining the design

it will

be necessary to

r
I

Dosign for a teapot stand

difficult.

DECORATIVE WORK
make

353

a drawing showing fully developed surfaces, as

The

illustrated in the detail of the corner.

four

comers must be marked and cut exactly as shown

in the drawing.

piece of hard

wood

is

then cut

to the size of the top, 5 inches square in this case,


to be used as a form on which to bend
sides

and

flanges.

are

turn

DETAIL

the

OF CORNf?

If the corners

correctly cut

parts will

the

down

fall

the

naturally

into place, to be bored

and

riveted,

as

the

drawing plainly shows.


In order to protect the
tablecloth, the

under
^^^^'^ ^ ^

side of the rivet holes

^^''

should be countersunk so that the ends of the rivets

may

be finished smooth and flush with the under

surface.

may

As an additional

protection, a felt

mat

be glued on the bottom.

TO MAKE A WATCH FOB


This problem introduces engraving and enamelling,

two

The

interesting but

somewhat

process to be carried out

is

difiicult operations.

as follows: Using 12-

gauge copper, saw the outhne, and apply the design

HOME DECORATION

354

for the part to

ing

it

be enamelled to the copper by sketch-

with a pencil or transferring

carbon paper.

Then strengthen the

by means

it

of

pencil or carbon

by scratching lightly with a scratch awl.


Imbed this fob in pitch, either in a pitch bowl
lines

or in a small quantity of pitch placed on a piece


of

board clamped to the

bench or

Using

table.

an engraving

tool,

remove

the copper from the spot

be enamelled

to

depth of
It

is

%2

well to

of

the

to

an inch.

have the bot-

tom of the spot reasonably


level
Design for a watch fob

slightly undercut.

but not necessarily

smooth

and

Before applying the

the

flux, clean,

by pouring a small quantity of concentrated


acid over the cut and immediately rinsing
under the water tap.

sides

nitric
it

off

Flux should be kept in a

closed jar under water after

grinding,

and taken

out as needed on the tip of a small strip of copper


previously cleaned with acid. Enough flux should

be applied to cover the bottom of the spot to be


enamelled; but the depth of the spot must not

be

filled

up.

DECORATIVE WORK

Now

355

place the fob on a piece of wire gauze on

an iron tripod and apply the flame of the blowpipe


Heat very slowly until all the
to the under side.
water
flux

driven

is

is

then force the heat until the

Allow

fused.

move any

off,

flux that

to cool slowly, then re-

it

may have

by grinding with Scotch

face of the fob

Clean with acid as before,


in the

fuse

same manner
again

to

remove

If it is desired to

directly,

sulphuric

the spot with enamel

as the flux

fused, cleaned with water

the flux

fill

stone.

was applied, and

After fusing, the surface should be

again.

stoned

adhered to the sur-

may be
but the

and buffed on the wheel.

apply enamel to sterling silver

omitted and the enamel applied


should be cleaned with

silver

instead

acid

and again

inequalities

of

nitric

acid,

and great

care should be used in heating as the fusing point


of silver

is

but

little

above that

depth of the engraving on the

of enamel.

silver

The

need not be

as great as on the copper.

TO MAKfc A CARD TRAY


Eighteen-gauge copper should be used for this problem, and two

new operations,

are introduced.

viz.,

raising

and chasing,

After cutting out a circular piece of

copper to the diameter indicated, allowing one half

HOME DECORATION

356

an inch extra for

raising, it is

annealed by heating

to red heat under the blowpipe flame

by dipping

in

it

and cooling

a sulphuric acid pickle bath.

DECORATIVE WORK

357

After

shaping,

by means

the

of transfer

design

may be appHed

paper and the

lines lightly

Then imbed the tray


the design by following the

scratched on the surface.

and outline
with a narrow chasing

in pitch
lines

tool.

Reverse the tray

on the pitch and, with a chasing tool of suitable

Method

shape, raise the


desired.
flat

of shaping with the

body

of the design to the height

Reverse on the pitch again and with a

tool true the outlines

ground.

hammer

Remove from

of the tray

if

it

the pitch, trim the edge

forced out of line, clean with

is

pumice stone and

and smooth the back-

buff.

All the foregoing articles

may

be agreeably

col-

oured by painting them with, or immersing them


in, a

weak

soft

solder has not

solution (boiling) of liver of sulphur.

If

been used, another pleasing

HOME DECORATION

358

may

finish

be secured by applying a

lubricating

oil

An

volatilized.

may

antique

green

or

until the oil

and copper carbonate.

be necessary; and

it

is

is

verdigris finish

by painting with a mixture

be obtained

acetic acid

may

and heating gently

thin coat of

of

Several coats

desirable to lacquer

the surface to ensure permanency.

Work

in

Other Materials

a candle shade

The
six

materials and tools for

ply card-board in dull

or green,
of

and with mat

average

little

problem are

this

shades of gray, brown


surface; Japanese paper

passe-partout

thickness;

binding

darker than the card-board and of harmon-

izing colour; paste; a penknife with

and a water colour

a thin blade;

outfit.

Of the drawings included

in

the group on

the

opposite page one shows a development of the


surface of the candle shade which
of this problem.

be seen that
until they

if

is

the subject

Referring to the elevation

it will

AE and DH be continued
OE and OH are really equal

the edges

meet at O,

to the radii of the outer arc of the development

shown

OD,

in the

upper part of the group, and

to the radii of the inner

arc.

OA

and

This upper

DECORATIVE WORK
DEVELOPED 3URF/5CE:

=-7v^J.E.TTER5

DenOTE IDENTICAL

POINTS IM ELEVrtTIOtI,

or ^HADe,

(jEriERflL

359

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DEVEIPPED

PROPOR

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BE VARIED 50'
LOnO fl5 TOP PITS HOLDER
TlOftS

3IDE5 M/aV

A
/- E DGE,

OF

\R5EPflfndur/'

BinOIMO

V<1RWTIOfi5 IM D1VI5IOM

OF SURFACE.
HOLDCR
eoVERMS TOP OF

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HOLDER
FOR
5l'lflDE.

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ELEVATlOn'^

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OF

iHflDE.

TO ihWPE. OF CrtMDLt-MOLDER

Details of candle shade

HOME DECORATION

360

developed surface really forms the pattern of the


candle shade.

The decoration

consists of openings cut through

These are covered with

the card-board segments.

Japanese paper, thus allowing light to pass through,

but adding the

effect

allowed along the openings, the

of

an inch

is

of

colour.

margin

of

remaining spaces being divided by partitions of


card-board, as shown in the different typical designs
at the right of the illustration.

It will be noticed that

the group of openings forming the decoration of

one side conforms

of size

main

to the shape of that

be noticed that there

It will also

side.

all

in the

and shape

in the openings,

is

a variety

but that they

show a certain unity and harmony

of space

division.

The openings
being taken to

cut with

are

make

penknife,

care

as clean a cut as possible.

Japanese paper, of pale green, orange, or some


suitable light colour,

The
care.

is

process of pasting
It

is

board at a

pasted under the openings.


is

one that requires some

well to paste only a portion of the paste-

time taking care

paste than necessary and not to

edges of the openings.

on while the paste

is

not
let

to

use

any get over the

The paper should be


still

more

pressed

moist, and the paper

DECORATIVE WORK

361

should, of course, not be pasted at

itself

should be placed

with

colour

all.

next

side

to

It

the

openings.

When

the paste

on the

lightly scored

on these

is

dry the card-board should be


lines

AE, BF,

etc.,

and bent

bringing the sectors together into

lines,

the form of the shade and fastening

them

at the

top and bottom temporarily with a bit of passe-

partout binding.

width
into

(J/g

two

of

binding

If the

an inch),

it

No

of the ordinary

should be cut lengthwise

strips of equal width, to

ing the edges.

is

be used for mount-

attempt should be made to

run the binding along more than one edge.

The

separated strips should then be cut the exact length


for each top

and bottom edge and applied one at

Then the

a time.

side edges are bound, with the

apex of the angle at the middle of the binding.

When

the binding

trimmed

off at

is

firmly fastened

it is

carefully

the top and bottom.

ELECTRIC LIGHT PENDANTS

Two

designs for such pendants are illustrated in

the accompanying drawings.

from

suggestions

successfully

The

in

worked

seven-light

They were derived

the Craftsman,

and

were

out in remodelling a house.

fixture

consists

of

circular

HOME DECORATION

362

pendant-board about 30 inches in diameter, made

from 2-inch plain

and, with

segments

form a

was

left

stock, cut

splined

An open
in

into 60-degree

joints,

glued up to

which was turned up on

piece

circular

a large lathe.
eter

oak

the

space 7 inches in diam-

larger

circle,

which

covered by a cup-shaped cap turned from

was
plain

oak stock and attached


to the larger circle byscrews.

opening covered

able

by

The consider-

this

cap contained

the cut out and the


wiring

necessary

for

connecting with each


of

the

Seven

seven

lights.

medium-sized

seven-light fixture

hooks of composition metal were procured which

had

large, coarse

was

drilled lengthwise

hooks.

Holes

threaded screws.

%6-inch hole

through the shanks of these

were bored near the centre of the

arc of each segment in the board circle to receive

these hooks.

When

the fixture was assembled the

wires for each light were carried from the cut out
across a channel

made

for

that purpose on the

upper surface of the board, passed down through

DECORATIVE WORK
the hole in the shank of the hook,

363

woven

into the

hnks of the chain pendant and connected with the corresponding bulb socket after passing through another hook, like those described above, which Hnked

As a

the socket to the chain.

finish

around the

hooks shallow cups of beaten copper were fashioned


over a wooden form, turned for the purpose, and
oxidized to a tone

somewhat

darker than the brown of the

oak board.

Copper cups

in a

conventional petal design were

made
bulbs.

to place over each of the

The

chains were also

oxidized to conform with the

The

other metal work.

combination was satisfactory.

five-light fixture

Another design

much

house and
trated.

entire

for the dining-room of the

easier to construct

is

also illus-

It will be observed that the square

instead of the circle

is

same
form

carried out consistently in

the woodwork and metal caps. These caps and


the chains are in natural brass of a dull finish.
are of ground glass, decorated with a
flower design in heavy black lines. The central
wholly
light has a larger shade than the others,

The shades

enclosed.

In this one

is

placed a red incandescent

HOME DECORATION

364

bulb for use whenever such decorative effect

is

desired.

DECORATIVE FORGINGS
In the story of the designing and building of the

model house reference was made to contributions

Among these were the andirons,

from the forge shop.

door knocker, lantern bracket, and other articles

shown

in the

accompanying

illustrations.

It should be understood that all

that has any reality in

it

wrought iron work

requires an equipment

There must

especially adapted to its production.

be a good forge and

Successful

skill.

among

considered

forge

and proper

anvil,

of

some experience

work can hardly be

amateur working without

and with poor equipment.

struction

tools,

tools,

the handicrafts easily adapted

to the needs of the

good

an

workman

the hands of a

all in

and

fire,

proper equipment, and a

in-

But with

little

experi-

ence any clever boy will be able to design and fashion

many

useful articles for the

home which have

real

artistic merit.

For the

may

be

possibly

fireplace, in addition to andirons, there

made

the shovel, poker, and tongs, and

the old-fashioned crane and pot hooks.

Other fixtures that

may be made

are ceiling hooks.

Decorative Forgings

rrW YORK

PUBLIC LIBRARY
ASTON. LENOX
yit n-^H

FOUNOATIONB_

DECORATIVE WORK

865

lantern brackets for the wall or for lantern posts,

standards for the newel post, the hall lantern or


the porch lantern, the latch and the knocker for
the door, and,

if

hinges, plates,

and bolts

the architectural design permits,


for the door.

This

list

by no means exhausts the

uses of wrought iron in

may

be extended to include

house decoration.

It

draw
and hinges

escutcheons,

pulls,

key

furniture

handles

of great variety, nails with ornamental

heads for use with heavy construction, and


small

toasting

forks,

useful articles

many

such as trivets for steam kettles,

articles

candle holders,

and many other

which have also decorative value.

XII
CONCLUDING SUGGESTIONS

COUNTRY HOMES
To know what you
world

tells

prefer, instead of

you you ought

KEEN
have

to

prefer,

is

humbly saying amen


to have

kept

your

to

what the

soul

observers of American customs,

who

studied the development of our taste

house designing and furnishing,

in

alive.

Robert Louis Stevenson

tell

us

that the best expression of our art in architecture and

home decoration is to be found in our country homes.


They do not overlook, of course, a beautiful public
building in this city or that, perhaps ten altogether,
or an occasional private residence on Millionaire

Avenue, which are monuments to the genius of


the men who created them and of which any country

may be
we

proud.

What

they

mean

is

that as a people

seek and secure the right combination of utility

and beauty

in

our homes more frequently in the

country than in the

At

first

city.

thought such a criticism


366

may seem

to

CONCLUDING SUGGESTIONS
an

be

exaggeration.

Is

367

we

reasonable,

it

ask,

that people of good sense, such as most Americans

succeed better in planning, building, and

are, really

decorating the houses which they are to occupy

but a few weeks in the summer than they do

We

developing their city homes?


it is

true

are told that

and that there are good reasons

Simplicity of Country Life.

It

country and at the seashore that


the natural

life,

the

is

is

in

the

for

it.

the

life in

the simple

life,

that sets us free from the

life

accumulated burden of mere "things." Here we come


to forget for a time the
few.
is

all

Here we are to
about

Our wants

many and find pleasure

feel

we

are few because

with the free

Nature

the joy of living.

and she gives

us,

of her

in the

bounty

freely.

are so well satisfied

What wants we have keep

gifts.

step with our needs here as they do nowhere else.

We

what others have; we are


more individual, more rational. Here we generally
demand what we really need and we more frecare

for

less

quently obtain

something

it.

that

And

appeals to the

our natures or whether


to our material needs.
for the simple

this is true

home

it

whether

aesthetic

it

be

side

of

be that which ministers

In seeking the beautiful

in the

country we do not so

often forget the useful; for here,

away from the

HOME. DECORATION

S68

world of museums and studios and collections, we


learn that art

is

without paintings and

possible

In the exterior form and colouring of

statuary.

the shingled cottage, set like a

by the

or

sea, in the

gem on

the hillside

harmonious arrangement of

with every article of furniture chosen

its interiors,

only for use and comfort and placed where needed,

and with decorations, cheerful but restrained and


of

more

and more interesting things

in the

subordinate,

suggestive

in such surroundings

combined.

glorious

world without

we have beauty and

it

may

in the country
its

utility

Here we have the time and the op-

portunity to realize the truth that

and that

colours

most open

all

art

is

one

find in the problems of decoration

home,

field for

if

not

its

highest mission,

giving to appreciative people

the pleasure of seeing and enjoying the beautiful.


Opportunities for Constructive Art.

that there

is

If it

be true

a more universal recognition of the

true principles of art in the better class of our

country homes than in our city homes,


if

proof,

proof be needed, that the elements of art expres-

sion

are found

of every-day

life.

in

the simple, natural materials


It

may be

that in the develop-

amid simple surroundings "necessity


the mother of invention," and that, more or less

ment
is

it is

of art

CONCLUDING SUGGESTIONS
naturally, simplicity
eral habit of

in the

our time

thrust

is

upon

us.

369

The

gen-

to extend the vacation period

is

country or at the seashore to the point of

making a home there

summer

for every

season.

But only a few can carry wealth and elegance with


them. A great majority must be satisfied with
simple and inexpensive homes. At first we accept
them as the only thing possible, and then we discover that in their very simplicity they offer the
best of opportunities for true aesthetic expression.

And

this opportunity

members

largely for the younger

is

of the family

for

the boys and

girls

more extended, whose interest in the summer home is perhaps the more
vital and whose imagination is the more suscepwhose vacation period

tible to

is

We

have

girls to

build

the art suggestions of nature.

seen that

it is

possible for boys

and

and furnish a house under the exacting requirements of city life. How much easier it must be

summer season, decoraharmony with the simple

to build a cottage for the

ting

and furnishing

it

in

needs of a vacation home.


If

such a suggestion meet with acceptance, those

who undertake
help

in

chapters.

the

the work will find

problems outlined

It is

in

much

practical

the foregoing

not expected, of course, that the

HOME DECORATION

370

directions there given will always be exactly fol-

lowed.

In the furniture problems, for example,

and spruce may be substituted


Very attractive as
for the harder woods specified.
well as very useful simple furniture has been made

soft

woods

in this

and

way

like pine

finishing

colour

Staining

at a merely nominal expense.

may

easily bring it into

schemes; but the bright,

harmony with
colour

fresh

of

new pine and spruce is in itself by no means unatThe smooth, exposed beams of the ceiltractive.
ings

and

walls,

if

of

well

chosen stock,

may be

stained a beautiful gray green or a soft brown.


A good colour suggestion may be found in the

weathered gray of the hewn timbers of very old

The

buildings.

dado may be

effect of a ceiled-up wall or of a

easily obtained

by

stretching burlap

denim over the studding or over a backing of


These materials are very
inexpensive sheathing.

or

durable and inexpensive, and they

may

in a great variety of beautiful shades.

excellent

portieres.

scrim

like

is

these fabrics

by

stencilling.

better
afford

lighter,

for

be found

They make

thinner

window

good surfaces

material

draperies.
for

All

decoration

wood floors,
the more dainty

Stained or painted soft

covered with grass cloth rugs or


hand woven rugs like those described in the chapter

CONCLUDING SUGGESTIONS

371

on weaving, with simple, useful furniture, a picture


or two, and a few choice pieces of pottery, complete
the equipment for a charming living room. If
be the product of home industry, the cash
outlay for the material need not be over forty

it

all

A
dollars,

fireplace in field rock

though an outlay

for better materials

of ten times that

would not

amount

in the least interfere

HOME DECORATION

372

with such a room being decorated and furnished

by the unaided labours of the amateur


and craftsmen of the family.

The

chief expense

would naturally be

room, dining-room, and kitchen.

living

may

ing-room, however,

which

home the

will

Such an arrange-

sense of perfect comfort.

and should be

may
make

chairs,

and cabinets

fire-

may

be

enough to
fur-

Furniture

a point of supplying beds, bureaus,

with any desired

of simple

may

good substitutes

inexpensively.

design, unfinished,

them to harmonize
colour scheme. But such furni-

so that the purchaser

will

large

be very simple indeed.

dealers

ture, or

This

The chamber

take one-cut fireplace wood.


nishings

din-

be required to give the summer

of rough field rock

bed

The

greatly increases the value of a single

place,

the

for

well be simply a corner

or alcove of a large living room.

ment

artists

stain

for

it,

can be made very

For example, the stock

for a

not cost over seventy -five cents.

good
Cases

provided with shelves and curtains in place of


drawers,

made

at a cash outlay possibly of one

dollar, will serve for bureaus.

for building

The

an eight-room cottage

satisfactory need not exceed five


9.nd

cost of materials
in every

hundred

way

dollars;

such a cottage could be beautifully furnished

CONCLUDING SUGGESTIONS

S73

by clever boys and girls at an expense for materials


of one hundred and fifty or perhaps two hundred
dollars.

In

the

exterior

finishing

nature generally needs very

An

colours

of

summer

little

cottages

assistance.

No

inexpensive bed

harmonize so well with the gray rocks,

sere fields

and marshes, and the evergreen

trees

bv the seashore, as the weathered grays of the


shingled cottage. The window frames, door frames
and

facings, painted to preserve them,

may

be of

the same colour or in dull green or brown, plainly

marking the outlines

of

unpleasant contrasts.

the house but without


stained roof in slate gray

HOME DECORATION

374

or creosote

brown

also in keeping.

is

pinning and outside chimneys in the


the

locality

among

the

are

eminently

hills will

fitting.

The underfield

rock of

The house

stand more colour because the

colours of nature are richer, expecially in the au-

tumn
it

season.

should repeat in

colour tones of
to

But wherever the house may

fit

its

its

larger surfaces the prevailing

natural setting.

into its surroundings as

and would always remain


natural beauty

all

be,

around

if

it

It should

belonged there

there, a part of the simple,


it.

ETH]

THE COUNTRY LIFE

seem

PBESS,

GARDEN

CITY, N. Y.

THE NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY


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