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problems simplified with ease & its all free!!
Electron flow Circuits Resistor
The Atom Joule’s law Inductive switch
Induction Measuring Diode
Electric circuit Multimeter LED
Resistance TRMS Zener diode
Static electricity Meter resistance Capacitor
The conductor Circuit conditions Transistor
Ohm’s law Relay Work tasks
Cable nomogram Fuse
Kirchhoff’s laws Circuit breaker

Why learning
 To be more confident when
approaching electrical problems
 To improve diagnosis time
 To get it right the first time
 To improve Customer Satisfaction
When electrons flow from one atom to the other in
an organised matter, electric current flow exists.

Simply stated “Electron flow = electricity.”

Electricity is not something that must be gathered or

constructed . It is everywhere and in all things. It is only
the attracting or repelling force that must be produced or

This force is called “Electro-motive Force” E or EMF.

Is the basic unit of matter.
The smallest particle that we can find in a chemical substance is the atom. There are about 115 different
atoms, and by combining them to different molecules we can construct all kind of substances.
When a substance consists of one or more equal atoms it is called an element.

The atom consists of a central, positively charged core, the nucleus, and negatively charged particles called
electrons that are found in orbits around the nucleus. Protons and Neutrons are contained in the centre or
Nucleus of the Atom. For a neutral atom, the number of electrons is equal to the atomic number. Protons
have a positive charge. Neutrons have no charge. Electrons have a negative charge.

Ordinary electric current is the flow of electrons through a wire conductor. The electron is one of the basic
constituents of matter. An atom consists of a small, dense, positively charged nucleus surrounded by
electrons that whirl about it in orbits, forming a cloud of charge. Ordinarily there are just enough negative
electrons to balance the positive charge of the nucleus, and the atom is neutral. The outermost electrons of
an atom determine its chemical and electrical properties.
Electrons in each shell has a defined energy. The further
the electron is distanced to the nucleus, the higher is the Shell 3
energy in that electron shell. Shell 2
Shell 1
Electrons in the outer shell are not strongly bonded to the
the nucleus, and the atom may give up these electrons.
Because metals have few outermost electrons and tend to
give them up easily, they are good conductors of
electricity or heat.

In substances like metals, electrons in the outer shell are

basically moving freely. Connecting an electric voltage to
the metal exposes the charge carriers (electrons) with a
Nucleus Electrons
force, causing the electrons to relocate according to the
The electrons are tightly held in shells that contain
polarity. its maximum number of electrons. If it takes 8
electrons to fill a shell but it has fewer than 8
electrons, the atom will let the electrons come and go
In a conductor, the electrons will move towards the positive pole. with very little force. This is the reason that some
This movement of electrons is called electric current. elements will conduct easily (their outer valence
shell is not full). Copper has a single electron in an
outer shell that can hold as many as 32 electrons.
Electric current is defined by electrons moving in a
material. Much

Electric conductors are materials where the electrons can
move between different atoms. Good conductors of electricity are
elements containing less than 4 electrons in their outer rings.

Semi conductors Little

In a semiconductor there is a limited movement of
electrons, depending upon the crystal structure of the
material used. The substances first used for semiconductors
were the elements germanium, silicon, and gray tin.
There are few free electrons compared to conductors.
Insulators (dielectric)
Is a substance that does not readily conduct heat, sound, or
electricity. The electrons are bound and cannot travel
between the atoms. = Electron
Glass, porcelain and plastics are commonly used insulators.
Electromagnetic induction. is the production
of an electromotive force (emf) in a conductor
as a result of a changing magnetic field about
the conductor. N
Variation in the field around a conductor may I0

be produced by relative motion between the

conductor and the source of the magnetic
field, as in an electric generator, or by varying C
the strength of the entire field, so that the field I=0

around the conductor is also changing. Since

a magnetic field is produced around a current- S
carrying conductor, such a field can be D N

changed by changing the current. I0

On figure A and C, the magnet is standing S

still, the induced voltage (and current) is
equal to zero. I0

By changing the magnetic field about the
conductor, there will be produced an
electromotive force (emf) in the conductor.

The direction on the voltage (and current) is

depending on if the magnetic field is
increasing or decreasing.

The level on the induced voltage is depending

on how fast the magnetic field is changing.

The level on the induced voltage is depending

on how strong the magnetic field is.

The direction on the induced voltage is

depending on the direction of the magnetic
field, (in case it is the north/south pole that is
closest to the coil.

1 cycle

A simple electric circuit consists of one power source and one consumer.
Example of power sources are:
 The battery
Generates a direct current (DC) by a chemical process. The
current is in one direction only, and the battery electrodes may
therefore be marked with (+) and (-).

The alternator
By revolving the coil in a magnetic field, an alternating current
(AC) is being induced. The polarity will alternate.

The technical direction of current is from plus to minus

If the direction of current is defined in a el. schematic, this
direction will be in force.

The actual direction of current, (electron current flow) is on the other

hand from minus to plus.
The electrons move from a negative charged area to a positive charged
-property of an electric conductor by which it
opposes a flow of electricity and dissipates electrical
energy away from the circuit, usually as heat.
Optimum resistance is provided by a conductor that
is long, small in cross section, and of a material that
conducts poorly.

There is always a certain resistance in a conductor.

There will always be a power loss due to a voltage

drop during net movement or flow of electric charge
from one point to another or across some boundary.

The voltage drop will increase the greater the line

resistance is. Usually we are aiming at a low line
resistance by choosing the appropriate cable size and
Positive and negative charges behave in interesting ways. Two things with opposite, or different
charges (a positive and a negative) will attract, or pull towards each other. Things with the same
charge (two positives or two negatives) will push away from each other.
A charged object will also attract something that is neutral. Think about how you can make a
balloon stick to the wall. If you charge a balloon by rubbing it on your hair, it picks up extra
electrons and has a negative charge. Holding it near a neutral object will make the charges in that
object move. If it is a conductor, many electrons move easily to the other side, as far from the
balloon as possible. If it is an insulator, the electrons in the atoms and molecules can only move
very slightly to one side, away from the balloon. In either case, there are more positive charges
closer to the negative balloon. The balloon sticks. (At least until the electrons on the balloon slowly
leak off.) It works the same way for neutral and positively charged objects.
As you walk across a carpet, electrons move from the rug to you. Now you have extra electrons.
Touch a door knob and ZAP! The door knob is a conductor. The electrons move from you to the
knob. You get a shock.
We usually only notice static electricity in the winter when the air is very dry. During the summer,
the air is more humid. The water in the air helps electrons move off you more quickly, so you can
not build up as big a charge.
As you walk across a carpet, electrons move from the rug to you. Now you have extra electrons.
Touch a door knob and ZAP! The door knob is a conductor. The electrons move from you to the
knob. You get a shock.
We usually only notice static electricity in the winter when the air is very dry. During the summer,
the air is more humid. The water in the air helps electrons move off you more quickly, so you can
not build up as big a charge. OBS! Things with the same charge repel each other. So the hairs try to
get as far from each other as possible.
Static electricity is the imbalance of positive and negative charges.
Electronic components are susceptible to damage from Electrostatic
Discharge (ESD), when an ESD event occurs across their terminals or when electronic parts are exposed to electrostatic
fields. Electrostatic Discharge Susceptibility (ESDS) parts can be destroyed by an ESD event regardless of their
electrical and ground connections. Components found to be susceptible to ESD include microelectronic devices, film
resistors, resistor chips, discrete semiconductors, other thick- and thin-film devices, and piezoelectric crystals. Some
common ESDS component types and their relative sensitivities are listed below. Subassemblies and modules containing
ESDS parts are usually as sensitive as the most sensitive ESDS part they contain.
Device Type Range of Susceptibility (Volts)

VMOS 30 to 1800
MOSFET 100 to 200
GaAsFET 100 to 300
EPROM 100 +
JFET 140 to 7000
SAW 150 to 500
OP AMP 190 to 5000
CMOS 250 to 3000
Schottky Diodes 300 to 2500
Film Resistors (Thick, Thin) 300 to 3000
Bipolar Transistors 380 to 7800
ECL (PDC Board Level) 500 to 1500
SCR 680 to 1000
Schottky TTL 100 to 2500
Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) 
Electrostatic discharge is a single, fast, high current transfer of electrostatic charge that results from:
Direct contact transfer between two objects at different potentials, or a high electrostatic field
between two objects when they are in close proximity. The prime sources of static electricity are
mostly insulators and are typically synthetic materials, e.g., vinyl or plastic work surfaces, insulated
shoes, finished wood chairs, Scotch tape, bubble pack, soldering irons with ungrounded tips, etc.
Voltage levels generated by these sources can be extremely high since their charge is not readily
distributed over their surfaces or conducted to other objects. The generation of static electricity
caused by rubbing (or squeezing) two substances together is called the triboelectric effect.
Examples of sources of triboelectric electrostatic charge generation in a high RH ( »60%)
environment include:
Walking across a carpet 1000 V–1500 V generated.
Walking across a vinyl floor 150 V–250 V generated.
Handling material protected by clear plastic covers 400 V–600 V generated.
Handling polyethylene bags 1000 V–1200 V generated.
Pouring polyurethane foam into a box 1200 V–1500 V generated.
ICs sliding down an open antistatic shipping tube 25 V–250 V generated.
Note: For low RH (<30%) environments, generated voltages can be >10 ´ those listed above.
What can be done?
Treat floors with static dissipative treatments – (benefit of this will probably wear off after a
Raise air humidity to 40-50% rh with a humidifier
Use an antistatic wrist strap, which connects to your AC ground.
Use different Shoes and clothing
Common ESD Myths. (bedside reading)

Technicians believe touching the equipment before working on the equipment is sufficient for ESD protection.
TRUTH - This method is probably sufficient until the technician moves or rocks enough to generate more damaging static charges. The wearing of a properly grounded ESD wrist strap ensures that static charges will
dissipate to ground.

Technicians believe that once the ESD sensitive components are mounted to the circuit boards, they are no longer susceptible to ESD.
TRUTH - The chance for damaging circuit board mounted components actually increases because the conductors and leads act as antennas to funnel the static charge directly to the device. It is also difficult to handle
CCAs without touching the leads and conductors. Protect the CCA by keeping it in a closed or sealed ESD barrier bag.

Technicians believe the only circuit boards requiring ESD protection are those containing complimentary metal oxide semi-conductor (CMOS) devices.
TRUTH - Most circuit boards contain CMOS devices since nearly half of the devices manufactured are a variation of CMOS. Protect each CCA as ESD susceptible, and consider all component types just as sensitive
to ESD damage as CMOS devices.

Technicians believe they have to actually touch the item or component to

TRUTH - Many devices are voltage sensitive, particularly the MOS variety; therefore, simple exposure of these devices to the electrostatic fields surrounding a charged object can break down the component.
Protection by wearing a grounded ESD wrist strap is required when handling ESD susceptible items.

Circuit card assemblies that bench test as good after improper handling have not been damaged.
TRUTH - ESD sensitive items can be partially damaged or weakened by exposure to static charges. Damaged or weakened devices can pass operational tests and specifications only to fail prematurely or perform
erratically in the field under operational stresses.

Shipping and storing CCAs in pink anti-static polyethylene or “pink-poly” will provide complete and effective static protection.
TRUTH - Anti static materials only prevent static charge buildup, but fail to protect “pink poly” wrapped or bagged CCAs from external static sources. CCAs packaged with “pink poly” must be placed within an
approved ESD barrier material or outer conductive container that provides complete static protection.

Only electronic equipment installed in carpeted areas requires ESD protection.

TRUTH- Walking across a carpet can create large static charges; tile flooring can also create large static charges and has the same damaging effect to ESD sensitive items. ESD protective equipment and
materials should always be used when handling ESD sensitive items.

Keeping humidity high around electronic equipment will eliminate static problems.
TRUTH - The higher the humidity, the less static charge generation. High humidity however does not prevent static charging from occurring. Heating and air conditioning makes the air drier within
controlled environments, maintaining high humidity in conditioned environments requires special equipment.

Topical anti-static sprays, waxes, or wipes are permanent and provide complete ESD protection.
TRUTH - Topical anti-stats (Staticide) initially provide a limited amount of slow static discharge draining through low-level conductivity on the surface of the items treated. Topical anti-stats do not provide static
shielding or protection against the damaging affects of ESD fields. Topical anti-stats are not permanent, they wear out and require reapplication. When using topical anti-stats be careful not to leave untreated bare
spots on the materials being treated.

Using the correct materials and equipment can prevent ESD damage.
TRUTH - The ESD control and prevention materials and equipment are useless without properly trained personnel

Placing ESDS devices and or CCAs on the surface of an ESD barrier bag will provide the same ESD protection as a grounded ESD mat.
TRUTH - ESD barrier bags do not provide ESD protection to items placed on their surface. Only by keeping ESDS devices and or CCAs inside a closed or sealed ESD barrier bag will complete ESD protection be
Materials which have loosely held electrons are called conductors
Which variable makes an influence on the cable resistance?

Length of the conductor. The longer, the greater the resistance. That is because the electrons have to
travel further and this takes more energy so the resistance
is greater.
The cross sectional area. A large cross section will have many more electrons that are able to move
through it at the same time.
Material specification. Silver,Copper,Gold and Aluminium are all good Conductors of Electricity
because they have less than 4 electrons in their outer rings.
Temperature. The temperature effects different materials in different ways.

Other: … (Number of strands, cooling effect, insulation, external interference, … etc.

Resistivity ( ), is the material specific resistance. The Resistivity  in a conductor is given at 20° C.

L = conductor length (m)

A = cross-sectional area for the conductor (m2 )
 = Resistivity (m) Find the factor from a table
R = Resistance ()

 •2• L• I
R =  x L/A Voltage drop on twin cable : A =
Ohm’s law is stating that the electric current i
flowing through a given resistance r
is equal to the applied voltage e
divided by the resistance, or i=e/r.
Ohms is the unit of resistance or how hard a
conductor resists the flow of electrical current.

For any circuit the electric current

is directly proportional to the voltage,
and is inversely proportional to the resistance.

U=RxI U = Voltage, measured in Volt (V)

R=U/I R = Resistance measured in ohm ()
I=U/R I = Current, measured in Ampere (A)
In order to avoid to calculating the
correct cross section on a cable, we can
use this nomogram.
Ex. 1 is illustrating a connection of a 240
W consumer in a 6V installation, and
cable length is to be 4 meters. The
nomogram shows a 16 square mm cable,
so we choose this cable.
Ex. 2 is illustrating a connection of a 480
W consumer in a 6V installation, and
cable length is to be 0,5 meters. The
nomogram shows a 4 square mm cable,
so we choose this cable.
The nomogram is based on a voltage drop:
0,15V on 6V installation
0,3V on 12V installation
0,6V on 24V installation
(if based on a copper conductor with Resistivity: 0,017 /m)

Ex.: 240W, 6V, 4m, 16mm2: I= 240/6 = 40A

U= (0,017 x 4) x 40 / 16 ~ 0,15V
Kirchhoff's laws [for Gustav R. Kirchhoff], pair
of laws stating general restrictions on the current
and voltage in an electric circuit.

The first of these states that at any junction of

paths, or node, in a network the sum of the
currents arriving at any instant is equal to the
sum of the currents flowing away.
[ I1 + I2 + … + In = 0]

The second states that at any given instant the

When voltages are opposing as seen
sum of the voltages, (electromotive forces) above, the difference is the voltage
applied to the circuit. In this case 4
around any closed path, or loop, in the network is volts must be dropped by the
zero. resistors to equal the applied
[ E + U = 0]
[U = U1 + U2 + … + Un]
E = electromotive force, (emf), difference in electric potential, or voltage, between the terminals of a source of electricity, e.g., a battery
from which no current is being drawn. When current is drawn, the potential difference drops below the emf value.

In a closed loop, the sum U1 U2
of all voltage drops is
equal to the supplied (U1 + U2 + … + Un) = U U

The current is the same in I I1 I2

each component
throughout the circuit. U
I = I1 = I2 = … = In

When two circuit elements R1 R2

are connected in series,
their effective resistance is U
equal to the sum of the Reff. = R1 + R2 + … + Rn
separate resistances.
Voltage drop is a condition that occurs in all circuits. Voltage drop occurs when current
flows through a resistance producing work. When there are two or more resistances in one
path, the supply voltage divides itself across them.

The elements of a parallel U = U1 = U2 = … = Un U1
circuit are connected so that
each component has the U U2
same voltage across its
The current flow is divided (I1 + I2 + … + In) = ITot IT
among its parts, and the
U I2
total current is equal to the
sum of the currents in the
individual branches.
The total resistance is less 1 1 1 1
= + + .... +
than that of the element RT R1 R2 Rn U R2
having the least resistance.

Ex. Find the total resistance for 1 1 1 1

= + = 0,0150  RT = = 66,67
the circuit. R1=100 and R2=200 RT 100 200 0,0150
A Parallel circuit has more than one path An advantage of parallel circuits
for current to flow through. The loads may is that there is no voltage drop
be side by side and operate independent of between loads and if one load is
each other but are connected to the same disconnected the others will
power source. In this way each component continue to operate.
can have a different current flow through it
while operating at full source voltage.
The relation between effect (power), current and voltage is called Joule’s law, and given by
the formula P = U x I.
Watt [for James Watt], (W),
Unit of power, or work done per unit time, equal to 1 joule per second. It is used as a
measure of electrical and mechanical power.

One watt is the amount of power that is delivered to a component of an electric circuit when
a current of 1 ampere flows through the component and a voltage of 1 volt exists across it.

W =U •Q =U • I •t
P = power, measured in Watt (W) t
U = Voltage, measured in Volt (V) U • I •t
P= =U • I
R = Resistance measured in ohm () t
I = Current, measured in Ampere (A) 1 W = 1 Nm/s = 1 J/s = 1,35962 x 10-3 HP (metric)
Q = Electric charge in Coulumb (C) 1 HP = 735,499 W

t = Time (s) 1 HP (US/UK) = 745,700 W

Measuring the voltage in a circuit, we use a volt meter.
Always clamp your test pins parallel to the component you
wish to measure. The measurement can be made anywhere
on the circuit without affecting the voltage level. (Provided
that you have a multimeter with good quality).

Ammeter (Amp meter)

To measure the current in a circuit, we use a Ammeter.
Always clamp your test pins in series to the components
you wish to measure. (Except an clip-on ammeter).

Ohm meter
Instrument used to measure the electrical resistance of a
conductor. It is usually included in a single package with a
voltmeter, and often an ammeter. Always clamp your test
pins in series to the components you wish to measure.
Whenever testing resistance, the circuit must be without
Most modern multimeters are digital and traditional analogue types are destined to become obsolete.

Here is how a typical measurement are made in typical digital multimeter nowadays:

 DC voltage: The A/D circuitry in the multimeter is designed to directly show DC voltage values typically in few volts range.
For higher voltages the input voltage is divided by a voltage divider network. For lower voltages the voltage is amplified with
 AC voltage: Basically same idea as the DC measurement, except that the input voltage is rectified somewhere in the process.
 DC current: Input current is run through a known low ohm resistance, which converts the input current to a small voltage drop.
This voltage is fed to the DC voltage measurement circuitry.
 AC current: This is measures in the same way as DC current, except that the voltage is fed to the AC voltage measurement
 Diode test: A low current (typically less than 1 mA) is fed to the measurement leads (output voltage limited to few volts). The
voltage between measurement leads is measurement with DC voltage measurement electronics.
 Resistance measurement: An accurately known low current (varied depending on ohms range) is fed to the measurement leads.
The voltage (directly proportional to the resistance connected) between measurement leads is measured.

Some multimeters can have some of the following functionalities in addition to the basic ones described above:

 Continuity tester: Works like the resistance measurement, if the voltage between measurement leads is lower than a specified
value (usually 50 to 300 ohms) it would make the beeper to signal.
 Frequency: Input signal is converted to square wave first. The multimeter has either pulse counter (count pulses for one second
gives output in Hz) or frequency to voltage converter.
 Capacitance: Feed known frequency low amplitude signal through the capacitance. Measure the AC current which go through
the capacitor. Other option is to measure the capacitor charge and discharge times.
 Temperature: Voltage from thermocouple sensor is amplified and processed. Then the result is fed to DC voltage measurement
All meters have resistance.
The value of this resistance depends upon the voltage
range selected. A typical moving coil meter has a
SENSITIVITY of 20,000 ohms per volt. This means
that when the 1 volt range is selected the meter has
a resistance of 20,000 ohms. When the 10 volt range
is selected it has a resistance of 200,000 ohms and
so on. When the meter is connected to a circuit to
measure voltage, this resistance will affect the circuit
and therefore the accuracy of the measurement obtained.
In Fig.1 the voltage across each resistor can be calculated. (see the page on voltage dividers).
However, it can be shown that since the resistors are of the same value then the battery voltage divides equally across
them, and the voltage across each will be 15 volts. Now if we set the meter to the 20 volt range to measure this
voltage, its resistance will be 20 x 20,000 = 400,000 ohms = 400k.
If we connect it across the top resistor, as in Fig.2 then we have two 400k resistors in parallel. Calculating the result of
this gives us 200,000 ohms and the circuit looks like Fig.3 The voltage will now divide to give 10 volts across the top
resistor and 20 volts across the lower resistor. The meter will indicate 10 volts when we know that it should indicate 15
volts. Similarly, connecting the meter across the lower resistor will again indicate 10 volts. It appears that there is 10v +
10v = 20 volts across the two resistors, when in fact there is 30 volts. To obtain the most accurate results, set the
meter on the highest range possible. This means that its resistance will be highest and have least effect on the circuit.

Digital meter have a very high resistance, typically 10 Mega ohms on all ranges, and the readings
obtained are more accurate than those obtained using a moving coil meter. When buying a new
meter look for a sensitivity greater than 20,000 ohms/volt.
True RMS (True Root Mean Square) = True effective value AC resistance Z = U/I
AC resistance in the coil = XL
Definition of TRMS:
XL Z Z 2 = X L + R2
In a circuit whose impedance consists of a pure resistance,
the rms value of an AC wave is often called the effective 
value. For example, if an AC source of 100 volts rms is R
connected across a resistor, and the resulting current
causes 50 watts of heat to be dissipated by the resistor,
then 50 watts of heat will also be dissipated if a 100-volt
The RMS voltage of a pure sine
DC source is connected to the resistor.
wave is Peak voltage / 2

Remember that an average responding multimeter will

exhibit substantial errors when measuring other wave The approx. parameters of a 230VAC waveform are
forms as sine waves, as shown below. summarized in the table below

Averag RMS Peak Peak to

e Voltage Voltage Peak
voltage (V) Voltage
Calculating Actual RMS Voltage:
If you have a 'true RMS' voltmeter, the meter measures the instantaneous voltage at
0regular time intervals.230 325lines along the sine 650
On a graph, the little vertical wave
represent the points in time where the voltage is measured. The microprocessor in
the voltmeter then 'squares' all of the voltages at each point and adds the squared
values together. It then calculates the average (mean) from the squared values. And
finally... it calculates the square root of the average (mean) value.
There are a number of terms used to describe various circuit conditions, some are normal
and some refer to specific circuit faults.
These terms are:

Closed circuit
Open circuit
Shorted circuit
Short to ground

1. Closed Circuit
When the circuit provides a continuous path from a power source to an electrical load and
back to the power source, it is called a closed circuit (or a completed circuit).
2. Open Circuit
If a circuit is broken by any means, such as opening a switch or cutting a wire, it is called
an open circuit and current will cease to flow. This is a normal condition for most circuits
since they need to be switched OFF at various times. It can also be an abnormal condition
such as when a wire is damaged or a switch fails to close properly.
3. Shorted (Short) Circuit
A short circuit means that the original circuit has been shortened to some degree.
An example of this would be when the insulation in the windings of a coil has broken down
causing the windings to touch together or “become shorted”. This will cause a greater than
normal current flow, resulting in an increase in operating temperature and a reduction in the
effectiveness and life of that coil.(A fuse may also blow).
4. Short to Ground
A short to ground occurs when a wire or terminal contacts the frame of a vehicle or ground.
Movement wearing away insulation or a wire being squashed by the assembly of another
component can cause this. A short circuit will cause a large current to flow and the fuse to
A relay is a switching device operated by a low current circuit which controls the opening
and closing of another circuit of higher current capacity. Relays allow a high current
consuming component to operate with minimal voltage drop by keeping the length of the
high current carrying circuit to a minimum.
Applying voltage to the relay coil causes a electromagnetic action to occur. This action
changes the contacts from their normal position.

Relays may be divided into four types

1.Normally open

2.Normally closed

3.Transfer types

4.Mixed types
1. A normally open (N.O) relay will not allow current to flow through its contacts.
2. The contacts of a normally closed (N.C) relay are closed in the rest position, allowing
high current to flow through the contacts.
3. A transfer relay has two operational states, it will allow current to flow from one circuit
to another when its windings are not energised and then redirects current to another
circuit when energised. In the relay schematic below, SW1 is open and the windings
are switched OFF. Current will flow from terminal # 3 through the contacts and out of
terminal # 4.
4. A mixed relay is used to open and close two separate circuits.
Mixed type Transfer type

1 2

SW 1 Battery SW 1 Battery
A fuse is generally inserted into an electrical circuit for 1 of 2 reasons, either to protect the
power source which includes the wire that connects the power supply to the electrical
device, or to protect the electronic equipment. The electronic equipment manufacturers
specify a fuse rated to open the electrical circuit before damage can be done to the device or
open the circuit if the electronic device fails in some way (electronic devices may pull
excessive current when they fail). If a fuse larger than the specified fuse is used, a small
mistake when installing the equipment may cause catastrophic failure of the equipment.
WHEN, not if, WHEN you're thinking of replacing a blown fuse with a higher rated fuse
ask yourself if you know more than the engineer who designed the equipment. Don't get in
a hurry when installing electronic equipment. Take the time to go get the right fuse. 50
cents for a fuse is better than $50 labour plus the cost of the replacement parts for a repair

Fuse Opening Time

A fuse does not blow when the current reaches its rated current. It is designed to pass its
rated current without opening. A fuse will take varying times to blow under different
conditions. A fuse will pass significantly more than its rated current for a very short time. It
may take 10 minutes or more to blow a fuse at 25% over its rated current.
A circuit breaker's function is, like a fuse, to break a circuit path when a
predetermined amount of current is passed. The picture shows the simplified
version of a self-resetting circuit breaker. In this device, the current flows
from the battery terminal, through the bi-metal strip and then to the other
terminal. The bi-metal strip is made of two different types of metal, which
have different coefficients of expansion. This means that one will expand
more than the other when the rise in temperature is the same for both pieces.
In this case, the two metals are bonded to each other. (Now keep in mind When a fuse blows (even one that
that this is a simplified diagram). When the strip heats up from the current has been perfectly capable of
flow through it, one type of metal expands more than the other. In this case, handling the current requirements
the black metal expands more than the red and the strip tends to bend of a given piece of equipment),
upward and disconnect the contacts. You can see that the metal starts to many people will replace it with a
fuse of equal size without thinking
bend as the current increases. When the temperature reaches a given point, (which isn't necessarily a bad
the piece will snap into the open position and the current flow will stop. The thing). Then, if it instantly blows
bi-metal strip is stamped into a special shape, which causes the 'snap' action. again, they go to the next larger
This will assure that there is EITHER a solid connection OR a complete fuse size (now, that IS a bad thing).
disconnect. You can see a similar snap action in the top of some soda cans. They don't think for a minute that
the fuse that just blew was the
If you push down on the top it starts to bend downward. After the pressure same as the one that worked fine
reaches a certain point, the top will snap down. If you release the pressure for a long time. They don't think
slowly, the top will snap into its original position. This is what happens that something just might have
when the bi-metal strip cools in the breaker. changed which is now causing the
equipment to pull significantly
more current.
The resistance value can be printed on the component as a numeric character, or marked on
with different colour rings around the resistance.

The value is given by for rings. The first two rings, states a number, 1 – 99.
The third ring states the number of zero’s that has to be added to the first two numbers.
The fourth ring states the tolerance value, from ± 1 – 10%.
Read the resistance value by means Resistor Color Codes
Band 1 Band 2 Band 3 Band 4 Band 5
of the colour codes.
Color 1st Digit2nd Digit Multiplier Tolerance Reliability
Verify the value with an ohmmeter.
Black 0 1
Brown 1 1 10 1%
Precision Resistor Color Codes
Red 2 2 100 0.10%
Band 1 Band 2 Band 3 Band 4 Band 5 Band 6
Color 1st Digit2nd Digit3rd Digit Multiplier ToleranceReliability Orange 3 3 1,000 0.01%
Black 0 0 1
Brown 1 1 1 10 1% 1%
Yellow 4 4 10,000 0.00%
Red 2 2 2 100 2% 0.10% Green 5 5 100,000
Orange 3 3 3 1,000 3% 0.01%
Yellow 4 4 4 10,000 0.00% Blue 6 6 1,000,000
Green 5 5 5 100,000
Violet 7 7 10,000,000
Blue 6 6 6 1,000,000
Violet 7 7 7 10,000,000 Gray 8 8 100,000,000
Gray 8 8 8 100,000,000
White 9 9 9 1,000,000,000
White 9 9 1,000,000,000
Gold x 0.1 5% Gold x 0.1 5%
Proximity Switches allow the user to detect Inductive proximity switch:
the presence of material without having to NBN4-12GM50-E0 (Easy Ramp)
make physical contact. Inductive sensors are
used when the target is metal. These are the This is a NPN element:
most widely used switches in industry today. (Gives a negative signal)
Proximity switches are available in either Neg. Signal on (4).
Shielded or Unshielded versions. Shielded Operating current: 0…200mA
versions will detect metal only at the sensing Operating voltage: 10…30V
face. Unshielded versions usually have a Power supply to L+ and L-
larger sensing range, but the drawback is that No load supply current: Max. 17mA
they will detect metal around the sensing
head. This means that the surrounding area
(normally 3 times the switch diameter, and
twice as deep as the sensing range) must be
free from metal objects.
An inductive proximity switch consists of 4 main components: coil, oscillator, detection circuit and solid state switching device (transistor in
DC switches, thyristor in AC switches). The oscillator creates a high frequency field that is emitted from the sensing face. When a metal
target enters that field, eddy currents are induced in the metal target (hence the term INDUCTIVE). Energy is required from the oscillator to
maintain the eddy currents in the target. As the target enters the sensing range of the sensor, the energy required becomes too great for the
oscillator, and it stops. The detection circuit senses this and signals the switch to change state. After the metal target leaves the sensing
range, the oscillator resumes functioning, and the switch returns to its normal state (either Normally Open or Normally Closed).
The Diode is a two-terminal electronic device that permits current flow predominantly in
only one direction.
A diode has a low resistance to electric current in one direction and a high resistance to it in
the reverse direction. This property makes a diode useful as a rectifier, which can convert
alternating current (AC) into direct current (DC). When the voltage applied in the reverse
direction exceeds a certain value, a semiconductor diode “breaks down” and conducts
heavily in the direction of normally high resistance. When the reverse voltage at which
breakdown occurs remains nearly constant for a wide range of currents, the phenomenon is
called avalanching. A diode using this property is called a Zener diode. It can be used to
regulate the voltage in a circuit. (See Zener diode).

When voltage is applied to a diode and current is

flowing through the diode, there will be approximately
a 0.6 volt drop across the diode. Conducting direction

Anode Cathode
A light-emitting diode (LED) produces light as current passes through it; some LED's can
act as the light source of lasers. The emitted colour selection is somewhat limited. The most
commonly available colours are red, green, amber, yellow, blue and white. The red, green,
yellow and amber have a working voltage of approximately 1.8 volts. You can refer to the
data sheet for each LED to find the exact value. The actual working voltage is determined
by the breakdown voltage of the particular semiconductor material.
When using an LED in a circuit, the exact working
voltage is not extremely important. The most
important thing is the current flow through the
LED. A series resistor must limit the current
through the diode. An LED has a specified
maximum continuous current rating. Most LEDs
can pass 20 milliamps continuously without
damage but it is not necessary to use the maximum
rated current. An LED will light with much less
current. The difference between high current and
low current will be the brightness of the LED. To
decide what resistor value is needed, you subtract
the working (forward) voltage from the power
supply voltage and divide that number by the
desired current flow.
Zener diodes are generally used for voltage regulation.
The diodes are used with reverse polarity when
compared to their rectifier counterparts (you hook
them up backwards to make them work properly).
All diodes have a point at which they will conduct
current when sufficient reverse voltage is applied.
Most diodes are damaged when the reverse voltage
reaches the breakdown (or avalanche) voltage. Zener
diode circuits have a current limiting resistor in series
with the diode as part of their design. The other end
of the resistor is connected to the cathode of the zener.
The other end of the zener, the anode, is connected to ground. If the zener diode is a 5.1 volt
zener, the voltage on the cathode of the zener will be very close to 5.1 volts. The voltage is
going to be close the rated zener voltage. You can sometimes get the voltage very close to its
rated zener voltage by varying the value of the resistor. This changes the current flow
through the diode.

If you look at the curve,

you can see that a
change in current (near
the breakdown voltage)
corresponds to a small
change in the
breakdown voltage.
This type of circuit is
good for use as a
voltage reference but it
is not very good to
supply regulated
voltage to circuits that
draw a large amount of
A capacitor is an electronic device which consists of two plates (electrically conductive material) separated
by an insulator. The capacitor's value (its 'capacitance') is largely determined by the total surface area of the
plates and the distance between the plates (determined by the insulator's thickness). A capacitor's value is
commonly referred to in microfarads, one millionth of a farad. It is expressed in micro farads because the
farad is such a large amount of capacitance that it would be impractical to use in most situations. A
capacitor works basically as a resistor that is depending.
The capacitor is used to store charge in an electrical circuit. You may also say that it is used to limit sparks
or remove unwanted electrical pulses in a circuit. A capacitor functions much like a battery, but charges
and discharges much more efficiently (batteries, though, can store much more charge). Some capacitors are
called electrolytic, meaning that their dielectric is made up of a thin layer of oxide formed on a aluminium
or tantalum foil conductor. A capacitor has a value of one farad when it can store one coulomb of
charge with one volt across it.
C= =  (n  1)
U l C = Capacitance F
 =  0 r
Q = Electric charge C
These capacitors are often used to U = Voltage V
stabilize a pulsating direct current. The
capacitors have a defined conducting  = Permittivity F/m
direction and are marked positive and/or 0 = Permittivity vacuum F/m Electrolytic capacitor
negative, (as a battery).
Non-polarized fixed capacitor
A non-polarized ("non polar") capacitor is a type of capacitor that has no implicit polarity - it can be
connected either way in a circuit. Ceramic, mica and some electrolytic capacitors are non-polarized. You'll
also sometimes hear people call them “bipolar” capacitors.
Polarized fixed capacitor
A polarized ("polar") capacitor is a type of capacitor that have implicit polarity -it can only be connected
one way in a circuit. The positive lead is shown on the schematic (and often on the capacitor) with a little
"+" symbol. The negative lead is generally not shown on the schematic, but may be marked on the
capacitor with a bar or "-" symbol. Polarized capacitors are generally electrolytic.
Note that you really need to pay attention to correctly hooking a polarized capacitor up (both with respect
to polarity, as well as not pushing a capacitor past its rated voltage). If you "push" a polarized capacitor
hard enough, it is possible to begin "electrolyzing" the moist electrolyte. Modern electrolytic capacitors
usually have a pressure relief vent to prevent catastrophic failure of the aluminium can (but don't bet your
eyesight on this).
Unit table
1pF = 10-12 F = 1/1000 000 000 000 Terminal Terminal
1μF = 10-6 F = 1/1000 000
1mF = 10-3 F = 1/1000
The transistor generally has 3 terminals. The control NPN PNP
terminal is called the base. The other 2 terminals are k
known as the emitter and the collector and they carry
virtually all of the current flowing through the transistor. b b
There are 2 basic configurations of bipolar transistors,
one is an 'NPN' the other is a 'PNP'. The two are very
e e
similar. The biggest difference is the direction of
current flow through the collector and emitter.
On an NPN transistor, the base must have a positive + -
voltage with respect to the emitter.
By varying IB , we can control a large current through
+ -
IK .The transistor uses a small current to control a - +
larger current, a little like a relay.

The transistor function can also be looked on as to

diodes connected together like on the picture to the
right. A transistor needs to have a small amount of
voltage difference between the base and the emitter.
The required voltage is usually about 0.6 volts.
The pictures clearly shows the directions of the current.

+ -
+ -

- +
The transistor is being used in many different electrical applications. The transistor uses a
small current to control a larger current, a little like a relay. Some of the advantages with
the transistor, is that it works much faster compared to a relay, has no moving parts, and no
breaker contacts that can get burned. You can also adjust the conductance, (not only
ON/OFF). Compared to the relay, the transistor doesn’t take overcharges very well and it is
not as flexible regarding the size
of the control current in relation
to the working current.
In order to use a weak signal,
for handling a high working RB ULOAD
current, there are often being
used several transistors
connected to each other.

The NPN transistor to the right is

used as a switch. UKE



Average learning Factor

Lectures 5%

Reading 10%

Audio visual (see/hear) 20%

Demonstration 30%

Discussion group 50%

Learning by doing (practice)
Teach others / Immediate use of knowledge
Theory put into
You will be
making practical
lab tasks,
combined with
calculations on

If you connect the multimeter to the circuit, according
to the picture on the right, what can be measured? U = 14 V 4,7 k

How do you hook up an ammeter in a circuit? Multimeter

Which value does the instrument show?

If you connect a multimeter to this circuit, what can

be measured?

How do you hook up the voltmeter in the circuit U = 14 V

shown to the right? R1 = 4,7 k
Which value does the instrument show? R2 = 1 k

Connect according to the figure. Measure the voltage over the bulb.

Unscrew the bulb. What is the voltage over the bulb now?

What can we learn based on this experience?

1k ohm


Connect according to drawing A, use a 12V/0,2A bulb, and change the A
voltage between 0 and 10V. What happens?

Connect according to figure B, E = 10V. How strong is the light

illuminating when using:
47 100 470

Connect according to figure C, U = 10V. How strong is the light
illuminating now, and why?

What do we name this kind of circuit and which rule applies for the total
resistance. C

Set the input voltage to exactly 12,00

Measure and calculate every part voltage and make the
note in the table below.

Sum up all part voltages and note this on the bottom of the
U Measured U Calculated 470 
UAD ----- 1 k
UAB 4,7 k



Total: U AB + U BC + U CD =
U = 10V R1 = 47 R2 = 100 R3 = 470 Bulb = 12V/0,2A

Make the connection, and use only the 470 resistance. How
does the lamp illuminate?

Add only the 100 resistance. How strong is the light illuminating
R1 R2 R3
Now, add on the 47 resistance. How strong is the light
illuminating now?


What do we name this kind of circuit and which rule applies for
the total resistance.
Set input voltage to exact 16,00 V
Measure and calculate each part current and make the UAC = 16,00 V
note in the table below.
Sum up all part currents and note this on the bottom of R = 1 k
the table, IR1, IR2 and IR3 . R1 = 4,7 k
R2 = 470 
R3 = 1 k

IMeasured ICalculated A

R1 R2 R3 B




Total: IR1 + IR2 + IR3 =


What is the heating effect for the total circuit? EAC = 16,00 V

R = 1 k
R1 = 4,7 k
Which heating effect is produced by each part resistance? R2 = 470 
R3 = 1 k

R1 R2 R3 B
What is the voltage supplied, when the 20 k hot-wire emits
approx. 5 mW?

a) What is the resistance when it emits 9W and we have

supplied 30V to the circuit?

b) Connect the resistance, calculated from task a) into the

circuit, turn on the power. What happens to the resistance?
U = 12,00 V

Measure and fill in the missing values. Bulb = 12V/0,2A

Calculate and fill in the resistance of the bulb

and the three resistances. 100

A) Why is there a difference between the 47

measured and the calculated resistance?

B) Why is it important to understand this

phenomena, and can you come up with
practical examples for this. Bulb Resistances
Based on what you have learned about induction,

Explain why, on some relays that a diode is
connected in parallel to the relay coil.

Explain the process and what will happen

when we turn the power on, (activate the
relay) and then off (deactivate the relay).

Connect the multimeter to 85 and 86. Set

the multimeter on Min/Max record, 1ms and
set the range to 4000V (1000V). Connect
and disconnect the power plug(set the power
supply to 12V). Read the Min/Max values
recorded. Explain your findings.
NPN transistor as a switch

Given information:
HFE = 100 Iload = 1 A RB RL
UKE = 0,5 V UB = 10 V
UBE = 0,5 V UB


Calculate and fill in the missing values.

URL = ?
RL = ?
Ib = ?
RB = ?
PRL = ? (Load effect on RL)
NPN transistor as a regulator

Estimate a serial resistance between base
and source to protect the transistor.
U source = 10V, Imax (load) = 0,2A

Connect a 12V/0,2A light bulb and use the

NPN transistor to adjust/variate the light
intensity on the bulb.
U source = 10V

Use the multimeter and measure the

resistance when there is no illumination.
What is the Max/Min resistance?

Connect according to fig. 1 and set the power to
exactly 4,5V. Verify that the buzzer gives a tone.

Turn off the power and connect according to figure 2.

Set the power to exactly 4,5V. Does the buzzer sound
Fig. 1
Increase the voltage to 5,5V. Does the buzzer sound

Explain the results and your findings from task 1, 2 and


Fig. 2
1. No illumination! En del releer har blitt utstyrt med en diode som er koblet parallelt
ANSWERS 2. Glowing!
med spolen. Dioden sitter der for å hindre at releet skal indusere
spenningspulser når strømmen til spolen brytes. Når vi har en
3. Illuminates good! spole med ett magnetfelt som endrer seg vil det induseres en
INSTRUMENTS spenning i spolen. Strømretningen vil være motsatt av den som
1. Current 4. The total resistance in the circuit has been reduced!
5. Parallell circuit bygger opp magnetfeltet. Ved hjelp av dioden lades strømmen ut
2. In series with the circuit over spolen. Induksjonen kan komme opp i flere tusen volt, (ref.
3. I= 14/4700=3mA 1/Rtot = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + ….. + 1/Rn
statisk elektrisitet på vinyl/tepper etc. 250-35000V).
4. Voltage Selv 10V kan skade sensitive halvledere.
5. In parallel to the component PARALLEL
6. Icircuit= 14/(4700+1000)=0,0025A IMeasured ICalculated
UR2=1000 x 0,0025 =2,5V
UR 12,31mA 12,31mA TRANSISTOR
RESISTANCE URL = Ub-UKE = 10-0,5 = 9,5V
UR1 0,8mA UBC =300x0,0123 =3,7 I=3,7/470=0,8mA
Dersom vi har en krets og kontrollerer kabler, RL = URL / Iload = 9,5 / 1 = 9,5 ohm
brytere, kontakter o.l. ved å måle med et
UR2 7,82mA I=3,7/470=7,8mA Ib = Ik / HFE = 1 / 100 = 10 mA
multimeter, så kan vi bli lurt til å tro at kretsen er
intakt og iorden RB = URB / IB = (UB-UBE) / IB = 9,5 / 10 x 10-3 = 950 ohm
UR3 3,7mA I=3,7/1000=3,7mA
PRL = 9,5 x 1 = 9,5Watt
1. Illumination changes Itot= U / RAB + RBC
2. Good Glowing No light RBC=1/RBC = 1/4,7k + 1/470 + 1/1k = 300ohm TRANSISTOR
3. More resistance => less current through the bulb RAB = 1k ohm Spenning 10V UB
4. Further more resistance => less current going through the bulb ITOT= 16/(1000 + 300) = 12,31mA Ik= 0,2A (strøm gjennom pæra)
5. Serial circuit HFE IK/IB => IB = 0,2/40 = 0,005A basestrøm
Sum R=R1+R2+Rn Total: IR1 + IR2 + IR3 = 0,8+7,82+3,7=12,31mA Basemotstanden RB (10-0,5)/0,005 = 1900 ohm
Husk at RB må ligge i mellom (RB=2Kohm)
POWER Vi har nå tilnærmet full effekt.
SERIES 1. P=U x I = 16 x 12,31 = 0,2W Ved Total motstand = 150K + 2K gir dette intet lys i lyspæra (det
I=12,06/(4,7k+1k+470) 2. PR1: UAB= 16-3,7 = 12,3V => PR=12,3 x 0,01231 = 0,15W går faktisk 50mA gjennom pæra)
I = 0,002A PR1=3,7 x 0,8mA = 0,003W PR2 = 3,7 x 7,8x10-3 = 0,029W
PR3 = 3,7 x 3,7x10-3 = 0,014W
(Kontroll: 0,014+0,029+0,003+0,1500,2 =ok ZENER
U Measured U Calculated 3. P = U x I = U x U/R = U2/R = P 1. Summeren lager lyd
U2 = P x R => U=SQRT(P x R) = SQRT(0,005 x 20000) = 10V
UAD 12.06V ----- 4. P=UxI = UxU/R = U2/R => R=U2/R = 302/9 = 100 ohm 2. Nei
5. The resistance gets hot! 3. Ja
UAB 0.93V 470 x 0,002=0,94V
THERMIC RESISTANCE 4. Når spenningen overstiger zenerverdi ledes strømmen
gjennom zener og til summer
UBC 1.93V 1000 x 0,002=2V 1. The heat causes increased resistance! The bulb illuminates by
current measuring, but not by resistance measuring.
UCD 9.2V 4700 x 0,002=9,4V
Bulb Resistances
Imeasured 212mA 48mA
Rcalc 56.6ohm 250 ohm
Total: U AB + U BC + U CD = 0,94+2+9,4=12,06V
RMeasured 5 ohm 12/0,049=245
3A. When the bulb is off, there is little resistance in the
filament, and when on –high resistance.