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AUTHORS PREAMBLE.................................................................................................................5
EDITORS NOTE..............................................................................................................................7
TRANSLATORS PROLOGUE.......................................................................................................8
INTRODUCTORY NOTE.................................................................................................................9

1.1 REVITALIZATION OF MATERIAL AND MORAL POWER WITHIN US................................. 12

1.2 REVITALIZATION OF UNITY OF THE NATION....................................................................... 14
1.2.a. Revival of loyalty and solidarity with the faithful........................................................................ 14
1.2.b. Revival of the spirit of Islamic brotherhood ............................................................................... 15
1.2.c. Revival of the principle of mutual rights...................................................................................... 19
1.2.d. Revival of the principle of mutual equality.................................................................................. 20
1.2.e. Revival of the principle of mutual justice.................................................................................... 20
1.2.f. Revival of the principle of inevitability of unity and illegitimacy of disunity........................... 20
1.2.g. Underline the need for acceptance of others interpretive judgments, rallying around the
constant values of Islam, toleration in what is variable, and tolerance to what might be described
as legitimate or objectionable in case of a disagreement....................................................................... 21
1.2.h. Correlating Jurisprudence of Constants and Variables with unity of the Nation......................... 22
1.3 GENUINE DIFFERENCE AS A FACTOR OF UNITY.................................................................. 24
1.3.a. Preamble....................................................................................................................................... 24
1.3.b. Disagreement Denotes Diversity, not Contradiction.................................................................... 26
1.3.c. No Condemnation in Issues of Disagreement.............................................................................. 27
1.3.d. Difference of Opinion in Details is Mercy................................................................................... 28
1.3.e. A Resolution of the Academy of Islamic Jurisprudence............................................................... 28
1.3.f. Recommendations......................................................................................................................... 31
1.4 PROJECT OF POWER AND MERCY AS A FACTOR OF POWER WITHIN............................. 37


THE OTHER....................................................................................................................................39

2.1 NATURAL AGREEMENT BETWEEN ME (MUSLIM) AND THE OTHER............................... 40

2.3 INTELLECTUAL, RELIGIOUS AND DOCTRINAL DIFFERENCES........................................ 42
THEIR SINGLE REVEALER.............................................................................................................. 44
2.6 RESPECT OF THE HUMAN BEING WHETHER ALIVE OR DEAD......................................... 45
2.7 PEACE NOT WAR, IS THE DEFAULT CHOICE OF ISLAM...................................................... 46
2.8 PREFERENCE OF PEACE OVER WAR DESPITE GRIEVANCES............................................. 46
2.9 THE PRINCIPLE OF JUSTICE AND EQUITY FOR ALL............................................................ 49
2.10 RECOGNITION OF DIFFERENCES AND DIVERSITY............................................................ 50
AND DEALING WITH OTHERS........................................................................................................ 51


THE PROPHETS................................................................................................................................... 52

GENERALIZATIONS.......................................................................................................................... 52


NON-MUSLIMS TO INCLUDE EVEN ATHEISTS............................................................................ 53

2.15 JIHAD FOR FREEDOM OF RELIGION...................................................................................... 53

2.16 COMBAT IS THE LAST STAGE OF JIHAD............................................................................... 54

2.17 THE PURPOSE OF DIVERSITY IS ACQUAINTANCE, NOT CONFLICT.............................. 54


3.1 PROPHETIC APPROACH TO RELATION WITH THE OTHER................................................. 56

3.2 QURNIC PRINCIPLES UNDERLYING FOREIGN RELATIONS............................................ 63
3.4 APPLIED DIPLOMACY IN TIMES OF PEACE........................................................................... 70
3.5 NON-MUSLIM RIGHTS IN ISLAMIC TERRITORIES............................................................... 72
3.6 NON-MUSLIM DUTIES IN ISLAMIC TERRITORIES ............................................................... 78

PIVOT IV: MUSLIMS RELATIONS WITH OTHERS IN WAR...............................................82

4.1 SUBSTANTIATION OF JIHD IN ISLAM................................................................................... 83


POST CONFLICT TIMES.................................................................................................................... 85

JURISPRUDENCE............................................................................................................................... 89


5.1 MUSLIM DUTIES IN NON-MUSLIM STATES............................................................................ 91

5.2 MUSLIM RIGHTS IN NON-MUSLIM STATES........................................................................... 93
THAT CONTINUE TO REMAIN THE IDEAL ................................................................................. 95
5.3.a.Model of Joseph for a Muslim under Non-Islamic states.............................................................. 95
5.3.b.Model of migrants to Abyssinia/Habasha for Muslims in Non-Islamic states ........................... 101


CONFRONTATION OR COEXISTENCE?...............................................................................104

6.1 TARGETING OF MUSLIMS AFTER THE FALL OF COMMUNISM....................................... 105

6.2 NEED FOR CONFLICT IN THE WESTERN THOUGHT.......................................................... 107
6.2.a. The Western reality and intellectuals output suggest the need for clash ................................... 107
6.2.b. Report of the Rand Corporation ................................................................................................ 116
6.2.c. Fukuyama .................................................................................................................................. 121
6.2.d. Samuel Huntington .................................................................................................................... 122
6.2.e. Pope Benedict XVI .................................................................................................................... 125
Communiqu No. 1.............................................................................................................................. 125
Communiqu No. 2.............................................................................................................................. 130
6.2.f. Islam and the West- Who is fighting who? ................................................................................ 132
6.2.g. The Dilemma ............................................................................................................................. 134
6.2.h. Major threats to the Muslim-European relations........................................................................ 135
6.3 ISLAMIC POSITION REGARDING CLASH OF CIVILIZATIONS.......................................... 137
6.3.a. Existence of Clash-is it a Myth................................................................................................... 139
6.3.b. Reciprocating with what is best.................................................................................................. 145

Religion of Islam was revealed only as mercy for the whole of existence. It came addressed to the
whole humankind, calling them to wherein lies their advantage and wellbeing in this world and in the
hereafter. Whosoever believes in it, believes out of his own choice and whosoever rejects it, rejects
it out of his own choice. This choice results in the existence of two groups of people i.e. those who
adopt Islam as their religion and those who do not do so and prefer other religions or choose not to
have any religion.
If by choosing Islam as their religion, Muslims consider themselves as having been guided to the truth,
then all others always remain subject of their call to the truth. Consequently the relation between the
two the caller and the called is the relation of human brotherhood, relation of cooperation and collaboration towards wherever lies the common good. It is in no way the relation of animosity except
if someone chooses the path of transgression of their own free will. This is why Islamic regulations
define the course of interaction between Muslims and others. These regulations are based on what is
common between human beings and as a whole hinge on peace and cooperation. If there happens to
be transgression and this relation turns to be the relation of war, then there too are regulations that
govern the relevant situation and without leaving the matter to whims and fancies of people.
However, the history, modern as well as ancient, has witnessed many a circumstances in which the
reality happened not to be consistent with the proscriptions of Shariah. As a consequence, those actual circumstances might have eclipsed the very genuine proscriptions, because given provisional circumstances transformed into regulations and received approval from those who happened to handle
the affairs related to Shariah. Thus as a result of the state of affairs an admixture came into being that
was in conflict with the spirit of the Shariah. This has happened to be prevalent mostly at those junctures of history when Muslims were subjected to misdemeanor at the hands of others. In fact in our
present day circumstances too a great deal of that phenomenon can be witnessed due to consequences
of the developments taking place or what had previously received endorsement as regulations in
temporal circumstances.
These days we witness a great amount of perplexity in the relation of Muslims (Us) with others (the
Other). The perplexity takes two extremely different directions. One goes to the extreme right where
some people feel the need to eliminate the differences and obliterate the identities so that the whole
mankind becomes equal in relating themselves to what may be called as Humane Religion or Abrahamic Religion or any other name. On the contrary, others take extreme left direction wherein some
dig in to a principle position of animosity with non-Muslims whether the latter were aggressors or
otherwise. Both these extreme standpoints manifest in extreme positions and behaviors driven by
convictions and perceptions that have nothing to do with the essence of the religion. Such standpoints
are derivatives of the cultural aggression or repercussions of hostile behavior disposed of nations,
peoples and non-Muslim states towards Muslims, which in turn has negative affects on some in the
form of cultural detachment or as other reactions. Both these positions afflict great damage upon
Muslims especially and upon human relations in general. The state of affairs calls for correction to
set the equation right in light of judicious Islamic Shariah.
In this context we bring to you this third publication (We and the Other, by Dr. Ali Mohiuddin Al-Qaradaghi) as part of the series named: Issues Concerning the Muslim Nation. The book deals with this
vital issue among other issues concerning our Nation at a time when relations with others have been
marred for quite some time by circumstances of transgression by some of them against Muslims. This

has sometimes caused disproportionate reactions and stemmed to juristic affirmations that could be
far from genuine pertinence and thereby led to other circumstances on the ground. The situation thus
calls for corroboration of the subject in light of the Islamic jurisprudence so that authentic authority
is restored. We believe that this book has suitably discharged that duty.
Since dealing with the Other primarily calls for fruitful interaction based on self reliance, the book,
at the very outset, deals with the ideal internal state of Muslims that could lead to self-assured interaction with others. Self assuredness must be based on unity, cooperation within Muslims drawing
on adherence to the laws and means of material and spiritual awakening. It is from there that we can
effectively launch ourselves for dealing with the Other from the conviction that there is sufficient
enough common space between Muslims and others in what is related to shared human grounds, mutual interests and shared benefits that can be realized from mutual acquaintance between nations and
tribes, as such. This conviction continues to be emphasized by the verses of the Holy Qurn and the
glorious Tradition of the final Messenger of Allah (pbuh) and thereby provides solid basis for guiding Muslims in interacting with others from the position of recognition, respect and cooperation in
principle. We believe that this notion has been thoroughly and exceptionally dealt with in this book.
In addition to the elaborate description of the regulations of Shariah that govern the relation of Muslims with non-Muslims in peace and in war, the book produces a significant comparison between the
actual demeanor of Muslims when these regulations were implemented - which amounts to a very
idealistic situation of safeguarding the rights of non-Muslims living in the Islamic society - and between the actual conduct of many non-Muslim nations when they were dominant over Muslim lands
and oppressed and tyrannized Muslims, the evidence of which is clearly available in the history of
Andalusia and of the Western colonialism in general besides being obvious today through the tyranny
perpetuated on Muslims by arrogant international powers. Certainly this comparison highlights the
practical aspect of the Islamic teachings in this regard and is hoped to be a beacon to the whole world
as to what should be the basis of relations between nations - between Us and the Other.
While the relation between Us and the Other is thoroughly in focus with regard to Muslims living
as minority in non-Muslim societies as the Muslim existence in these societies represents a point of
high friction between the two sides and because the relation between the two today is characterized
by apprehension and skepticism, the book has devoted ample attention to this aspect of the issue.
Among the best deliberations in this regard are those inferences that the researcher has brought forth
as being the statutory fundamentals for how a Muslim should deal with the non-Islamic society he
dwells in. In this regard, the researcher cites two important models. The first model is that of Joseph
(may peace be upon him) and how he dealt with the Egyptian society he lived in; the second model
is that of those who migrated to Ethiopia and how they interacted with the society they migrated to.
This truly scales to a profoundly eloquent Islamic lesson to those of Us - the Muslims who live with
the Other in non-Muslim societies.
While we thank Professor Yusuf Al-Qaradwi, Sheikh Faisal Mawlawi and Professor Ali Mohiuddin Al-Qaradaghi who contributed to this series through their research, we call upon the scholars,
researchers and intellectuals to come forward with their studies on issues concerning the Muslim
Nation and to augment this series and thereby enlightening their Muslim brethren about the issues
faced by them and the problems and solutions thereof. To play the role of beacons is indeed a duty
of Muslim scholars and we envisage the benefits of that. To Allah do we devote our efforts and He
is the One who grants success.
Committee for Studies and Translation
International Union of Muslim Scholars

Authors Preamble
Praise be to Allah Cherisher of the whole existence. Peace and blessings be upon His Messenger
Muhammad, son of Abdullah upon his family, his righteous companions and those who shall continue to follow him prudently until the Day of Judgment.
When we look at our contemporary history, it becomes evident that there has hardly been any period
when false allegations and accusations were not leveled against Islam. A lot of mud and vilification
has been targeted towards Islam in the form of suspicions about the Prophetic Tradition, Islamic legislation, Islamic stipulations about women and children, and about retributions and penalties. In the
very recent past, misgivings have been focused on relations of the Muslims with others. Calculated
efforts have been made to distort Islams beauty of toleration, justice, simplicity and its wonderful
ethical attitude towards non-Muslims. The ferocious distortion campaign - perpetrated by Zionists,
radical right wing Judeo-Christians and some Orientalists - has been aimed at disregarding Islam, the
religion of mercy, righteousness and human dignity, so as to disfigure and disregard it and portray it
as being a religion of savagery that does not know of any mercy and concept of mutual coexistence
with others and which is rather tantamount to a gloomy and unrelenting sword meant for nothing but
They have been aided by the demeanor of some intransigents from amongst the Muslims or by infiltrators into some of the Islamic groups who, through their behavior, depicted uncivilized images that
are unacceptable to Islam itself, crossed the limits of human dignity and reached the climax of savagery. On the other hand, during the last few centuries much of these relations have been shaken and
blemished with a lot of theorization, corroboration and framing, in most of which we detect immoderation and disproportion or oversimplification and complication or exaggeration and marginalization. In other words, the relations have been diluted by emotions and prejudices and thereby changed
to suit situations and circumstances, power and feebleness, and conviction and temper. Thereby the
constants have blended with variables, fundamentals with ramifications, and texts with traditions,
customs and dispositions of peoples.
It is essential to focus on these relations by describing their general rudiments without going into
details, except what might be necessary in a given context and needed for dealing with ramifications
and elements thereof. Leaving these relations in disorder and without deliberation certainly leads to
anarchy in thought and deed and to flaws in the jurisprudence of diligence and equilibration.
International Academy of Islamic Jurisprudence has taken up study and substantiation of this subject
so that it can be presented to the whole world. The aim is to manifest to all people of the world the
real picture of Islam through the Holy Qurn, the life of Messenger of Islam (peace and blessings be
upon him) and of his Rightly Guided Caliphs (May Allah be pleased with them), and what has been
penned by diligent jurisprudents throughout centuries, equally in times of peace and war. Similarly
the consideration given by International Union of Muslim Scholars to this subject is reflected in their
kind gesture to publish this book in this perspective and it reflects the importance of study and substantiation of this subject for being so vital to the relations. This study is based on primary Islamic
sources and deals in detail with the following six main pivots:
Pivot 1:

The right path for dealing with the Other. This path takes its course through a strong
integrated self, which requires activation of principles and maxims that govern

Islamic relations.
Pivot 2:
Doctrinal and intellectual basis in Islam that prepare the right atmosphere for

peaceful coexistence and dialogue. These tantamount to vital vanguards and facilitators

towards acceptance of the Other.
Pivot 3:
Relation of Muslims with non-Muslims in circumstances of peace.
Pivot 4:
Relation of Muslims with non-Muslims in circumstances of war.
Pivot 5:
Relation of Muslims (in minority) with non-Muslim state.
Pivot 6:
We and the West: Conflict or Dialogue? Confrontation or Coexistence?
The methodology adopted will be based on focusing on the general principles that govern the above
pivots without indulging in details and fine points, except what might be necessary to elucidate,
explain and substantiate these principles. We shall be reclining on the Holy Qurn, on the established Prophetic Tradition, unanimity of the scholars and what suits our times from the previous diligent interpretative judgments. We shall utilize the Jurisprudence of Diligence and Equilibration
(Fiqhu Al-Mzn) that we found through in-depth studies stretching over the last fifteen years.
At the end we stretch our hands in supplication to Allah to cover our effort with an attire of sincerity,
make it a cause of our deliverance and bless this modest effort with His acceptance so that I may be
one amongst those adherent to piety. He alone is the best to be asked and the most generous to be
aspired for; He is my lord and He is sufficient to me as the best master and the best advocate.

Ali Mohiuddin Al-Qaradaghi

Doha, Shawwal 1, 1425 Hijra / November 14, 2004

Editors Note
We congratulate Dr. Ali Mohiuddin Al-Qaradaghi for bringing this valuable scholarship to the public
and we also laud the tireless efforts of the translator Dr. Syed Bashir Ahmad Kashmiri for the excellent rendering into English. We have made only slight editorial changes to the original translation
received by us.
No doubt this work will prove a useful guide for Muslims living everywhere and for non-Muslims as
well to get an appreciation of the mainstream Muslim position on dialogue. This is one of a series of
translations and original research that the Doha International Center for Interfaith Dialogue is in the
process of preparing for publication.
The usual linguistic attempts at differentiating group identities between us and them are here distinguished from the everyday case by referring to sacred sources and read in such a way that the meanings are completely transformed.
This approach neither calls for an appreciation of the other as he appears in an encounter. Nor does
this approach require a radical decentering of the self in order to understand the perspective of the
other. Rather, the main thrust of the book concerns the ethic and aesthetic underlying the encounter
with the other as one confident in his own identity. The approach asks for empathy towards the other
based on self-understanding. It does not prioritise the face-to-face encounter over the abstract other.
It is firmly rooted in the interpretative understanding of the scriptural hermeneutics of Islam that led
to the development of legal pluralism in the civilizational history of Islamic law. As the translator
eloquently interprets from the original Arabic,If the self itself is non-existent or irresolute, it cannot
resist nor can it stand in the face of the Other; one is reminded here of the Quranic view of a Muslim
self rooted in firm understanding of the divine.
This becomes the basis of interfaith dialogue and dialogue in general. This book provides the Islamic
inspiration that underlies all our work at DICID. We are working completely within the international
interfaith paradigm while completely operating within the recommendations as stipulated by Shariah
or Islamic Law as described here by the translator: It can be said with confidence that the strategy
of Islam is to expand the area of coexistence to include all with the exception of only the aggressors.
This books completion in the form that you find it in could not have been possible without the support and encouragement of Dr. Ibrahim Saleh AlNaimi as the Chairman of Doha International Center
for Interfaith Dialogue who has been crucial to bring this Islamic-inspired vision of intra- and interfaith dialogue to the world at large.
Adeel Khan
Managing Editor - Journal Religions/Adyan
Doha International Center for Interfaith Dialogue
August 9, 2014

Translators Prologue
Unlike most other texts, rendering religious texts to a different language is a unique exercise and an
exclusive experience. If as is claimed by some that translation amounts to breach and betrayal of the
source text, was to be true, it must be truer about religious texts, especially when the source text is
characterized with rhetorical eloquence too. It is especially exigent to do justice when Arabic syntax
and expression make the source text even more intricate.
Translating Dr. Ali Mohiuddin Al-Qaradaghis book Nahnu Wa Al-khar (We and the Other)
by interpreting the intended meanings and then conveying it using my own delivery and expression,
would have been smoother for those readers of English who did not read the original Arabic text, but
it would not have done justice to the author. The subject being sensitive involving doctrinal sophistication I have dared to adhere to the authors style in order to preserve accuracy of the meaning and
the sophistication of the authors style and delivery. I havent resorted to escapism by truncating or
clipping on the pretext of doing away with repetitive expression in the source text. Thus, initially at
least, it may be felt somewhat bumpy and unfamiliar, but being novel in original Arabic aroma, I hope
that the reading will make a uniquely delightful experience. Certainly it is not a literal translation of
the source text, but I believe that it is imperative to remain faithful to the author and not to overdo
the translation as if it was to rewrite the original and thus deprive the reader of relishing the essence
of diversity.
I have not imitated the use of terminology usually adopted for translating Arabic Islamic terminology
into English. I have, rather, tried to be closer to the meaning in a fresh way in every specific context
to reflect the precise shade of the meaning. I believe it will be accepted by the readers as an enriching
experience. After all, the subject i.e. religion of Islam itself is unique and it does not synchronize
with the perceptions accrued around other creeds, with which the English readers are generally familiar. In fact Islam is not a religion as perceived commonly by non-Muslims. It is, rather, an uncomplicated system of belief and a precise way of life with absolute freedom marked by a few restrictions.
Forcing it into borrowed forms simply does not make them befit its uniqueness.
Translation of the Quranic verses has been inspired from the matchless work of Abdullah Yusuf Ali
(May Allah bestow His mercy upon him).

Nizwa Oman
June 8, 2010

Dr. Syed Bashir Ahmad Kashmiri

Assistant Professor of Translation & Interpretation
University of Nizwa Sultanate of Oman

Introductory Note
Definition of the Title:
In this book by We stand to mean the Muslims and the Other stands for non-Muslims, including
People of the Book (Jews and Christians) and others as well. It goes without saying that Other can
be used in a very broad sense. It can mean anything contrary in anyway, whether in self, in attributes,
in creed, in nation or in tribe etc. But here in this book, by Other, we mean non-Muslims; we did not
use expressions like the Opposite or the Enemy. The intention is to connote that the Other need
not necessarily be an enemy or an opposite, but may share many things with us. Since Other is associated with us for being the addressee of the call of Islam, the bond of Islam with every Other
requires from us to convey the Mercy to them We sent thee not, but as a Mercy for all creatures
(Al-Qurn, 21:107)
The Other as Used in the Holy Qurn:
The Holy Qurn has used Other, the Other and Others very frequently. One such place is: ((said
the other: I see myself (in a dream) carrying bread on my head, and birds are eating, thereof. Tell
us (they said) The truth and meaning thereof)) (Al-Qurn, 12:36). The other here means the second young co-prisoner of Joseph. Another such place is: ((let two others stand forth in their places))
(Al-Qurn, 5:107). The others here means two witnesses from amongst non-Muslims. Hence, the
Other in the Holy Qurn implies opposite of what was mentioned previously and has some aspect of
difference with it, whether personal or otherwise.
The Rationale for Selecting the Word Other:
We selected this word because it conveys feelings of integration, diversity and difference, as willed
by Allah the Almighty. The divine law has prescribed the imperativeness of difference of religions,
of creeds and of ideas, just as difference is natural in the world of materials and colors. Allah the
Almighty says, If Allah had so willed, He would have made you a single people, but (His plan is)
to test you in what He hath given you: so strive as in a race in all virtues. The goal of you all is to
Allah. it is He that will show you the truth of the matters in which ye dispute (Al-Qurn, 5:48). This
particular verse directs the Muslims to seek benefit out of the difference and orders them to hurry up,
strive and compete as in a race in all virtues. In fact Allah the Almighty has made the difference in
community, religion and creed a norm of His own. Allah says, If thy Lord had so willed, He could
have made mankind one people: but they will not cease to dispute. Except those on whom thy Lord
hath bestowed His Mercy: and for this did He create them: and the Word of thy Lord shall be fulfilled:
I will fill Hell with jinns and men all together (Al-Qurn, 11:118-119).
The Motivation and Approach of this Research:
In this research, we set out with the approach of toleration and clemency encompassing the spirit of
pride in Islam with its principles, tenets and appropriateness for all times - and benefiting from all

that is wise and advantageous irrespective of the source. Our launch pad is our belief that Islam is
the religion of mercy and a blessing for the whole of humanity. We are not with the obstinate as to
absolutely reject acquiring from the East or the West, nor are we with the secularists who, because of
their inferiority complex, are indistinguishable in the melting pot of Western culture, nor are we with
those who seek untrue justifications and feigned compatibilities for everything, even if manifestly
pretentious. In this manner, we start off from duality of understanding, evenness of vision and the
sense of need for comprehensive awareness of tools, means and consequences.
Objective of the Research:
The objective of this research is to describe the relations between the two sides in situations of peace
and war and in treaties in light of the Holy Qurn, the Tradition and life of the Messenger (pbuh),
lives of the Rightly Guided Caliphs - as much as possible and what the great jurisprudents of Islam
across the spectrum of juristic schools have mentioned.
We shall try, Allah willing, to identify and elaborate the most important principles and rudiments that
govern this subject and to authenticate the major issues while indicating our preference, on the basis
of substantiation, without prejudice to the past or to the actuality, setting off from proactive initiative,
not from reaction to what we see around us in the Muslim lands and the rest of the world.
But the road to the Other passes through the road of the self (i.e. the Islamic self and intra-Muslim
relations). Hence we are going to mention the important principles that regulate these relations, because if the self itself is non-existent or irresolute, it cant resist nor can it stand in the face of the
Other. How can there be a just dialogue to guarantee securing of rights; how can we (Us) stand in the
face of the Other if we are not united, tenacious and strong?! Allah the Almighty orders us that we
prepare for war as a single consolidated row of infantry if war was imposed on us - that we enter the
war as a single reinforced column of warriors and that we resist as a single entity as in one indivisible
body. Allah says, Truly God loves those who fight in His Cause in battle array, as if they were a solid
cemented structure (Al-Qurn, 61:4). The reality is that the material world does not hold in esteem
anyone except those who are strong and competent.


Pivot I
The Strength Within and the Path to the Other


The Strength Within and the Path to the Other

Strength within requires revitalization and bolstering of the following principles and rudiments:
1.1 Revitalization of the foundations of material and moral power (including scientific, intellec

tual and economic).
1.2 Revitalization of unity of nation through:

1.2.a Revival of loyalty and solidarity with the faithful

1.2.b Revival of the spirit of Islamic brotherhood

1.2.c Revival of the principle of mutual rights

1.2.d Revival of the principle of equality

1.2.e Revival of the principle of justice

1.2.f Revival of the principle of inevitability of unity and illegitimacy of disunity

1.2.g Underline the need for acceptance of others interpretive judgments, rallying around

the constant values of Islam, toleration in what is variable, and tolerance to what
might be described as legitimate or objectionable in case of a disagreement.

1.2.h Correlating Jurisprudence of Constants and Variables with unity of the Nation.

Setting up of a comprehensive project based on balance between power and mercy.

1.1 Revitalization of material strength and moral power:

Every indicator of the great religion of Islam and all previous experiments point out that we need to
fulfill two basic conditions to command dignity and respect. These are:
a) Revitalization of the foundations of moral power through adherence to the genuine belief, august
morals and sublime values.

Regarding revitalization of the foundations of material power, we need:


Power of knowledge in order to be competent and capable of creativity and of contributing innovation and inventions that can serve humanity. It is ironic that the Nation of
Iqra (read)1 does not read and the ratio of illiteracy in it is tremendous.


Economic power, covering useful small, medium and large scale industries, as well as agriculture, not only for being self-sufficient and also to be able to export the agricultural produce and
industrial products. Certainly a nation that depends on others for its food requirements can not
be independent in its resolutions. All this should lead to our successful commercial presence.


Military Power: covering preparation, manufacturing and deterrence to deter the enemies from
any evil designs against us. It is worth mentioning what Imm Muhammad Abduh has said, I
went to Europe and saw them having enormous fleets and squadrons, while their religion tells
them to turn the left cheek to the one who might slap on their right cheek. Whereas on our own
streets we find fleets of the narcotized people, while our religion commands us to: prepare for
the enemy to the utmost of our strength (Al-Qurn, 8:60) .

1 The Translator: Iqra connotes to the first word of the first Qurnic revelation. Iqra in Arabic means: read. In other words the first thing Allah
commanded his Messenger, and through him Muslims, was to read.



Revitalization of The Single Nation. The Holy Qurn emphasizes that the Muslim Nation is
a Single Nation, that it is a Moderate Nation designed to witness over the entire humankind,
that it is the Best of Nations that has been raised for the benefit and advantage of humanity, and
that it is the Nation that was raised by Allah with His will and mercy.

This unity cannot actualize without specified rights and duties along with serious endeavors
and sacrifices. Certainly, if we aspire for success in building a balanced and respectable relation with non-Muslims and to have a fruitful dialogue with them, it is inevitable that we
strengthen and consolidate intra-Muslim relations across the spectrum of schools of jurisprudence, traditional factions, and right through the canvass of present ideological groupings - like Ikhwan (Muslim Brotherhood), Salafia (Conformists to the Tradition) and Tablgh
(Preachers of Islam) etc.

If we Muslims cannot come together and join our forces on the basis of a set of our constants
and if we do not confirm to forbearance and tolerate each other over the contested variables of
interpretative judgments, we shall have no credence and credibility while addressing the Other
and in dialogue with them. This is exactly what the representatives of churches and other religions prey on among us. They leave no stone unturned to carve Islam and divide it into sects,
cults and factions and even further down to individual whims and fancies. They label it as:
Sunni Islam and Shiite Islam, Fundamentalist Islam and Conventional Islam, Modernist Islam
and Democratic Islam, Ikhwani Islam, Salafi Islam and Tablghi Islam, and so on.

Allah the Almighty clarifies that since non-Muslims confront Muslims as a single bloc and as
a single community, it is imperative that the Muslims must face them as a single consolidated
column with one and only one allegiance. Allah the Almighty says, The Unbelievers are
protectors, one of another: Unless ye do this, (protect each other), there would be tumult and
oppression on earth, and great mischief. (Al-Qurn, 8:73). This reality has repeated itself in
earlier and modern history. In the Battle of Ahzb the Jews (who are People of the Revealed
Book) banded together with pagan and idol worshiping polytheists to eliminate the Messenger
of Allah (pbuh) and to eradicate the newly founded state of Medina. To this end and to remove
any ideological barriers between the invaders, they (the Jews) pronounced that their idol worshiping allies were better guided than the Muslims. Allah the Almighty registered this perjured
stance saying, Have you thou not turned Thy vision to those who were given a portion of the
Book? They believe in sorcery and Evil, and say to the Unbelievers that they are better guided
in the (right) way Than the believers! (Al-Qurn, 4:51).

In modern history, the Vatican renounced the primary belief consistently held over the centuries that the Jews were the ones who killed Jesus Christ (peace be upon him). In order to pave
the way for unity, in 1965, Jews were acquitted of the blood of Jesus. Thereupon the Christian
peoples joined hands with the Jews in their war against Arabs and Muslims. In fact, as a consequence, Christian Zionist movement, which is more perilous than Zionism itself in their war
against Islam and Muslims, came to surface.

Indeed, unity between Muslims is one of the most important Islamic obligations and an intellectual and pragmatic requisite imposed by our ground reality given the political and economic
globalization. Certainly, we Muslims have no other way except really establishing our being
the Moderate Nation competent of defending itself, its religion, its sovereignty and riches.
This implies that the only way forward for us is the way of unity, whatsoever it may cost and
whatsoever suitable way there may be to realize it. We have to start with seriously effective


cooperation to reach integrative unity; else our destiny will be nothingness in real terms and
nothing but left to remain as remnants of history. Then Allah alone is the Rescuer!

The approach of Islam is pragmatic and deals with the subject from its roots. When it speaks
about some of the defeats afflicted upon Muslims during the life of the Messenger (pbuh), it
ascribes the causes to the Muslims themselves; it does not divert the blame to the Other nor
does it make the Other a scarecrow to be reprimanded for all that befalls on Muslims. Allah the
Almighty says, What! When a single disaster smites you, although ye smote (your enemies)
with one twice as great, do ye say?- Whence is this? Say (to them): It is from yourselves:
For God hath power over all things (Al-Qurn, 3:165). This does not mean ignoring the
other side. The intention rather is to emphasize that if the Muslim Nation adopted the means
of strength, renaissance, progress and creativity, it would be at the forefront and worthier of establishing the civilization and being powerful and triumphant. On the contrary, if they did not
embrace the laws of Allah in the nature, required for triumph and powerfulness, they would
face the undesired.


Revitalization of unity of nation through

Among the most effectual courses towards achieving strength within is the course of unity of
the Muslim Nation. The pursued goal of unity cannot be achieved except through adherence
to pertinent rudiments. The most outstanding of these rudiments are:

1.2.a Revival of loyalty and solidarity with the faithful

This means that the loyalty of the faithful must be to Allah the Almighty, to His Mes
senger and then to the communion of the faithful. Allah the Almighty says, Your (real) friends
are (no less than) Allah, His Messenger, and the (fellowship of) believers,- those who establish
regular prayers and regular charity, and they bow down humbly (in worship). As to those who
turn (for friendship) to Allah, His Messenger, and the (fellowship of) believers,- it is the fellowship of Allah that must certainly triumph (Al-Qurn, 5:55-56) and, The Believers, men and
women, are protectors one of another: they enjoin what is just, and forbid what is evil: they
observe regular prayers, practise regular charity, and obey God and His Apostle. On them will
God pour His mercy: for God is Exalted in power, Wise. (Al-Qurn, 9:71).


Loyalty of a faithful to the communion of the faithful means that his love should be dedicated
to them, that he adores their triumph over others, that he does not prefer others to them and
that his support must be dedicated to them whenever they need him. In other words this loyalty
means: love, cooperation, support, unity and undeterred unyielding solidarity.

This loyalty, love and solidarity with the faithful have two aspects:

Aspect of war: A faithful must support Muslims, boycott the aggressors, be tough on them,
renounce them and not show any affection or love towards them. This is what the Holy Qurn
explains, O ye who believe! Take not my enemies and yours as friends (or protectors),- offering them (your) love, even though they have rejected the Truth that has come to you, and have
(on the contrary) driven out the Prophet and yourselves (from your homes), (simply) because
ye believe in God your Lord! If ye have come out to strive in My Way and to seek My Good
Pleasure, (take them not as friends), holding secret converse of love (and friendship) with
them: for I know full well all that ye conceal and all that ye reveal. And any of you that does
this has strayed from the Straight Path (Al-Qurn, 60:1).

Aspect of peace: Wherein a faithful must deal with the Other with benevolence and benefaction; it is lawful for him to peacefully coexist and deal with them. The detail shall come in the
following chapters.
Hence, there is no contradiction between loyalty and solidarity with Muslims and being benevolent and beneficent to non-aggressors; nor is there any inconsistency with personal affection (i.e. love with others on basis of personal relations rather than on the basis of disbelief).
The detail shall come under Pivot II.

1.2.b Revival of the spirit of Islamic brotherhood

The principal texts of Islam (the Qurn and the Hadth) substantiate that intra-Muslim relations which are based on the brotherhood founded on the religion take precedence over all
other relations without nullifying the latter. The order of precedence is that if the brotherhood
based on the faith contradicts with blood relations and other kinships and it is not possible to
achieve harmony between the two, the brotherhood based on faith must take primacy. This
principle is substantiated by the Holy Qurn and the Hadth and there is accredited unanimity
over it among Muslims, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) raised the first generation of Islam on
this and the Rightly Guided Caliphs and the Companions (May Allah be pleased with them)
followed the same path.

This faith based brotherhood, which forms the melting pot of all Muslims, is not a mere slogan
to be raised or a sermon to be delivered on the pulpit, it must be a substantial reality so that the
following consequences stem out of it.

A Single Body and a Single Hand:

Islam requires a Muslim to form like a single body with another Muslim, just like a single
construction block holding together with its components, rather like a single hand. The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) says, The example of the faithful in their mutual affection, empathy
and mercifulness is that of one single body, when any of its organs complains, all other organs
reciprocate to it with malaise and restlessness.2 He further says, A faithful to another faithful is like a single construction block holding together with its components. (While saying this
he crossed his fingers)3.

Humbleness and Mutual Humility:

It is quite clear that groveling and cringing before others is renounced in Islam and that selfesteem and dignity are desired, but there are only two incidences where Allah the Almighty
has commended servility. The first is towards ones parents and the second is towards the fellow faithful. Allah says, And, out of kindness, lower to them the wing of humility (Al-Qurn,
17:24) and O ye who believe! Iif any from among you turn back from his Faith, soon will
Allah produce a people whom He will love as they will love Him,- lowly with the believers,
mighty against the rejecters (Al-Qurn, 5:54).

In other words Allah stipulates that from the love of those chosen by Him for Him and from
His love for them should stem a mindset wherein they lower themselves to the fellow believers
yet they are mighty in the face of the rejecters of the faith. Humility here means the humility
of facilitation and resilience; a believer is tractable, pliable and docile for his fellow believer;
he is malleable to his brother in faith without any ignominy or disgrace. In fact it is mutual and
2 Narrated by Bukhri (Fathul Bri): (10/367); Muslim: 2586 (through Numan Bin Basheer)
3 Narrated by Bukhri (Fathul Bri): (5/72 and 10/376); Muslim: 2585 (Abu-Moosa Al-Ashari)


from every faithful for every other faithful; it is not one-way; it is as Salman Al-Farisi put it,
Indeed a believer to another believer is like one hand to another one washes another. This
brotherhood removes the barriers, eliminates pretentiousness, it blends a soul with another
so that nothing intractable or obstinate remains between the two; this brotherhood eradicates
negative sensitivities between the brothers in faith, because howsoever big, rich or powerful
a faithful may be, he is modest to the extreme towards his brother irrespective of the latters
position or social status.


How can there be any ill feeling between the believers when they had become brethren by the
grace of Allah, when they together love Allah and He loves them, when they had become like a
single body, like a single hand and like a single building; is there any rationale to imagine any
ignominy or disgrace to any one organ of the body when it humbles itself to another organ!?

Furthermore, this humility to fellow believers and dignity in the face of the rejecters is not a
matter of following whims and fancies; it is, rather, obedience and compliance with the obligations of faith and with exigencies of affirmative brotherhood.

Unity of Ranks and Banner:

Allah the Almighty did not like to describe the collective community of the Muslims as being
many arrays together; He assimilated them to a single array. Allah says, Truly God loves those
who fight in His Cause in battle array, as if they were a solid cemented structure (Al-Qurn,
61:4). In fact Islam attaches a great deal of unparalleled importance to harmony between Muslims. Hundreds of Qurnic verses and sayings of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) emphasize
the importance of unity among Muslims as being a religious obligation and a realistic requirement, and that disunity and schism between their ranks leads to nothing but laceration, feebleness and ignominy in the face of others. Allah the Almighty says, and fall into no disputes,
lest ye lose heart and your power depart (Al-Qurn, 8:46) and And hold fast, all together,
by the rope which God (stretches out for you), and be not divided among yourselves; and remember with gratitude Gods favour on you; for ye were enemies and He joined your hearts
in love, so that by His Grace, ye became brethren; and ye were on the brink of the pit of Fire,
and He saved you from it. Thus doth God make His Signs clear to you: That ye may be guided.
Let there arise out of you a band of people inviting to all that is good, enjoining what is right,
and forbidding what is wrong: They are the ones to attain felicity. Be not like those who are
divided amongst themselves and fall into disputations after receiving Clear Signs: For them is
a dreadful penalty (Al-Qurn, 3:103-105).

Mercifulness and Honoring the Rights:

Muslims being brethren like a single body implies that none of them should oppress another;
every one of them ought to honor the rights of his brother, as he is like a part of his own self; he
ought not to tyrannize, betray, cheat, envy, abhor, desert, scorn nor commit aggression against
his brother neither against his belongings, nor against his honor, nor against his self, nor
against his body; instead of abandoning him, he must defend him; he should like for him what
he likes for himself; he ought to advise him, visit him when ailing; he must shield him and not
expose him; he ought to cater to his needs, intercede for him and reconcile between him and
his Muslim brother.

All this is affirmed by the Holy Qurn and corroborated by the Tradition of the Messenger
(pbuh). Let me quote some here from the latter4:


Jundub Bin Abdullah (mAbpwh) narrates from the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) that he said,
He who offers the Fajr (dawn) prayers, falls under the protection of Allah. So let Him not
seek you for anything on behalf of His protected; he who is sought by Him for anything on
behalf of His protected, He shall get him and then toss him headlong into the Hellfire.5
Ibn Omar (mAbpwh) narrates from the Messenger (pbuh) that he said, A Muslim is a brother
of another Muslim, he does not do injustice to him nor does he betray him; he who stands by
his brother in hour of need, Allah looks after him in hour of need; he who relieves a Muslim
from an anguish, in reward, Allah shall relieve him from an anguish of the day of judgment; he
who shields a Muslim, Allah shall shield him on the day of judgment.6
Abu-Hurairah narrates from the Messenger (pbuh) that he said, A Muslim is a brother of
another Muslim, he does not betray him, lie to him nor abandon him. Every belonging of a
Muslim is inviolable for another Muslim be it his honor, his possessions or his life; piety lies
here (in the heart); it is enough of evil that a Muslim scorn his brother Muslim.7
Abu-Hurairah also narrates from the Messenger (pbuh) that he said, Do not envy each other,
do not be agitated with each other, do not abhor each other and do not impede others sales
in favor of your sale; be slaves of Allah while being brethren. A Muslim is a brother of another
Muslim: he does not aggrieve him, abhor him nor abandon him; piety lies here (pointing thrice
to his chest); it is enough of evil that a Muslim scorns his brother Muslim; every belonging of
a Muslim is inviolable for another Muslim be it his life, his possessions or his honor.8
Anas (mAbpwh) narrates from the Messenger (pbuh) that he said, One of you cant be a believer until he likes what he likes for his brother (in faith).9
Anas (mAbpwh) also narrates from the Messenger (pbuh) that he said, Support your brother
whether he is an oppressor or oppressed. Someone asked, O Messenger of Allah, I shall
stand by him when he is the oppressed; how come I should support him when he is the oppressor? The Messenger of Allah replied, Restrain him from his oppression; this is to support
Abu-Hurairah (mAbpwh) narrates from the Messenger (pbuh) that he said, A Muslim owes
five things to another Muslim: replying the greetings, visiting the sick, participating in the
funeral, accepting the invitation and invoking mercy for the sneezer.11
Muslim narrates this as, Rights of a Muslim are six: when you meet him, greet him; when he
invites you, accept his invitation; when he seeks advise from you, advise him; when he sneezes
and praises Allah, invoke mercy for him; when he is sick, visit him; and when he dies, follow
his funeral.

4 Most of what is quoted here, is from Riyadhu Saleheen Edited by Sheikh Shuaib Al-Arnaoot
5 Narrated by Muslim: 657, 626
6 Narrated by Bukhri: (5/70, 71) and by Muslim: 2580
7 Narrated by Tirmizi: 1928, categorizing it as acceptable
8 Narrated by Muslim: 2564
9 Narrated by Bukhri: (1/53/54) and by Muslim: 45
10 Narrated by Bukhri: (5/71) and (12/289)
11 Narrated by Bukhri: (3/90) and by Muslim: 2162


Abu-Ammr Al-Barr Bin Aazib (mAbpwh) narrates from the Messenger (peace and blessings be upon him) that he said, The Messenger of Allah commanded us to do seven things
and forbade us from seven: commanded us of: visiting the sick, following the funeral, invoking
mercy for the sneezer,12 accepting (the swearing of) he who swears, standing by the oppressed,
accepting the invitation, and being generous with the Salam (greeting); he forbade us from:
wearing gold rings, drinking in silver (goblets), vainglorious red cushions, ostentatious attires, and wearing silk, brocade and silk brocade.13
Abu-Hurairah (mAbpwh) narrates from the Messenger (pbuh), When a slave of Allah covers
another slave of Allah, Allah (guarantees that He) will cover him on the day of judgment.14
Abu-Hurairah (mAbpwh) also narrated saying, I heard the Messenger (pbuh) saying: whole
of my nation shall be forgiven except those who are shameless shamelessness means that a
person does a deed at night, having been covered by Allah he then wakes up and declares: O,
so-and-so, last night I did such and such thing. Although he spent his night under the cover of
his Lord, yet he wakes up to expose himself out of the cover of Allah.15
Abu-Hurairah (mAbpwh) also narrates from the Messenger (pbuh), He who relieves a faithful of an agony of this world, Allah shall relieve him of an agony of the day of judgment; he
who eases the suffering of a sufferer, Allah shall ease for him in this world and in the hereafter; Allah rescues his slave as long as the slave stands by his brother; he who pursues a path
seeking knowledge, Allah eases for him the path to paradise. Whenever a group of people
get together in a house of Allah (mosque) reciting Allahs book, deliberating together over it,
surely tranquility descends over them and mercy shrouds them, the angels enfold them and
Allah mentions them to those who are close to Him; he who is slackened by his deeds, his
pedigree shall not accelerate him16. Likewise Abu-Moosa Al-Ashari (mAbpwh) narrates
saying, The Messenger of Allah (pbuh), whenever a requester used to come to him seeking
fulfillment of a need, would address those sitting with him: intercede (for the needy), you will
be rewarded (by Allah); Allah grants the request of His Messenger as He likes.17

Abu-Hurairah (mAbpwh) also narrates from the Messenger (pbuh), Every sound person
owes a charity on every day on which the sun rises: that you treat two (conflicting sides) with
justice, is a charity; that you assist a person ride his riding animal by lifting him onto it, or
that you lift for him his load onto it, is a charity; an amiable word is a charity; every step you
walk to (offer prayers) is a charity; removing a harm from the way is a charity.18

Preventing the Harm:

Hence it is not comprehensible that Muslims - being a single body, one single hand, a solid
reinforced structure - can harm each other. A Muslim must not offend a Muslim so long as he
had been reared on the basis of this comprehensive belief, the belief that has fused the faithful
into the crucible of the divine love. Thus a Muslim restricts himself from everything that could
hurt his brother in faith, especially in the following areas:

12 (The translator: According to Islamic etiquettes when someone sneezes, he should say, praise be to Allah (for not afflicting me with anything worse);
those hearing, should respond by saying, Allah shower His mercy upon you; upon this he should respond saying, upon us and upon you).
13 Narrated by Bukhri: (3/90) and by Muslim: (3/90; 5/72, 9/210; 10/84,97,259,266,497; 11/15,16) and by Muslim: 2066
14 Narrated by Muslim: 2590, 72
15 Narrated by Bukhri: (10/405,406) and by Muslim: 2990
16 Narrated by Muslim: 2699 and by Ahmad: (2/407)
17 Narrated by Bukhri: (3/238) and by Muslim: 2627
18 Narrated by Bukhri: (5/226) and (6/93,94); and by Muslim: 1009


He restricts himself from harassing his brother, whatsoever be the case, for the sake of effectuating the true brotherhood and in abidance of the divine forbiddance which prescribes, And
those who annoy believing men and women undeservedly, bear (on themselves) a calumny and
a glaring sin (Al-Qurn, 33:58).

Hence Allah has proscribed upon every Muslim harming his brother in his self, honor, dignity,
possessions, family and in everything that belongs to him. The real motto of a Muslim is: A
Muslim is the one from whose tongue and hand Muslims stay unimpaired.19 In fact, a Muslims tongue usually refrains and abstains from speech with exception of utterance of good.
The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) says, Whosoever believes in Allah and in the Day of Judgment, must say good or else keep silent.20 Allah has elucidated that whatsoever a human being utters is recorded for him or against him, Not a word does he utter but there is a sentinel
by him, ready (to note it) (Al-Qurn, 50:18) and And pursue not that of which thou hast no
knowledge; for every act of hearing, or of seeing or of (feeling in) the heart will be enquired
into (on the Day of Reckoning) (Al-Qurn, 17:36).

Imm Nawawi says, Know that every responsible person must guard his tongue from every
utterance except where there lies the advantage. And when talking is equivalent to avoiding
talking, the prophetic Tradition is to refrain from it, because a permissible talk may drag to
unpermitted or to abhorrent acts or speech, which happens a lot usually. Certainly, for safetys
sake nothingness is better.21

This is substantiated by a narration of Abu-Hurairah - reported by Bukhri and Muslim - that

he heard the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) saying, A slave carelessly utters a word, as a result
of which he goes deep down the Hell, deeper than the space between East and West.22 He is
also reported to have said, By the grace of Allah, a slave innocently utters a word, as a result
of which Allah elevates his status; by the ire of Allah, a slave unmindfully chatters a word, as
a result of which he falls into the Hell.23 Muz Bin Jabal narrates his conversation with the
Messenger of Allah (pbuh) wherein he asked, O, Messenger of Allah, advise me of a deed
which would admit me to the Paradise and keep me away from the Hellfire Towards the end
of the conversation, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said, O, Muz, does anything else other
than the produce of their tongues toss people somersaulting into the Hellfire!?24

1.2.c Revival of the principle of mutual rights

The rights between Muslims are based on reciprocation of these rights. In Islam, there is no
one who enjoys rights without shouldering obligations, nor is there anyone subjected to duties
without enjoying rights. Such is the Islamic society wherein everyone bears his responsibility
whatsoever his status be whether young or old, poor or rich, ruler or subject, warden or prisoner. No one is an exception to this fair system. This balance does not exist in other societies;
capitalistic society is based on dominance of rights, whereas the socialistic society is based
on dominance of duties. Islamic society on the other hand is the society of rights and duties;
every Muslim must fulfill his duty before claiming his right, hence every faithful is obligated
to discharge his duty first. On the contrary, in other societies one demands his right first and
19 Narrated by Bukhri: (1/51,52) and by Muslim: 42
20 Narrated by Muslim: 48 and partially by Bukhri (Fathul Bri): (10/373)
21 Riyadhu Saleheen Edited by Sheikh Shuaib Al-Arnaoot Page: 427
22 Narrated by Bukhri (Fathul Bri): 11/265, 266; by Muslim: 2988; by Malik: 2/985; and by Tirmizi: 2315
23 Narrated by Bukhri (Fathul Bri): 11/266, 267
24 Narrated by Tirmizi: 2619; by Ahmad: (5/231); Ibn Majah: 3973


thereafter he discharges his duty, this is why dissension proliferate there, whereas dissension
is sparse in Islamic societies that abide by the divine law.

Hence the Islamic society does not rest on mere altruism and volunteering. In fact altruism
is an additional characteristic of the Islamic societies to strengthen the society and to gel in
togetherness. Allah the Almighty says, But those who before them, had homes (in Medina)
and had adopted the Faith,- show their affection to such as came to them for refuge, and entertain no desire in their hearts for things given to the (latter), but give them preference over
themselves, even though poverty was their (own lot). And those saved from the covetousness of
their own souls,- they are the ones that achieve prosperity (Al-Qurn, 59:9).

Hence reciprocated rights form the basis of the Islamic social contract. Altruism is just a bonus and compliment. This leads to the spirit of competition in righteousness, pursuit towards
excellence, emulation towards further attainment, growth, civilization and progress. As a result of this process the righteous is distinguished from the wicked, the strong from the feeble,
pleasant from tarnished and so on. Above and beyond, this leaves no room for exploitation
between the people; everyone must get his right as long as he discharges his duty.

1.2.d Revival of the principle of equality

One of the most important principles established by Islam is the principle of equality between
Muslims equality in rights and duties and equality in rules, status and dignity. Muslims are
like the teeth of a comb; no one of them is preferred over another on the basis of race or color
or shape or nationality and tribe or region. Here whole of the humanity stands equal; all of
them are from Adam and Adam was created from dust; an Arab enjoys no favor over a nonArab, a non-Arab enjoys no favor over an Arab, a white enjoys no favor over a black nor does
a black enjoy any favor over a white, except by the virtue of piety. It is worth mentioning that
piety lies in the chest and no one except Allah the Almighty is aware of what lies in the chests.
Through multiple verses of the Holy Qurn and sayings of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh), Islam eradicated all manifestations of discrimination on any basis whatsoever, as all expressions
of discrimination are deplorable in Islam. Same is true of equality in front of judiciary and the
courts of law and in realizing justice and returning the dues to the deserving whosoever he may
be, whether strong or weak. Abu Bakr (mAbpwh) has rightly said, The strong in your eyes is
weak to me until I take back the right of the weak from him and the weak in your eyes is strong
to me until I return back to him his right from the strong.
1.2.e Revival of the principle of justice

Facilitation of relations on the basis of the maxim of justice is of prime importance. Justice is
the cornerstone of Islam and on it stood the heavens and the earth. After belief, nothing has
been attached as much importance as justice.
1.2.f Revival of the principle of inevitability of unity and illegitimacy of disunity

Allah the Almighty has enjoined the unity based on belief and forbidden discord over rudiments. He has, rather, reckoned this to be of the kind of infidelity, although infidelity of a lesser
degree. Textual evidence in this regard is immense. It will suffice to summarize by saying:
Islam, as it is, is the religion of unity embedded in faith; it is the religion of unity of the Islamic
Nation; it is the religion of unity of expression of monotheism; it is the unity of expression.
In fact, Islam takes its advent from oneness of the God the Lord and leads to oneness of His
slaves. Allah says, Verily, this brotherhood of yours is a single brotherhood, and I am your


Lord and Cherisher: therefore serve Me (and no other). (Al-Qurn, 21:92). That is why Islam
unified the direction of their prayers, unified the pillars of their faith, unified the authority (the
Qurn and the Sunnah) and ordained them to hold fast, all together, by the rope of Allah the
Almighty, saying, And hold fast, all together, by the rope which God (stretches out for you),
and be not divided among yourselves. (Al-Qurn, 3:103-105). Actually He the Almighty
called the dissension as infidelity, although infidelity of a lesser degree. This happened when
some Jews tried to instigate the pre-Islamic pagan enmity between the Aws and Khazraj tribes
of Medina; Allah revealed, O ye who believe! If ye listen to a faction among the People of
the Book, they would (indeed) render you apostates after ye have believed! And how would ye
deny Faith while unto you are rehearsed the Signs of God, and among you Lives the Apostle?
Whoever holds firmly to God will be shown a way that is straight. (Al-Qurn, 3:100-101).

Likewise the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) too during his final pilgrimage - named dissension
as infidelity, Do not return to infidelity - decapitating each other.25

1.2.g Underline the need for acceptance of others interpretive judgments, rallying around
the constant values of Islam, toleration in what is variable, and tolerance to what might
be described as legitimate or objectionable in case of a disagreement.

Most of the problems arise out of non-acceptance between us. Dissension between us leads
to ostracism, which in turn lead to infighting and disunity. We are supposed to recognize each
other through acceptance of legitimate diversity. Our Islamic Civilization is credited with accommodating intellectual multiplicity even to the extent of some aspects of the belief, just as
it embraced the jurisprudential differences and existence of diverse schools of thought without
any embarrassment. In some cases something was seen by one school to be absolutely lawful,
whereas the same thing was considered null and void by another school. Why then cant we
accept political and intellectual diversity in light of the recognized constants?

The Islamic Nation today is very much in need of search for commonalities within. Certainly
these are in abundance. All schools of Islamic jurisprudence and Islamic groups share the roots
of the belief and pillars of faith (in Allah, in His angels, in His revealed books, in His Messengers, in the Day of Judgment and in good and bad of the destiny), as they share agreement
on five pillars of Islam (declaration of faith, daily prayers, Zakt, Fasting and Hajj). They also
pray in direction of the same Kaba in Mecca). All of them, without any disagreement, confirm
to one and the same Qurn as the holy book. They share the same enemy and their interests
are common they unanimously consider Zionism, Crusaders Christianity, Secularism and
sexual deviance as their worst enemies. The major issues of the Islamic Nation (like Palestine)
are the causes for which they are ever ready to lay down their lives. They are all aware that
their enemies do not single out any one of them. The influential RAND Corporation, which
plays a vital role in formulating the American strategy, its latest report states that all Muslims
(traditionalists, fundamentalists, liberals, mystics, Shia and Sunnis) are unreliable; American
policy should not be to ally with them except as a tactic to eliminate the most dangerous
groups amongst them. The report puts them all together in one basket and then suggested a
new type of Islam, namely Civil Democratic Islam that would accept all the Western values.26

Arent all these commonalities between Muslims adequate enough? To bring them together,
arent the adversities, perils and numerous enemies - who have rallied together against their
Nation just as carnivores storm a carcass -, sufficient enough?

25 Narrated by Tirmizi
26 Report of the Rand Corporation for year 2003-2004, titled Civil Democratic Islam.


1.2.h Remedy of the Nation Lies in Rallying around the Constants and in accepting the Opposing Interpretations that go Against Variables:

The principal texts of Islam have focused definitely on the basis and pillars on which this religion stands and on which sound belief, values, sublime morals and rudiments of dealings and
transactions with all people are founded. The details in most of the things have been left for
presumptive attestations or for human interpretations in light of the general principles and the
comprehensive norms.

Thus the Shariah has combined the constants which are not susceptible to any change (that are
like the skeleton of the human body) and the variables which cover the day-to-day affairs (that
are subject to change). And thus has the Shariah, which has been sent by Allah the Almighty,
harmonized with the human being, to whom it was sent. Allah says, Should He not know,- He
that created? and He is the One that understands the finest mysteries (and) is well-acquainted
(with them). (Al-Qurn, 67:14).

The human being is constant in his reality, essence, the origin of his intellect, spirit, self,
mysteries, and in his needs and general requirements of food, drink and clothing. Although
the characteristics vary, yet the common human origin remains the same till today since his
creation for the first time. But human beings vary in their lore, in possibilities of utilizing their
possessions, in their knowledge, dress, drink, food and housing. Human being did tread on the
moon, yet he continues to be in need of the divine guidance and of the belief to fill the void
between his spirit and his self. He continues to be in need of the divine values and morals to
prevent him from duplicity, racism, cruelty and tyranny, to motivate him to justice, equality,
fairness, and to deter him from humiliating and scorning his fellow humans and from extortion
and embezzlement.27

Due to the major characteristic of being able to simultaneously benefit from the tradition and
reason and from constants and variables, the human being is privileged to combine worldly
welfare and triumph in the hereafter. We achieve harmony, love and effective social convergence when we cooperate and unite on the basis of the constants which we agree upon and
when we excuse each other regarding what we disagree, because the latter falls in the category
of interpretative variable which are liable to multiple perspectives.

By constants here we mean the Islamic principles established by irrefutable denotations and
evidence or by established genuine unanimity realized by the Islamic Nation during the first
three centuries of the Islamic Calendar.

In light of this, the constants include the six rudiments of the faith (faith in Allah, in His angels,
in His revealed books, in His Messengers, in the Day of Judgment and in good and bad of the
destiny) and the five pillars of Islam (declaration of faith, five daily prayers, Zakt, fasting the
month of Ramadhn and Hajj when afforded). Constants also include the established values
and morals, the general principles and fundamentals of the Islamic family law, of the dealings
and the Jihd, of the relations with others and of judiciary etc. In brief, when any principle
from amongst the Islamic principles in any field of life is proven by irrefutable denotations and
evidence or by established genuine unanimity of the Islamic Nation based on corroboration
rather than on customary convention, that is one of the constants that must be abided by and
must not be underestimated, except wherein exigencies temporarily justify impermissibility.

27 Yusuf Al-Qaradwi Madkhal il Dirsati Ash-Shareeah Page: 257


On the other hand the variables mean the conventions based on hypothetical evidence (whether hypothetical in interpretation of the text and in its evidence or in both), or on interpretation
anchored in juristic reasoning or in amenable advantages or in customary convention or on the
rationales or the Shariah etc.

The scope of variables in Fatw (religious juristic opinion) and in hypothetical juristic edicts
is quite vast. It includes all the previous juristic interpretations besides the area of Legislative
Vacuum which is evidently resilient to changes according to respective juristic interpretations. According to Imm Al-Haramain, Major part of the Shariah is the product of diligent
interpretation (of jurisprudents and scholars), and the primary texts (from the Qurn and the
Hadith) do not amount to even one-tenth of it.28

As long as previous juristic interpretations of our revered jurisprudents are not unanimously
agreed upon, these are subject to review. In fact these ought to be reviewed and sieved with
all due regard and respect through selective diligent interpretation and objective comparison
between them in order to identify the preponderant amongst them and then the same be applied
to the issues of our times with all fineness and fairness.

These hypothetical texts can be reviewed once again in light of Arabic grammar, fundamentals
of jurisprudence, context and syntax. With that, we can derive new meanings and edicts, which
were neither perceived by the predecessors nor favored by the masses or which were possibly
mentioned only by a few.

So far as the Legislative Vacuum is concerned, diligent interpretation (Ijtihd) needs to be

structural and involve existence of prerequisites and qualifications of the expertise in whosoever embarks upon it.

The ambit of variables encompasses what is out of the domain of fundamentals and absolute
constants, especially what relates to the beliefs and acts of worship. Most of it manifests in the
realms like economic dealings, financial transactions, political and medical issues and foreign
relations etc. According to Imm Ash-Shtibi, The genuine scope of diligent interpretation
(Ijtihd) lies between what fluctuates between two ends, so that on the one side it appears as
if the intention of the lawgiver is to approve a certain position, while on the other side it appears as if the lawgivers intended to disapprove that position, but it has not been categorically
approved nor disapproved.29 Imm Ghazali says, The subject of diligent interpretation is
every legal edict that is not corroborated by categorical evidence.30

28 Al-Bahrul Muheet Kuwait (4/472)

29 Al-Muwafiqt (2/519)
30 Al-Mustasf (2/354)


The Dilemma Lies in Superimposition of the Revealed, not in the Revelation Being the
If we consider that superimposition of the TEXT on a new development is the diligent inter
pretation (Ijtihd) and the job of an interpreter as such, and that the TEXT in itself is not the
subject of the act of interpretation, the ambit of acceptance broadens and the domain of vari
ables extends. This is because the revelation represents the paradigm values for scheming
the course and setting the framework. These values symbolize the criterion and the balance,

not programs and plans of the regular life. Hence programs, plans and administrative meas
ures are open for discussion and there is scope for disagreement, as these are not considered
religion which is not open for discussion, criticism or change; these are, what the jurisprudents
call, changing of the edicts (fatwa) with the changing circumstances (of the time and the place).31
However the complexity aggravates with confusion between the TEXT itself and its super imposition on a new situation that was not mentioned in the TEXT, confusion between the value and the
program; confusion between the criterion and the interpretation, confusion between the innocent
paradigm and the fallible interpretation, confusion between the absolute and the relative, and confusion between the abstract and the corporeal.
1.3 Genuine Differences as Factors for Unity
1.3.a Preamble

Among the constants and definite doctrines of Islam is the inevitability of unity, solidarity and
association between Muslims, and illegitimacy of disunity and disarray amongst Muslims.
Unity of the Islamic Nation is a religious obligation ordained by the true religion and dictated
by the reality we live in especially when because of its disunity and disarray, this nations
existence, entity and sovereignty are in a pitiable state; the greedy crave to extort the Islamic
Nation and major parts of its lands are preponderated by malevolent colonizers. Unity and
concord are of utmost priority in todays world of conglomeration of forces, particularly when
more than ever Islam has turned to be the main target of malice.

There has not been any religion or system that would have cared so much about unity and
abhorred the disunity as Islam has done. Many verses of the Holy Qurn and sayings of the
Messenger (pbuh) stress upon the need for cooperation and unity and despise dissension and
discord. In one such verse, Allah the Almighty says, And hold fast, all together, by the rope
which God (stretches out for you), and be not divided among yourselves; and remember with
gratitude Gods favour on you; for ye were enemies and He joined your hearts in love, so that
by His Grace, ye became brethren; and ye were on the brink of the pit of Fire, and He saved
you from it. Thus doth God make His Signs clear to you: That ye may be guided. Let there arise
out of you a band of people inviting to all that is good, enjoining what is right, and forbidding
what is wrong: They are the ones to attain felicity. Be not like those who are divided amongst
themselves and fall into disputations after receiving Clear Signs: For them is a dreadful penalty. (Al-Qurn, 3:103-105).

These verses were revealed about Aws and Khazraj - the two major tribes of Medina after
Islam came to Medina. Shs Bin Qais - a Jew - tried a great deal to incite the pagan sectarian
bias between the people of the two tribes using a young Jew to remind them of the enmity and
the long war they had fought. The young man recited rabble-rousing poetic verses and suc31 Ilmul Muwaqieen (3/3)


ceeded in his attempt when people from the two tribes disputed and started boasting of their
tribal superiority. The matter led to an imminent clash between Aws and Khazraj and when the
Messenger of Allah (pbuh) came to know, he addressed them saying, O you, the community
of Muslims, watch Allah, watch Allah; how come this slogan of paganism while I am amongst
you?! Is it after Allah guided you and ennobled you with Islam, terminated with it the state of
your ignorance, rescued you from infidelity and conciliated between you, that you return back
to the same old infidelity that you were in?. Thereupon the people realized that it had been
a propensity of Satan and a dirty trick of an enemy of theirs. They laid down their arms and
burst into tears; they embraced each other and dispersed along with the Messenger of Allah
(pbuh) embodying comprehension and obedience. Thus Allah the Almighty put out the ordeal
of the turmoil that their common enemy had instigated. It was then that the above mentioned
three verses of the Qurn were revealed prefaced with the following three verses: O ye who
believe! If ye listen to a faction among the People of the Book, they would (indeed) render you
apostates after ye have believed! And how would ye deny Faith while unto you are rehearsed
the Signs of God, and among you lives the Apostle? Whoever holds firmly to God will be shown
a way that is straight. O ye who believe! Fear God as He should be feared, and die not except
in a state of Islam.(Al-Qurn, 3:100-102).
These verses of the Qurn revealed in the given context substantiate the following facts:





That the enemies of Islam spare no effort to break apart the Islamic Nation and that they keep
trying to instigate dissension. This applies especially to Zionists and Crusaders as well as to
the colonizers whose motto of divide and rule is no secret.
That following those enemies and obeying them implies a state of unbelief as the Qurn says,
they would (indeed) render you apostates after ye have believed! (Al-Qurn, 3:100).
This is the strongest condemnation of disunity, especially if the cause was subordination to the
infidels. That is what has been named by Allah as infidelity.
It is regarded as strange and outlandish to fall apart from the Muslim community; causing dissension while Qurn is existent and the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) is alive (or while his Tradition is in existence after his passing away) is considered infidelity. This means that the only
path for this Nation is the path of pursuing the Holy Quarn and the Sunnah of the Messenger
(pbuh). Certainly the course of solidarity must be the feasible course if will and determination
exist, while indeed the instruments of unity do very much exist.
Importance of piety and sincerity. Necessity of getting rid of the perilous caprices of tribal,
factional and sectarian prejudices and fanaticism, which breed abominable discord and sinister
dissension and have really been the lethal diseases that degenerated the physique of the Nation
and oxidized its skeleton.
Intensive care of the duty of enjoining what is right, and forbidding what is wrong; reforming
the people, doing good deeds, calling people to righteousness and promoting benevolence and
solidarity between Muslims. These are the great effective means of protecting the Nation and
uniting it on the path of guidance and salvation.
Importance of holding together firmly the hardly-wearying rope of Allah and being engrossed
in missionary work and in struggle for unification of the Nation, as being the precept substantiated by many verses of the Holy Qurn, for example:


As for those who divide their religion and break up into sects, thou hast no part in them in
the least: their affair is with God: He will in the end tell them the truth of all that they did.
(Al-Qurn, 6:159). And and fall into no disputes, lest ye lose heart and your power depart.
(Al-Qurn, 8:46).

Authentic sayings of the Messenger (pbuh) also corroborate this precept, for example:

He who dissociated himself from the community (to the extent of) a span of a hand and died
(in that state), he died the death of a pagan.32

Do not hate each other, do not be jealous of each other, do not turn your faces from each
other; be brethren in slavery of Allah; it is not legitimate for a Muslim to desert his brother
for more than three days.33 Likewise there are numerous sayings of the Messenger of Allah
(pbuh) in this regard.

Hence the damned disagreement is the disagreement that goes against the constants and the
categorical - disagreement on rudiments and constants of the religion or the kind that entails
hatred, abomination and discord.

So far as legitimate disagreement is concerned, that is the disagreement on ramifications, not

on rudiments; that is the disagreement on means, not on ends; that is the disagreement on
mechanisms, not on purposes; that is the disagreement on diversity of courses towards righteousness, not on general goals of the Shariah; that is the disagreement on procedures, methods
and preferences, not on authority and general scientific methodology. Such disagreement is
acceptable and naturally justifiable; it belongs to the religion and not outlandish, because the
religion of Islam as mentioned earlier absorbs it within its texts and general principles.

1.3.b Disagreement Denotes Diversity, not Contradiction

Since there is unanimity among all Muslims on the constants, their disagreement is the disagreement of diversity, not the disagreement of contradiction, provided it is based on disciplined and diligent interpretation (Ijtihd). According to Imm Ash-Shtibi the disagreement
that leads to discord and hatred indicates that that is the disagreement based on whims and
fancies and thus unacceptable in Islam, Hence it indicates the dimension of camaraderie,
affection and empathy between those who might disagree on matters of interpretation, which
restrains from sectarianism and partisanship, simply because they are unanimous on seeking
the intent of the lawgiver and as such disagreement on these ways is harmless. The Imm
goes further writing, Thus it is apparent that the disagreement emanating from perverting
whims and fancies rather than from objective exploration of intent of the lawgiver through
overall substantiation and evidence on detail, is the disagreement of the narcissistic. And
when narcissism comes in, it leads to following the allegories in order to look triumphant and
to save face by trying to justify the disagreement; it leads to discord, enmity and hatred simply
because of the differing caprices. In fact the divine guidance came to uproot unjustified whims
and fancies.34


It is well known that the extent of differences in Islamic jurisprudence testifies to the ease, amplitude and magnificence of the Shariah, simply because its texts absorb all these differences
for the sake of resilience and purges perturbation. In fact difference in jurisprudence, intellect

32 Narrated by Bukhri: (5/13); by Muslim: (3/14777), No: 1849); and by Ahmad: (2/82,92,95,123,154)
33 Narrated by Bukhri through Anas (Fathul Bri): (10/413); and by Muslim: 2560
34 Al-Muwafiqt (2/576)

and politics are necessary as long as the difference is based on legitimate diligent interpretation (Ijtihd). In such a case the differences revolve along with the interpretation, whether
existent or nonexistent, due to the diversity of intellects, thoughts, conventions and external as
well as internal influences.

Hence when Muslims are aware and conscious of these facts, disagreement does not lead to
hatred. According to Imm Ibn Taymiyah, So far as disagreements in regulations are concerned, these are beyond the limit of being strictly made regular; if difference of opinion of two
Muslims always required their desertion of each other, there wouldnt remain any mutual bond
or brotherhood between Muslims.35 This great scholar of authority has broadened the scope
to accommodate even such groups and individuals from whom perilous utterances may emanate. According to him even an individual from such groups should not be termed as outcast
from Islam. He says, The fact in this case is that the utterance may amount to infidelity and
thereupon it may be termed as an utterance of infidelity and people may say that he who says
as such is an infidel. But that particular person who uttered that utterance must not be termed
as infidel until the fulfillment of his argument. Same is true about other utterances, wherein the
person responsible may be termed as infidel, but he might not have been aware of the texts that
are vital for realization of the truth; or he might have had access to those texts, but these did
not establish the truth to him or he could not comprehend them; he might have come across
some doubts for which Allah may forgive him. Whosoever from amongst the believers strives
in search of the truth and errs, Allah shall forgive him for his error whatsoever it may be,
whether in theoretical or practical issues. This is what has been the position the companions
of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) and of majority of the leading scholars of Islam.36

1.3.c No Condemnation in Issues of Disagreement

It is an established fact that condemnation of abominable acts, whether by tongue (through
advice or protest) or by hand (in case of those who enjoy authority) is applicable, according
to Shariah, only on acts unanimously considered as abominations. So far as issues of genuine
disagreement are concerned, condemnation is not applicable. Instead, dialogue, discussion,
wisdom, astute advice, eloquent and effective style of communication and prudent argument
are preferred for the sake of guidance to the better, then to the preferred and finally to the best.
This is why when Moses (pbuh) scolded and dragged him with his beard, Aaron (pbuh) justified
his silence towards the Children of Israel (whom Samiri misguided and made them worship
the image of a calf) saying, Truly I feared unless you should say, You have caused a division
among the children of Israel, and you did not respect my word! (Al-Qurn, 20:94). Hearing
his excuse Moses Immediately released Aron and conceded to his justification. Among the
qualification of genuine disagreement is that the intention of the disagreeing must be sincere,
free of whims, oriented to righteousness, detached from blind bias towards individuals, creeds
and sects; it must envision positive views about others, desist from slander and vilification,
shun squabble and wrangling and the dialogue must be carried out with the spirit of respond
with what is better.37

35 Majmooul Fatw (24/173)

36 Ibid: (23/345-346)
37 Yusuf Al-Qaradwi As-Sahwatul Islamia Page: 193


1.3.d Difference of Opinion in Details is a Mercy

This has always been the slogan of our righteous ancestors. Omar Bin Abdul Aziz has said, I
wouldnt be quite impressed if companions of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) had not differed
in opinion; had they not differed, we would not have had any concessions.38 When Qasim
Bin Muhammad, who was one of the seven leading jurisprudents in Medina, was asked about
recitation of the Fatihah while following the leader of the congregational prayers, he replied
saying, If you recite it, you will be following the example of companions of the Messenger
(pbuh); if you do not recite it, you will (still) be following the example of companions of the
Messenger (pbuh).39 Yahya Bin Saeed has said, Scholars continue to issue Fatwa (religions
opinion or edicts); one permits a thing and another prohibits it; no forbidder considers that
anyone who permitted shall perish because of his permitting nor does one who sanctions considers that anyone who forbade shall perish because of his forbiddance.40

Interpreters of the Holy Qurn, while interpreting the 59th verse of chapter 4 (O ye who believe! Obey God, and obey the Apostle, and those charged with authority among you. If ye
differ in anything among yourselves, refer it to God and His Apostle, if ye do believe in God
and the Last Day: That is best, and most suitable for final determination.) have quoted Hasan
Al-Basari as saying, So far as those who deserve the mercy of Allah are concerned, they do
not differ to the extent that would damage them.41 This is because their aim is to explore the
truth and the accuracy as best as possible and (their sincerity leads them) to bring to light the
genuine as they are able to conceive it, even if it were to be through those who differed with
them; certainly the opinion that is not devised by caprices is not prejudiced by its holder.

1.3 e A Resolution of the Academy of Islamic Jurisprudence:

The following resolution was passed by the Academy of Islamic Jurisprudence at its 10th
session (held Safar 24th - 28th, 1423 Hijra / Octover 17th 20th, 1987 A.D.). We hereby
quote its complete text: The Academy of Islamic Jurisprudence has carefully considered the
differences of opinion between the schools of Islamic jurisprudence. It has deliberated on
the intolerant fanaticism manifested by some followers of these schools to the extent of leaping beyond the limits of moderation, which at times leads to slandering of other schools and
scholars holding differing opinion. The Academy examined the dilemmas that occur in the
minds and intellect of the contemporary youth regarding the differences between the schools
of Islamic jurisprudence. Since the youth do not know the basis, meaning and purpose of these
differences, they are deluded by those with fallacious intention that if the religion of Islam was
one, its fundamentals were rooted in the Holy Qurn and the authentic Tradition of the Messenger of Allah, why then is this disagreement between the various Islamic schools? Why then
are they not uniting so that Muslims could come together as a single school, with a unanimous
understanding of the regulations of the Shariah? The Academy analyzed the issue of factional
intolerance and the problems that emanate from it, especially among the followers of some of
the contemporary trends who call for a new course of interpretation (Ijtihd) and slander the
existing schools which have received approval from the Muslim Nation since the early times;
these people even disparage some of the scholars of these schools attributing aberration to

38 Faizul Qadeer: (1/209)

39 Jamiu Bayanil Ilm: (2/80)t
40 Ibid.: (2/80)
41 Please refer to the Interpretation of Ibn Atiyyah Qatar: (4/108); Fathul Qadeer of Ash-Shawkni: (1/481-482); and the Interpretation of Al Mwardi Kuwait: (1/400).


them and thus infatuate people with strife. While studying this subject, its phenomenon, circumstances and repercussions in the form of delusion and sedition, the Academy, as part of its
efforts to caution and enlightenment, resolved to address the following declaration to all such
deluders and fanatics:

Firstly: Difference between various schools:

The difference between various schools found in Muslim lands is of two types:
1. Difference between faith based schools and 2. Difference between jurisprudence based

So far as the faith based difference is concerned, it indeed is a misfortune which brought disasters to the Muslim lands, broke the ranks of Muslims and diffused their discourse. This indeed
is a matter to be sad about. It should not have happened. The Nation must unite on the doctrine
of the Tradition (Sunnah) and creed (Jamah) of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh), which represents the pure and bona-fide Islamic ideology that prevailed during the time of the Messenger
of Allah (pbuh) and the time of his Rightly Guided Caliphs, about which the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) had declared that it will be the extension of his Tradition, saying, It is incumbent
upon you to adhere to my Tradition, and to the tradition of the Rightly Guided Caliphs after
me, do hold fast to it and cling to it with your molar teeth.

So far as the jurisprudence based difference between schools on some issues is concerned, it
has its scientific reasons which necessitated it. Conceivably the wisdom of Allah the Glorious
is behind this. Apparently it is His mercy to broaden the scope of derivation of regulations
from the TEXTS. Moreover it is a blessing and a treasure of juristic and legislative wealth,
which provides the Islamic Nation with amplitude within its religion and legal system. It does
not leave it restricted within a single case of application of Shariah wherein it could not have
options under the umbrella of Shariah; if the juristic school of a certain Imm happened to be
narrow for the Nation at a certain point of time or on a certain issue, it would find space, lenience and ease in another school, be it in matters related to acts of worship, dealings, family,
judiciary and criminology with due substantiations.

This second type of difference between various schools of jurisprudence is not an imperfection
or inconsistency of any sort in our religion. It certainly cannot be so, as there is no nation on
the face of the earth which has a legal system complete with its jurisprudence and interpretation, but does not have juristic and interpretative differences.

As a matter of fact, this difference cannot be nonexistent. The reason is that the basic texts
very often bear more than a single meaning. Similarly the text cannot embrace all possible developments, simply because the texts are limited and the developments are unlimited as was
said by some scholars (mAbpwt). Hence it is inevitable to seek refuge with al-qiys (juristic
reasoning) and consider the reasoning behind the regulations, the intent of the lawgiver and
the overall objectives of the Shariah, and then apply all this to the developments and to the
new occurrences. It is quite natural that the perceptions of the scholars and their preferences on
probabilities vary in this regard. Hence their judgments vary on a single issue although every
one of them sought the truth and strived for it. Whosoever from them hit the mark deserves
double reward from Allah and whosoever missed the mark merits one reward. Due to this,
spaciousness evolves and perplexity vanishes.


So where then is the imperfection or inconsistency in this juristic difference, given the aspects
of advantage and mercy of which we have mentioned. It certainly is a grace and mercy of Allah upon His faithful slaves; it certainly is a legislative treasure and a point of merit, in which
the Islamic Nation should duly take pride.

But the fallacious outsiders who exploit the lack of Islamic knowledge and awareness among
some Muslim youth, especially among those who study abroad, portray to them these differences among the schools of jurisprudence as if they were differences in belief. Their aim is to
make them believe them by hook or by crook that these differences imply contradiction within
the Islamic Shariah, without letting them come anywhere close to knowing the difference between absolutely different types of disagreement.


So far as the second category is concerned, the category of those who call for renunciation
of the schools of jurisprudence and wants to take the people to a new course of interpretation
of their own; those who slander the prevalent schools of jurisprudence, their founders and
scholars, what has been mentioned in this declaration regarding the schools of Islamic jurisprudence, their characteristics and their founders and great scholars, should be an eye-opener
for them and it is imperative upon them to shun this obnoxious and vain manner which they
have adopted and by which they mislead people, split their ranks and cause division in their
common voice, where as we are in dire need of unity within our ranks in order to face the grave
challenges from the enemies of Islam.

Peace and plenty of blessings be upon the Messenger of Allah Muhammad , his family and
his righteous companions. Praise be to Allah, the Cherisher of the whole universe.

F. Another Resolution of the International Academy of Islamic Jurisprudence:

A number of resolutions were issued by International Academy of Islamic Jurisprudence about

the significance of unity within the Islamic Nation and in condemnation of instigating factionalism and sectarianism. One of these is the Resolution (No: 189/11), which states:


There is no doubt that Islamic unity is an obligation ordained by Allah the Almighty. He has
made it mandatory upon the whole Muslim nation. Allah says, And hold fast, all together, by
the rope which God (stretches out for you), and be not divided among yourselves. (Al-Qurn,
3:103). He also says, Verily, this brotherhood of yours is a single brotherhood. (Al-Qurn,
21:92). Likewise the sayings and practices of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) emphasize upon
this. He says, The blood of all Muslims is equal; they are a single hand over others; with their
joint protection even the lowest (among them in social status) is privileged. He accomplished
this unity in actuality by establishing (muwkht) fraternal relations between the migrants
from Mecca and their supporters at Medina. This was documented in the first legal document
ratifying an establishment of the Islamic city-state of Al-Medina. The document mentions
Muslims as a single distinct nation.


All these texts from the Holy Qurn and from the noble sayings of the Messenger of Allah
(pbuh) necessitate that the faithful must unite under the banner of Islam, holding steadfastly
to the Holy Qurn and the Tradition of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh); they must shun all past

malice, tribal feuds, personal greediness and ethnic prejudices. When they did so in the past
under the guidance of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) and then during the period of the first
guided generation, the religion of Allah spread to far and wide, its rule sprung from the East to
the West and then Islamic Civilization which was the greatest civilization based on servitude
to Allah alone ever seen on the face of the earth - led the whole human civilization to new
heights and established justice and actualized freedom and equality.

The essence of Islamic unity lies in actualizing servitude to Allah the Glorious, in belief, in
words and in deeds - in light of the final book of Allah and the Tradition of His final Messenger
(pbuh) -, by upholding the religion of Islam, which unites Muslims in spheres of intellectual,
economic, social and political life on the basis of a single discreet declaration of faith. (It is
evident that) whenever the Nation distanced itself from the essentials of its unity, the causes
of dissonance popped up, which gradually penetrated deeper as a result of the dirty tricks of
divide and rule by the colonizers? The imperialists divided the Muslim Nation into bits and
pieces connecting them on the ethnic and racial basis and by separating Arabs and Muslims.
Most efforts of the Orientalists were devoted to reinforcing this dispersion through their studies that were circulated among Muslims.

Existence of differences in jurisprudence, for its being based on interpretations of the comprehension of the basic texts (i.e. the Qurn and the Hadth) and their connotations, is quite
natural in itself. These differences have in fact contributed to enrichment of the treasure of
legal erudition fulfilling objectives of the Shariah and actualizing its characteristics of ease and
elimination of perplexity.

Necessity of commitment to hold in esteem all companions of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh)
and calling upon the scholars to highlight their status and virtuous position of transmitting the
Shariah to the Nation and thereby underlining the need of gratitude to them. Calling upon the
governments to enact laws for penalizing those who slander their greatness in any manner,
which will not only hold them in esteem that they deserve but also remove one of the causes
of dissension.

Necessity of abidance by the Holy Qurn and the Tradition of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh),
by following the example of the noble companions (mAbpwt) and those who followed them
righteously, by shunning perversities, by avoiding sedition and whatever could cause dissension within Muslims, and by exploiting positively all potentials for calling to Islam and
spreading awareness among non-Muslims about its doctrines.
1.3 f Recommendations

It goes without saying that our time is the time of alliances and groupings which have their
intellectual, social and economic underpinnings under the pretexts of globalization, secularism
and modernity. This, coupled with unlimited freedom of the media makes the Islamic world a
target to eliminate its peculiar characteristics, obliterate its rudiments and eradicate the landmarks of its spiritual and intellectual civilization. Our Nation can not be guarded from these
dangers without internal unity and removal of the roots of discord. It is feasible and viable as


our Nation is characterized with fundamentals and nitty-gritty of concord for doctrinal, social,
economic, legislative and cultural unity.

In view of the above, International Academy of Islamic Jurisprudence recommends the following:

Firstly: Affirmation of the resolution of the Academy [No:48(10/5)] regarding implementation of rules of the Islamic Shariah, of the subsequent recommendations, and of the resolution
[No:69(7/7)] regarding intellectual ideological invasion - mentioned in the first recommendation.

Secondly: Press upon the governments of Muslim countries to support efforts of Organization of Islamic Conferene (now called Organization of Islamic Cooperation) and International
Academy of Islamic Jurisprudence considering that these two symbolize political and intellectual unity between Muslims.

Thirdly: Going past the historical contentions, because fomenting them does not inflict upon
the Nation anything other than stirring up malice and deepening the dissension.

Fourthly: Adherence to positive assumptions and cementing of mutual trust between Muslims
countries and peoples by directing the mass media to develop the spirit of harmony and propagate and promote the ethics and etiquettes of dialogue and tolerance to others interpretive

Fifthly: Turn to advantage the momentous issues that have the potential of uniting the Nation.
At the forefront of these issues in our times is the issue of Al-Quds (Jerusalem) and the AlAqsa Mosque [the first focal direction of the regular daily Muslim prayers and the stage of
ascension of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh)]. These issues must be turned to the advantage of
repelling the dangers that threaten the Islamic character of the Nation and to emphasize that
these are the common issues of all Muslims.

The participants in the conference called upon the governments of the Muslim countries to pay
increased attention and intensify their efforts regarding the vital issue of Palestine and similar
other issues of the Nation and to take initiatives towards suitable measures (for their just resolutions), for example:

a) Condemnation of what the occupied Palestine and its people are subjected to in the form
of the policies of expulsion, settlements, change of demography, besides what they suffer
from the occupation, atrocities, suppression, deprivation, massacres, ostracism, humiliation
and violation of basic human rights.
b) Unequivocal support to the just struggle of people of Palestine in their struggle for liberation of the Holy Land and the Al-Aqsa Mosque, and standing by them in their steadfast resistance.
c) Incrimination of the Zionism and Israeli occupation for their various types of criminal repression and horrific transgressions on the people of Palestine struggling for their freedom and
liberation of their holy places.


Sixthly: Seriously consider the mechanisms of priority towards gradual actualization of Is-

lamic solidarity, for example:


Preparation of educational curriculum based on Islamic principles.

Setting up a common media strategy.
Setting up a common Islamic market.
Setting up an Islamic court of justice.

Seventhly: International Academy of Islamic Jurisprudence shall set up a committee comprising of its members and experts to come up with practicable studies taking into consideration
the ground reality of the Islamic Nation, covering cultural, social and economic aspects, and to
set up mechanism for actualization of unity in these areas while taking advantage of the existing efforts within the framework of the Arab and Islamic organizations and benefiting from the
experts in various fields.

To guarantee seriousness of the activity of this proposed committee and to execute the findings
of its study, we recommend that the formation of the committee and its mission be approved
by the Organization of Islamic Conference.42

Likewise, Resolution [No:152(1/17)] which affirmed the previous resolution, added: Recognition of the schools of jurisprudence, emphasis on dialogue and concurrence between them is
what shall guarantee temperance, moderation, toleration, mercy and dialogue with others.

The resolution called for renunciation of discord between Muslims and urged to unite the
ranks and stances, to emphasize on mutual respect, reinforcing of solidarity between the Muslim peoples and countries, and to strengthen the bonds of brotherhood that unite them on the
basis of love for the sake of Allah. They must not leave any scope for sedition or for interference of others, as Allah the Almighty says, The Believers are but a single Brotherhood: So
make peace and reconciliation between your two (contending) brothers; and fear God, that ye
may receive Mercy. (Al-Qurn, 49:10).

Firmness and Variability (or Evolution in the Opinions of Our Predecessors) and its Impact on
Islamic Unity:

By Predecessors, we mean the scholars of the first three centuries of Islamic era43. This is
based on the authentic Hadth reported by Abdullah Bin Masood as narrated by Bukhri and
Muslim, The best of the centuries is my century, then those who succeed them and then those
who succeed them.44 Scholars have explained that this preference is due to the nearness to the
fountainhead of the prophethood, guidance, candor, and purity (personified by the Messenger
of Allah - pbuh). Those predecessors of ours did not represent a particular school nor are they
the monopoly of a certain group. Surely they were people of varying scholastic stances and
views conforming to the Holy Book and the Tradition of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh).

It was the will of Allah that the Islamic sciences would consummate during these three centuries, schools of jurisprudence would be instituted at the hands of great diligent scholars, the

42 Al-Majma Magazine (Issue: 11/Vol: 3, P:5)

43 Please refer to Fathul Bri (7/3-7); and to Muhammad Saeed Al-Butis book As-Salafiyatu
Marhalatun Zamaniyatun Mubarakatun, L Mazhabun Islamiyun/ P:9 / Drul Fikr Damascus.
44 Narrated by Bukhri: (7/3)


Islamic Nation would advance and the magnificent Islamic Civilization would be established.
During these first three centuries the Nation attained a strong structure, it was the exalted
nation of the time, and advanced in sciences, culture and the arts. A great civilization that
actualized within a short span of time and became the global pioneer and leader; in fact the
predecessors progressed during those three centuries much more than the successors could in
their very long tenure.45 It was then that the theoretical and practical Islamic jurisprudence
developed enormously, so that it was able to grasp all the civilizations and ideologies by restructuring them to confirm to the Islamic fundamentals, precepts and regulations. It did not
fall short of coming up with a juristic solution for any given problem or a development whatsoever the level of its novelty or complexity. Likewise, the Islamic thought was not only able
to steadfastly withstand with its rudiments, but to advance further through reconstruction and
by challenging the dissenting ideologies, like atheism and sophistry. It resorted to citation of
the authentic source texts and to rational reasoning to reach the levels of certainty and absolute
contentment, as it turned the argument against the dissenters and sustained a certain viewpoint.

On the other hand those three centuries were marked with the characteristics of simplicity and
ease in issues of jurisprudence. The methodology then was based on jurisprudence of qualified facilitation, or as put by our mentor Sheikh Yusuf Al-Qaradwi, The Messenger of Allah
(pbuh) was the exemplary ideal for those who facilitate ease in regulations and for being the
cheerful harbingers in calling to Allah, (whenever the Messenger of Allah was given a choice,
he would go for the easiest option, unless it was a sin).46 The companions of the Messenger
(pbuh) and their successors conformed to the same approach. This was especially true about
the four Rightly Guided Caliphs. However as the generations kept passing, each generation
opted for more and more guarded prudence until we were left with a huge stack of circumspective Jurisprudence (Al-Ahwatiyt)47.

According to Muhammad Sad Al-Buti the predecessors advanced during those three centuries much more than the successors could in their very long tenure. They strictly adhered to
the constants and disagreed in case of variables. That is why their edicts (fatw) varied even
in methodologies, for example some edicts were very close to literal adherence to the constant
texts of the Holy Qurn and the Sunnah, whereas others were closer to reliance on rational
judgment and diligent interpretation (Ijtihd). Moreover we find that the ambit of diligent interpretation (Ijtihd) widens in conjunction with the new developments and occurrences after
lands of Persian and Roman Empires came under Islamic rule along with the frills and manifestations of their civilizations and whatsoever was involved in the form of rudiments of their
economy and other systems and traditions.48

It was due to the wide-ranging comprehension of the Companions and their successors of
the constants and the variables that the problem of banishing opponents from faith did not
have currency with them. When a section of the army of the third caliph Ali Ibn Abi Talib
(mAbpwh) revolted against him and banished him as infidel for his agreeing to appoint two

45 Muhammad Saeed Al-Butis book As-Salafiyatu Marhalatun Zamaniyatun Mubarakatun, L Mazhabun Islamiyun/ P:9
46 Narrated by Bukhri (Fathul Bri): (10/524); and by Muslim: (4/1813)
47 Inaugural speech of the 10th Session of European Council for Ift and Research January 24th to 27th, 2003
48 Muhammad Saeed Al-Butis book As-Salafiyatu Marhalatun Zamaniyatun Mubarakatun, L Mazhabun Islamiyun/ P: 32-84


arbitrators at the battle of Siffn, he or his associates did not term those Kharijites49 as infidels,
but sanctioned special set of laws for fighting them, which are known as regulations for the
mutineers (Ahkm Al-Bught).50 On the other hand a number of sects and factions appeared,
for example: Mutazilites (with their more than 10 divisions); Al-Jabriyah (with all their divisions); Kharijites (with their many divisions); Al-Murjiah (with their many types); Shiites
(with their many divisions). But the scholars of Islam did not banish them as infidels; they
rather opened the door of opinion to solve the problems; they unbolted the gates of debate,
argument and disagreement with refuters and the skeptical, using styles and discourse they
were familiar with. Ali Ibn Abi Talib (mAbpwh) said, Talk to the people with what they know,
leave aside what they are ignorant of; do you want that Allah and His Messenger be belied!51
Correlating Jurisprudence of Constants and Variables with unity of the Nation
The relation of the jurisprudence of Constants and Variables with unity of the Islamic groups, schools
and parties is evident from the following:

Firstly: That the categorical constants represent common principles, genuine methodology
and unanimous legitimacy with all Islamic groups and parties. These tantamount to the common religion and whosoever does not recognize these constants is an outcast from Islam and
a renegade in aberration. We are not in dialogue with those whom these definitive constants
do not unite with the Nation. We are dialoguing with those who adhere to these definitive
constants of Islam but who differ in the details and means etc. According to Imm Ibn Taymiah, The fundamentals authenticated with the Holy Qurn, the Sunnah and the Unanimity,
tantamount to the common religion that can not be violated and whosoever enters into their
domain belongs to the genuine Islam; the diversity of their legitimate deeds and words is just
like how the prophets were diverse. Diversity at times may be found in obligations and at times
in desirables. The schools, approaches and strategies of the scholars, chieftains and the rulers
are acceptable as long as they are meant to seek the pleasure of Allah and to rise above their
whims and fancies in order to cling to the Nation and to the unifying religion; as long as they
after diligent interpretation according to their capability follow what has been revealed in
the Holy Qurn and prescribed in the Sunnah, it is in some ways like the Shariah and courses
of the prophets (sent by Allah to various peoples). This way they shall be rewarded (by Allah
for the genuineness of their intent).52
In light of the above, the Islamic Nation should unite on the basis of its categorical constants,
cooperate within itself to get to know each other and bind together. Being the common unanimous basis recognized by all, these can be the launching pad and the solid rock base to build
the relations. If Western Europe could unite on the basis of the common market and common
economic interests and took all the required steps in that direction, are all the common constants along with many common interests not enough for the Islamic Nation to unite within
and consolidate itself?
Secondly: Through the Jurisprudence of Constants and Variables every group should recognize the other and each faction should acknowledge the other as long as the constants are
common and as long as the variables are acceptable and legitimate, rather required. Thus it is
quite natural that they should excuse one another or attempts must be made through dialogue
and positive debate to reach the circumspective and the best. The biggest quandary between
Muslims being that they do not recognize each other, if awareness about the Jurisprudence
of Constants and Variables is propagated and people become aware of it, they will recognize

49 Al-Milal Wa-AnNahal by Sharistni (Died 548 Hijri) Published by Mustafa Al-Halabi, Cairo 1/114; Al-Kmil by Al-Mubarrid,
Published Al-Halabi 3/919; Al-Khawarij Wa-AlHaqeeqatu Al-Ghibah Amman P: 139-188; and Al-Takfeer by Dr. Numn As-Smarei
Published by Al-Manar P: 27 Islamiyun/ P: 25.
50 Please refer to Al-Bught Fi Kutub Al-Mazhib Al-Fiqhiyah; and Definition of Al-Bught in Al-Mawsooah Al-Fiqhiya Al-Kuwaitiyah
51 Muhammad Saeed Al-Butis book As-Salafiyatu Marhalatun Zamaniyatun Mubarakatun, L Mazhabun
52 Majmuul Fatwa: (19/1117-118 / 126-128).


each other. Among the obstacles is the nonexistence of direct mutual exchange of knowledge
about the opinions of the schools; each side superimposes an exaggerated or imperfect or inaccurate image on the other side; for example a single deviant opinion of a particular person may
be superimposed on the whole school of his affiliation etc.
Thirdly: Through the Jurisprudence of Constants and Variables it can be appreciated that the
heavy luggage of differences is acceptable to the Shariah as long as it is within the domain of
Finally the knowledge of constants common between the Islamic groups and factions shall
bring them closer and lead to constructive cooperation and renunciation of enmity and tensions.
Sheikh Yusuf Al-Qaradwi has elaborated the importance of cooperation on matters of unanimity and the need for focusing research on them, delivering lessons on them and conducting
dialogues regarding them. He says, I do not desist from discussing the issues of difference in
an academic and comparative way, but what I hate is that our discussion on issues of difference becomes our greatest concern and culmination of our knowledge or that we exaggerate
them to the extent that they consume our times, efforts and energies and if it is at the cost of
being involved in the basic issues.
Among the examples Professor Qaradhawi has mentioned is that someone compiled a study
titled Descending on Knees to Prostration - Forbiddance by the Holy Companions. The
matter is related to postures in regular daily prayers. Another such study is titled Retreat in
Sitting Posture (of Prayers).
The drawback of the Nation lies in squandering the rudiments that are unanimously agreed
upon by all school of jurisprudence and thought, paralyzing compliance with the Shariah, collapse of the moral system, congealing the intellect and disregarding the rights. The problem is
not the problem of interpreting the verses related to the attributes of Allah, in that regard the
approach of our predecessors is profound and unimpaired; the problem lies in those who are
absolutely denying the Exalted being of Allah along with His attributes, like those who suffer
from inferiority complex towards Western thought or Eastern philosophy. Problems do not
lie with those who try to construe the verses related to the state of mounting to the Throne of
divine authority; the problem is in those who disbelieve in the divine throne and the Lord of
the throne altogether.
Hence it is an obligation upon the conscious propagators of Islam to apprise people of the
scope and prospects of solidarity before anything else. This solidarity is an obligation of Shariah obligated by the religion of Islam; it is a real need necessitated by the ground reality of the
Certainly what we Muslims agree upon can not be underestimated nor is it scanty. It calls for
relentless efforts, unwearied struggle, sustained determination, brilliant brains, strong resolutions, proud spirits and constructive endurances. It is contemptible for any groups or organizations affiliating themselves to Islam to fight between themselves over trivialities while leaving
those vast frontiers unmanned without phalanxes of earnest believers.53
Indeed the constants of this religion which are common between all Islamic groups and schools
are numerous and cover the areas of fundamentals of belief, values and morals, principles of
dealings and ramifications, polity as well as challenges faced by the Nation like the challenge of atheism, infidelity and secularism, challenge of cultural and intellectual aggression,
challenge of Westernization and obliteration of identity, challenge of international arrogance,
challenge of new crusades, challenge of Zionistic aggression against Muslims and occupation
of Palestine and its pearl Jerusalem , challenge of the pagan Hindu aggression against

53 As-Sahwatu Al-Islamiyah Byna Al-Ikhtilf Al-Mashroo wa At-Tafarruq Al-Mazmoom: P: 145-157


Kashmir, and challenge of radical Christianity and atheism in Chechnya and Philippines.
How much we are in need of solidarity, cooperation, camaraderie, mutually exchanging roles,
accepting each other, uniting on the basis of common constants and political positions, and
non-provocation of dissension, especially in our times when enemies madly rush upon us and
call upon each other to charge upon us just as a predator charges upon a carcass!
Are we going to comprehend the lesson, to feel the seriousness of the situation, to shun greed
and selfishness, and to leave aside the petty partisanships to embrace the vast domain of Islam?
Are we to adopt the approach of our righteous predecessors of facilitating ease in regulations,
of being cheerful harbingers in calling to Allah, of being patient with our contestants within,
of calling to Allah with wisdom and beautiful manner of preaching and of arguing in ways that
are best and most gracious?
This is what we wish; our prayers are to Allah to unite this Nation on what would restore its
honor and dignity and lead it to progress and prosperity.
Rallying Around Islam instead of Partisanships and Factionalism:
After having remained scattered in the form of parties, groups, factions and sects, the Islamic
Nation cannot rally around anything other than Islam alone without any reservations nothing less and nothing more i.e. around Islam of the Holy Qurn, the authentic tradition of
the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) and genuine unanimity, far from partisanships, factionalism,
sectarianism and denominationalism. It being very hard to remove these differences, the only
cure is to rally around the banner of all-inclusive Islam and accept one another along with
respective interpretations; we need to cooperate in what is unanimous with the whole Nation,
tolerate one another, excuse one another in what we differ in. In this cause, Islamic groups
and parties have to be only the means of serving the Nation as programs to empower it and as
methods for its development and growth.

1.4 The project of Power and Mercy

In the contemporary world, states and people are governed through strategic plans and structured
reasoning. It is imperative upon the Nation to rally around a strategic plan that has clear milestones
and procedures. This should be formulated by its scholars and rulers based on clear evidences and
convictions while providing for strong refutation of the adversary projects. The most important of
pointers and milestone of such a strategic plan are supposed to be:

1) Balancing between power and mercy, between rights and duties, between individual, society and state, and between war and peace; balance in everything; justice and moderation in

2) Preparation and nurturing of the Nation to become the nation of power and a model of values, mercy and benevolence for the whole world; foster it to become competent for bearing the
trust, not to be ignorant and tyrannical, but to be erudite and just.

3) Providing conducive environment for creativity through reform of the political and educational systems.

4) Bequeathing of knowledge, civilization, innovation, power and righteousness from one
generation to the next generation so that the bequest keeps passing on with added value, Allah says, Then We have given the Book for inheritance to such of Our Servants as We have
chosen. (Al-Qurn, 35:32).

This is how, Allah willing, we can anticipate a generation of bearers of keys of power, virtue
and mercy, just as history witnessed the appearance of the generation of Saladin. His generation appeared in consequence of the efforts initiated since the time of Al-Ghazali, Al-Jlani
and then Nooruddin Az-Zanki. The pioneering generation had laid the foundations of a project
purely for rehabilitation and revival of the Nation for revival of its sciences and civilization
based on the belief, principles and genuine Islamic doctrines, and substantiated with elabora-







tion of inconsistencies of the intellectual structures of all contrary and adversary projects.
This is how Europe advanced through bequeathal of knowledge to the succeeding generations. The first generation of pioneers prepared the environment conducive for innovation by
reforming the political and educational system. This resulted in what is evident in emergence
of values like: sanctification of work, respect of time and personal creativity.
The coming generations inherited all these values and did the value addition of transforming
creativity of individuals to innovation of establishments. This process continued until we see a
generation adopting plans and strategies with a focus on the best possible scenarios in industry,
agriculture and commerce as well as in politics and economy.
The Holy Qurn hints to this in the very first revelation (iqra) emphasizing that the Nation,
for its renaissance and for welfare in this world and bliss in the hereafter, needs to realize the
importance of reading and knowledge and of reform in the educational and political systems.
In fact the concluding verses of Chapter Al-Anbiy explains the prerequisites of renaissance
and empowerment saying, Before this We wrote in the Psalms, after the Message (given to
Moses): My servants the righteous, shall inherit the earth. Verily in this (Quran) is a Message for people who would (truly) worship God. We sent thee not, but as a Mercy for all
creatures. (Al-Qurn, 21: 105-107). These Holy verses indicate the following facts:
Empowerment on earth takes place through bequeathal. Perhaps this becomes evident from
the mention of previous prophets, in these verses, concluded by the mention of the concluding
Messenger (Muhammad - pbuh). Isnt that bequeathal to him? In another verse of the Chapter
Ftir, Allah says, Then We have given the Book for inheritance to such of Our Servants as We
have chosen: but there are among them some who wrong their own souls; some who follow a
middle course; and some who are, by Gods leave, foremost in good deeds; that is the highest
Grace. (Al-Qurn, 35:32). Hence the concluding Messenger of Allah (Muhammad - pbuh)
inherited the entire bequest of all the previous prophets, starting with knowledge of Adam to
patience and argument of Noah to determination of Moses to clemency of Jesus to comprehension of David and Solomon, encompassing as well the solutions entrusted by Allah with all the
earlier prophets like solutions to religious, political, moral and economic problems. Thus he
deserved to inherit the whole globe.
The second prerequisite for empowerment is actualization of servitude to Allah the Almighty
apparent in obedience to Him in all aspects of religious and worldly life. In fact this is the basic condition for achievement of absolute justice and adherence to values, morals and decent
The third prerequisite is complete preparedness for bearing the trust and capability for its effectuation. The trust is implied in appointment as vicegerent for development of the earth in
light of the divine guidance by adhering to the divine rubrics of triumph, power and civilization.
The fourth prerequisite is actualization of mercy for the whole existence. This Nation is the nation of call to virtue. It is the nation of mercy. It is the nation of life. Allah says, To the righteous (when) it is said, What is it that your Lord has revealed? they say, All that is good.
(Al-Qurn, 16:30). O ye who believe! give your response to God and His Apostle, when He
calleth you to that which will give you life; and know that God cometh in between a man and
his heart, and that it is He to Whom ye shall (all) be gathered. (Al-Qurn, 8:24). No doubt
that Allah established this Nation, after the rubric of servitude to Him, on the basis of serving
the people and extending goodness to them. This is what qualified it for the virtue of being the
best of the Nations evolved for the benefit of humanity, Ye are the best of peoples, evolved
for mankind. (Al-Qurn, 3:110)

Pivot II
Intellectual and Doctrinal Basis for the Acceptance of
the Other


Intellectual and Doctrinal Basis for the Acceptance of the Other

2.1 Natural agreement and partnership between (Me the Muslim) and (Other the non-Muslim)
2.2 Natural dissimilarities and differences between Me and the Other
2.3 Intellectual, religious and doctrinal differences
2.4 Recognition of the human dignity and human rights in Islam
2.5 Recognition of unanimity of the heavenly religions and their single revealer
2.6 Respect of the human being whether alive or dead
2.7 Peace, not war, is the default choice of Islam
2.8 Preference of peace over war despite grievances
2.9 The Principle of Justice and equity for all
2.10 Recognition of differences and diversity
2.11 Dialogue as the default choice for resolving disputes and dealing with others
2.12 Islams lauding of the heavenly religions, their books and the prophets
2.13 Precision of the Qurn about desistance from sweeping generalizations
2.14 Extending the scope of partnership between Muslims (Us) and non-Muslims (the Other) to
include even atheists
2.15 Jihd for freedom of religion
2.16 Combat is the last stage of Jihd (striving in Allahs cause)
2.17 The purpose of diversity is acquaintance, not conflict
Islam has defined a number of intellectual, theoretical, logical and religious basis for partnership
and agreement between (me the Muslim) and (the other the non-Muslim) and substantiated them in
a superb pioneering manner. These are considered to be of paramount importance for acceptance of
the other. It has also provided with the methodology for dealing with various natural and religious
dissimilarities and differences, which we shall mention below briefly:
2.1 Natural Agreement Between Myself and the Other
A. Allah the Almighty created all humans from the single source of dust. He says, O
mankind! if ye have a doubt about the Resurrection, (consider) that We created you
out of dust (Al-Qurn, 22:5). Verses that underline this reality, are many. The next
stages of the common source of creation were: sticky clay, then mud moulded into
shape and then the sounding clay. Allah says, Them have We created out of a sticky
clay! (Al-Quaran, 37:11). We created man from sounding clay, from mud moulded
into shape (Al-Quaran, 15:26). He created man from sounding clay like unto pottery, (Al-Quaran, 55:14). These stages of the human creation - from dust to sticky
clay to mud moulded into shape to sounding clay and finally the stage of breathing
from the divine spirit are common for all humans without exception.
B. Me (the Muslim) and the Other (the non-Muslim), all of us were created by Allah from
water whether as original source (water) or as direct source of creation (spermatic
fluid) and (drop of mingled sperm). Allah says, And God has created every animal
from water. (Al-Quaran, 24:45). It is He Who has created man from water: then has
He established relationships of lineage and marriage. (Al-Quaran, 25:54). Now
let man but think from what he is created! He is created from a drop emitted-. (AlQuaran, 86:5-6). And made his progeny from a quintessence of the nature of a fluid
despised. (Al-Quaran, 32:8).
C. Me (the Muslim) and the Other (the non-Muslim), into all of us Allah has breathed
from His spirit and thus he blessed all of us with this honor, distinguished us with


intellect and will; He chose us for superior virtues and bestowed upon us the capabilities with which we can develop the universe. Allah says, He Who has made everything which He has created most good: He began the creation of man with (nothing
more than) clay, And made his progeny from a quintessence of the nature of a fluid
despised: But He fashioned him in due proportion, and breathed into him something
of His spirit. And He gave you (the faculties of) hearing and sight and feeling (and
understanding): little thanks do ye give!(Al-Quaran, 32:7-9). From here originates
the dignity for everyone having a soul and therefore it is illicit to commit aggression
on any being with a soul. One with a soul must be respected and his rights secured,
except if he commits aggression, whereupon penalty is in kind and with same degree
without any excess.
D. Me (the Muslim) and the Other (the non-Muslim), all of us were created by Allah from
Adam and Eve. Our father is one; our mother is one. Many verses of the Holy Qurn
confirm this fact as do the sayings of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh), like, All people
are children of Adam; Allah created Adam from dust.54
E. The belief of Muslims is based on the fact that the creator and the cherisher of whole
mankind is one and only one. This belief is shared by all the heavenly religions and
the believers in Allah the Almighty. Besides the Holy Qurn, this has been clearly
emphasized by the Hadth.
F. Every perfect and mature human being is similar to others in structure and body in
general; normally everyone is similar to others in basic congenital constituents, in the
systems of intellect and psychology, in the origin of emotions and passions and in feelings and sentiments. No human being was created from stone nor were others created
from iron or gold; all humans belong to the same constant common source of their
creation. Whatsoever and howsoever some racialists might have tried to prove their
being the chosen people because of their race and blood, it has been futile; science,
civilization and history were not on their side. As such they have failed in coming up
with a single sound evidence for their claims.
Repercussions and advantages of these commonalities (and objectives of the Shariah therein):
Since these commonalities have been mentioned, substantiated and emphasized by the Holy Qurn
through a number of verses, the Qurnic discourse in this regard has a deep impact on Muslim psychology. They read these verses, recite them in their regular daily prayers and find devotion in uttering and implementing them as being part of the Holy book revealed by Allah. Hence it is quite innate
in their psychology to feel close to others, as psychology confirms that the more two human beings
become conscious of the common attributes between them, the higher is the degree of closeness,
homogeneity and familiarity.
Hence none of these verses was revealed without any intended devout purpose. Certainly among
their objectives must be acceptance of others as fellow human beings, and every human being is a
depository of the divine spirit, which was breathed into it at the time of creation. Thus human beings
are siblings in humanity besides any other relations of kin or descent. This is implied in the verses
that speak of messengers and prophets sent to their respective peoples who generally rejected them.
The Holy Quarn says, To the Ad people, (We sent) Hud, one of their (own) brethren: He said: O
my people! worship God! ye have no other god but Him will ye not fear (God)? (Al-Quaran, 7:65).
To the Thamud people (We sent) Salih, one of their own brethren: He said: O my people! worship
God: ye have no other god but Him. (Al-Quaran, 7:73). To the Madyan people We sent Shuaib,
54 Narrated by Abu-Dawood, Tirmizi and Ahmad. See Sunan At-Tirmizi: (9/155); Ahmad: (2/261,534)


one of their own brethren: he said: O my people! worship God; Ye have no other god but Him.
(Al-Quaran, 7:85).
In other words, brotherhood in Islam is not confined to Islamic brotherhood alone, although the latter
takes precedence when it conflicts with other brotherhoods.
2.2 Natural Difference Between Myself and the Other
Although all human are sons and daughters of Adam and Eve, there are several substantial dissimilarities, for example:

A. I (personally) am different from others in my personality and personal characteristics. This
has been established by modern science in the form of the genetic fingerprint, which mean
that every human being has a unique genetic code of his own and that no one else shares his
code. The Conference on Genetics and Genetic Engineering held at Kuwait in 1998 defined
the genetic fingerprint as: the unique genetic or hereditary structure that spots the identity of
every individual.55 Academy of Islamic Jurisprudence at the Islamic World League, in its 15th
session, confirmed this definition and added that research and studies suggest that from the scientific aspect, genetic fingerprint is an accurate tool that simplifies the job of forensic medicine
and investigating the personality and unique genetic characteristics of an individual. Discovery
of genetic fingerprint has categorically proven that every human being has a unique genetic
personality which is shared by no one else from amongst the billions of humans.

B. Although every person has many commonalities with the members of his family, tribe and
nation,56 yet he is different in the following aspects:
The congenital aspect: All of us are different in structure, shape, look, color, speech and material capabilities.
Incorporeal aspect: Every one of us is different in mental and intellectual capabilities as well as
in feelings, sensitivities and sentiments etc.

By mentioning these natural dissimilarities and differences in context of the objectives of Shariah, I
intend to pave the way for psychological and religious acceptance of the divergence and to treat it as
normal besides considering utilizing the differences for social integration, diversity and allotment of
2.3 Intellectual, religious and doctrinal differences
According to the divine law, people (me and the other) are different in their religions, thoughts,
ideologies and perceptions. There are hundreds, rather thousands of ideologies, religions, dogmas,
schools of thought and other divergences in different aspects of life.
This diversity is out of the divine will and based on His operative laws. He made the people different
in eternal adjudication. He says, And among His Signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth,
and the variations in your languages and your colours: verily in that are Signs for those who know.
(Al-Quaran, 30:22).
In the context of diversity of religions, sects and ideologies, Allah the Almighty says, Mankind was
one single nation, and God sent Messengers with glad tidings and warnings; and with them He sent
55 Conference on Genetics and Genetic Engineering Organized by Islamic Organization for Medical Sciences Kuwait October 15, 1998
56 Dr. Ali Mohiuddin Al-Qaradaghi Genetic Fingerprint and its Legal Implications A research paper submitted to the 15 session of the Academy
of Islamic Jurisprudence of the Islamic World League, Mecca.


the Book in truth, to judge between people in matters wherein they differed; but the People of the
Book, after the clear Signs came to them, did not differ among themselves, except through selfish contumacy. God by His Grace Guided the believers to the Truth, concerning that wherein they differed.
For God guided whom He will to a path that is straight.(Al-Quaran, 2:213). Further more, Allah
explains that His laws ordain the existence of this divergence: If thy Lord had so willed, He could
have made mankind one people: but they will not cease to dispute. Except those on whom thy Lord
hath bestowed His Mercy: and for this did He create them: and the Word of thy Lord shall be fulfilled:
I will fill Hell with jinns and men all together. (Al-Quaran, 11:118-119).
This assertion is repeated in Chapters 16, 42 and 5 as follows: If God so willed, He could make you
all one people: But He leaves straying whom He pleases, and He guides whom He pleases: but ye
shall certainly be called to account for all your actions. (Al-Quaran, 16:93). If God had so willed,
He could have made them a single people; but He admits whom He will to His Mercy; and the Wrongdoers will have no protector nor helper. (Al-Quaran, 42:8). To each among you have we prescribed
a law and an open way. If Allah had so willed, He would have made you a single people, but (His
plan is) to test you in what He hath given you: so strive as in a race in all virtues. (Al-Quaran, 5:48).
These verses clearly indicate the makeup of human affairs and they imply acceptance of this divergence along with efforts to narrow it. From situation to situation the levels of these differences may
decrease or increase, slacken or intensify between me and the other.
A. As a matter of fact, in relation to a person who does not believe in any religion at all, the distance between me and him is much bigger than the distance between me and anyone other than
him. However we share the same above mentioned attributes besides both of us seeking the
B. In relation to a person who generally believes in God, the distance between me and him is less
than the distance between me and an atheist, however it is longer than the distance between me
and People of the Book.
C. In relation to the People of the Book, the differences are less than with the above mentioned
last category and bigger than with the following category. Even with regard to the People of the
Book, my differences with Christians are less than those with Jews.
D. So far as the relation between me (the Muslim) and hostile non-Muslim, it will be governed by
the nature of aggression but the Islamic principles and morals that control war in Islam, shall
prevail. However, with regard to non-Muslims (under protection of the Islamic state or covenants), they enjoy full rights in light of the relevant magnanimous Islamic ideals.

Similarly the nature of my relation (as a Muslim) living in a non-Muslim state with which I
have a covenant and which fulfills its obligations towards me, is different from with others. My
relation with that state is bigger than the above relations. Likewise, with peacefully coexisting
non-Muslims, my relation will be the relation of calling them to the Islam, of virtue, of beneficence and of guarding the covenants and agreements.
E. So far as Muslims, with their different schools and factions, are concerned, I am considered
to be one of them. However, I am not a true copy of anyone of them. Between us is a space,
although small, depending upon the elements of the agreement or disagreement within the Islamic schools of jurisprudence and factions.
Objectives of the Shariah in mentioning these differences:
It appears to me that among the objectives of the Shariah in mentioning these religious and doctrinal
dissimilarities between a Muslim and an other are the following:

Knowledge of these realities in order to accept them and deal with them correctly.



That on each of the above situations a relevant criterion should be used. For example the criterion of relation of a Muslim with an atheistic infidel differs from the criterion of dealing with
People of the Book. Likewise the criterion of war is different from the criterion of peace, just as
criterion of the minority is different from the criterion of the majority.
C. That difference is one of the divine laws and it is comprehensible keeping in view human
nature. As Allah has bestowed upon the humans with intellect, free will and choice, it is quite
natural that a human being differs from another in his thinking, belief and perceptions.
2.4 Recognition of Dignity and Rights of a Human Being
Islam recognizes human dignity considering that he is a human being irrespective of his ideology
and belief. Allah the Almighty says, We have honoured the sons of Adam. (Al-Quaran, 17:70).
Allah has appointed the human being His vicegerent on the earth and provided him with free will
and choice. Allah said to the angels, I will create a vicegerent on earth. (Al-Qurn, 2:30). When
the angels intervened and asked for the rationale of creating the human being on earth, He proved to
them that Adam was more knowledgeable than them in the domain of his being vicegerent on earth
and developing it.
Allah honored the human being with freedom of choice to believe. Allah says, Let there be no
compulsion in religion. (Al-Qurn, 2:256). He liberated him from servitude of anyone other than
His own self and prompted him to let the slaves free. He forbade inhuman acts, like mutilation of the
dead, torture and terrorism. He accorded high stature to sanctities, privacies, rights and possessions of
the human being. He put all humans on equal footing and linked superiority to nothing but righteousness. He says in the Holy Qurn, O mankind! We created you from a single (pair) of a male and a
female, and made you into nations and tribes, that ye may know each other (not that ye may despise
(each other). Verily the most honoured of you in the sight of God is (he who is) the most righteous of
you. (Al-Qurn, 49:13). He treated responsibility as ones own personal obligation, That man can
have nothing but what he strives for. (Al-Qurn, 53:39). And no bearer of burdens can bear the
burden of another. (Al-Qurn, 6:164).
2.5 Recognition of unanimity of the heavenly religions and their single revealer
Islam traces back all the heavenly religions to the single source of divine revelation; it ascribes all
divine laws to a single source of light. This is the reason that Islam calls upon its followers to believe
in all previous prophets and messengers and previously revealed heavenly books. Allah says, The
Apostle believeth in what hath been revealed to him from his Lord, as do the men of faith. Each one
(of them) believeth in God, His angels, His books, and His apostles. We make no distinction (they
say) between one and another of His apostles. And they say: We hear, and we obey: (We seek) Thy
forgiveness, our Lord, and to Thee is the end of all journeys. (Al-Qurn, 2:285). And Say ye: We
believe in God, and the revelation given to us, and to Abraham, Ismail, Isaac, Jacob, and the Tribes,
and that given to Moses and Jesus, and that given to (all) prophets from their Lord: We make no difference between one and another of them: And we bow to God (in Islam). (Al-Qurn, 2:136).
Allah says that He prescribed for the Islamic Nation the same basic laws which He had prescribed for
other Prophets, The same religion has He established for you as that which He enjoined on Noah
- the which We have sent by inspiration to thee - and that which We enjoined on Abraham, Moses,
and Jesus: Namely, that ye should remain steadfast in religion, and make no divisions therein. (AlQurn, 42:13).
Allah condemns those who make factions in their religion, As for those who divide their religion and
break up into sects, thou hast no part in them in the least: their affair is with God: He will in the end
tell them the truth of all that they did. (Al-Qurn, 6:159). In fact the Holy Qurn calls upon its fol-


lowers to follow the laws of the prophets, Those were the (prophets) who received Gods guidance:
[follow] the guidance they received. (Al-Qurn, 6:90).
Furthermore the Holy Qurn ascribed the name of Islam to all heavenly religions; this name was as
enunciated by most of the prophets. For example, in case of Abraham, it says, Behold! his Lord said
to him: Bow (thy will to Me): He said: I bow (my will) to the Lord and Cherisher of the Universe.
(Al-Qurn, 2:131). In case of Jacob, it says, Were ye witnesses when death appeared before Jacob?
Behold, he said to his sons: What will ye worship after me? They said: We shall worship Thy God
and the God of thy fathers, of Abraham, Ismail and Isaac,- the one (True) God: To Him we bow (in
Islam). (Al-Qurn, 2:133). Yet another verse reads, The Religion before God is Islam (submission
to His Will): Nor did the People of the Book dissent therefrom except through envy of each other, after
knowledge had come to them. (Al-Qurn, 3:19).
We can sum up the above as follows:
1. Islam recognizes the true heavenly religions, including all messengers and prophets whether
mentioned in the Qurn or not mentioned. By doing so Islam has given a wide latitude to people
of those faiths to live (in peace) in the shade of Islam.
2. Islam prescribes toleration in dealing with non-Muslims without compulsion or aggression. Allah says, Let there be no compulsion in religion. (Al-Qurn, 2:256). And Therefore do thou
give admonition, for thou art one to admonish. (Al-Qurn, 88:21).

Defining the mission of His Messenger, Allah says, The Messengers duty is but to proclaim
(the message). (Al-Qurn, 5:99). And Now then, for that (reason), call (them to the Faith),
and stand steadfast as thou art commanded, nor follow thou their vain desires; but say: I believe in the Book which God has sent down; and I am commanded to judge justly between you.
God is our Lord and your Lord: for us (is the responsibility for) our deeds, and for you for your
deeds. There is no contention between us and you. God will bring us together, and to Him is
(our) Final Goal. (Al-Qurn, 42:15). (To the adamant rejecters of Islam) the Messenger of
Allah was told to say, To you be your Way, and to me mine. (Al-Qurn, 109:6). This has been
further emphasized in verses that were revealed in (the period of the Islamic state of) Medina,
And say to the People of the Book and to those who are unlearned: Do ye (also) submit yourselves? If they do, they are in right guidance, but if they turn back, Thy duty is to convey the
Message; and in Gods sight are (all) His servants. (Al-Qurn, 2:20).
On the practical side, the Covenant of Medina was like constitution of the state of Medina to
govern the heterogeneous people who followed Islam, polytheism and Judaism as religions;
they did not belong to a single race either but a mix of Qahtanis, Adnanis and Jews. The treaty
treated all of them equally in their general rights and duties, like good neighborliness and collaboration and what is known in modern times as the rights of citizenship.

The state kept guarding fully the rights of its non-Muslim citizens (those under protection of the Islamic state and covenants). They had their special status and some positions of authority in ministries
too57. According to Dr. Will Durant, the citizens under protection of the Islamic state enjoyed a high
level of toleration that is unprecedented in the Christian lands even in these days. They were free to
practice their rituals and organized masses in their churches and places of worship58.
2.6 Respect of the human being whether alive or dead
Sayings of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) establish the principle of respecting a human being for
57 Dr. Abu-Hilalah Taamul Al-Muslimn Maa Ghairihim Dar Adh-Dhiy 2002 - Page: 55
58 Will Durant - The Story of Civilization - Vol: 13, P: 131.


being a human being. This is equally true regarding the dead whosoever it be, even a non-Muslim.
Al-Bukhari and Muslim have narrated through Abdur-Rahman Bin Abi-Laila: Sahal Bin Hanf and
Qais Bin Saad were sitting at Qadisiyyah when a funeral procession passed by them. Upon this they
stood up. When they were asked (why they stood up whereas) the funeral was (only) of a protected
(non-Muslim) belonging to the worldly people, they replied that (in a similar situation) when a funeral procession passed by the Messenger of Allah (pbuh), he stood up and when he was asked (why
he stood up whereas) it was the funeral of a Jew, he replied: Wasnt he a human being!59
Further to this, it is not allowed to compel anyone to embrace Islam even if it was the case of ones
own child. At-Tabari and As-Suyuti have reported through Ibn Abbas: An Medinite named AbuAlHassn had two sons. Before migration of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) to Medina, they had
turned to Christianity and traveled to Syria (Levant). When the two returned to Medina, he (the
father) stayed constantly with them and insisted upon them to embrace Islam. The sons refused. He
then approached the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) to oblige them to embrace Islam with the plea O the
Messenger of Allah (pbuh), how can I see my sons go to hell fire? Upon this Allah revealed Let there
be no compulsion in religion (Al-Qurn, 2:256) and he let them go.60
2.7 Peace, not war, is the default choice of Islam
In Islam war is not to be resorted to except when absolutely indispensable. In principle, it is not a
favorite choice; it is rather a loathsome option in the hearts of the faithful. Allah says, Fighting is
prescribed for you, and ye dislike it. (Al-Qurn, 2:216). This is further substantiated by the verse:
It may be that God will grant love (and friendship) between you and those whom ye (now) hold as
enemies. For God has power (over all things); And God is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful... (AlQurn, 60:7).
Allah reminds the faithful of His favor of making a likely war avoidable, And it is He Who has restrained their hands from you and your hands from them in the midst of Makka, after that He gave
you the victory over them. And God sees well all that ye do. (Al-Qurn, 48:24). At another place Allah says, And God turned back the Unbelievers for (all) their fury: no advantage did they gain; and
enough is God for the believers in their fight. And God is full of Strength, able to enforce His Will.
(Al-Qurn, 33:25).
These verses clearly indicate that Islam is the religion of peace and belief. It is a system that aims at
covering the whole world with bliss of it blessed shade. It wants to establish its system and to bring
together the humankind under the divine banner, as brethren cordial and concordant. Being a divine
wish, it had to actualize; and it did actualize in reality. When Quraish and other surrounding tribes
embraced Islam, all stood under a single banner and the historic feuds of tribal revenge and vainglory
were buried for good.
2.8 Preference of peace over war despite grievances
Allah the Exalted has termed peaceful settlement as a blessing, and amicable settlement is best.
(Al-Qurn, 4:128). And And make not Gods (name) an excuse in your oaths against doing good,
or acting rightly, or making peace between persons; for God is One Who heareth and knoweth all
things. (Al-Qurn, 2:224)
It is quite obvious that the above verses do not speak about the faithful alone. Settlement and peace59 Narrated by Bukhri- Hadth No: 1250; and by Muslim No: 961
60 Tafsir At-Tabari Edited by Ahmad Shkir Vol: 3 - P: 20-22 Drul Kutub Al-Ilmiyah Beirut 2004.


making is desired for all and it is virtuous and more advantageous. Allah says, In most of their secret
talks there is no good: But if one exhorts to a deed of charity or justice or conciliation between men,
(Secrecy is permissible): To him who does this, seeking the good pleasure of God, We shall soon give
a reward of the highest (value). (Al-Qurn, 4:114).
Islam elucidated the danger of depravity on the earth and of not striving for reform and righteousness. It treats them as major proscribed sins that lead to the doom of destruction. Allah says, When
he turns his back, His aim everywhere is to spread mischief through the earth and destroy crops and
cattle. But God loveth not mischief. (Al-Qurn, 2:205). And, Who make mischief in the land, and
mend not (their ways). (Al-Qurn, 26:152). Reform has been the mission of the prophets and the
messengers. Prophet Shuaib (pbuh) tells his people, I wish not, in opposition to you, to do that
which I forbid you to do. I only desire (your) betterment to the best of my power; and my success (in
my task) can only come from God. In Him I trust, and unto Him I look. (Al-Qurn, 11:88). Success
is an ally of those who seek reform. Allah says, if they wish for peace, God will cause their reconciliation: For God hath full knowledge, and is acquainted with all things. (Al-Qurn, 5:35). Allah
has linked destruction with corruption and salvation with reform. He says, Nor would thy Lord be
the One to destroy communities for a single wrong-doing, if its members were likely to mend. (AlQurn, 11:117).
In Islam, reconciliation and reform are not mere slogans. These were rather passionately applied by
the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) in his own life first of all. When he along with a large contingent of
his companions, traveled from Medina to Mecca for performing the pilgrimage of Umrah, although
all obvious indications and inferences were that their basic aim was nothing but to perform Umrah,
yet the ruling tribe Mecca (Quraish) prevented him from entering Mecca. They were wearing the attire of the pilgrims and has brought with them the animals for sacrifice. Upon reaching Hudaibiyah
(a place on the outskirts of Mecca) the she camel Qusw kneeled down (and they camped there). The
Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said, By Allah, in whose hands lies my soul, whatever plan they ask me
for with the intention of glorifying the sanctities of Allah, I shall provide it to them.61 When he tried
to enter Mecca, Quraish prevented him. One after the other, he sent his envoys to explain his motive
and stance; he sent Kharsh Bin Umayyah Al-Khuzaei, but Quraish sought to assassinate him had
the (influential group of Meccan) Ahbsh not restrained them from that. Then he deputed Othman
Bin Affan (mAbpwh) to explain to them that the purpose of their visit was nothing but pilgrimage
and to dignify the Holy Kabah. He was held back till the camping Muslims thought that he had been
killed. Upon this the Messenger of Allah called an entourage for pledge of allegiance under a tree. All
pledged for allegiance until death, with exception of one Al-Jadd Bin Qais (a hypocrite), but finally
the matter ended with a treaty which prima-facie looked like a surrender of Muslims in favor of the
polytheists of Mecca, for example when on the orders of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) when Ali Ibn
Abi Talib started drafting the treaty document and wrote In the name of Allah, The Gracious, The
Merciful, the representative of the Quraish, Suhail Bin Amr, objected saying As per The Gracious, we are not familiar with it just write With your name O Lord. Muslims replied, By Allah,
we shall not write anything but In the name of Allah, The Gracious, The Merciful. The Messenger
of Allah (pbuh) said (to Ali), Do write With your name O Lord. Next Suhail objected to (the text
reading) This is with what Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah entered into a treaty with, saying,
Had we accepted to your being the Messenger of God, we would not have turned you away from
the House of God, nor would we have fought against you. Write Muhammad Bin Abdullah. Upon
this the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said, By Allah, I am the Messenger of Allah, irrespective of your

61 Narrated by with Fathul Bri (5/329)


refutation of me. (O Ali) do write Muhammad Bin Abdullah. When Ali sought to be excused from
omitting The Messenger of Allah, took the document and omitted it with his own hand.62
Subsequently Suhail objected to the Clause stating That you shall withdraw from between us and the
house of God so that we (Muslims) shall circumambulate it, saying, By God, Arabs should not say
that we were coerced or intimidated to do so.63
Next Suhail laid a despotic tyrannical condition saying, Whenever a man of ours comes to you, even
a believer in you, you must deport him to us, whereas if someone of Muslims comes to the Quraish,
he will not be returned.64
In spite of all this intimidation the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) agreed to the treaty even though Muslims griped against it as they could not bear its coercive terms, the language and the format. Omar
wailed, Are you not really the Messenger of Allah?. He replied, Certainly, I am. Omar said, Are
we not on the right and our enemy on falsehood? He replied, Certainly, so. Omar said, Why
then are we let down regarding our religion? He replied, I am the Messenger of Allah. I am not to
disobey Him; He is my upholder.65
What added insult to injury was that while the treaty was being finalized, Abu Jandal Bin Suhail (a
Meccan Muslim) appeared tied in shackles. Having escaped from lower side of Mecca, he threw himself in the midst of Muslims. Suhail said, O Muhammad he is the first one I want you to take action
against and return him to me. He replied, We have not signed the treaty yet. Suhail Said, By
God, if that is the case, then (imagine that) I never agreed with you on anything. Bukhri reports,
When Suhail strongly insisted on this, Muslims detested this, resented it and criticized it. When Suhail remained adamant, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) finalized the treaty with him. Abu Jandal was
repatriated to his father. Whenever anyone came to the Messenger of Allah (pbuh), he returned him
within the agreed time, even if he was a Muslim.66
Looking at the treaty, Muslims felt disgusted with the obligation of having to return the Muslims persecuted for their religion. They said, O Messenger of Allah, are you going to sign this?. He replied,
Yes, if anyone goes to them, (it means) Allah has banished him (from us) and if someone escapes
from them (to us), Allah shall relieve him and make a way out for him.67
This treaty wetted by the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) in spite of all the terms which enraged Muslims
and made them feel disgusted, if it attests to anything, that is nothing but the importance attached by
the Messenger of Allah (pbuh), rather by Islam, to peacemaking. Allah the Almighty sent down the
revelation from the heavens and termed the treaty as victory The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) exclaimed declaring, Overnight a Surah (a chapter of the Holy Qurn) has been revealed to me, which
is dearer to me than (the whole world) on which the sun rises. Then he recited the newly revealed
chapter (Al-Fath) starting with the verse, Verily We have granted thee a manifest Victory.(AlQurn, 48:1).
Certainly the treaty proved to be a blessing in disguise. It was a great victory for hearts and minds. Be-

62 Narrated by Muslim Kitab Al-Jihad Vol: 3 Hadth no: 1410-1411

63 Abdur Razzaq (5/343)
64 Narrated by Bukhri with Fathul Bri (7/453)
65 Narrated by Muslim (3/1412)
66 Narrated by Bukhri with Fathul Bri Kitb AL-Maghzi (7/453)
67 Narrated by Muslim (3/1412)


tween the year of the treaty in 6th year of Hijra and the year of conquest of Mecca in 8th year of Hijra
thousands embraced Islam. At the time of the Treaty of Hudaibiyah, there were only 1500 Muslims
with the Messenger of Allah (pbuh), whereas eight thousand accompanied him when he conquered
The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) complied with what was agreed upon in the Treaty of Hudaibiyah and
strictly adhered to its clauses. When a band of eighty reckless youth from Quraish took the Muslim
camp by surprise, they were captured. The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) pardoned the assailants and
released them.68 He could have used the incident as an excuse to terminate the agreement. Likewise,
he released seventy prisoners who had been captured by Muslims after the Treaty of Hudaibiyah, besides four others who tried to assault the Messenger of Allah (pbuh). These four were overpowered by
Salama Bin Al-Akwa69. Muslim narrates through Anas Bin Malik that eighty assailants from Mecca
assailed the Muslim camp at Hudaibiyah from the Mount Tanm side. Their intention had been to
take the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) and his companions by surprise. However they were captured
alive but were let to live. Upon this Allah the Almighty revealed, And it is He Who has restrained
their hands from you and your hands from them in the midst of Makka, after that He gave you the victory over them. And God sees well all that ye do. (Al-Qurn, 48:24).
The above verse has yet another denotation in favor of peace and against warmongering. In the verse
Allah mentions warding off of war as a favor from Him, which connotes to peace as being a great
blessing from Him and that war, as it is, is not something lovable in Islam. Sheikh Dr. Muhammad
Abdullah Darz has put it precisely: Hence we observe that in the eyes of Islam war is a vice and an
option only for the coerced. Concluding of negotiations by Muslims for achieving peace, even though
with some sort of injustice concerning their rights, but avoiding bloodshed, is better than a victory
for truth in which souls perish.70
2.9 The Principle of Justice and equity for all
This principle is considered to be one of the greatest principles on which the Islamic Shariah is based,
rather on which the heavens and the earth rest. The word Justice and its derivatives occur twentyeight times in the Holy Qurn, whereas its synonym equity and its derivatives are mentioned twenty-seven times. At these places the importance of justice and equity has been dealt with and Muslims
are ordered to deal with others justly and with beneficence. For example, Allah says, God commands
justice, the doing of good, and liberality to kith and kin, and He forbids all shameful deeds, and injustice and rebellion. (Al-Qurn, 16:90). And O ye who believe! stand out firmly for Allah, as witnesses to fair dealing, and let not the hatred of others to you make you swerve to wrong and depart
from justice. Be just: that is next to piety: and fear Allah. For Allah is well-acquainted with all that
ye do. (Al-Qurn, 5:8). And whenever ye speak, speak justly, even if a near relative is concerned.
(Al-Qurn, 16:152). And and I am commanded to judge justly between you. (Al-Qurn, 42:15).
Islam firmly forbids injustice against opponents, even though they may happen to be enemies. Allah
says, O ye who believe! stand out firmly for Allah, as witnesses to fair dealing, and let not the hatred
of others to you make you swerve to wrong and depart from justice. Be just: that is next to piety: and
fear Allah. For Allah is well-acquainted with all that ye do. (Al-Qurn, 5:8). Allah ordains Muslims

68 Narrated by Muslim Al-Jihad - (3/1442)

69 For details of the Treaty, please see Saheeh Muslim (3l1433-1441)
70 Dirst Islmiyah by Dr. Muhammad Abdullah Darz Dar Al-Qalam Kuwait, 1979 P: 142


that their governance should be based on justice between all people. He, rather, prescribed justice as
basis of the Islamic governance. He said, God doth command you to render back your Trusts to those
to whom they are due; And when ye judge between man and man, that ye judge with justice: Verily
how excellent is the teaching which He giveth you! For God is He Who heareth and seeth all things.
(Al-Qurn, 5:58).
Likewise, Islam strongly condemns following lusts, desires and personal interests because these lead
to miscarriage of justice. Allah says, O ye who believe! stand out firmly for justice, as witnesses to
God, even as against yourselves, or your parents, or your kin, and whether it be (against) rich or
poor: for God can best protect both. Follow not the lusts (of your hearts), lest ye swerve, and if ye
distort (justice) or decline to do justice, verily God is well-acquainted with all that ye do. (Al-Qurn,
4:135). Muslims are ordered to adhere to justice even in the case of the combatant subversives who
rebel against the rule of law. Allah says, But if it complies, then Make peace between them With
justice, and be fair; For God loves those Who are fair (and just). (Al-Qurn, 49:9). Allah even deterred Muslims from polygyny if it causes injustice and discrimination. Allah says, but if ye fear that
ye shall not be able to deal justly (with them), then only one. (Al-Qurn, 4:3). Similarly He made
justice a prerequisite for acceptance of witness and verdict etc. He says, and take for witness two
persons from among you, endued with justice, and establish the evidence (as) before God. Such is the
admonition given to him who believes in God and the Last Day. (Al-Qurn, 65:2).
The word equity and its derivatives have been mentioned twenty-seven times in the Holy Qurn
wherein Allah commands Muslims to implement justice unconditionally. Allah says, O ye who believe! stand out firmly for justice, as witnesses to God, even as against yourselves, or your parents, or
your kin, and whether it be (against) rich or poor: for God can best protect both. Follow not the lusts
(of your hearts), lest ye swerve, and if ye distort (justice) or decline to do justice, verily God is wellacquainted with all that ye do. (Al-Qurn, 4:135). And If thou judge, judge in equity between them.
For Allah loveth those who judge in equity. (Al-Qurn, 5:42). Allah commanded equity in disputes
even with those who rebel, Make peace between them With justice, and be fair; For God loves those
Who are fair (and just). (Al-Qurn, 49:9).
Allah declared hellfire and painful punishment as destiny of those who assassinate those who seek
enforcement of justice, As to those who deny the Signs of God and in defiance of right, slay the
prophets, and slay those who teach just dealing with mankind, announce to them a grievous penalty.
(Al-Qurn, 3:21). He ordered to weigh and measure with accuracy, both in merchandise and services
give measure and weight with (full) justice. (Al-Qurn, 6:152). In another verse, He commands,
And weigh with scales true and upright. (Al-Qurn, 26:182).
On the practical side, history relates to us how the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) dealt with all people
and judged with highest standards of justice and fairness. Same is true about the Rightly Guided Caliphs too.
2.10 Recognition of differences and diversity
The pragmatism of Islam is evident from its recognition of diversity of beliefs, ideologies, colors
and complexions, although it aspires for unity of the nation and wellbeing of all. The Qurn asserts
that mankind was one single nation until they dissented, Mankind was one single nation, and God
sent Messengers with glad tidings and warnings; and with them He sent the Book in truth, to judge
between people in matters wherein they differed. (Al-Qurn, 2:213).
After mentioning the Jews and Christians and their dissension, Allah says, If Allah had so willed,


He would have made you a single people, but (His plan is) to test you in what He hath given you: so
strive as in a race in all virtues.(Al-Qurn, 5:48).
The Holy Qurn affirms that diversity is one of the significant tools of testing, If thy Lord had so
willed, He could have made mankind one people: but they will not cease to dispute. Except those on
whom thy Lord hath bestowed His Mercy: and for this did He create them (Al-Qurn, 11:118-119).
These and many other similar verses of the Holy Qurn and saying of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh)
prepare the hearts and minds of Muslims for acceptance of others who disagree with them in belief,
ideology, in fundamentals and in details, and to coexist with them in peace and harmony. This is what
the case was throughout Islamic history. Non-Muslims lived under protection of the powerful Islamic
state enjoying all their rights. They even held high positions. This has not happened in other theocratic empires, like the Roman Empire that persecuted Jews and non-Christians. History shall never
forget what the Crusaders did to Muslims and Jews in Andalusia.
2.11 Dialogue is the default choice for resolving disputes and in dealing with others
The Holy Qurn focuses on habituation of the Nation to call to the path of Allah with wisdom and
astute advice, Invite (all) to the Way of thy Lord with wisdom and beautiful preaching; and argue
with them in ways that are best and most gracious. (Al-Qurn, 16:125).
This is reaffirmed yet again with prohibition from argument with the People of the Book, except with
better (than theirs), And dispute ye not with the People of the Book, except with means better (than
mere disputation) (Al-Qurn, 29:46).
(In this context, it is important to point out that) the Holy Qurn did not use the words like clash or
conflict (Ssiraa) but used root word dafaa and its derivatives (meaning: repel, ward off, repulse,
reciprocate, check, defend, deter, push, drive back, drive away), for example:
Verily God will defend (from ill) those who believe: verily, God loveth not any that is a traitor to
faith, or show ingratitude. (Al-Qurn, 22:38). And By Gods will they routed them; and David slew
Goliath; and God gave him power and wisdom and taught him whatever (else) He willed. And did not
God Check one set of people by means of another, the earth would indeed be full of mischief: But God
is full of bounty to all the worlds. (Al-Qurn, 2:251). And Did not God check one set of people by
means of another, there would surely have been pulled down monasteries, churches, synagogues, and
mosques. (Al-Qurn, 22:40).
These verses bespeak the natural law of checking (or warding off) as the divine way (of regulating)
by which Allah wards off the tyrannical, but these do not instill the notion of clash in the hearts of
the Muslims that would cause them to take to the clash mentality as becoming their attitude in their
dealings. Just as though disagreement and dissimilarity are a natural law, but Muslims must not adopt
it as their attitude in their dealings.
In other words, what the Holy Qurn accentuates about the Muslim nations approach of dealing with
others in the circumstances of war is that theirs is the approach of repelling as long as that is the
option feasible. Allah says in the Chapter Al-Muminn of His book, Repel evil with that which is
best: We are well acquainted with the things they say. (Al-Qurn, 23:96). And the Chapter Fussilat
He says, Nor can goodness and Evil be equal. Repel (Evil) with what is better: Then will he between
whom and thee was hatred become as it were thy friend and intimate! And no one will be granted
such goodness except those who exercise patience and self-restraint,- none but persons of the greatest
good fortune. (Al-Qurn, 41:34-35).


2.12 Islams laudation of the heavenly religions, their books and the prophets
The Holy Qurn has paid a great deal of attention to lauding the patriarch Abraham (pbuh) - the
progenitor of all Israelite prophets - and of his sons and descendents. It lauds Moses (pbuh) so much
that his story has been touched twenty-four times throughout the chapters of the Holy Qurn. Family of Imran has been generously acclaimed and a whole long (3rd) chapter has been named after
them. Another Chapter (19th) has been named after Mary the mother of Jesus. Jesus himself has
been frequently munificently mentioned throughout the Book peace be upon them all. He has been
called the Word of Allah and commended with great attributes. In fact Children of Israel have been
eulogized for (when they) strived to propagate the divine message and that they were preferred over
the people of their times. Allah says, O Children of Israel! call to mind the (special) favour which
I bestowed upon you, and that I preferred you to all others (for My Message). (Al-Qurn, 2:47).
Likewise Christians, in general, have been admired, (You will find) Strongest among men in enmity
to the believers wilt thou find the Jews and Pagans; and nearest among them in love to the believers
wilt thou find those who say, We are Christians: because amongst these are men devoted to learning and men who have renounced the world, and they are not arrogant. (Al-Qurn, 2:82).
The Qurn has mentioned the Torah and the Bible with beautiful attributes and high regard. For example, Allah mentions the Torah saying, It was We who revealed the law (to Moses): therein was
guidance and light. By its standard have been judged the Jews, by the prophets who bowed (as in
Islam) to Allahs will, by the rabbis and the doctors of law: for to them was entrusted the protection
of Allahs book, and they were witnesses thereto: therefore fear not men, but fear me, and sell not my
signs for a miserable price. If any do fail to judge by (the light of) what Allah hath revealed, they are
(no better than) Unbelievers. (Al-Qurn, 5:44). Similarly with regards to the Bible He says, And in
their footsteps We sent Jesus the son of Mary, confirming the Law that had come before him: We sent
him the Gospel: therein was guidance and light, and confirmation of the Law that had come before
him: a guidance and an admonition to those who fear Allah. (Al-Qurn, 5:46).
The truth is that for veracity of belief and for consummation of the pillars of faith it is imperative to
believe in all previous Messengers. Allah says, The Apostle believeth in what hath been revealed to
him from his Lord, as do the men of faith. Each one (of them) believeth in God, His angels, His books,
and His apostles. We make no distinction (they say) between one and another of His apostles. And
they say: We hear, and we obey: (We seek) Thy forgiveness, our Lord, and to Thee is the end of all
journeys. (Al-Qurn, 2:285).
All this should have won the hearts and minds of the Jews and the Christians and dissuaded them from
strife, but they did not heed to the concordant gestures of the Holy Qurn about the previous religions,
their books, their messengers, Children of Israel and the Christians.
2.13 Precision of the Qurn about desistance from sweeping generalizations
Among the most effective means of bringing people nearer to each other is that the Holy Qurn has
left a huge scope for dialogue and coexistence with others. It has not branded them all with a general
label of ill-tempered or wicked or treacherous. For example, Allah says, Not all of them are alike:
Of the People of the Book are a portion that stand (For the right): They rehearse the Signs of God all
night long, and they prostrate themselves in adoration. They believe in God and the Last Day; they
enjoin what is right, and forbid what is wrong; and they hasten (in emulation) in (all) good works:
They are in the ranks of the righteous. (Al-Qurn, 3:113-114). And, Among the People of the Book
are some who, if entrusted with a hoard of gold, will (readily) pay it back; others, who, if entrusted
with a single silver coin, will not repay it unless thou constantly stoodest demanding, because, they
say, there is no call on us (to keep faith) with these ignorant (Pagans). but they tell a lie against


God, and (well) they know it. (Al-Qurn, 2:75). And, If only the People of the Book had faith, it
were best for them: among them are some who have faith, but most of them are perverted transgressors. (Al-Qurn, 2:110).
All these verses prepare suitable atmosphere for coexistence, dialogue and cooperation.
2.14 Extending the scope of partnership between Muslims (Us) and non-Muslims (the Other)
to include even the atheists
Having made so vast common room for relation between Muslims (Us) and people of other heavenly religions (Christianity and Judaism) does not mean that Islam has declared an open war against
atheists or polytheists and idolaters etc. It can be said with confidence that the strategy of Islam is to
expand the area of coexistence to include all with exception of only the aggressors.
In this context Allah calls upon all opponents, including atheists, idolaters and infidels, to come to a
common platform shared by the whole humankind - the search for truth. Allah says, Say: certain
it is that either we or ye are on right guidance or in manifest error! Say: Ye shall not be questioned
as to our sins, nor shall we be questioned as to what ye do. (Al-Qurn, 34:24-25).
This verse is an explicit and unreserved call to all without any exception to hunt for knowledge about
truth, guidance as well as perversity. It is obvious that during the whole argument the Holy Qurn,
instead of asserting that Islam was the truth (although it is) or declaring that the polytheists along with
their rituals were aberrant (although they are), left the door wide open for dialogue and debate.
The eloquence of this miraculous Qurnic style is that it prompted the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) and
his companions to supposedly describe their true faith as being ijrm (criminality) and to describe the
state of the infidels as normal human activity, although the latter were aberrant and in utter sinfulness,
because they were to bear the responsibility for their deeds. This implies that in dialogue with others, Muslims must respect what others possess; the opposite must not be prejudged while in debate.
Certainly this verse represents the best, broadest, finest, wisest and most comprehensive basis for
dialogue and coexistence.
It is evident that Islam acknowledges a number of frameworks of engagement and affiliation, in spite
of the fact that it treats the affiliation of belief and brotherhood in faith as the basis for association.
Through this candidness of magnanimity it seeks common ground for mutual approximation coexistence, cooperation and call to truth. These frameworks are:
a. Framework of humanity: All humans descent from Adam and Eve. Qurn addresses the

humans saying, O ye people!
b. Framework of Nationality: Qurn terms it as brotherhood (as mentioned earlier).
c. Framework of People of the Book.
d. Finally the framework of those who genuinely seek truth.
2.15 Jihd for freedom of religion
The declaration of Jihd, according to the very first verse revealed to prescribe Jihd, was for upholding freedom of religion and sanctity of places of worship. This fact deserves to be given due attention
it merits for its study. The verse reads, those against whom war is made, permission is given (to
fight), because they are wronged;- and verily, God is most powerful for their aid;- (They are) those
who have been expelled from their homes in defiance of right,- (for no cause) except that they say,
our Lord is God. Did not God check one set of people by means of another, there would surely
have been pulled down monasteries, churches, synagogues, and mosques, in which the name of God
is commemorated in abundant measure. God will certainly aid those who aid his (cause);- for verily
God is full of Strength, Exalted in Might, (able to enforce His Will). (They are) those who, if We es-


tablish them in the land, establish regular prayer and give regular charity, enjoin the right and forbid
wrong: with God rests the end (and decision) of (all) affairs. (Al-Qurn, 22:39-41).
2.16 Combat is the last stage of Jihd (striving in Allahs cause)
The emphasis of Islam that Jihd in Allahs cause does not mean combat alone and that combat with
all its conditions and regulations - is the last option, means that it provides numerous other chances
for calling to Allah using means of wisdom and astute advice etc.
2.17 The purpose of diversity is acquaintance, not combat
Among the objectives of the Shariah behind recognition of diversity is acquaintance, not the clash
and wrangling between peoples. The Holy Qurn reads, O mankind! We created you from a single
(pair) of a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that ye may know each other
(not that ye may despise (each other). Verily the most honoured of you in the sight of God is (he who
is) the most righteous of you. And God has full knowledge and is well acquainted (with all things).
(Al-Qurn, 49:13).
The Summary
Certainly, all these intellectual merits and doctrinal grounds influence the psychology of the faithful
in favor of embarking upon the path of peace, acquaintance, coexistence, mutual acceptance and positive civilized interaction benefiting all. Islamic history is a witness to the fact that this was actually
achieved on the ground.


Pivot III
Muslims Relations with Others in Times of Peace


Muslims Relations with Others in Times of Peace



Life of the Messenger (pbuh) and history

Three essential principles of foreign relations in Islam
Covenant of Medina as the first constitution in the history conferring right of citizenship
to Others
Practical applications for foreign relations in times of peace
Non-Muslims rights in Islamic territories
Non-Muslims duties in Islamic territories

3.1 Prophetic Approach to relations with the other

Islam came to organize the relation of the human being with his Lord, with his fellow human beings
Muslims as well as non-Muslims and with the universe surrounding him. To this effect it laid
down a comprehensive system with general guiding principles and wide-ranging norms suitable for
all times and spaces evolvable and adaptable for changing circumstances without compromising on
authenticity or constant values.
During the Meccan period of Islam, there existed no state, relations were of personal nature and the
Messenger of Allah (pbuh) called everyone to embrace the religion of Allah and follow the right path;
he called to belief in the one and only God Allah -, to build the personality rooted in the sound belief
and in comprehensive upbringing encompassing spiritual, psychological, physical and social aspects
of human life.
The Messenger of Allah and his noble companions had to bear numerous ordeals ranging from psychological harassment and physical torture for preaching the true Call, however their motto then was
hold back your hands (from fight) but establish regular prayers. (Al-Qurn, 4:77). They prayed
for the polytheists who used to persecute them O Allah guide my people; they are ignorant (of the
essence of my message). When Muslims migrated to Medina and the first Islamic state was established, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) strived to strengthen the civil society and consolidated the
internal front on two sides:

On the side of the Muslims he accomplished their bona-fide brotherhood through

making of fraternal relations among the Meccan migrants at first and then between
the migrants and the proponent hosts. The hosts made the migrants partners in their
possessions and plantations.71
b) On the common front covering all those who resided in the state of Medina Muslims, Jews and others he consolidated the relations based on the Covenant of Medina
which governed the relation between citizens of Medina on the basis of equality of
rights of citizenship, duties and defense of Medina etc.72
Relation with Quraish and the surrounding entities:
1) The relation between the newly established Islamic state and Quraish along with other
surrounding tribes was a relation of hostility and of war from the latter against the
former. The stance of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) (as head of the state) was the

71 As-Seerah An-Nabawiyah As-Saheehah by Dr. Dhiya Al-Omaris Qatar (1/240)

72 Ibid. - (1/272-289)


stance of defending Islam and its newly founded state. However he was very keen on
propagating the Call to these adversaries and to make peace with them, although they
seldom adhered to the agreements and covenants they signed.
2) So far as the policy of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) towards the neighboring countries surrounding the Arabian Peninsula is concerned, to start with he invited the heads
of these states, through his letters, to embrace Islam so that they could continue to rule
in line with the reforms and justice required by Islam. In fact his mission was to spread
the call of Islam to the whole world in order to actualize the Islamic vision of mercy
upon all mankind. Allah says, We sent thee not, but as a Mercy for all creatures.
(Al-Qurn, 49:107).
Universal call and human brotherhood even in straitened circumstances as well as in triumph
and in power:
It never slipped from the memory of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) that his mission was universal,
that his message was Allahs mercy for the whole existence and that whole humankind is correlated
with the bonds of human brotherhood, single origin and human dignity. Indeed he kept emphasizing
upon these values and principles in times of difficulty and adversity as well as upon triumph, achievement and while in power. In the sermon of his last Hajj, he said, O people, the Lord of all of you is
one; the father of all of you is one; all of you belong to Adam; Adam was created from dust; an Arab
has no superiority over a non-Arab nor does a non-Arab have any superiority over an Arab except
through piety73 This was what he said at the time of the climax of his victories and triumphs. Usually on such occasions an undistinguished human being would be shoved by elation of victory to
megalomania and to swerve from being reasonable, but these magnanimous principles featured in his
farewell sermon and last testament, the fact which demonstrates that his is the mission delegated by
Allah as His mercy upon the whole mankind. It meant that his message meant welfare, benefaction
and advantage to all humans so that they all could live in peace, prosperity and tranquility; besides advantages in this world it qualified then for the excellent rewards of the Hereafter. It implied that even
he who did not seek the Hereafter, Islam guaranteed peace and security for him as long as he did not
commit outrage upon anyone, transgress against anyone and did not spread depravation in the lands.
Actuality of the treatment of non-Muslims at the hands of Muslims throughout their history:
The relation of Muslims with others is not something new. It started with the inception of Islam in
Mecca when Allah sent His final Messenger to the whole mankind. Initially he was alone and then a
number of all kinds of people believed in him. This faithful group was persecuted, but they remained
patiently persistent in their mission till, by the grace of Allah, they triumphed over the whole Arabian
Peninsula and then over major parts of the earth.
The relation of the polytheists of Mecca with the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) and his companions was
that of persecution, tyranny and extreme nuisance. Later on they imposed fierce hostilities and left
no stone unturned to eliminate Muslims and wipe out Islam. With all given means, they sought to
eradicate Islam and succeeded in slaying to death a number of noble Companions. Finally when their
eyes fell on the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) himself to assassinate him, he managed to get away from
them and migrated to Medina. Even at Medina, they did not leave him alone and sent their armies to
exterminate him at the location of Badr and later in the battle of Ahzb etc.
The relation of the polytheists with Islam thus was based on their goal of eradicating Islam by hook or
by crook. In their wars against Muslims at Medina, they did not conform to any principles or morals.
73 Narrated by Ahmad in his Musnad: 5/411


The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) and his companions were in the state of self-defense defending their
freedom of religion and striving to ward off being afflicted in their faith.
In spite of all these bitter realities, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) persevered in making Medina a
cradle of peace and coexistence between all its residents. He granted complete freedom of religion,
setup the first ever constitution in the history recognizing the right to citizenship for the Jews. The
paradox was that the latter not only broke the covenant and attempted to murder the Messenger of
Allah (pbuh), they acted treacherously and allied with enemies of the state the polytheists -, allured
them to wars, contributed to warmongering with corroboration and incitement and finally participated
in practice in the battle of Ahzb seriously attempting to eliminate the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) and
his companions. Thus they committed a grave crime deserving harsh punishment.
Notwithstanding such atmosphere, charged with outrage, coercion and evident intent of extermination on part of the enemies, there comes the revelation, verse after verse, emphasizing adherence to
justice, equity and not responding to aggression beyond its degree; in fact it sought to repel evil with
that which is better or best. It reminded that all infidels are not alike.
After the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) passed away, the Islamic caliphate secured the principle of freedom of religion, human dignity and human rights.
Throughout the whole epoch of the Islamic rule history has not registered any cases of coercion or
forced entry of anyone into Islamic faith. What better proof can be there of this reality than the fact
that the caliphates of the Rightly Guided Caliphs, Omayyads, Abbasids and Ottomans ruled major
parts of the world for centuries, yet all existing religion there remained intact. Christians remain
present in the Arab world (especially in Egypt, Levant and Iraq) enjoying the freedom of their faiths.
Likewise, Jews too enjoyed absolute freedom until their occupation of Palestine. Had the Islamic
state taken to coercion to forced entry into Islam, they would not have survived till today. This was in
quite contrast to what happened to Muslims in Andalusia where they ruled for eight centuries. There,
Muslims ruled so long, yet the majority of the population remained Christian, yet when Crusaders
came to power, not even a single Muslim or a Jew was left except to accept one of the three options of
being slaughtered or burnt to death, or be Christianized or instant banishment from the land. Thus the
history saw the state of Andalusia cleansed from Muslims within a very short period of time, so much
so that they did not exist even as a small minority there, not even individuals survived.
Even during the modern times all know what the Communists did to Muslims in the Soviet Union and
in Yugoslavia, and what Serbs inflicted upon Muslims of Bosnia and Herzegovina hundreds were
hacked to death and hundreds of their women were violated and raped.
Let us briefly describe what the people of different religions did to each other before Islam. Let us talk
about the Jizyah (capitation) - about which doubts have been spread - and about the term Zimmah
(protection under Islamic rule), which implies high denotation, but which has been distorted by the
prejudiced media with various sensitivities and dubiousness. We will also mention some of the treaties written by the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) for People of the Book Jews and Christians.
Persecution and genocide committed by people of different faiths against each other before
advent of Islam:
Historians have written about religious strife and persecutions that took place at the hands of people of different religions against each other. According to Thomas Arnold the history of Nestorians
speaks of a wonderful renaissance in religious life and other activities after coming under Muslim


rule. Persian kings used to pamper this sect at times and humiliate them at times. Most people of this
sect lived under the rule of these Persian kings. They even witnessed worse of perilous times. They
were persecuted with rowdiness when, during the war between Persia and Byzantine, they were suspected by the Persians of supporting the Christian enemies. But the peace they enjoyed in their lands
during the era of Caliphs enabled them to move forward in their missionary activity outside. They
sent missionary delegations to China and India. They even got elevated to the ranks of archbishop in
the eighth century. During the same period they firmed their feet in Egypt. Afterwards they spread
Christian faith in Asia until in the eleventh century they had attracted large numbers from amongst
Tartars to Christianity. If other Christian sects had failed to demonstrate such a strong activity, Muslims must not be blamed for that as the central government was equally forbearing towards all of
them. They even prevented them from oppressing each other. During the fifth century Bersama a
Nestorian bishop had allured the Persian king to perpetuate harsh persecution against the Orthodox
Church. He had portrayed himself as a friend of the Persians and deluded them that his own principles
were more inclined to those of theirs.
It is said that about 7800 of followers of the Orthodox Church along with a large number of secularists were hacked to death during that persecution. Khusrau II perpetuated yet another persecution
against the Orthodox population after Heracles invaded Persia. Khusrau II had been incited by one of
the Jacobites deluding him that the Orthodox will be sympathetic and supportive to the Byzantines.
Values and principles of Muslims are different from those of others, as it is evident that they never
left a stone unturned to treat all their Christian subjects with justice and equity. An example of this
is that after the conquest of Egypt and rout of the Byzantines, the Jacobites availed of the chance to
seize the Orthodox churches, but Muslims returned them back to their legitimate custodians after the
Orthodox proved their ownership.
Besides historical evidence, a proof of the fact that the conversion of Christians to Islam in Egypt was
not under coercion is that when the patriarchal seat fell vacant, Christians enjoyed absolute freedom
to perform their rituals. They were allowed to rebuild their churches and even to build new churches.
They were able to get rid of the restrictions like riding only donkeys and mules - that prevailed over
them. They were tried in special courts while the monks were exempted from paying Jizyah (capitation) and had special privileges.74
We may add that historians have reported that it was Romans who forced Egyptians (Copts) to embrace Christianity. Gustave Le Bon writes, Egypt was forced to embrace Christianity. It brought
her down to the depth of decline, misery and misfortune, from which it was rescued only the Arab
conquest. Because of the differences between themselves, Egyptians used to wrangle and curse each
other; they harbored hatred against Romans and eagerly waited for the day when they would be liberated from the clutches of the tyrannical Caesars of Rome.75
It is worthwhile to refer to the worthy book of Sheikh Abul Hasan An-Nadawi Mdh Khasira Allam Bi-Inhitt Al-Muslimn (What the World Lost with the Downfall of the Muslims).
Holocaust of the Muslims in Andalusia:
What the Crusaders perpetuated against the Muslims upon their occupation of Andalusia, should make

74 (Back translated from Arabic) The Preaching of Islam - Thomas Arnold Arabic Translation by: Hasan Ibra him Cairo, 1971 P:79 / Please refer
also to: Al-Muslim Wa Al-khar (The Muslim and the Other) Imdud Deen Khaleel Al-Marifah Magazine Issue No: 33-34, 2003
75 Gustave Le Bon Arab Civilization Translated by dil Zaaitar Dr Ihyul Kutub Al-Ilmiyah - Cairo 1956 P: 336


the humanity bow in shame. It is sufficient to refer to what Muhammad Abdullah Inn has mentioned
in his worthy book Nihyat Al-Andalus Wa-Tarkh Al-Arab Al-Munassarn (End of Andalusia and
the History of Christianized Arabs)76, in which he has scientifically documented their crimes that
surpass what is known as Holocaust. From this book and another book of the same author published
in the series named Kitb Al-Ummah -, we may excerpt about hideous events and heinous crimes
perpetuated against the Muslims who lived in Andalusia for about eight centuries, spread knowledge,
civilization and light in Europe and allowed the Christians to stay with full freedom:
When Ferdinand and his fanatic wife Isabella conquered Granada (in 897 Hijra / 1492 AD), the
priests were urging him to wipe out the Muslims from Spain and opt them to choose between Christianization and expulsion to Northwest Africa. They justified for him that in so doing there was no
breach of what he had covenanted to them and that it would rather save their lives because they would
not be able to live with Christians.77
Ferdinand who had covenanted to Muslims to grant them freedom of religion saw in this extermination a way to end their insurgencies. Thus with complete support of the Church and its cardinals,
with the beginning of 1500 AD, he declared the policy of obligatory Christianization. Mosques were
locked and then converted into churches. Tens of thousands of books of Muslims were piled up and
set ablaze in the Ar-Ramlah Square the biggest public square of Granada. The same scene was repeated in various parts of Granada. Forced Christianization and incineration turned rampant. There
were some instances of revolts from the Muslims, but these were disproportionate. Crusader soldiers
committed brutal homicide of the Muslims, captured their women and Christianized their children.78
On 20-06-1501 Ferdinand and his wife declared that God had chosen them to cleanse the kingdom
of Granada of infidels and thus the existence of Muslims was outlawed. After extermination of the
stronger Muslims, when the weaker of them were Christianized in large numbers, the king feared of a
revolt in Granada. He issued his orders banning their entry into Granada, their residing there or seeking refuge there. He who dared to do so was chastened with death and confiscation of possessions.79
The author of Akhbr Al-Asr Fi InqidhI Dawlati Bani Nassr80 has portrayed their pitiful state of
affairs in a lamenting style, In 904 the king of Qishtala called upon the Muslims to embrace Christianity. They were forced to do so. The whole of Andalusia was Christianized and their remained none
to utter the declaration of faith (there is no God, but the one only Allah; Muhammad is His Messenger), except those who did so in the hearts of their hearts away from others. Bells took the place of
the Azn, pictures and crosses were fixed inside the mosques instead of Qurns and their recitation.
How many eyes were there to weep and how many hearts were filled with pain. How many feeble and
unable to flee could not follow the footsteps of their Muslim brethren. Their hearts blazed with gloom,
their eyes shed tears while seeing their sons and daughters praying to the cross. They saw them prostrating in front of idols, eating pork and dead meat and drinking alcohol considered in Islam to be
the mother of all impurities and abominations. They just couldnt do anything to stop them. He who
dared to try, met with worst chastening. What a catastrophe of bitterness; what a tragedy of magnitudes.
Thereafter the inquisitions started to wipe them out completely from their roots and to cleanse Anda76 Cairo - 1958
77 Ibid. P: 297 300
78 Ibid. P: 301 onwards
79 bid.
80 Please refer also to: Al-Muslim Wa Al-khar (The Muslim and the Other) Imdud Deen Khaleel Al-Marifah Magazine Issue No: 33-34, 2003


lusia of Islam thoroughly. The manner was as follows:


Calumny with the priests, against those who were suspected of sticking to Islam, who
would investigate into the matter and write their reports based on confessions and
witnesses or on their personal convictions confirming the charges. This could also be
done through secret investigations ordered by the priests who were utterly malicious
against Islam.
2) Upon completion of a report the investigation authority of the church used to issue
orders of arrest against the accused to be put in the secret prison of the authorities, a
notoriously terrible place of torture and hideousness. Then he would be shackled and
all his property and possessions confiscated.
3) In this prison, the detained were promised clemency if they confessed; they were
threatened of serious consequences and severe punishment if they refused to confess
in front of the innocent sacred church authority. This was a shockingly treacherous
process. If the accused were to confess, he would be sentenced with a suitable punishment; if one confessed to being a Muslim, he would be sentenced to death in spite of
the promise of leniency given to him; if he did not confess, he would be remanded to
humiliating torture until he broke and confessed or died. Lemortni, one of the Western
historians, has reported these shame trials and persecution thus: This torture cannot
be described in words. Numerous shameful cases were disgusting and frightening.
Most known of the types of torture in the Middle Ages were prevalent in the inquisition
courts. For example, besides use of burning skewers on feet and abdomen, an accused
used to be tied by his legs and arms, his head lowered down and then big gulps from
large clay jar put in his mouth so that he would almost suffocate.81
4) At the end of the torture (if the tortured survived), he used to be carried wounded and
bleeding to the courtroom to answer to the inquisition on accusations against him.
Subsequently judgment would be passed by the bishops and priests without announcing it to the accused. In all probability it used to be execution by charring to death if
the infidelity (of believing in Islam) was established. The execution used to be in the
form of mass incineration in a large public square. It used to be a grand celebration
under the personal aegis of the Catholic King Ferdinand. Although a Catholic, he was
a great fan of these sadistic executions.
5) The proceedings to the inquisition courts used to be dawdling. The jury enjoyed absolute immunity, which made it possible for them to molest the daughters and wives of
the accused with impunity and without any fear of penalty.82
What is the essence of Jizyah (capitation)?
Jizyah in Arabic means recompense in return or in exchange of something.83 Islamic jurisprudents
mean by it the charges collected from the Zimmis (protected non-Muslim citizens). According to the
definition of the Shfii School of jurisprudence, it means the charges collected consensually from
them for sheltering them in our territories or for sparing their lives, their children and their possessions, and for our desisting from combating them.84
Alike or near are the definitions of most of the jurisprudents85 and this denotation is closest to its lexical meaning.
81 Muhammad Abdullah Inn - Nihyat Al-Andalus P: 304-322
82 Ibid.
83 Al-Qamoos Al-Muheet, Lisn Al-Arab and other lexicons
84 Al-Qalyubis commentary on Sharhu Al-Muhall 4/228
85 Al-Fatw Al-Hindiyah (2/244); Jawhir Al-Ikleel (1/266); Al-Mughni (8/495)


The prcis of the definitions is that it is the fees collected from the non-Muslims living in the Muslim
lands in lieu of providing safety and security to them. We can say, It is in lieu of the right of citizenship. Just as Zakt (mandatory charity) is collected from the Muslim citizens possessions and Charity
of the Fast of Ramadhn (Sadaqatu Al-Fitr) is duly paid by every individual Muslim, just like that is
payment of Jizyah necessitated from non-Muslims and tribute (Kharj) from their lands. This is substantiated by the fact that when some Christians (the tribe of Banu-Taghlib) did not accept the term
Jizyah to be used in their case and accepted instead to pay Zakt (like Muslims) or even double of
it, the Rightly Guided Caliph Omar (mAbpwh) accepted their proposition.86
On the other hand payment Jizyah was a clear denotation of recognition of the Islamic state and its
political authority. This was a sort of assurance of trust between the two parties.
Scholars differ about the beginning of legislation about Jizyah. Some say that it was in the 8th year
of the Hijri calendar while some suppose that it was in the 9th year.87 It was firstly collected from
the Christians of Najran and the respectively from Magi sect of Hajr, people of Aylah and Azrah,
and some Jewish tribes of Tabuk. It was within one Dinar (i.e. about 4.5 Grams of gold) per year for
every sane male adult. It was not collected from children, insane, monks and women. According to
Abu Obaidah and others the letter of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) addressed to the people of Yemen
included, From Muhammad to the people of Yemen, any Jew or Christian accepting Islam is a
faithful, his rights and duties are same as those of Muslim; he who continues to be on his Judaism or
Christianity, he shall not be lured away from that, (however) he shall have to pay Jizyah.88
Whether Jizyah is a bribe or a citizenship tax?
A state of any sort (whether religious or secular) enjoys rights over its citizens and owes to them the
responsibilities of safety, security and internal solidarity etc. Its rights over the citizens, for example,
are to be supported by human and financial resources in order to be able to achieve the targets fruitful for all citizens. This is because, otherwise (in absence of rights and responsibilities), insecurity,
political uncertainty and economic chaos will obliterate everything and reduces all achievements to
nothingness. This is a historical fact and very well evident from what has been happening in recent
times in Iraq and other places.
Based on this reality Islamic state, in this regard, just like any other state, whether primitive, modern
or advanced or otherwise, imposed its financial rights to ensure safety of individuals and the society
and in the interest of solidarity of its citizens. However it has distinguished between two kinds of the
obligatory rights as follows:
First kind: Financial rights which imply devoutness (as in Zakt) and have been obligated on Muslims
to realize solidarity. Primarily and in principle these require devout intent that is expected only from
one who has embraced Islam as his creed, canon and way of life.
Thus it is quite natural that this kind of obligation should be specific in application, in proportion of
obligation and with regard to the obligated. In spite of this, if non-Muslims accede to this in lieu of
the second kind - mentioned below -, the Islamic state would welcome it, simply because it is more
86 Please refer to Al-Amwl by Abi Ubaid P: 541 / Kharj by Abu Yusuf P: 143 / Fiqhu Az-Zakt by Yusuf Al-Qaradwi 1/118 Maktabat
Wahba, 2006
87 Zd Al-Maad by Ibn Al-Qayyim (2/288); Tafseer Ibn Katheer (2/347)
88 Al-Amwl P: 37, Qatar


than the second.

Second kind: Financial rights in which the devotional connotation is basically not perceived and thus
its expenditure and proportion etc. are different. In this kind of obligation, the following two considerations are observed:
1) Recognition of the Islamic state and its authority makes rights and responsibilities
incumbent upon both sides (the state and the residents). This is how many leading jurisprudents, like Shfai, have interpreted the divine saying, until they pay the Jizya
with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued. (Al-Qurn, 9:29), meaning
until they submit to the authority of the state with motivation and accept what has been
imposed upon them by Allah in the form of paying Jizyah to the state.
2) Contribution to shouldering part of the responsibilities of the Islamic state in establishing peace and security for all its citizens and to defend against those who may keep
lurking with obnoxious designs. It is the contribution in peacekeeping and defense
besides being a contribution towards progress, social solidarity and security for the
needy. The proceeds go to the exchequer and are spent on development projects, infrastructure and social security for all those who live in the state including Muslims as
well as protected non-Muslim.
In other words, linguistically speaking, Jizyah means Jiz (tribute) for the above mentioned benefits;
it certainly does not imply any ill intentions towards anyone. However, since the media hype against
it aroused sensitivity against it, there is no harm in calling the collection from non-Muslims as tax or
a similar name. Even if it were to be called Zakt, it will not amount to any violation of the Shariah.
In fact there is a precedence to this i.e. during the caliphate of Omar Ibn Al-Khattb (mAbpwh)
when the Arab Christian tribe of Banu Taghlib refused to pay these dues under the name of Jizyah
and instead volunteered to pay double the amount under the name of Zakt, Omar granted their petition. Hence the name in itself is not of prime importance as much as the collecting of the due and
spending it in the interest of the state, the country and the citizens.
The term Zimmah:
Just as a hype has been created regarding Jizyah, the beautiful expression of Zimmah, which has
a sublime connotation and humane denotations, has also been slandered. Zimmah, in Arabic idiom,
means neck, soul and covenant. In the primary sources of Islam it has been explicated as guarantee
of inviolability offered by Allah and His Messenger (pbuh). In other words it means that Allah and
His Messenger (pbuh) have pledged peace and protection to the concerned. The truth is that Islams
admittance of another religion while wielding power and authority - was an upheaval of all previously prevalent concepts. Prior to it, history had not recorded any religion as having admitted coexistence with any other religion even if this had been the religion of a section of the same people. Jews,
not only did not approve of the religion of Jesus Christ, they, instead, persecuted his companions and
disciples and tyrannized them. They killed some and tried to kill and execute Jesus himself (pbuh) by
crucifixion, but Allah rescued him by raising him up unto Himself. Likewise did the Christians; when
they attained statehood and wielded power, they persecuted the Jews time and again. They killed
them, tortured them, dislodged them and frightened them away.
3.2 Qurnic Principles underlying foreign relations
In times of peace and in circumstances of war these can be summarized with the following three
verses of the Chapter Al-Mumtahinah of the Holy Book:


It may be that God will grant love (and friendship) between you and those whom ye (now) hold as
enemies. For God has power (over all things); And God is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. God forbids
you not, with regard to those who fight you not for (your) Faith nor drive you out of your homes, from
dealing kindly and justly with them: for God loveth those who are just. God only forbids you, with
regard to those who fight you for (your) Faith, and drive you out of your homes, and support (others)
in driving you out, from turning to them (for friendship and protection). It is such as turn to them (in
these circumstances), that do wrong. (Al-Qurn, 60:7-9).
The first verse elucidates that Islam aspires, with all given means, for removal of enmity and realization of love. The second verse clarifies about relations between Muslims and others in times of peace
and cessation of hostility that these relations stand on beneficence, benevolence, justice and equity.
The third verse explicates the relation between Muslims and others in circumstances of war and
hostility that it is grounded on the need of Muslims uniting and devoting their allegiance of love and
collaboration to the Almighty Allah and to the believers in Him; and that their collaboration must not
be with the hostile infidels. However, it is important that even in situations of war and hostility the
foundations of justice and fairness must be honored and not allowed to erode.
The amazing thing in these verses is that these are a part of the chapter that starts with a mention of
what the enemies of Allah did with the Muslims and what they really intend to do with them. Here are
the first two verses of this chapter:
O ye who believe! Take not my enemies and yours as friends (or protectors),- offering them (your)
love, even though they have rejected the Truth that has come to you, and have (on the contrary) driven
out the Prophet and yourselves (from your homes), (simply) because ye believe in God your Lord! If
ye have come out to strive in My Way and to seek My Good Pleasure, (take them not as friends), holding secret converse of love (and friendship) with them: for I know full well all that ye conceal and all
that ye reveal. And any of you that does this has strayed from the Straight Path. If they were to get the
better of you, they would behave to you as enemies, and stretch forth their hands and their tongues
against you for evil: and they desire that ye should reject the Truth. (Al-Qurn, 60:1).
Next, Allah says, If they were to get the better of you, they would behave to you as enemies, and
stretch forth their hands and their tongues against you for evil: and they desire that ye should reject
the Truth. (Al-Qurn, 60:2).
In spite of that Allah emphasized upon Justice and fairness. For example, Allah said, and let not the
hatred of some people in (once) shutting you out of the Sacred Mosque lead you to transgression (and
hostility on your part). Help ye one another in righteousness and piety, but help ye not one another in
sin and rancour: fear Allah, for Allah is strict in punishment. (Al-Qurn, 5:2).
Even more amazing is that the Chapter 60 (Al-Mumtahinah) was revealed after the Chapter 9 (AtTaubah), the fact that removes any likelihood of abrogation of the verses of the former, which testified to the fact that those polytheists did not honor their covenants and that they had acted treacherously towards Allah and the faithful. However, even here the verses emphasize upon the Muslims to
deal always with others on the basis of justice, beneficence and benevolence provided they do not
commit tyranny, expulsion, carnage and terror against Muslims. The major Islamic fundamental in
international relations is that severance of ties and being hostile is specific only to the circumstances
of enmity and aggression and that otherwise the relation has to be of beneficence and benevolence
only. Islam does not seek hostility or dissociation from others. In fact Islam prompts to keep the constituent of love intact in hearts and minds with disposition of chaste behavior and just conduct, while


dealing with the adversaries, in anticipation of the day when hearts and minds would convene on love
and peace.
Sayyid Qutb puts it thus: This standard for dealing with non-Muslims is most just of all standards
that could be in harmony with the nature of this religion, with its direction and with its perception of
the human life, rather with its overall perspective of the universe which has been designed and created
by the single creator and converges to Him alone and which, in spite of all dissimilitude and diversity,
is synergic in its core design and eternal meticulousness. This is the basis of its international law,
through which it bolsters the state of peace between itself and all people and makes it enduring, the
state that is not changed by anything except by occurrence of belligerent aggression and the compulsion of repulsing the aggression or by apprehension of treacherousness after a treaty which means a
threat of aggression -, or by deliberate hindrance of freedom to preach and jeopardizing the freedom
of belief , which is an aggression. In all other situations it is nothing but peace, love, beneficence,
benevolence and justice for all without exception or exclusion.
Secondly this is the standard that is in harmony with the Islamic ideology where all issues between
the faithful and their opponents converge into the issue of this belief alone. There is nothing between
them to fight on, except the freedom to call, freedom of belief, establishing the divine system in the
world and exalting the word of Allah.
This direction is in agreement with the theme of the whole Chapter (Al-Mumtahinah) aiming at accentuation of the value of faith and making it the single flag under which Muslims must stand united;
whosoever stands by them is one of them, whosoever fights them in that is their enemy, whosoever
reconciles with them leaves them with their belief and their Call, does not hinder others from this
faith, does not obstruct between them and the listening to the Call and does not allure the faithful
away from the faith is peaceable and Islam does not forbid from dealing kindly and justly with him.
A Muslim lives in this world for his faith, he makes it his issue with his own self and with the people
around him; there is no antagonism for any personal interest, there is no (Jihd) struggle for the
cause of race or land or clan or lineage; Jihd is for nothing except for exalting the word of Allah
and for effective establishment of the belief as the way of life.89
Islam never took to arms to impose its belief with coercion or duress. Allah says, Let there be no
compulsion in religion. (Al-Qurn, 2:256). Certainly the notion of hegemony and subjugation of
others is absolutely unacceptable in Islam, as Allah says, That Home of the Hereafter We shall give
to those who intend not high-handedness or mischief on earth: and the end is (best) for the righteous.
(Al-Qurn, 28:83). War in Islam is only for defending justice and removing injustice. Allah says, To
those against whom war is made, permission is given (to fight), because they are wronged;- and verily, God is most powerful for their aid. (Al-Qurn, 22:39). War is for standing up for the oppressed.
Allah says, And why should ye not fight in the cause of God and of those who, being weak, are illtreated (and oppressed)?- Men, women, and children, whose cry is: Our Lord! Rescue us from this
town, whose people are oppressors; and raise for us from thee one who will protect; and raise for us
from thee one who will help!. (Al-Qurn, 4:75).

89 Sayyid Qutb - Fee Zill Al-Qurn Dar Ash-Shrooq, Cairo (6/3544-3545)


3.3 Citizenship rights for foreigners in Light of Medinan Covenant:

The first Islamic state that was established in Medina was founded on the basis of (muwkht) fraternity between Muslims comprising of the migrants from Mecca and their supporters at Medina; in
essence it meant that they were a single nation distinct from others, that they were like a single body
and that they were a single hand in the face of whosoever dared to act with hostility towards them, yet
the common ground with non-Muslims was the ground of justice, citizenship and mutual rights and
responsibilities. The Covenant of Medina is a document dictated by the Messenger of Allah (pbuh)
comprising of 47 clauses, a big number of which are related to the rights of the Jews. These include:
1. That the protection by Allah is one and inseparable; (even) the lowest of them is privileged with it. All the believers are defenders of each other distinct from others.
2. Those who follow us from amongst the Jews, shall be supported just like Muslims;
they shall not be treated unjustly or with bias against them.
3. Any move of peace by Muslims shall be (strictly) collective; when fighting for the
cause of Allah, no believer shall make peace individually without involving other
believers, except on equity and justice between them.
4. In every invasion undertaken, all of them shall be at the back of each other.
5. Whatsoever you may disagree on must be referred to Allah and His Messenger.
6. The Jews shall contribute financially with the faithful as long as both fight alongside
each other.
7. Jews shall spend on their own and Muslims shall spend on their own; both shall support each other against those who commit aggression against the signatories of this
covenant; they shall sincerely advise and consult each other and be faithful to each
other without any wrongdoing.
8. No one shall offend his ally; the wronged shall be supported.
9. No woman shall be sheltered except with the consent of her family.
10. If ever an incident takes place or a dispute erupts between the signatories of this covenant and it is feared to lead to discord, the matter shall be referred to Allah and His
Messenger. Allah is the best witness of the piety and beneficence of this covenant.
11. They shall support each other against anyone making a raid on Yathrib.
12. Whenever they are called to make peace and live peacefully, they shall do so; should
they too call to the same, Muslims shall be obliged to do so, with exception of anyone
who fights their religion.
13. Every group of people shall have their portion reciprocally.
14. The Jews of Aws and their allies are entitled to the same as that of the signatories of
this covenant; beneficence is unlike a sin whosoever commits it commits it against
his own self. Allah is the witness over the sincerity and beneficence of this covenant.
15. This covenant shall not come in the way of punishing a tyrant or a guilty; whosoever
goes out shall enjoy safety; whosoever stays home at Medina shall also be safe, except
he who aggrieves or offends. Surely Allah is the protector of those who are truthful
and pious.90
The covenant plainly laid emphasis on religious freedom stating that Muslims have their own religion
and Jews their own. When some of the Supporters (Muslims of Medina) tried to force some of their
clansmen who turned Jewish to revert back to Islam, Allah revealed, Let there be no compulsion in
religion. (Al-Qurn, 2:256).
90 For text of the covenant, please refer to Majmooat Al-Wathiq As-Siysiyah by Muhammad Hamdullah Beirut, 1389 Hijra P: 41-47 / AsSeeratu An-Nabawiyah As-Saheehah by Akram Al-Umari Qatar, 1411 Hijra P: 282-285. (Paraphrased from the authentic sources. The original
document is called Saheefah, in the books on biography on the life of the Messenger and on history).


One of the clauses of the Covenant of Medina stated, To Jews is their religion and to Muslims is their
own religion; they and their allies alike (shall be safe) except he who transgresses against himself
and sins, such a person shall harm none but himself.91 The document also emphasized on personal
responsibilities in light of the Divine saying, no bearer of burdens can bear the burden of another.
(Al-Qurn, 6:164).
Sanctity of the covenant aside, the Jews did not honor it in text nor in spirit. They contravened their
pacts with the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) and as a result of their treachery they got their due.
So far as other tribes the Quraish being the foremost and the believers of other religions surrounding the state of Medina are concerned, they did not recognize its existence. With all means at their
disposal, they fought it tooth and nail to wipe it out. Hence the relation with them could not be cordial
or cooperative. On the contrary, it was a relation of hostility, war and enmity. In spite of all that Islam
successfully nurtured its believers to adhere to justice and equity. It was quite natural for this faith
based state to defend itself as the first revelation concerning rules of Jihd implied the inevitability
of the spirit of defense. It stated, To those against whom war is made, permission is given (to fight),
because they are wronged;- and verily, God is most powerful for their aid. (Al-Qurn, 22:39).
The subsequent verse mentions the justifications for Jihd and combat for their being subjected to
tyranny and being driven out from their land. Hence they are justified in defending themselves, in
repelling the transgression and in defending their faith and places of worship including even the
places of worship of non-Muslims. The verse reads, (They are) those who have been expelled from
their homes in defiance of right,- (for no cause) except that they say, our Lord is God. Did not God
check one set of people by means of another, there would surely have been pulled down monasteries,
churches, synagogues, and mosques, in which the name of God is commemorated in abundant measure. God will certainly aid those who aid his (cause);- for verily God is full of Strength, Exalted in
Might, (able to enforce His Will). (Al-Qurn, 22:39).
Obviously, war in the eyes of Islam is an exigency imposed by others. Islam does not resort to war except when all peaceful ways are blocked, when the channels of calling others to Islam are obstructed
or when the authority of its state is not admitted through the gesture of paying Jizyah. As mentioned
previously, Jizyah is denoted participation of the non-Muslims in shouldering the responsibilities of
peace and citizenship, while Muslims themselves pay much higher financial dues in terms of Zakt
etc. In other words, Muslims do not initiate any war against others, but first proposes the Call to them;
if the addressees accept the Call, well and good, else they ought to pay Jizyah as a gesture of peace
and reconciliation.
This spirit with its sublime significance is vindicated by the Treaty of Hudaibiyah whereby the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) accepted a number of conditions which were obviously tyrannical and oppressive, but irrespective of that he said, By Allah, whatsoever proposal Quraish may put before me
seeking to brace the bond of kinship, I will grant it to them.92 Even more marvelous is that Allah the
Almighty labeled the treaty as manifest victory and revealed a whole chapter of the Qurn (named
Victory). The Holy Qurn has reiterated upon the soundness of this approach in more than one verse,
for example, But if the enemy incline towards peace, do thou (also) incline towards peace, and trust
in God: for He is One that heareth and knoweth (all things). (Al-Qurn, 8:61).

91 Ibid.
92 Narrated by Bukhri (Fathul Bri): (5/329)


Majority of the jurists belonging to the foremost schools of jurisprudence (Hanafi, Mliki, Shfaei
and Hanbali) underline the inevitability of the need to calling to Islam before declaration of war.93
They base this inference on the divine saying, No bearer of burdens can bear the burden of another:
nor would We visit with Our Wrath until We had sent an apostle (to give warning). (Al-Qurn,
17:15). The approach of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) was based on the same principle and when he
deputed his companions on a mission, he used to spell this code, even regarding the case of polytheists. He is reported to have said, When you meet with your enemy from amongst the polytheists, call
them to one of the three qualities; if they respond to that positively, do accept that and hold back from
them. Then call them to Islam94
In fact Ibn Abbas - the first interpreter of the Qurn (mAbpwh) has unequivocally settled this issue
by reporting that, The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) never combated any people without having called
them to Islam.95
So far as the raid against Bani-Al-Mustalaq is concerned, scholars have justified it by saying that the
raid was carried out against them because they initiated the aggression by preparing to invade the
state of Medina although the call of Islam had already reached to them.96
Pacts and Agreements of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) With Christians and Jews:
In addition to the aforementioned Covenant of Medina that was approbated by the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) to detail the relation between him and the Jews which represented situation of peace
and acknowledged all the legitimate rights of citizenship, he also ratified quite a few other pacts and
agreements with Jews as well as Christians. Some of those are:
The pact concluded with the Christians of Najrn upon his return from the battle of Tabuk in the year
9 Hijri. The pact signifies highest standard of justice, toleration and freedom. It granted freedom of
belief and protection to them and safeguarded their interests. Nothing was imposed upon them except
a modest Jizyah payable in kind.97 Among other terms, it included: Najrn and their collateral relatives are under the protection of Allah Whosoever from amongst them seeks a right shall have equity; they shall not wrong nor shall they be wronged. None of them shall be punished for a transgression
of another. The content of this charter is safeguarded with guarantee in the name of Allah provided for
good by His Messenger as long as they remain faithful and honest to what they have undertaken.98
The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) granted this pledge and protection to the Jews in spite of their treachery at the time of invasion of Ahzb against Medina. Sometime after the assault on Khybar, he wrote
to a number of Jewish communities living in the northern areas of Arabian Peninsula. Among such
communications was the one with Bani Junbah of Miqnah that falls in the vicinity Aylah near the Gulf
of Aqabah, wherein he wrote, As for now, your emissaries had stopped over with us and they are returning back to your place. When this letter of mine reaches you (through them), you stand protected,
you are safeguarded with guarantee in the name of Allah provided by His Messenger. The Messenger
93 Please refer to Majmau Al-Anhr (1/635); Ash-Sharhu Al-Kabeer with Dasuqi (2/176); Rawdhatu As-Saliheen (10/239); Al-Mughni
Ibn Qudmah, (10/379)
94 Muslim Kitb Al-Jihad: (3/1357)
95 Musnad Ahmad: (1/231); As-Sunan Al-Kubr: (9/107)
96 Muslim Kitb Al-Jihad: (3/1356); Seerat Iban Hishm: (3:228)
97 Imdud Deen Khaleel Dirsatun Fee As-Seerah, Beirut 1997
98 At-Tabaqt Al-Kubr by Ibn Sad (2/1/36, 84-85); Futooh Al-Buldn Balzuri, Cairo 1957 (1/76-78); Tareekh Al-Yaqoobi,
Najaf 1964 (2/17-72); Imdud Deen Khaleel Al-Marifah Magazine Issue No: 33-34, 2003


of Allah is forgiving you for your misdeeds. You shall not be aggrieved nor treated unjustly. The Messenger of Allah shall safeguard you against what he safeguards himself against. To you is the produce
of your date palms. If you listen and obey, it shall be binding on the Messenger of Allah to honor
your honorable and to forgive your wrongdoer. There shall not be an Emir appointed to you but from
amongst you or from amongst the companions of the Messenger of Allah.99
Likewise was done towards the Jews of Bani Ghadiy, Harb and Azrah.100 This is how he managed
to transform these ghettoes of the Jews to clusters of citizens of the Islamic state. They paid to it what
was prescribed to them in the form of capital taxes or in kind. They took protection under its power
and authority and enjoyed its justice and toleration. There are a number of accounts and historical
texts which signify that after the assault on Khybar, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) used to deal with
the Jews with the spirit of toleration to the extent that he asked his envoy Muaz Bin Jabal, not to
lure away the Jews from their Jewry. Jews of Bahrain were dealt with the same spirit of toleration.
They too were not required of anything except payment of Jizyah. They remained holding fast to their
ancestral creed.101
Thomas Arnold, in his famous book The Preaching of Islam infers that Islam starts off from the conviction of inevitability of difference (based on verses 118 and 119 of the Chapter 11 of the Qurn)102 leading
to the acceptance of the Other and to protect him; that Jizyah is nothing but a token of acceptance of
the Other, recognition of his citizenship and obligating him to pay his financial dues against enjoying
peace and security. Since this book (The Preaching of Islam by Thomas Arnold) contains analysis
substantiated with authentically documented evidence about Islams strategy for dealing with followers of other religions, we shall excerpt from it to convey our perspective:
When the people of Heirah submitted the dues they had agreed to pay, they mentioned frankly that
they had paid the Jizyah on the condition that they (Muslims) and their Emir shall protect them from
any transgression from Muslims as well as from others. Khalid Bin Wald (mAbpwh) did likewise
when he signed a pact with the people of the towns around Heirah. History registered his famous
statement to them, If we are able to protect you, we shall have the Jizyah, otherwise no.
The forthright acknowledgement of Muslims of this condition can be substantiated with the incident
that took place during the caliphate of Omar Ibn Al-Khattb (mAbpwh), when Hercules, the emperor
of Rome, deployed a huge contingent of his forces to repulse the Muslim advance; Muslims had to
focus all of their military activity towards the encounter in waiting.
When Abu Obaidah the commander of Muslim forces - came to know this, he wrote to the administrators of the conquered lands in Levant requiring them to return back the Jizyah collected from
their cities. He wrote to the people, we are returning back the dues collected from you; what has
been collected on our behalf from the people, has come to our notice. Since you have conditioned on
us protecting you and (at this stage) we are not able to protect you, we are returning to you what we
had collected from you; however, if Allah grants us victory over (Romans), we remain committed to
our promise and to what was agreed between us. Thus huge amounts of money were returned back
99 At-Tabaqt Al-Kubr by Ibn Sad (1/2/28-30)
100 Ibid.; Imdud Deen Khaleel Dirsatun Fee As-Seerah, Beirut 1997
101 Imdud Deen Khaleel Al-Marifah Magazine Issue No: 33-34, 2003; Imdud Deen Khaleel Dirsatun Fee As-Seerah, Beirut 1997 - (P: 358)
102 If thy Lord had so willed, He could have made mankind one people: but they will not cease to dispute.
Except those on whom thy Lord hath bestowed His Mercy: and for this did He create them: and the Word of thy Lord shall be fulfilled: I will fill
Hell with jinns and men all together.


from the state treasury. Upon this the Christians prayed for the Muslim commanders saying, May
God bring you back to us safely and grant you victory over the Romans. Had they (Romans) been (our
rulers), they would not have returned back anything; they would rather have robbed us of everything
we had.
Calling to Islam with wisdom and astute advice is all inclusive:
The message of Islam is a message of bliss and welfare and salvation in this world as well as in the
hereafter. It is truly a mission of mercy for all creation because he tells His messenger (pbuh), We
sent thee not, but as a Mercy for all creatures (Al-Qurn, 21:107)
Keeping that in view, the believers of Islam are required to pass it on to others, not with coercion and
violence but with a sense of mission, astute advice and wisdom, as Allah commands, Let there be
no compulsion in religion. (Al-Qurn, 2:256) and Invite (all) to the Way of thy Lord with wisdom
and beautiful preaching; and argue with them in ways that are best and most gracious. (Al-Qurn,
16:125). Yet Allah has distinguished the people of the Book cautioning that argument with them about
religious issues should be with better argument (than theirs), And dispute ye not with the People of
the Book, except with means better (than mere disputation), unless it be with those of them who inflict
wrong (and injury): but say, We believe in the revelation which has come down to us and in that
which came down to you; Our God and your God is one; and it is to Him we bow (in Islam). (AlQurn, 29:46). On the practical side, the Holy Qurn refers to the approach that Moses and Aron were
advised to adopt while addressing the tyrant Pharaoh the approach of mild and easy discourse laced
with wisdom, Go, both of you, to Pharaoh, for he has indeed transgressed all bounds; But speak to
him mildly; perchance he may take warning or fear (God). (Al-Qurn, 20:43-44). And Allah tells
His Final Messenger (pbuh), Thou art not one to manage (mens) affairs. (Al-Qurn, 88:22). He
tells him that his call should be characterized by wisdom and astute advice.
3.4 Applied Diplomacy in Peace Time:
Islam seriously aspires for maintenance of peace and security and adherence to treaties and covenants
signed between the state of Islam or Muslims and others, as individuals and as groups. A number of
explicit texts seek strict adherence to covenants and fulfillment of treaties. Allah says, O ye who
believe! fulfill (all) obligations. (Al-Qurn, 5:1) and and fulfill (every) engagement, for (every)
engagement will be enquired into (on the Day of Reckoning). (Al-Qurn, 17:34).
Fulfillment of treaties and covenants is one of the basic characteristics of the faithful, whereas breach
and infringement thereof is deemed to be a trait of hypocrites. Allah describes the righteous believers
as, Those who faithfully observe their trusts and their covenants. (Al-Qurn, 23:8).
In no way does the Holy Qurn allow the Islamic state commit a breach or transgress against a nonIslamic state with which it is bound with agreements or treaties as long as they do not commit any
breach or treachery.
Twenty verses (55th to 75th) of the 8th Chapter (Al-Anfl) which is one of the last revealed chapters of the Holy Qurn - portray the clear picture of external relations between the Islamic state and
the states, groups and blocs around it. The choice of ratification of agreements for peaceful coexistence with various entities has been established as long as it is possible to safeguard such agreements
against breach and are seriously upheld and truly honored103. This is substantiated through the following concepts:


Obligation of upholding the agreements: Allah says, O ye who believe! fulfill (all)

103 Sayyid Qutb - Fee Zill Al-Qurn Dar Ash-Shrooq, Cairo (3/1539)

obligations. (Al-Qurn, 5:1). It is essential to safeguard the agreements and covenants from breach and infringement. Allah says, For the worst of beasts in the sight
of God are those who reject Him: They will not believe. They are those with whom
thou didst make a covenant, but they break their covenant every time, and they have
not the fear (of God). (Al-Qurn, 8:55-56).
2. If the Islamic state having an agreement with other people fears their treachery, it has
to formally renounce the obligation; it cannot contravene unilaterally without having
notified them, because Allah does not like the treacherous. Islam wants agreements to
be honored, accords to be safeguarded and covenants to be adhered to; if the other party does not uphold the agreement and instead of fulfilling the obligations shows a trait
of treachery and deceit, even the Muslims are not allowed to pay for the treachery with
a treachery or a betrayal with a betrayal from their side; they, rather, have to declare it
to them, renounce the agreement or grant them another chance. Allah says, They are
those with whom thou didst make a covenant, but they break their covenant every time,
and they have not the fear (of God). If ye gain the mastery over them in war, disperse,
with them, those who follow them, that they may remember. If thou fearest treachery
from any group, throw back (their covenant) to them, (so as to be) on equal terms:
for God loveth not the treacherous. (Al-Qurn, 8:56-58) This is how Islam raises the
humankind high to the horizons of honor and uprightness and ascends with them to the
heights of peace, tranquility, stability and fearlessness from turbulence and treachery.
3. Need for preparedness with strength so that the enemies of the Islamic state do not
envisage being covetous due to what is called deterrence in contemporary terminology. Allah says, Against them make ready your strength to the utmost of your power,
including steeds of war, to strike terror into (the hearts of) the enemies, of God and
your enemies, and others besides, whom ye may not know, but whom God doth know.
Whatever ye shall spend in the cause of God, shall be repaid unto you, and ye shall
not be treated unjustly. (Al-Qurn, 8:60).
4. If the adversaries incline towards peace, the state should opt for peace by putting
trust in Allah, But if the enemy incline towards peace, do thou (also) incline towards
peace, and trust in God: for He is One that heareth and knoweth (all things). (AlQurn, 8:61).
5. Dealing with others should not be based on skepticism and suspicion. That is why the
Holy Qurn emphasizes on the need to opt for just peace and encourages inclination
towards it even with a fear of treachery as long as the Nation remains strong and competent of deterring the aggression. Allah says, Should they intend to deceive thee,verily God sufficeth thee: He it is That hath strengthened thee with His aid and with
(the company of) the Believers. (Al-Qurn, 8:62).
6. Need for establishment of solemnity of Islam, of strong will and lasting preparedness
to protect the nation, not of ferociousness, because Allah does not like the transgressors.
7. Need for emphasis on the principle of loyalty amongst the faithful complemented with
love and solidarity in the face of loyalty between the infidels. The Muslim Nation
should not remain disunited and ragged while their enemy is united and darts at them
from a single bow. It is afflicting that the Muslims fail to grasp the imperative principle of mutual loyalty. Allah says, The Unbelievers are protectors, one of another:
Unless ye do this, (protect each other), there would be tumult and oppression on earth,
and great mischief. (Al-Qurn, 8:73).
8. Those whose agreements and guarantees cannot be relied upon and whose viciousness
is apprehended, their due reward is intimidation and severe retribution till they give up


their wicked deeds.

9. Necessity of establishing relations on the basis of explicitness, safeguarding treaties
and covenants, and renunciation of treachery and Machiavellian deceitfulness. Sayyid
Qutb puts it thus, Islam aspires to elevate the humankind; it wants the humankind
to be chaste and virtuous so that it does not legitimize betrayal to triumph. Islam
strives for superior goals and noblest objectives. Islam does not allow the use of mean
means with intention of achieving noble ends. Islam abhors treachery and despises
the treacherous who disregard their vows. Hence Muslims must not disregard the
trust behind an agreement in order to achieve a goal whatsoever noble that may be.
Human personality is a single unit that cannot be partitioned; when someone deems
mean means permissible for himself, it will not be possible for him to stand guard for
a noble cause. One who justifies means with ends cannot be a perfect Muslim; such a
norm will be strange to the Islamic conscience as well as to Islamic sensitivity.104
10. The evidence of the fact that Muslims honor their agreements with others is that if
some Muslims, who were not able to join the Islamic state, turn to it for help, it is
bound to help them with the condition that supporting them does not violate any of its
agreements with the concerned entity even if it were to be tyrannical on those Muslim
personnel regarding their religion and belief. Allah says, As to those who believed
but came not into exile, ye owe no duty of protection to them until they come into exile; but if they seek your aid in religion, it is your duty to help them, except against a
people with whom ye have a treaty of mutual alliance. And (remember) God seeth all
that ye do. (Al-Qurn, 8:72).
3.5 Non-Muslim Rights in Islamic Territories
In light of the methodology adopted in this study (i.e. the Methodology of Jurisprudence of Diligence
and Equilibration), the status and rights of non Muslims in the circumstances of war differ from their
status and rights in times of peace. Hence we can say the following:
Firstly: The non-Muslims who have been living in the Muslim countries for generations are citizens
with legitimate rights of citizenship and upon them are duties. There is no exception to this except
with a genuine and definitive text or with what may be related to the special rights based on being the
religious majority or the religious minority.
This exception is considered reasonable even according to the modern political system, some or most
of which (in Europe and the West) insist, for example, that the head of state must be a Christian.
Hence the condition that the head of the state must belong to the religion of the majority is genuine,
reasonable and being applied even in modern democracies. This is because such exceptional conditions do not affect the essence of the principle of equality of rights and responsibilities and, certainly,
do not affect the rights of citizenship in their foundations or rudiments.
This is denoted by the following:
1. The Covenant of Medina or the First Constitution of Medina granted the rights of
citizenship and religious freedom along with the right of alliance with anyone except
with enemies.105
2. The general principle regarding rights of the non-Muslims under Protection is that,
To them is what is to us; upon them is what is upon us. Ali ibn Abi Tlib (mAbpwh)
has put it thus, Since they accepted paying Jizyah so that their possessions are like
our possessions and their life is like ours.106


106 Badiu As-SanI (6/111); Al-Qawneen Al-Fiqhiyah (p:105); Al-Mazhad by Sheerzi (2/256); Al-Ahkm As-Sultniyah by Al-Mwardi
P:247; Al-Mughnee (8/445).
104 Sayyid Qutb - Fee Zill Al-Qurn Dar Ash-Shrooq, Cairo (3/1542)
105 Abdul Qadir Awdah has called the Protected non-Muslims as Citizens Holding Islamic Nationality (see his book Islam and Criminal Justice);
Dr. Abdul Kareem Zaidan Ahkmu Az-Zimiyeen wa Al-Mustamineen Fee Dri Al-Islam P:63-66; Dr. Jafar Abd As-Salam Ilqatu AdDuwal Al-Islamiyah bi Ad-Duwal Al-Ukhr P: 17 (Submitted to International Academy of Islamic Jurisprudence, 17th Session).


What Islam has imposed on the Protected non-Muslims in the form of Jizyah and
capitation, falls under the purview of the rights of citizenship.
It is worth cautioning that the term Ahlu Az-Zimmah or the Protected non-Muslims
denotes that that they are under covenant and responsibility of Allah guaranteed by
His Messenger (pbuh).

Secondly: Scholars, past and contemporary, belonging to various schools of jurisprudence,

have recounted these rights in detail and the books of jurisprudence elaborate them at
length. Among those who have substantiated these rights with textual evidence from
the Holy Qurn and the Tradition of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) are Dr. Abdul
Karm Zaidn and Dr. Yusuf Al-Qaradwi107. Lets briefly summarize below what
they have said:
1. It is an obligation of the state to protect them from external aggression, defend them
and rescue their prisoners. Scholars are unanimous on the need of deployment of forces for combating those who may fight them [the protected] even if they were scattered
as individuals at various places108. According to Al-Qurfi, Formally undertaking
the responsibility of Az-Zimmah (Protecting the non-Muslim citizens) imposes upon
us responsibilities towards them, because they are then sheltered and guarded by us;
they come under the shield of Allah, His Messenger (pbuh) and the religion of Islam.
Whosoever commits aggression against them, even with a verbal abuse or backbiting
against any one of them, or harms them in any manner or becomes accomplice in
that, his action amounts to squandering the custody granted by Allah, His Messenger
(pbuh) and the religion of Islam. Likewise has Ibn Hazm mentioned (in his Martib
Al-Ijm): when someone comes under the protection and invaders invade our lands
seeking him, we become obliged to deploy for combating the invaders with all given
ability in personnel and arms and to fight till death in order to secure the one who is
under the shelter of Allah and His Messenger (pbuh).109 There are many instances of
when the Islamic state rejected the offer of the Muslim prisoners being released unless
the prisoners from amongst the Protected were also released.110
2. Ensuring for their six necessities and their needs. In that they are just like Muslims.
Jurists are unanimous on this justifying this with the fact that the Protected, as a consequence of the deed of protection, become the legitimate citizens of the Dr Al-Islam
(the Islamic state). Hence it is obligatory to provide protection for their lives, their
honors and their possessions to the extent that the state must protect what they consider their wealth (according to their perception), for example their alcoholic beverages and their pigs. On the other hand if these belonged to a Muslim they must be
destroyed. However if a Muslim destroys the alcoholic beverages or kills the pigs
belonging to the Protected non-Muslims, he must be made to compensate for the loss. 111

The state must ensure their religious freedom, their possessions and their honors, in
this they are just like Muslims. The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) says, He who murders
a someone with whom there is a covenant, he shall not get a whiff of the fragrance of
107 Dr. Abdul Kareem Zaidan Ahkmu Az-Zimiyeen wa Al-Mustamineen Fee Dri Al-Islam; Dr. Yususf AlQaradhawi Ghair Al-Muslimn Fee
Al-Mujtma Al-Islami
108 Matlibu Uli An-Nuh (2/602-603)
109 Al-Furooq Dru Al-Marifah Beirut (3/14-15)
110 Yususf Al-Qaradhawi Ghair Al-Muslimn Fee Al-Mujtma Al-Islami P: 10
111 This is the stand of the position of the Hanafi School of Islamic jurisprudence. Please refer to Badiu As-SanI (5/143); Jawhir Al-Ikleel
(1/470); Hshiyat Al-Jumal (3/481); Al-Ahkm As-Sultniyah by Al-Mwardi P:145; Al-Ahkm As-Sultniyah by Abu Yal P:143; AlMughnee (5-223).


the paradise although its fragrance can reach the walking distance of forty years.112

Some jurists, including those from the Hanafi School, are of the view that a Muslim
is killed if he kills a Protected. This is the opinion of scholars like Ash-Shabi, AnNakhaei, Ibn Abi Lail and Othmn Al-Butti based on the narration of Ali Ibn Abi
Talib (mAbpwh) and Omar Bin Abdul Aziz (mAbpwh), and this was the prevalent
stand during most periods of the Abbasid and Ottoman rule. According to the Mliki
School, the killer of a Protected is killed through assassination.113
3. Dealing with them with justice and protecting them from oppression with all its types
and forms. This is denoted by all the texts which imply the sweeping obligation of
governance and dealing on the basis of justice and of forbiddance from oppression, as
well as by the texts specific about the people under protection, for example the saying
of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh), Behold, he who commits oppression against someone under covenant or violates his right or obliges him with something beyond this
capacity or takes away something from him against his free will, I shall plead against
him on the Day of Judgment..114

The Rightly Guided Caliphs and others after them took a great care of warding off
injustice from them. Caliph Omar Ibn Al-Khattab (mAbpwh) was so serious on this issue that he would make it a point to enquire about them (the protected) from those who
came from far away Muslim lands under his caliphate. The reply he used to get, we
know of nothing except faithfulness.115 Al-Bukhri has narrated through Juweriyah
Bin Qidmah At-Tamimi saying, I heard Omar Ibn Al-Khattab (mAbpwh). I asked: O
the Commander of the Faithful, advise us. He said: I advise you about [those who are
under] the protection of Allah and of His Messenger (pbuh); the obligation to them
must be fulfilled, they must be fought for from behind them [to safeguard them] and
they must not be obliged with what is beyond their capacity.116
4. Ensure social solidarity with them in cases of poverty, disability and old age. If a
(non-Muslim) citizen becomes poor, disabled or grows very old, the state must not
leave him for humiliation or deprivation; he must, rather, be treated justly, protected
and ensured a dignified life. This is nothing novel or contemporary of our times; in
fact, during the caliphate of Abu Bakr As-Siddq (mAbpwh) he wrote to the legendary
commanders Khalid Ibn Al-Wald regarding the people of Heerah in Iraq, who happened to be Christians, It is hereby decreed: any aged person turning unable, or afflicted with an affliction, or impoverishing after having been rich, or when the people
of his own religion start spending on him, his Jizyah must be written off, he and his
dependents must be supported from the treasury of the Islamic state as long as he stays
within the Land of Migration or within the Islamic state.117

Abu Yusuf and others have narrated that Omar Ibn Al-Khattb (mAbpwh) passed by
the gateway of some people. There was a needy very old blind man seeking alms.
Omar stroked his upper arm from behind saying, Which sect of the People of the
112 Narrated by Ahmad and Bukhri Book of Jizyah (Fathul Bri) (6/269); Ahmad (5/46, 277, 283).
113 Hashiyah by Ibn bideen (3/249); Al-Badye (7/236); Al-Muhazzab (2/185); Al-Kharshi (8/3-6); Al-Mughni (7/652).
114 Narrated by AbuDawood Sunan (3/437) Hadth No: 3052; Al-Iraqi Tanzeehu Ash-Shareeah (2/182); Baihaqi Sunan Al-Kubr (5/205)
115 Tareekh At-Tabari (4/218)
116 Narrated by Bukhri - (Fathul Bri) (6/267)
117 Al-Kharaj by Abu Yusuf - edited by Dr. Muhammad Ibrheem Al-Bann Dr Al-Islh, P:290




Book you belong to? He replied: I am a Jew. Omar asked: What brought you to this
state? He replied: My begging for (payment of) Jizyah, my need and my old age.
Omar held his hand and took him towards his residence and called the treasurer. He
said: Look at this man and his pitiable condition; by Allah, we havent done justice to
him; how can we take advantage of his youthfulness and then abandon him in his old
This repeated in the caliphate of Omar Ibn Abdul Azz (mAbpwh) also and hence it
can be described as a sort of Unanimity (between scholars): that social security is
a fundamental provision covering all members of the society Muslims as well as
non-Muslims; it is not acceptable that there be a human being destitute of the needs
and requirements of life.119 Jurisprudents of the Shfiei School maintain that fending
off harm from the Muslims is one of the Sufficing Obligations (Fardhu al-Kifyah)
whereas this does not include the Protected non-Muslim citizens because fending off
harm from them is a Mandatory Obligation (Fardhu al-Ain) (of the state). Fending
off harm means: achieving sufficiency in needs of life, housing, medicine and food,
not just providing with a bare existence, as is prescribed in the rules (of contemporary
Honoring the covenants and agreements with the Islamic state: Abu Yusuf (who died
in 182 Hijra) has reported that Abu Obaidah (mAbpwh) entered into a peace treaty
with non-Muslims of the Levant on given conditions in exchange that he will provide
them security and protection from the enemies. It so happened that Romans deployed
a big contingent of their troops and Abu Obaidah (mAbpwh) feared that he would not
be able to protect them in those circumstances. He wrote to his administrators of the
conquered lands to return back to the people the region that had been collected from
them in the form of Jizyah and tribute and to convey to them: We are returning back
the dues collected from you; what has been collected on our behalf from the people,
has come to our notice. Since you have conditioned on us protecting you and (at this
stage) we are not able to protect you; however, if Allah grants us victory over (Romans), we remain committed to our promise and to what was agreed between us.
When this was conveyed to them accordingly, they said, May God bring you back to
us safely and grant you victory over the Romans. Had they (Romans) been (our rulers), they would not have returned back anything; they would rather have robbed us
of everything we had.121 Abu Yusuf adds, When the Protected saw Muslims devoted
to their obligations towards them and upright in their interest, they turned harder on
the enemies of the Muslims than the Muslims themselves were on the enemies. (It is
reported that) non-Muslims of every city - with whom Muslims had signed treaties sent their men for spying on Romans, their state and their intentions122
Preserving their freedom of religion: In many of its verses, the Holy Qurn has emphasized upon the freedom of religion and shunning coercion for forced entry into
Islam, for example: Let there be no compulsion in religion: Truth stands out clear
from Error. (Al-Qurn, 2:256) and The truth is from your Lord: Let him who will
believe, and let him who will, reject (it). (Al-Qurn, 18:29) will thou then compel
mankind, against their will, to believe! (Al-Qurn, 10:99). Although we have already
dealt with this subject above, the point we want to make here is that the agreements

118 Ibid. P: 259

119 Yususf Al-Qaradhawi Ghair Al-Muslimn Fee Al-Mujtma Al-Islami P: 17
120 Nihyat Al-Muhtj Sharahu Al-Minhj (8/46)
121 Al-Kharaj by Abu Yusuf - P: 282-283
122 Ibid. P: 282



and pacts that were signed between the Muslims and non-Muslims with the scope of
peace and Jizyah are nothing but to emphasize that the non-Muslims shall respect the
sentiments of the Muslims, the inviolability of their religion and shall not provoke
them nor spur disturbance.123
The Fair-minded amongst the Orientalists and Western thinkers have testified to this
extent of freedom of religion, which is unparalleled in history, for instance Gustave Le
Bon says, We have found through the Qurnic verses mentioned above that the toleration of Muhammad towards Jews and Christians was magnanimous; like that was
never said by the founders of the previous religions especially Judaism and Christianity. We shall also see how his caliphs followed his tradition. This has been acknowledged by several European scholars124
Freedom of work, dealings, agreements and matrimony according to their belief: The
general principle is that in dealings, freedom of work and earning, the Protected nonMuslims are like Muslims, but they enjoy dealing in the items that are impermissible
in our religion. According to Jassas Al-Hanafi, In dealings and trade, like selling
and other dispositions, the Protected are like Muslims.125 Ksni elaborates saying,
whatever is legitimate for Muslims in trading is also legitimate for the Protected;
whatever is unlawful or immoral for Muslims to deal in is unlawful and immoral for
them too, except alcoholic beverages and pigs.126 Exemption of alcoholic beverages and pigs, according to the Hanafi School of jurisprudence, is conditional with
whether the dealing is between the Protected; if the dealing is between them and some
Muslims, than that shall be null and void.127 On the other hand majority of the jurisprudents do not exempt anyone. According to Imm Shfiei, All the trade deals that
are unlawful between Muslim are unlawful for them too. If the deal had already taken
place and the items were already consumed, we shall not invalidate those transaction;
If two persons from amongst them, for example, closed a deal on alcoholic beverages,
but the payment was not yet made, we shall annul that deal; but if the payment had already taken place, we shall not annul the deal, because it had already taken place.128
However the jurisprudents not only from the Hanafi School assert that the Islamic
state does not get involved in their deals regarding alcoholic beverages and pigs as
long as these deals are mutual between them, because the spirit of the agreement on
Jizyah with non-Muslims calls for noninterference with what they believe permissible
for them.129 However the difference of opinion between the majority of the jurisprudents and the jurisprudents belonging to the Hanafi School is about whether the alcoholic beverages and pigs should be considered as legitimate wealth for them and as a
consequence thereof if a Muslim destroys it, he should be required to compensate for
that and held responsible. The scholars derive this inference from what Omar Ibn AlKhattb (mAbpwh) wrote to his administrative representatives in Levant forbidding
them to accept dead carcasses, pigs and alcoholic beverages (as due collection), saying, Avoid it, however assign their owners selling them and then take the value130
These scholars endorse their marriages within their communities as per their beliefs,
besides their endorsement of a Muslim male marrying a female from People of the

123 Al-Kharaj by Abu Yusuf - P: 281; Yususf Al-Qaradhawi Ghair Al-Muslimn Fee Al-Mujtma Al-Islami P: 20
124 The Western Civilization Translated by: Adil P: 128
125 Jasss Al-Ahkm (2/346); Hashiyah by Ibn bideen (3/276)
126 Al-Mabsoot (10/84)
127 Jawahir Al-Ikleel (2/52, 181); Hashyat Al-Jumal (3/481); Al-Ahkm As-Sultniyah by Al-Mwardi P: 145; Al-Mughnee (5/223).
128 Kitb Al-Umm (4/211)
129 Ibid. ; Al-Mawsooatu Al-Fiqhiyatu Al-Kuwaitiyatu - (7/132)
130 Kharj by Abu Yusuf P: 260; Kitbul Al-Amwl by Abu Obaid P: 61-62



Book in light of the Qurnic text, (Lawful unto you in marriage) are (not only) chaste
women who are believers, but chaste women among the People of the Book, revealed
before your time,- when ye give them their due dowers, and desire chastity, not lewdness, nor secret intrigues... (Al-Qurn, 5:5).
Holding the state positions: The Protected have the right to take up state positions with
exception of those positions which have predominantly religious nature or, as mentioned earlier, those which may be necessitated by the religion of the majority. Jurisprudents have validated their taking up charge of the ministries of executive nature131
which are dissimilar to the ministries which enjoy delegated authority. In other words,
in case of the latter, the Leader of the Faithful (the Chief Executive of the Islamic
state) delegates the authority to a minister to run a ministry according to his prudence.
Such an authority is nearly plenipotentiary. So far as the former (ministries of the executive nature) are concerned, they implement the orders of the Leader of the Faithful.
In this sense the former include all ministries of our times, even the prime-ministers
office, because they are simply bound by the laws and regulations authorized by the
state institutions which derive their authority from the Chief Executive of the Islamic
state. According to Al-Mwardi, An executive ministry enjoys weaker authority and
its stipulations are less, because the discretion and disposition lie with the Chief Executive and his prudence. Such a minister is a link between him and the citizens and
the governors; such a minster enforces and implements as directed by the Chief Executive, enforces as ordered, notifies appointment of governors and of preparation of
troops, and to him are reported matters of importance and whatever new events takes
place He goes on to say, it is permissible that such a minister be from amongst the
Protected non-Muslims.132

Islamic History is a witness to many instances when non-Muslims were entrusted with ministries
and public positions. During the Abbasid period many Christians like Nasr Bin Haroon (who died
in 369 Hijra) and Eisa Bin Qastooras (who died in 380 Hijra)133 - held ministerial positions. According to the eminent historian Adam Mines, Among the astonishing things is the sheer large number
of non-Muslim employees administrators, high officials and bureaucrats in the Islamic state;
Christians used to rule Muslims in the land of Islam. Complaint (by Muslims) against the arbitration
of the Protected non-Muslims over Muslims is an old grievance134 And Sayyuti says, Abu Sad
At-Tastari Al-Yahudi administered the (Obaidiyah) state and a poet versified it thus:

The Jews of our time have reached,

The pinnacle of their prospect
Glory is with them and wealth too,
From amongst them is the advisor and ruler
O people of Egypt I had advised you,
Turn Jewish, as the even sky turned Jewish135

Sayyuti mentions a number of ministers who continued to remain devoted to Judaism or Christianity,
like Bahram Al-Armani who became so powerful (in the Obaidiyah state of Egypt ) and earned a bad
131 Al-Ahkm As-Sultniyah by Al-Mwardi P: 27
132 Al-Ahkm As-Sultniyah by Al-Mwardi P: 27-28
133 Husnu Al-Muhadharah Printed by Eisa Al-Halabi - 1389 H (2/201)
134 Adam Mines The Islamic Civilization (1/118)
135 Husnu Al-Muhadharah - 1389 H (2/201)
136 Ibid. (2/205)


3.6 Non-Muslim Duties in Islamic Territories

We mentioned above the responsibilities of the state and Muslims towards non-Muslims (i.e. the
Protected non-Muslims). Now, let us look at other side of the equation, their duties what are their
Their duties are as follows:
Firstly: Payment of the financial dues (Jizyah for sound adult men, tribute Kharj for land and tithe
for trade). These could be termed as taxes or even as Zakt, as mentioned earlier.137
The Jizyah can be dropped in the following circumstances:
1. If the Islamic state becomes unable to protect them, as detailed above.
2. Their actual participation in combat and defense of the nation. According to Professor
Yusuf Al-Qaradwi, The Jizyah becomes void also by participation of the Protected
non-Muslims alongside the Muslims in combat and defense of the House of Islam from
the enemies of Islam. This was clearly laid down in some of the accords and covenants
entered into between Muslims and the Protected during the caliphate of Omar (mAbpwh)138. It is reported that an envoy of Abu Ubaidah made peace with a Christian
community called Jarjimah stipulating that they will support Muslims and spy on
their enemy against the dropping of Jizyah.139

Since Christians, in our countries, participate these days in the duty of defending the
nation, it is not relevant to talk about Jizyah in this context.
Secondly: Abidance by the Islamic laws enforced in the Islamic state with exception of the laws related to family affairs, alcohol and pigs as mentioned above.
This principle is called territoriality of law and it is applied these days in all countries of the world.
In fact modern sovereign states consider it one of the pillars of their sovereignty and authority and
that is why they do not allow implementation of any laws other than the laws of their lands (national
laws) even within the scope of personal and family affairs. Because these laws of the lands are not the
laws of Shariah, Muslim minorities in most of the non-Muslim countries suffer severely in the area
of family affairs.
But the Islamic Shariah allowed the non-Muslim citizens (the Protected) exemption regarding matters of permitted and forbidden, worship and personal law. Actually a number of jurisprudents have
endorsed allowing them to implement all their laws if they wished so.140 This endorsement is based
on the divine saying, If they do come to thee, either judge between them, or decline to interfere.
(Al-Qurn, 5:42). Imm Shfiei construes that this option is regarding the reconcilers like the Jews
of Medina with whom the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) signed an accord and exempted them from
payment of Jizyah because they had not accepted its implementation on them. This is clear from the
circumstances of the revelation and implied by the verse 43 of the same chapter: But why do they
come to thee for decision, when they have (their own) law before them?. (Al-Qurn, 5:43). So far
as verse 49 is concerned, that refers to the Protected non-Muslims. Imm Shfiei says, If one of
them approaches the Islamic court, the Leader of the Faithful has no choice but to implement the
divine law on him (the one under covenant). Similarly if some one of them rejects to settle the dues
on him to the rightful among them and as a result the rightful approaches the court seeks his right,
137 Dr. Abdul Kareem Zaidan Ahkmu Az-Zimiyeen P: 155
138 Dr. Yususf Al-Qaradhawi Ghair Al-Muslimn Fee Al-Mujtma Al-Islami P: 35
139 Futoohu Al-Buldn by Balzuri, Beirut P: 317
140 For details see Mabdau Ar-Ridh Fi AlUqood by this author (1/52-53) and other sources mentioned therein


it is obligatory on the Leader of the Faithful to pronounce in favor of the rightful irrespective of the
absence or willingness of the indicted or even if he shows contempt to the verdict. It is not permissible whatsoever for anyone who does not submit to the verdict to stay in the House of Islam. So the
verse explicitly commands implementation of the law on all, And this (He commands): Judge thou
between them by what Allah hath revealed. (Al-Qurn, 5:49). However Imm Shfiei derives from
this verse provisions and goes on to say, If a woman approaches claiming that she was divorced by
her husband, I would pass my judgment on him just as I do in case of Muslims (likewise) unlawful
trade deals between them become void just as they become void between Muslims141
According to Ibn Al-Arabi, The People of the Book, if they approach our courts, it will be nothing but concerning an injustice, which is not justified in any law, like coercion or murder etc., which
they could not settle between themselves. If there is a difference between the laws (i.e. theirs and the
Shariah), the Leader of the Faithful shall exercise his discretion.142
To sum up, we can say that the jurisprudents have differed in this regard. Majority of them (from the
Hanafi school with exception of Abu Hanfah himself -, Shfiei school, Ahmads School and Zahiria) judge that the Islamic Shariah has to be implemented on them and that the judge of the Islamic
court shall pronounce execution on them. This opinion is traced to Ibn Abbas, Mujahid and Ikrimah.
In case of one of the narrations Abu Hanfah and jurisprudents of Mliki and Ahmads school infer
that the Leader of the Faithful enjoys the discretion. However the Mliki school specifies the discretion to something that is not forbidden unanimously in religions; so far as matters of unanimity are
concerned, like illicitness of fornication for example, the Leader shall implement the divine law on
the perpetrator. The former opinion deserves preference over the latter, because the Protected were
not guaranteed protection but after their willingness to being subject to the Islamic law. There is no
contradiction between the two verses. The Verse of Discretion (5:42) is relevant to those who reconcile and make peace with us without an accord of Protection just like the Jews of Medina, who
reconciled to peace with the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) upon his settling down at Medina. So far as
the Verse of Implementation (5:49) is concerned, it is relevant to those under covenants who willingly settle for payment of Jizyah to us. On the basis of this, if someone from amongst the Protected
is produced to the court being accused of having committed a forbidden act and is found guilty and
convicted, the penalty must be imposed on him. The same applies to the regulations of dealings, however the matters of matrimony and matters related to the permissible in their religion are left to them.
It is established by the authenticated sayings of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) narrated by Bukhri
and Muslim, that: the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) condemned two Jews to death by stoning for having committed fornication.143 According to the Andalusian scholar Ibn Hazm Al-Andalusi (Died 456
Hijri), He who leaves the Protected to their conventions, he follows their whims and violates the
command of Allah the Almighty.144
Thirdly: Respecting the sentiments of the Muslims and the authority of the state. They are not allowed
to insult the religion of Islam, the Messenger of Islam (pbuh), the Holy Qurn and its principles; they

141 Ahkmu Al-Qurn by Iman Shfiei (2/78)

142 Ahkmu Al-Qurn by Ibnu Al-Arabi (2/617)
143 Ahkmu Al-Qurn by Iman Shfiei (2/78); Ahkmu Al-Qurn by Ibnu Al-Arabi (2/617); Ahkmu Al-Qurn by Jassas (434-437); Tafseer At
Tabari (6/177); Kitb Al-Umm by Shfiei (4/130); Fathul Qadeer (2/502); Bidyatu Al-Mujtahid (2/435); Al-Ghyatu Al-Qusw (2/927);

Al-Mughni by Ibn Qudmah (8/214)
144 Al-Muhallah by Ibn Hazm (13/69-72)


are not permitted to propagate their beliefs and ideologies among Muslims, drink alcohol, eat pork or
display immoral acts contradicting with Islam amid Muslims.145
Superior Islamic Etiquettes for Dealing with Others:
Islam does not solely depend on obligatory regulations and strict laws in its implementation of rights
and responsibilities among Muslims and non-Muslims, it basically draws on the moral and doctrinal aspect of the human personality. Islam implants in the inner self of the Muslim noble character,
decency of discourse, cheerfulness, spirit of tolerance, mercy, clemency, forbearance, compassion,
benevolence, beneficence, benefaction to all, forgiveness, avoidance of the lewd, endurance of harm,
repelling with what is better, and reciprocation of insult with kindness with capability and self-esteem. Allah says, Nor can goodness and Evil be equal. Repel (Evil) with what is better: Then will
he between whom and thee was hatred become as it were thy friend and intimate! And no one will be
granted such goodness except those who exercise patience and self-restraint,- none but persons of
the greatest good fortune.. (Al-Qurn, 41:34-35). To cultivate this kind of character Islam resorts
to motivation of the great reward Allah has prepared for such merciful and benevolent human being, Be quick in the race for forgiveness from your Lord, and for a Garden whose width is that (of
the whole) of the heavens and of the earth, prepared for the righteous,- Those who spend (freely),
whether in prosperity, or in adversity; who restrain anger, and pardon (all) men;- for God loves those
who do good;- And those who, having done something to be ashamed of, or wronged their own souls,
earnestly bring God to mind, and ask for forgiveness for their sins,- and who can forgive sins except God?- and are never obstinate in persisting knowingly in (the wrong) they have done. For such
the reward is forgiveness from their Lord, and Gardens with rivers flowing underneath,- an eternal
dwelling: How excellent a recompense for those who work (and strive)! (Al-Qurn, 3:133-136).
This is besides the obligation of adherence to justice in all circumstances and situations. It is worth
reminding that this morality and ethicality is not exclusive for Muslims, but for the whole humankind
and even for other creatures and the environment. Authentic narrations report that a widow entered
the hellfire for ignoring her confined pet cat and ignoring it to die146 while another unchaste woman
entered the paradise for giving water to a thirsty dog.147
Promotion of Tolerance and Clemency:
Among the important means of promoting tolerance and clemency is that Islam legitimized
for Muslim men marrying the woman from People of the Book. Thus a Jewish or Christian woman
becomes his spouse and mother of his children; her brothers become his in-laws and maternal uncles
of his children; her mother becomes his deemed mother and grandmother of his children; her father
becomes the grandfather of his children and so forth. Consequently there emerges a bond of affinity and kinship between Muslims and People of the Book, from which stem social rights, financial
responsibilities and sprit of solidarity. The Holy Qurn commands kindness to parents even though
they happen to strive to coerce their children to wrongdoing. Allah says, But if they strive to make
thee join in worship with Me things of which thou hast no knowledge, obey them not; yet bear them
company in this life with justice (and consideration), and follow the way of those who turn to me (in
love): in the end the return of you all is to Me, and I will tell you the truth (and meaning) of all that
ye did.. (Al-Qurn, 31:15).
145 Regarding the details on duties of non-Muslims in the Islamic State as construed by the jurisprudents, which are mostly their diligent interpretations (Ijtihad) - taking into consideration the specific circumstances of their time, please refer to: Al-Binyatu Al Al-Hidyah (4/840);

Al-Badye (7/113); Jawhiru Al-Ikleel (1/268); Mughni Al-Muhtj (4/256); Kashshfu Al-Qin (3/126); Al-Ahkm As-Sultniyah by

Al-Mwardi (P: 140); Al-Ahkm As-Sultniyah by Abu Yal (P: 144); Al-Mawsooatu Al-Fiqhiyatu Al-Kuwaitiyatu (7/135); Ghair

Al-Muslimn Fee Al-Mujtma Al-Islami by Dr. Yususf Al-Qaradhawi P: 41-42
146 Narrated by Bukhri (Fathul Bri): (6/356); Muslim Hadeeth No: 2619
147 Narrated by Bukhri Kitbu Al-Mazlim and Kitbu Al-Adab Bbu Rahmatin Ns Wa Al-Bahim; Muslim Hadeeth No: 2245. Some
authentic narrations mention it as a man. The Hadeeth concludes with in every live liver is reward (i.e. being merciful to any living being entitles
to reward).


Similarly Islam enjoined rights even for a non-Muslim neighbor and thereby all the ethics
related to righteous neighborhood in general covers non-Muslim neighbors as well.148
Adherence to superior Islamic etiquettes while arguing; especially about arguing with People
of the Book, Allah has prescribed that they aught to be argued with means better than theirs in format,
style, expression and logic. Allah says, And dispute ye not with the People of the Book, except with
means better (than mere disputation), unless it be with those of them who inflict wrong (and injury):
but say, We believe in the revelation which has come down to us and in that which came down to you;
Our God and your God is one; and it is to Him we bow (in Islam). (Al-Qurn, 29:46)
Compliance with exquisite Islamic morality in dealings. In his dialogues and dealings with
People of the Book, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) observed it. He used to visit them, treat them with
kindness and call on their sick. At times he even incidentally allowed them to offer their prayers in his
mosque at Medina. Scholars of his biography and tradition narrate, when a delegation of the (Christians of) Najran called on him, he received them after the Asr (afternoon prayers) in his mosque.
Meanwhile it was the time of their prayers and they stood up to offer their prayers. When people
were about to hold them back (from offering their prayers inside the mosque), the Messenger of Allah
(pbuh) said, leave them alone; they faced the East and offered their ritual prayers.149
Ibn Al-Qayyim has commented on this incident saying, in this (incident) is a (precedence of) permission for them to the mosques of Muslims; it makes it possible for them to offer their prayers in
presence of Muslims and in their mosques too if the situation incidentally demands that.150
Ibn Al-Qayyim goes on to say, The purpose is to say that the Messenger of Allah continued to argue
with the infidels, with their variant sects and creeds, until he breathed his last. Same was the case of
his companions after him as the Holy Qurn, through verses revealed in Mecca as well as in Medina,
commanded to keep arguing with them in a manner better than theirs. Even the use of sword had the
purpose of making way for the convincing argument and this is how the mission was fulfilled.151
Even a step further, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) accepted gifts from People of the Book and honored them whenever a chance occurred, to the extent that he used to stand up when a funeral procession of anyone of their dead happened to pass by. On such an occasion when he was asked about the
motive behind his standing up, he exclaimed, Isnt it a soul?! Bukhri and Muslim have narrated
through Jbir Bin Abdullah, A funeral procession passed by us and the Messenger of Allah (pbuh)
stood up for it and we too stood up. We exclaimed saying, O the Messenger of Allah, it was the funeral of a Jew. He said, whenever you see a funeral procession, do stand up.152 Bukhri and Muslim have also narrated through Sahal Bin Hanf and Qaid Bin Sad that a funeral procession passed
by the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) and he stood up. Upon this he was asked, It was the funeral of a
Jew! He asked back, Isnt it a soul?! According to Hafidh Ibn Hajar, the exclamatory justification isnt it a soul?!153 implies that this etiquette is desirable for every funeral.154
As the command has been narrated by the two most authentic books of Hadth155 through several
instances, a number of jurisprudents conclude that it is obligatory. The preferred opinion is that the
noble gesture is desirable, not obligatory, because yet another narration reported through Ali Ibn Abi
Tlib reads, The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) stood up and then sat down156, wherein sitting down
after getting up has been understood to imply only permissibility.157

148 Please refer to Riyadhu Sualiheen P:126

149 Seeratu Ibn Hisham (1/573,584); SeeratuIbn Katheer (4/100,108); Tafseer Ibn Katheer (1/367,371); Tabaqtu Ibn Sad (1/357);

Zd Al-Md (3/629)
150 Zd Al-Maad (3/638)
151 Ibid, (3/642)
157 Fathul Bri (3/181)


Pivot IV
Muslims Relations with Others in War


Muslims Relations with Others in War

Substantiation of Jihd in Islam
4.2 Precepts regulating relations during conflict and Post-conflict times
Islamic principles and the international law
4.1 Substantiation of Jihd in Islam
Linguistic and doctrinal definition of Jihd in Islam:
Lexically the root of Jihd is Jahd, which means disgorging all given intellectual and effectual capabilities and competence.158 One of the amusing paradoxes is that the word Jihd (struggle) and Ijtihd
(diligent interpretation of the primary texts) are derived from the same root. The first one implies
struggle and combat against enemies and evil; the second one implies struggle and combat against
ignorance and retardation, accomplishment of scholarship and creativity. Both are complimentary to
each other.159 The word Jahd and its derivatives have occurred in the Holy Qurn 41 times and numerously in the tradition of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh).160 From all these occurrences in the two
primary texts of Islam, we can deduce the following about this subject:
1. The meaning of Jihd is not restricted to combat alone, but represents struggle with possessions, knowledge, pen and eloquence, argument and evidence, and power with all its denotations and types; in fact, in the Holy Qurn, in most of the related verses, mention of Jihd with
possessions has preceded the mention of Jihd with person.
2. Jihd is not confined to Jihd against assailing infidels, but includes Jihd against all the enemies, like, for example against soul prone to evil and against the Satan. Jihd has various
levels starting with Jihd against ones own self and Satan and ending with combat against the
lurking enemies. This is why Ibn Taymiyah has defined Jihd saying, Jihd is to strive seeking
what Allah loves and shunning what he detests161
3. Just as all the obligatory acts of worship in Islam have stipulations, regulations and stages,
Jihd too has its stipulations, regulations and stages.
Stipulation of Jihd in Islam:
Since Jihd is multifarious and has several degrees, its provisions vary respective to its type, degree
and stages. Since we are dealing with Jihd in the sense of combat in the cause of Allah, this kind of
Jihd has two types:
Firstly: Jihd to repulse i.e. Jihd for repelling the enemies occupying the Muslim lands.
Jurisprudents are unanimous over that this obligation is mandatory to every capable person by virtue
of his capability and depending on his role. This is supported by numerous authentications from the
Holy Qurn, the Hadth and consensus of the scholars. Even worldly regulation and systems and international laws support this and the unimpaired human nature and sound intellect corroborate it.
Secondly: Jihd of summon i.e. Jihd to summon the infidels to combat (for genuine reasons).
There has been a great deal of difference of opinion between jurisprudents on this subject. The scope
of this study does not allow us to indulge in those opinions and arguments. However we shall sum158 Please refer to lexicons like: Lisnu Al-Arab; Al-Qmoos Al-Muheet; Al-Mujam Al-Waseet
159 Please refer to: Yususf Al-Qaraddhawi Ghair Al-Muslimn Fee Al-Mujtma Al-Islami P:7; Dr. Ali Mohiuddin Al-Qaradaghi Nadhart fee Al-Quwwah
wa Al-Jihd (Journal of the Center for Research on Sunnah & Seerah Vol: 10, 1422 Hijra, P:270-272
160 Dr. Ali Mohiuddin Al-Qaradaghi Ibid.
161 Al-Aboodiyah, P: 104


marize what we find obviously preponderant in this regard:

1. That Jihd in its broader sense is an obligation and shall continue till the Day of Resurrection.
It cannot be abandoned; whenever the Islamic Nation has shunned Jihd, it has suffered humiliation and feebleness. But Jihd which is a duty and an obligation (whether as Sufficing Obligation or as Mandatory Obligation) in Islam, is the comprehensive Jihd that includes preparing
the strength (with all its comprehensiveness covering morale as well as material aspects) and
struggling with all given capabilities (with possessions, pen, knowledge and media) besides
being ready to scarify the self - upon existence of the prerequisites and the requirements. Such
Jihd is neither an outrage nor aggression against others, but to ward off and deter the aggressors.
2. Jihd in the sense of combat is, in its essence, to defend the Islamic Nation including its
religion, dignity, land, wealth, sovereignty and awe.
3. Strength in Islam has not been desired for aggression, tyranny or outrage against others but to
defend justice, religious freedom, places of worship and the downtrodden. This is substantiated
by many texts and we have seen that the Holy Qurn seeks preparation of strength to prevent
breaking out of wars. As mentioned earlier, this is what is known these days as strategic deterrence. The very first verse revealed regarding Jihd bears the denotation to defending justice,
places of worship and freedoms, and warding off oppression and savagery. The verse (and its
subsequent verse) read: To those against whom war is made, permission is given (to fight),
because they are wronged;- and verily, God is most powerful for their aid;- (They are) those
who have been expelled from their homes in defiance of right,- (for no cause) except that they
say, our Lord is God. Did not God check one set of people by means of another, there would
surely have been pulled down monasteries, churches, synagogues, and mosques, in which the
name of God is commemorated in abundant measure. God will certainly aid those who aid his
(cause);- for verily God is full of Strength, Exalted in Might, (able to enforce His Will). (AlQurn, 22:39-40).
4. All nations and civilizations, from ancient to modern, were not established except through
strength that nurtured and defended them; nations and civilizations shall not endure without
the strength to protect and reinforce them. History has never witnessed emergence of a global
civilization or empowerment of a feeble nation that was not capable of protecting itself and
its achievements. Today we see the United States spending hundreds of billions of dollars on
its military might; it spends even more to maintain its scientific superiority. Previously it used
to be in a never-ending tussle with the Soviet Union (USSR) until it overpowered it with its
scientific, economic and technological superiority. Hence Islams striving for strength is quite
natural especially for its being the religion based on justice, equity and civilized assertion.
5. Jihd in the sense of a repelling combat, is not an open door for anyone who wants to enter.
There are rules and regulations and the foremost among those are: that it should be endorsed by
the people of sound judgment, deliberation, authority and those in charge of religious regulation. According to Ibn Taymiyah, In matters related to Jihd, it is obligatory that guidance
be sought from devout religious scholars, who are experienced in the worldly affairs of the
6. Information Jihd for defense, solidarity, cogency and substantiation through propagation
of Islam using modern communication media (like printed media, broadcasting, television and
internet etc.) is one of the most important kinds of Jihd in our times. In fact it is the Jihd that
has been named by Allah as the utmost strenuousness Jihd. Allah says, but strive against
162 Al-Ikhtiyrt Al-Fiqhiyah, P: 309-311


them with the utmost strenuousness, with the (Quran). (Al-Qurn, 25:52). In Prcis, the concept of Jihd is quite vast and embraces every effort made with the purpose of hoisting the flag
of Islam, advocating its cause, championing its rule, propagating its mission and refuting its
enemies and thwarting their military, political, economic, educational, social, and intellectual
designs with all given legitimate means.
All this is Jihd in the eyes of Islam. We have already adduced considerable attestations to its being
comprehensive of all these faces of toil. It is incumbent upon the Islamic Nation to be discharging the
obligation of Jihd in all material and non-material fields in order to be competent to rise, to develop
the world in light of the divine guidance, and to liberate the humankind from oppression and depravity so that the mercy and justice prevail, so that tumult and corruption becomes banished, so that the
divine course is the prevailing course setting the sway.
Every type of Jihd has its own means to accomplish it in its best manner and complete form. The
means of armed Jihd are the material strength, logistical preparedness, advanced ordnance industry
and sophisticated arms besides being spiritually strong and morally high. So far as paraphernalia of
the intellectual Jihd are concerned, these are latent in sound knowledge, academic nurturing and
aptitude, personal talents, mental capabilities, means of expression like books, studies, publications
and multimedia visual, written and audio etc. In fact the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) has indicated
this comprehensiveness in means of Jihd in his saying, Struggle against the polytheists with your
possessions, corporeally and with your tongues.163 As mentioned earlier, he has rated the Jihd with
word as the utmost Jihd. Similarly we know through what preceded interpreting the divine saying,
but strive against them with the utmost strenuousness, with the (Quran). (Al-Qurn, 25:52) that it
means Jihd with evidence, communication and substantiation.
The fact is that the comprehensive advancement of any nation materializes through embracing all
means of Jihd, including material and moral, military, scientific and technological means. Consequently we comprehend the greatness of the religion of Islam; it has chosen the word Jihd (struggle)
which embraces all these meanings while the word Jihd itself is a derivative of the same root as of
Ijtihd (diligent interpretation of the primary texts), which implies prime of intellectual development
that qualifies the interpreter to educe and infer and being creative in various disciplines of knowledge.
This assimilation of virtues leads to development of the world in light of the divine guidance and
thereby His mercy spreads to all without exception.
4.2 Precepts regulating relations during conflict and Post-conflict times
Islam has constrained the legitimate combat within the framework of Jihd for the cause of Allah with
conventions and regulations and thereby abrogated all sorts of combat that may not be for His cause,
whatsoever the other causes might be. Fighting for booty and worldly gains, for hegemony or domination of a nation or tribe, or for achieving imperialistic or economic gains etc. is illegitimate. Let us
enumerate these conventions and regulations for both wartime and post-conflict period:
Firstly: During the war and through its inferno
The primary texts the Holy Qurn and the Hadth -, the marvelous life of the Messenger of Allah
(pbuh) and the practical implementations during the Rightly Guided Caliphate, all denote the following:

163 Narrated by Ahmad, Nasaei, Ibn Habbn and Hkim through Anas; At-Tyseer by Al-Munwi (1/1485)


1. Proscription of killing anyone other than those in combat. Allah says, Fight in the cause of
God those who fight you (Al-Qurn, 2:190).
2. Forbiddance of transgression even during the hostilities or actual combat. Allah says, but do
not transgress limits; for God loveth not transgressors. (Al-Qurn, 2:190).
3. Endorsement of declaration of Islamic faith by anyone who was in combat against them till that
moment and faced defeat even if he had happened to have killed Muslims. The Messenger of Allah
(pbuh) says, I have been ordered to fight them till they witness that there is no God but one and
only Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. If they do so, their blood and possessions
become unimpeachable except by the right of the faith and their account lies with Allah. 164 Allah
says, O ye who believe! When ye go abroad in the cause of God, investigate carefully, and say not
to anyone who offers you a salutation: Thou art none of a believer! (Al-Qurn, 4:94).
4. Endorsement of an erstwhile enemy combatant into the fold of Islam turns his minor children
too as protected by the shield of Islam.165
5. Proscription of killing the envoys, hostages whatsoever may be the nature of the country they
represent. According to the narrations of Hkim and Abu Dawood, Nam Bin Masoud reports,
I heard the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) asking the two envoys of Musailamah the Imposter
upon reading the latters letter, what do you two yourself say. They replied, we too say what
he has said. The Messenger (pbuh) said, If it was not that envoys are not killed, I would have
slashed your necks.
6. Proscription of killing women, children, aged, monks, farm workers, laborers, tillers and those
like them who do not participate in the combat. Allah says, Fight in the cause of God those
who fight you, but do not transgress limits; for God loveth not transgressors. (Al-Qurn,
2:190). In view of the importance of this matter, Imm Muslim allocated a separate chapter
(Chapter Interdiction of Killing Women and Children During War) in his Sahh. Therein he
narrated through Abdullah that during one of the expeditions of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh)
a woman was found slain; then he repudiated murdering of women and children.166 Likewise
Abu Dawood has narrated through Ibn Abbas saying, Do not kill decrepit nor small children.167 Ahmad also has narrated through Ibn Abbas, Whenever the Messenger of Allah
(pbuh) used to send a military mission, he would say, set out with the name of Allahdo not
kill children nor hermits.168 In his directive to Yazd Bin Abi Sufyn, Caliph Abu Bakr said,
You will come across a people who would have confined themselves for the sake of Allah;
leave them alone to what they imagine they have dedicated themselves for.169 According to
Ibm Mjahs narration from the Messenger of Allah (pbuh), he has commanded: Do not kill
children or laborer.170
7. Detestation of killing parents or relatives except for legal requirement or exigency. This is the
standpoint of the Hanafi, Shfiei and Zaidi schools based171 on genuine validations. Regarding
the parents they refer to the divine command, yet bear them company in this life with justice
(and consideration). (Al-Qurn, 31:15).
8. Imm Muhammad Bin Hasan Ash-Shaibni has narrated: Hanzallah Bin Abi mir and Abdullah Bin Abdullah Bin Salool sought permission from the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) to slay their
164 Bukhri (Fathul Bari) Book of Faith (1)
165 Al-Mughni with Sharhu Al-Kabeer (10/413)
166 Muslim Book of Jihad (3/1364)
167 Sunan Abi Dawood Book of Jihad (3/371)
168 Musnad Ahmad (1/300)
169 Marifatu Sunan Wa Al-thr by Baihaqi (13/249)
170 Sunan Ibn Mjah - Book of Jihad (2/948)
171 An-Nutaf by Saghadi (2/710); Nihyatu Al-Muhtj (8/64)
172 Kitbu As-Sayr Al-Kabeer(1/106)





fathers; he forbade them. Subsequently he has cited some more narrations reporting someone
having slain his father in the battlefield and the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) having kept silent
about that, which denotes that if the son did not intend killing his father but the situation or the
exigency of combat called for that, he shall not bear a sin for his killing.172
Acts like scorching, drowning, cutting of trees etc. are prohibited except if the exigency of war
demands any such thing or if it is envisaged that doing so shall lead to reducing the bloodshed.173
Forbiddance of the use of weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) that cause damage to noncombatant population of women, children, animals and even to the coming generations. There is
ample legal evidence from the Holy Qurn and the tradition of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh)
disapproving use of WMDs. The only exception is their use as a strategic deterrence. Some of
the jurisprudents, including those from the Mliki school, have ruled against use of poison in
fight against enemies.174
Forbiddance of killing animals. The first Rightly Guided Caliph Abu Bakr (mAbpwh) used to
advise the commanders of expeditions: Do not kill even a goat or a camel, except for food.175
Forbiddance of damaging the environment, like felling of trees etc., with exception of what
may be required purely for warfare. About this too the first Caliph Abu Bakr (mAbpwh) used to
advise the commanders of expeditions: Do not burn trees; do not fell the fruitful trees.176
Protection and asylum. Islam has, in principle, given right to every faithful, of granting shelter
to any infidel. This is attested by a large number of sayings of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh),
for example, with their joint protection even the lowest (among them in social status) is privileged.177 Allah the Almighty says, If one amongst the Pagans ask thee for asylum, grant it to
him, so that he may hear the word of God; and then escort him to where he can be secure. (AlQurn, 9:6). Imm Muhammad Bin Hasan Ash-Shaibni has dealt with this subject at length
and in an extremely elegant style.178
Peacemaking and truce. We have mentioned in detail herein earlier the importance of peacemaking and truce in light of the treaty of Hudaibiyah.

Secondly: At the end of warfare and in the event of victory of the Muslims
Islam intercede regarding the manner in which the defeated, especially the prisoners of war (POWs),
must be treated, and commands being beneficent towards them and providing for their basic needs
of food, clothing and shelter. Allah has classified feeding the prisoners as one of the best means of
becoming closer to Him, And they feed, for the love of God, the indigent, the orphan, and the captive,- (Saying) We feed you for the sake of God alone: no reward do we desire from you, nor thanks.
(Al-Qurn, 76:8-9). Similarly Islam intercedes imposing respect towards the dead by burying them
and by not demanding payment against returning the dead bodies or against burying them.
Among the marvelous examples in this regard is the stance of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) towards
the polytheists of Mecca, who had harassed him and persecuted his companions and troubled him
in every possible manner for over two decades. In spite of all that he did not resort to gloating over
their disgrace nor did he turn to vengeance. He, instead, asserted from the position of sublimity and
exaltedness, Go, you are exaltedness.
173 But for deterring and warding off the enemy from aggression these acts can be permitted
174 Mawwahib Al-Jaleel (3/352)
175 Marifatu As-Sunan by Baihaqi (13/249)
176 Ibid.
177 Mentioned earlier hereinbefore
178 Kitbu As-Sayr Al-Kabeer(2/420)


Thirdly: Islamic principles and International Humanitarian Law

International Humanitarian law is a set of rules and regulations that put restrictions on use of force in
stopping the armed conflict. The purpose is to:
a) Limit the effects of violence on the combatants so as not to exceed the exigencies imposed by
the compulsion of war.

This principle is rooted in the Holy Qurn and the Sunnah. Many texts thereof forbid exceeding the limits and committing transgression even when the war is still blazing and aggression
from the enemy has not subsided. Allah says, Fight in the cause of God those who fight you,
but do not transgress limits; for God loveth not transgressors. (Al-Qurn, 2:190). And and
let not the hatred of some people in (once) shutting you out of the Sacred Mosque lead you
to transgression (and hostility on your part). Help ye one another in righteousness and piety,
but help ye not one another in sin and rancour: fear Allah. for Allah is strict in punishment.
(Al-Qurn, 5:2). And If then any one transgresses the prohibition against you, Transgress ye
likewise against him. But fear God, and know that God is with those who restrain themselves.
(Al-Qurn, 2:194). And but commit no excess: for Allah loveth not those given to excess.
(Al-Qurn, 5:87).
b) Sparing those who are not directly involved in warfare.179 We have cited the guidelines set by
the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) and from the legacy of the Rightly Guided Caliphs in this regard.
c) Honoring the agreements, treaties and covenants even when war has not come to an end. We
have mentioned hereinabove many texts denoting this. In fact Islam goes to the extent of strongly encouraging to expand the scope of those who could provide shield of protection and asylum.
Lets cite some texts as evidence:

Allah says in the Holy Qurn, If one amongst the Pagans ask thee for asylum, grant it to him,
so that he may hear the word of God; and then escort him to where he can be secure. That is
because they are men without knowledge. (Al-Qurn, 9:6).

And He says, (But the treaties are) not dissolved with those Pagans with whom ye have
entered into alliance and who have not subsequently failed you in aught, nor aided any one
against you. So fulfil your engagements with them to the end of their term: for God loveth the
righteous. (Al-Qurn, 9:6).

The Messenger of Allah is reported to have said, O Ummu Hni, we have granted asylum to
those you granted asylum.180 This happened when Ummu Hni Bint Abi Tlib granted asylum
to one or two polytheists. In other words he granted this right to all including women.

He is also reported to have said, If a man shielded a man for his life and then killed him, I
acquit myself from any responsibility towards the killer even if the killed happened to be an

And, The protection of Muslims is one; (even) the lowest of them is privileged with it. He
who undermines (the protection given by) a Muslims, upon him shall be the curse of Allah, the
angels and all mankind.182

179 Dr. Jafar Abdus Salm Al-Qnoon Ad-Duwali Al-Insni Journal of the College of Shariah and Law, Al-Azhar university Vol: 2,

1406 Hijra P:166
180 Unanimously agreed upon, narrated by Bukhri Book of Jizyah No: 300 ; Book of Prayers of the
Traveling - Hadth No: 336
181 Narrated by Baihaqi Sunan Al-Kubr No: 18203 - Kitbu As-Sayr (9/142) Mecca Edited by Muhammad Abdul Qdir At


Jurisprudents are unanimous upon that sheltering by every free sensible adult Muslim, male or female, is valid as long as the sheltering is for individuals. Jurisprudents belonging to the Hanafi School
go to the extent that sheltering by anyone besides the leader of the faithful is valid, even if it were for
a big group of people.183

4.3 Comparison between International Law and Islamic Jurisprudence
The term International Humanitarian Law is a fairly new concept. It was used for the first time by
International Committee of Red Cross (ICRC) in the documents it presented to the first session of the
conference of governmental experts held at Geneva in 1971. The reason for using this new term was
to project the purely humanitarian nature of the norms of war.184
In the works of Islamic jurisprudence, I have not come across this term or the term International
Law, but as we have seen, Islamic jurisprudence has preceded the conventional laws by establishing the foundations and rudiments of the international relations and of the international humanitarian
law. But it has used the term Jihd (struggle) and the term Sayr (behavior / conduct / observance)
in this context. Great scholars, especially Muhammad Bin Hasan Ash-Shaibni (132 189 Hijra)
who penned a marvelous book of five volumes on Sayr or in other words on the international law,
and international humanitarian law. He is supposed to be the pioneer in the field of compilation on
international law. With his book (Kitbu As-Sayr Al-Kabr), he has preceded by centuries the Dutch
jurist Hugo Grotius (1583-1645 AD) who, in his time, was named as the father of international law.
It is fair to appreciate those scholars of international law from various parts of the world who established in the German city of Gttingen an association by the name of Ash-Shaibni Association fro
International Law. In his time, the renowned Egyptian jurist Dr. Abdul Hamd Badawi was elected
as the associations president, as was also Dr. Salahuddin Munjid who edited the luminous book
(Kitbu As-Sayr Al-Kabr) - subsequently elected its president.185
The International humanitarian Law is a compilation of principles, conventions and procedures which
provide protection to specific groups in times of war and armed conflicts and hence covers the following:
1. Lahai Convention passed in 1899 and ratified in 1907, which regulates the rights and responsibilities of the combatants in warfare.
2. Geneva Convention, which aims at providing protection and humane treatment to the civilians
who are not involved in warfare. The convention comprises of four Geneva agreements of 1949
regarding victims of war with two additional protocols approved and appended in 1977.186
These agreements aim at guarding the human rights in circumstances of war, protecting the civilians
and to ascertain whether the war in itself was justified, etc. We have already dealt in detail with Islams humane treatment, rather the divine approach, in these areas.

182 Unanimously agreed upon, narrated by Bukhri Book of Jizyah No: 3009; Muslim book of Hajj - Hadth No: 1371
183 Badiu As-SanI (7/107); Fathul Qadeer (4/298); Fatw Al-Hindiyyah (2/198); Hshiyatu Ad-Dasooqi (2/186); Mughni Al-Muhtj (4/238);
Al-Mughni with Ash-Sharhul Kabeer (10/434)
184 Ibid.
185 Please see the preface of the book (Kitbu As-Sayr Al-Kabeer), published by Oriental Advertising Company in 1971 (1/3)
186 Dr. Abdul Ghani Mahmoud Al-Qnoon Ad-Duwali Al-Insni P: 5


Pivot V
Muslim Minority Relations with Non-Muslim State


Much has been written on this subject in the form of books and valued research. Those who have carried out a great deal of research on this subject include scholars like Dr. Yusuf Al-Qaradwi, Sheikh
Faisal Mawlawi, Dr. Taha Jabir Al-Alawani, Dr. Jamaluddin Atiyyah and others. Hence we shall
not take up what they have elaborated. However, we shall mention a group of general maxims and
comprehensive principles relevant to our subject. These can be prcised in one rudiment, that is: Endorsement of mutual rights between the Muslim minority and the majority state.
In this study we have already substantiated this rudiment covering all types of relations between the
Muslim and the Other. In fact this maxim, as mentioned hereinabove, has been affirmed by the Messenger of Allah, (pbuh) even with regard to the relation between the Muslim and Allah the Almighty,
in light of the divine guidance. A number of rights and duties ramify from this general and comprehensive rudiment, like:
5.1 Muslim Duties in Non-Muslim States
These responsibilities can be summarized as follows:
a) Obligation of honoring the agreements and covenants that have been signed and conceded to,
except what might be contradicting with a text of categorical denotation and certitude or what
is known as invariables.

Obligation of honoring agreements and fulfilling covenants with Muslims as well as with nonMuslims is amply substantiated and the scope of this study does not allow to cite all those texts.
However following are some of the most explicit corroborations:

Allah says, O ye who believe! fulfill (all) obligations. (Al-Qurn, 5:1) and and fulfil (every) engagement, for (every) engagement will be enquired into (on the Day of Reckoning).
(Al-Qurn, 17:34) and O ye who believe! Why say ye that which ye do not? Grievously odious
is it in the sight of God that ye say that which ye do not. (Al-Qurn, 61:2-3).

Allah commanded his messenger to honor even the agreement that was signed by him with the
tribes who were expected to commit transgression against some of the Muslims, saying,As
to those who believed but came not into exile, ye owe no duty of protection to them until they
come into exile; but if they seek your aid in religion, it is your duty to help them, except against
a people with whom ye have a treaty of mutual alliance. And (remember) God seeth all that ye
do. (Al-Qurn, 8:72). The verse denotes that honoring the agreements takes precedence over
the rights of those Muslims who might not have migrated.187 According to the interpretation
of Ibn Kathr, If they seek your aid in religious combat against an enemy of theirs, you must;
that is an obligation upon you, because they are your brethren in Islam. However if they seek
your assistance against an infidel people between whom and you there is a covenant, you must
not undermine the trust put in you; you must not violate your covenant with them. This has been
reported by Ibn Abbs (mAbpwh).188

Allah says, As long as these stand true to you, stand ye true to them: for God doth love the
righteous. (Al-Qurn, 9:7).

Ibn Kathr interprets this by saying, As long as they hold on to the no-war agreement agreed
and signed between you, stand true to them, certainly Allah loves those who are righteous.
The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) and the Muslims did exactly the same and the agreement of truce
with the people of Mecca was upheld until when Quraish violated the agreement and incited

187 Jmiu Al-Bayan by Tabari Edited by Ash-Sheikh Shkir (20/66-70)

188 Tafseer Al-Quran Al-Azeem (2/1318)


their allies - the tribe of Banu Bakr - against the tribe of Khuza who were allies of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) and killed their people within the bounds of the Sacred Mosque.189
So far as authentically narrated sayings of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) in this regards are
concerned, these are numerous. Here are a few examples: Signs of the hypocrite are three:
when he speaks, he lies; when he promises, he does not keep his promise; when he is trusted, he
betrays (even if he fasts, offers prayers and thinks that he is a Muslim )190 and Four things,
when these exist in a person, he is certainly a hypocrite; he who bears one of these four traits,
in him is a trait of hypocrisy until he gets rid of it. These are: when he is trusted, he betrays;
when he speaks, he lies; when he promises, he acts treacherously; when he disputes, crosses the
b) Shunning abhorred acts like swindling, lying and deceiving the state, organizations or individuals, because swindling, betrayal, deception, fraud and treachery are absolutely illicit in Islam.

Most scholars of the Hadth have assigned separate chapters, in their works, in abhorrence of
treachery, swindling, deception, fraud and dishonesty, wherein they have cited sayings and
stances of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) abominating these vices. Among these is the unanimously agreed authentic Hadth: For every treacherous act there will be a banner on the day
of resurrection; it will be announced: this is the treachery against so and so.192 Bukhri has
narrated through Abu Hurairah that the Messenger of Allah said, Allah says, Three people
will find me as their opponent on the day of resurrection: one of them is the one who was given
in may name, yet he acted treacherously193

Regarding swindling, the saying of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) is unequivocal: He who
carries arms against us, does not belong to; he who swindles, does not belong to us.194 Hence
the absolute renunciation of swindling and that those who perpetrate hideous deeds do not
represent the creed of Muhammad as envisioned by him (pbuh). The Holy Qurn did not leave
any scope for imagining that Messenger of Allah (pbuh) could swindle or deceive regarding
the agreements and covenants even when the enemies committed betrayal and treachery. Allah
says, Should they intend to deceive thee,- verily God sufficeth thee: He it is That hath strengthened thee with His aid and with (the company of) the Believers. (Al-Qurn, 8:62).

So far as lying is concerned, we have mentioned hereinabove in light of the sayings of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) that it is a trait of hypocrisy. It is rather one of the grave sinful wrongdoings to the extent that he called it to be the guide and conductor leading to the hellfire, Truth
leads to piety and piety leads to paradise; when a man observes truthfulness, he is designated by
Allah as truthful. Lying leads to immorality and immorality leads to hellfire; when a man keeps
lying, he is designated by Allah as untruthful.195

Since uprightness, besides being a right due from the Muslim towards fellow humans, is a right
owed to Allah as well, hence any transcendence against this right is considered transcendence
against the rights of Allah. Besides this, any violation of the Islamic morality tarnishes the
reputation of Islam and Muslims in the eyes of non-Muslims and presents a distorted image of

189 Ibid. (2/1130)

190 Narrated by Bukhri (Fathul Bri): (1:83-84); Muslim: 59
191 Narrated by Bukhri (Fathul Bri): (1:84); Muslim: 58
192 Narrated by Bukhri (Fathul Bri) through several Companions: (10/464), (2/299) and (6/202); Muslim: 1735,1736, 1737, 1738;
Riyadhu Saliheen - P: 449-450.
193 Narrated by Bukhri (Fathul Bri): (4/346-347)
194 Narrated by Muslim: 101, 102
195 Narrated by Bukhri (Fathul Bri): (10/423); Muslim: 2607



Islam, which drives them away from it instead of winning them over and bringing them into
the fold of Islam. Experience shows that nobility of morals has been the catalyst to entry into
Islam. The Holy Qurn relates the prayer of Abraham supplicating, Our Lord! Make us not a
(test and) trial for the Unbelievers, but forgive us, our Lord! for Thou art the Exalted in Might,
the Wise. (Al-Qurn, 60:5). As if non-adherence of Muslims to sublime morality becoming a
hurdle to others embracing Islam is a sort of trial. Allah forbid!
Abidance by the rules and regulations operative in the country of domicile as long as these do
not contradict with the constants of Islam. Among these are the taxation laws, as the revenues
from taxes are usually spent on common welfare.
Maintaining peace and safety in the society.
Calling the people wisely to rightfulness, justice and Islam. This should be done in a calm and
purposeful manner without any provocations.
Presenting a truly positive image of Islam and Muslims; reinforcing the spirit of solidarity,
peaceful coexistence, cooperation, integration and brotherly association.

5.2 Muslim Rights in Non-Muslim States

The most important of the rights of the Muslim minority that a non-Islamic state of their domicile
must honor are:
1. Effectuation of justice and equality, granting liberties within the framework of the law, interdiction of racial notions which can damage the interests of the Muslims, respecting the sensitivities
of Muslims and avoiding provoking them, banning insulting the fundamentals of all religions
under any pretext, and passing legislations to protect rights of the Muslims and their religious
2. Among the important rights is the right to establish Islamic Courts competent to handle the
cases related to family and personal affairs of the Muslims, and to their religious matters, as
is actually the case in the Muslim countries, wherein courts special to non-Muslims have been
established to handle their cases falling in the above categories.

In this regard we must appreciate the positive step taken by the British government approving
establishment of Shariah courts competent to look into the civil cases of the Muslim community. According to London based Sunday Times, The approval of the government has been quite
mature by empowering Shariah judges the right to adjudicate in cases ranging from divorce to
financial disputes related to domestic violence. Previously, it was not possible to execute the
rulings of these courts in Britain and thus they had continued to rely on the voluntary consensus
between Muslims. It has become clear that Shariah courts with these competencies have been
established in London, Birmingham, Bradford, Manchester with their headquarters at Newington and Yorkshire. It has been decided to setup two more courts in Glasgow and Edinburgh.196

We also commend other governments that have allowed establishment of Islamic banks or of
Islamic branches of conventional banks.
3. Safeguarding the identity of the Muslim minority and its characteristics in order to protect the
desired diversity. A state aught not to strive to forcibly dissolve the Muslim minority or try to
use negative approaches to integrate it into the social setup of the majority, be it European,
Western or any non-Muslim society, because it denotes rejection of diversity and multiplicity.
This in fact has proved to be a dangerous exercise towards changing the religion, identity and

In this context, we may say that history witnesses proudly, honestly and frankly the toleration
exercised by the Islamic state, towards the minorities, since the time of the Messenger of Allah

196 (Text backtranslated from the Arabic translation)


(pbuh) until today. It has never tried to fuse the religious minorities. This is evident from the
fact that these minorities have lived honorably in the places where they have been since long.
Even Jews, after their exodus from Europe, did not find refuge anywhere else other than in the
Islamic state and in Muslim lands. We are for positive integration which safeguards the Muslims religion and belief while belonging to his new homeland with all love, sincere toil, and
contribution within the framework of absolute harmony between him and his loyalty to Allah
and to the faithful, without any contradiction or clash.
Mutual rights between the state and the minority
The most important mutual rights between the minority and the non-Muslim state that can promote
coexistence, peace, social harmony, social development and a viable common space for growth,
progress and stability, are the following:
1. Acquaintance at close proximity and mutual recognition as enlightened by the divine saying:
O mankind! We created you from a single (pair) of a male and a female, and made you into
nations and tribes, that ye may know each other (not that ye may despise (each other). Verily the
most honoured of you in the sight of God is (he who is) the most righteous of you. (Al-Qurn,
49:13). Through this verse Allah addresses the whole humankind, both faithful and faithless
that they all belong to the same origin. This calls for mutual recognition between the people;
it implies that no one should behave arrogantly with a fellow human being considering him
his brother in humanity through his father Adam and mother Eve. When All of you belong to
Adam and Adam was created from soil, why then be there vainglory, arrogance, wrangling and

Furthermore, Allah elucidates that from this first origin, he created progeny that took the form
of nations, peoples and tribes. His purpose was to privilege every people, community and tribe
with certain complimentary qualities and characteristics. This reality calls for identifying these
qualities and characteristics, realizing the related sentiments and emotions, and acquainting
with religions and sects. Upon achieving such mutual acquaintance between individuals and
communities and upon gaining such consciousness about the people of every religion in the vicinity, can the real convergence, cooperation and collaboration be actualized. This will provide
basis for peaceful coexistence; everyone will be engaged and busy with his natural specialty;
thus the society shall benefit from all the given characteristics, qualities and ingredients of every community, tribe and religion. When this is realized, civilization and advancement shall be
naturally consummated.

In light of this a non-Muslim state aught to strive to be cognizant of the Muslims as they are in
reality of their religion, commune and culture; it aught to positively exploit their characteristics.
Likewise should the Muslim minority reciprocate; it must understand and become cognizant of
the European milieu - or wherever they may be in the West (or anywhere else), of the people,
their characteristics, innate dispositions, civilization and their systems and approaches; they
must positively exploit them to the best and in light of this knowledge, mold their dealings with
the reality they live in. This way the desired positive interaction shall be actualized.
Muslims who live in the West should correct their outlook towards the European society, rather
than about the Western society in general, in the sense that although the Western societies are
secular, yet the authority of religious factors there is a reality that can not be denied. That is
why in these societies Islamic cultural activity is allowed to the extent that it does not threaten
to change the structure of the society and to the level that it does not lead to emergence of an
Islamic oriented political setup or to an independent Islamic entity.197 Hence exercising caution


against provocation is very much required. What is needed is serious goal oriented work based
on a strategy that realizes that the Western society is not one single society. Hence it is imperative to benefit from the diversity of its policies, its fast changing ideals and standards. They
must bear in mind that these are societies of scientific development, scientific culture, knowledge and information. They must realize that religious trends and establishments continue to
enjoy influence and leverage. They must be mindful that fear of Islam and its distorted image
has been deep rooted in minds of many generations of Western society since the days of the
Crusades. Furthermore the terrorist acts in USA and Europe and some dreadful acts committed
in Iraq in the name of resistance have corroborated the distorted image of Islam and Muslims,
which is quite unfortunate.
2. Cooperation in promoting righteousness and piety and whatever is beneficial to the humankind
as a whole. Allah says,Help ye one another in righteousness and piety, but help ye not one
another in sin and rancour. (Al-Qurn, 5:2).
3. Allah has obligated upon Muslims that the basis of cooperation should be righteousness, kindness, benevolence, benefaction and piety. Based on that, He has granted freedom for cooperation with anyone. In other words, a Muslim can cooperate with anyone and everyone as long
as the basis of cooperation is based on righteousness and piety; and that is why Allah did not
specify with whom Muslims should cooperate, as this was not important, whereas setting the
guideline was vital. This is the reason why the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) emphasized the importance of principled cooperation even with the pagan polytheists. He is reported to have said,
I witnessed in the house of Abdullah Bin Jadn a treaty. To me, I value that higher than a herd
of red camels. And If I was called to attend that in Islam, I would consent (to that).198 This was
before Muhmmads being entrusted with the prophethood (pbuh). The Chieftains of Quraish
had become conscious of the fact that there were people who were subjected to injustice, needy
who died of destitution and those who were disadvantaged but no one helped them. Thereupon
their (the chieftains) conscience woke up and met at Hilf Al-Fadhool. The attendees entered
into a covenant that they would come to the help of the weak, succor the destitute, help the
needy and stand for the weak; they pledged to uphold such noble standards.199
5.3 Two Qurnic and historical models of the Muslim minority that continue to remain the
When we read the Holy Qurn, we come across a pioneering and marvelous model of a Muslim
whom the circumstances drove to live in a non-Muslim society. This model is none other than Prophet Joseph (pbuh). Likewise the books on biography of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) report that several of his companions migrated to Abyssinia and lived there for quite some time. It is worthwhile to
mention these two models along with some commentary and analysis.
5.3.a Model I: Model of Joseph for a Muslim under Non-Muslim states
The Holy Qurn has dealt with the model of Prophet Joseph elaborately. What is of importance to us
is that we derive from this case study what is relevant to us within the scope of this study.
1. Joseph (pbuh) lived in Egypt while guarding his faith, belief and morality. In spite of intense
pressure from the wife of (the great) Aziz and other women, he did not give in nor slipped
towards lust and cravings. In the face of his resistance, the matter got to the extent of, But she
in whose house he was, sought to seduce him from his (true) self: she fastened the doors, and
said: Now come, thou (dear one)! He said: God forbid! truly (thy husband) is my lord! he
197 Strategy of Islamic Cultural in the West, approved by the 9th Islamic Summit Conference, held in Doha in November 2000 P: 32
198 Narrated by Baihaqi As-Sunan Al-Kubra (6/367); Al-Marif Ibn Qutaibah P: 604
199 Ibid.; Faisal Al-Mawlavi Muslim as a citizen in Europe P: 32, Published by the International Union of Muslim Scholars


made my sojourn agreeable! truly to no good come those who do wrong! (Al-Qurn, 12:23).
Joseph paid the heavy price of guarding his morality not only by loosing many of the privileges
he had enjoyed but was thrown into prison for several years.

The Muslim minority should take Prophet Joseph (pbuh) as their exemplar and its foremost
concern must be to guard its religion, belief, morals and the morality of the younger generations. To this end they must use all given material and spiritual means and exploit all available
educational and scientific mechanisms. This denotes the vital importance of steadfastness and
of guarding the identity and the personnel, otherwise there is no value for any worldly goal
whatsoever great and grand that might be if that results in loosing ones religion and morality.
This is exactly what joseph (pbuh) whispered: O my Lord! the prison is more to my liking
than that to which they invite me (Al-Qurn, 12:33). It is notable that Joseph (pbuh) did not
qualify the type of prison so that it is understood to mean that any imprisonment even if it meant
life term incarceration, was the better liked and preferred option than to fall into sinfulness
leading to wrath of the Almighty Allah. One can imagine the severity of falling into infidelity,
fusion and loosing his spiritual personality or that of the subsequent generation. However, it
must be remembered that faithfulness is due to everyone who has been kind in any way even if
that happened to be an infidel. When (the great) Aziz of Egypt had purchased Joseph, he had
asked his wife: Make his stay (among us) honourable: may be he will bring us much good, or
we shall adopt him as a son. (Al-Qurn, 12:21).

Joseph (pbuh) had not forgotten that generous gesture of Aziz and that too was one of the motives behind his disobeying the command of his wife after his God-fearingness; his reply was,
God forbid! truly (thy husband) is my lord! he made my sojourn agreeable! truly to no good
come those who do wrong! (Al-Qurn, 12:23). Some interpreters of the Qurn understand that
the pronoun in the first clause of the above verse refers to Aziz; even if it was understood to
refer to Allah the Almighty, the second clause implies that Joseph could not imagine to be disloyal to the one who had done good to him he considered disloyalty as transgression. truly
to no good come those who do wrong! (Al-Qurn, 12:23).
2. No transgression against the people of the domicile even if some of them or their rulers or their
allied countries commit oppression against the migrants or against the minority or against Islamic countries in the form of occupation. Injustice is not matched with downright wrongdoing.
Upon insistence of the wife of Aziz, Joseph reacted saying, truly to no good come those who
do wrong! (Al-Qurn, 12:23).
3. In this is a strong rebuttal to those some of the Muslims who justify aggression against interests
of the European countries or those of USA under the pretext that these countries had colonized
the Muslim World and robed their wealth, believing thereby that what they take from them is
only a fraction of what these countries have done in the past. This is an invalid understanding
against the spirit of Islam. Hence in light of much evidence mentioned hereinabove, this is a
mere wrongdoing. One of these evidences is the divine saying, no bearer of burdens can bear
the burden of another. (Al-Qurn, 6:164). One more evidence is that those migrants do not
represent the Muslims who suffer under Western colonialism.
4. Love for the country of domicile. It must be observed that when Joseph (pbuh) was besieged
and harassed by the lustful women, he did not say in his prayer that migration or the way out of
Egypt was preferred to him than falling into the womens trap; he rather said, O my Lord! the
prison is more to my liking than that to which they invite me (Al-Qurn, 12:33). This substantiates that he having taken Egypt as domicile, he loved it and preferred being imprisoned
there instead of departing it. Moreover, upon being released, he sought to be made in-charge of


the store-houses to serve the people of Egypt; he even called his parents and all of his brothers
to Egypt to settle there in spite of the fact that Egyptians did not follow the monotheistic religion of Abraham (pbuh).
5. Fulfilling the obligation of the call to Islam with wisdom and astute advice. Prophet Joseph
(pbuh) did not forsake the obligation of the calling to Allah in spite of the difficult circumstances surrounding him. He was unjustly bought as a slave and was initially treated according
to that status. He did not abandon his missionary work even while in prison, but turned his
detention to the advantage of his mission and succeeded in that brilliantly. Two of his prison
mates, who were jailed there along with him, at one point in time dreamed and he interpreted
their dreams, but before interpreting their dreams, he mentioned to them the signs that the Almighty had conferred upon him in the form of exceptional knowledge revealed to him. He then
explained to them the religion of Abraham (pbuh) which was based on monotheism, shunning
polytheism and on sound magnanimous creed. He exposed to them the danger of ascribing
partners to the one and only God, and how the falsely ascribed partners of God taken as deities are worthless and helpless; that sovereignty and authority belong to the one and only God.
Only after this prologue did he come to interpret the dreams of his prison-mates.200

A Muslim minority should conduct itself along the lines of Prophet Joseph (pbuh). They must
call to Allah with wisdom and astute advice, and argue in ways that are the best possible manner, because calling to Allah is a religious obligation on all Muslims on every one as per his
knowledge and capability even if it was to be merely a single verse. The Messenger of Allah
says, Convey on my behalf, even if it was to be a single verse (of the Holy Qurn).201 In fact
Allah has limited salvation to those who enjoin what is right, and forbid what is wrong, Let
there arise out of you a band of people inviting to all that is good, enjoining what is right, and
forbidding what is wrong: They are the ones to attain felicity. (Al-Qurn, 3:104).
6. All non-Muslims should not be stereotyped; among them there are those who are just, decent
and upright in their worldly dealings; among them there are those who consent to a Muslim to
take up the highest executive office in their country and occupy high positions; there are those
who are less magnanimous. Hence one must not generalize and pass sweeping judgments about

The Aziz of Egypt was high-minded in his dealings and conscious of justice. In the very
beginning of Josephs incoming, he told his wife, Make his stay (among us) honourable
(Al-Qurn, 12:21). When he found Joseph and the lady racing to the door and when an insider
suggested the solution to the puzzle that cleared Joseph of any suspicion, Aziz suggested to
Joseph to ignore the incident, O Joseph, pass this over! (Al-Qurn, 12:29), while at the same
time chided her, (O wife), ask forgiveness for thy sin (Al-Qurn, 12:29). When she tried to
trap Joseph, saying, What is the (fitting) punishment for one who formed an evil design against
thy wife, but prison or a grievous chastisement? (Al-Qurn, 12:25), Aziz (her husband) did
not believe her.
200 The details of this episode are from verse 36 to 41 of the 12th Chapter (Jospeh) of the Holy Qurn: ((Now with him there came into the prison
two young men. Said one of them: I see myself (in a dream) pressing wine. said the other: I see myself (in a dream) carrying bread on my
head, and birds are eating, thereof. Tell us (they said) The truth and meaning thereof: for we see thou art one that doth good (to all). He
said: Before any food comes (in due course) to feed either of you, I will surely reveal to you the truth and meaning of this ere it befall you: that
is part of the (duty) which my Lord hath taught me. I have (I assure you) abandoned the ways of a people that believe not in God and that (even)
deny the Hereafter. And I follow the ways of my fathers,- Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; and never could we attribute any partners whatever to
God: that (comes) of the grace of God to us and to mankind: yet most men are not grateful. O my two companions of the prison! (I ask you):
are many lords differing among themselves better, or the One God, Supreme and Irresistible? If not Him, ye worship nothing but names which
ye have named,- ye and your fathers,- for which God hath sent down no authority: the command is for none but God: He hath commanded that
ye worship none but Him: that is the right religion, but most men understand not. O my two companions of the prison! As to one of you, he
will pour out the wine for his lord to drink: as for the other, he will hang from the cross, and the birds will eat from off his head. (so) hath been
decreed that matter whereof ye twain do enquire.))
201 Narrated by Bukhri Book of Prophets Section: What has been mentioned about People of the Book.


He called a spade a spade, rebuked her and described her deed as snare; he played fare about
Joseph; his stance was: So when he saw his shirt,- that it was torn at the back,- (her husband)
said: Behold! It is a snare of you women! truly, mighty is your snare! O Joseph, pass this over!
(O wife), ask forgiveness for thy sin, for truly thou hast been at fault! (Al-Qurn, 12:28-29)

The truth is that a similar situation, if repeated in todays world in front of one of the oppressive
tyrants, he would just endorse the claim of the first lady against an ordinary stranger and make
Joseph a scapegoat in the name of saving his honor and execute him or torture him in the worst
ever known manner. But unlike the ordinary, Aziz was not taken by arrogance to be adamant
on sin; he did not blindly endorse the claim of his stunningly attractive wife; he listened to the
witness, confirmed his reasonability, based his judgment on it, pronounced that she was wrong,
described her deed as a repulsive snare, and made an apology to Joseph saying, O Joseph, pass
this over (Al-Qurn, 12: 29).

Similar too was the evenhandedness of the high-minded and clearheaded King. He was principled in his worldly affairs, preferred the interests of his people and did not forget the sublimity
of knowledge and augustness of men of knowledge. When Joseph (pbuh) interpreted the dream
of the King and elucidated its details to the royal representative, saying, For seven years shall
ye diligently sow as is your wont: and the harvests that ye reap, ye shall leave them in the ear,except a little, of which ye shall eat. (Al-Qurn, 12: 47), the king ordered for an audience of
Joseph with him. Again if it was to happen in our times, the king would attach all the credit of
wisdom and farsightedness to himself without even considering to give any credit to that unfortunate stranger rotting behind the prison walls for a baseless accusation. How could a sovereign
disclaim such wisdom and credit for such an ill-fated stranger instead. What a great difference
between him and people of power today who leave no stone unturned to claim all acumen for

However when Joseph (pbuh) linked the offer of audience with a condition that an enquiry be
set up about the women who perpetrate his being sent behind the bars. The King did not respond
with arrogance but responded positively. An enquiry was setup and Josephs innocence was

In the wake of this Joseph was called for the audience so that the King would offer him an advisory position in the royal court saying, Bring him unto me; I will take him specially to serve
about my own person. (Al-Qurn, 12: 54). However the witty King was able to appreciate the
great capabilities of foresight, analysis and implementation in Joseph (pbuh) and he immediately pronounced, Be assured this day, thou art, before our own presence, with rank firmly
established, and fidelity fully proved! (Al-Qurn, 12: 54). It was an open royal offer of any key
executive position with full authority based on his knowledge and honesty. Upon this Joseph
(pbuh) himself specified the suitable position he would like to take up. He said, Set me over
the store-houses of the land: I will indeed guard them, as one that knows (their importance).
(Al-Qurn, 12: 55). This was actually like seeking a portfolio of multiple ministries in todays
terms including Finance, Agriculture, Economy and Commerce, Social Affairs and Supplies.
On the other hand Allahs mention of the dreams of the Egyptian king in spite of his being
a non-Muslim implies that those were true dreams, which denotes that an infidel may enjoy
fineness and purity and may have dreams that could be true.
7. The minority has the right to assume top positions, ministries etc. As mentioned above, they
have the right if they dont have any obligation unfulfilled to strive reaching those positions
just as Joseph sought to be the overall in-charge of the store-houses of the land.
8. A Muslim is obligated to promote and protect life wherever he may be, not to cause death and
destruction. Prophet Joseph (pbuh) promoted and protected life of affluence for a people that
201 Narrated by Bukhri Book of Prophets Section: What has been mentioned about People of the Book.


did not share his monotheistic faith. With his God-given foresight and planning, he rescued
them from drought and death that was otherwise facing them. He presented to them the brilliant
ideas, or in other words, shared with them the blessings of the divine revelation, inspiration
and prophecy, with which he rescued them by the grace of Allah. Muslim minorities have an
obligation to their respective countries; they must produce and present all their innovations,
knowledge, skills and services to their advantage and development. This is what Joseph did.
He rescued the people of Egypt and its neighboring areas from the tragedy of famine that was
otherwise going to create a widespread devastation. Through his contribution of knowledge,
innovation, planning and effective implementation under his personal supervision, he made the
9. Not to neglect their original motherland, but maintain the love and belongingness by lending
their helping hand to their kith and kin as much as possible. This is exactly what Joseph (pbuh)
did when he helped his brothers, treated them with kindness and offered gifts and foodstuff to
them; he called his parents and brothers to come and settle down honorably in peace in Egypt:
Then when they entered the presence of Joseph, he provided a home for his parents with himself, and said: Enter ye Egypt (all) in safety if it please God. (Al-Qurn, 12: 99).
10. Forgetting and forgiving the offense and injustice of the people of his motherland if ever that
had happened to take place and staying away from the vicious circle of revenge and dwelling
in the past. Not only should a migrant Muslim forget and forgive the excesses of the people of
his original country but he should shun the mentality of revenge and vengeance; he ought not
to carry with him the negative baggage of his motherland. Once his domicile has changed, he
is supposed to change himself to a higher and better person. This is what Joseph did with his
brothers who had wanted to kill him, but then changed their design and dumped him in a pit,
which led to his bondage and being sold as a slave. The evil deed of his brothers had not only
endangered his life, but his honor and dignity too; not only that, but they had retained their abhorrence of him in their hearts and minds, which was evident from their demeanor even years
after dumping him in the pit. When the kings measuring pot was retrieved from the baggage
of Benjamin (the full-brother of Joseph) they could not restrain from expressing their hidden
hatred for Joseph and stated falsely, If he steals, there was a brother of his who did steal before
(him). (Al-Qurn, 12: 77).

This lie denoted their odium, continued jealousy and detestation of Joseph and slander of him.
However and in spite of all that, Joseph (pbuh) did not reciprocate in kind with vengeance for
what they had committed against him. He even did not rebuke them or call them wicked, but
just called them worse situated: Ye are the worse situated; and God knoweth best the truth
of what ye assert! (Al-Qurn, 12: 77). Although, it was absolutely simple for Joseph to seize
the opportunity to establish their perpetration or even to castigate them just on the basis of the
accusation, yet he did not resort to vengeance.

When the clouds disappeared, the facts manifested and the shame of the brothers was apparent, Joseph (pbuh) treated them with sublime disposition and high morality. He said: Know
ye how ye dealt with Joseph and his brother, not knowing (what ye were doing)? They said:
Art thou indeed Joseph? He said, I am Joseph, and this is my brother: God has indeed been
gracious to us (all): behold, he that is righteous and patient,- never will God suffer the reward
to be lost, of those who do right. They said: By God! indeed has God preferred thee above us,
and we certainly have been guilty of sin! He said: This day let no reproach be (cast) on you:
God will forgive you, and He is the Most Merciful of those who show mercy!Go with this my
shirt, and cast it over the face of my father: he will come to see (clearly). Then come ye (here)
to me together with all your family. (Al-Qurn, 12: 89-90).


Jospeh (pbuh) justified the conduct and deeds of his brothers in such manner that relieved them of
embarrassment, like:
Firstly: He rationalized their deed as being an act of ignorance instead of bad intention and wickedness, although he knew the motivation. He said, Know ye how ye dealt with Joseph and his brother,
not knowing (what ye were doing)? (Al-Qurn, 12: 89).
Secondly: He started his discourse with a mention of the blessings of Allah on him without mentioning what he was inflicted with. He said, I am Joseph, and this is my brother: God has indeed been
gracious to us (all): behold, he that is righteous and patient,- never will God suffer the reward to be
lost, of those who do right. (Al-Qurn, 12: 90). This subtlety of Joseph alleviated to a large extent
their guilty conscience, as if he was telling them that what they did to him was instrumental in his
achieving the advantages and status of authority in Egypt.
Thirdly: He was explicit in declaring his forgiveness: He said: This day let no reproach be (cast)
on you. (Al-Qurn, 12: 92). In other words, he elucidated to them that he was not blaming them nor
castigating them for settling his personal scores. In the face of their heinous crime, Josephs sublimity
was so eminent that it lightened their guilty conscience.
Fourthly: His wish God will forgive you (Al-Qurn, 12: 92) denoted his care and love for them.
His praying for them implied that the matter was with Allah and he implored for their forgiveness by
Him as He was the Most Merciful and Omnipotent to forgive all their excesses.
Fifthly: His affirmation He is the Most Merciful of those who show mercy! (Al-Qurn, 12: 92)
indicated that when he (Joseph) had been so kind to them, wasnt it all the more rational to hope for
the forgiveness of the Most Gracious of those who show mercy?
Sixthly: When the parents and the brothers prostrated in respect of the throne, Joseph said, O my
father! this is the fulfillment of my vision of old! God hath made it come true! He was indeed good to
me when He took me out of prison and brought you (all here) out of the desert, (even) after Satan had
sown enmity between me and my brothers. Verily my Lord understandeth best the mysteries of all that
He planneth to do, for verily He is full of knowledge and wisdom. (Al-Qurn, 12: 100). This statement of Joseph had a number of sedatives and psychological tranquilizers for his brothers, rather motivating connotations of the need to be thankful to the Almighty. This is evident from the following:
a) Seizing the opportunity of the blissful culmination of the episode, Joseph set out to open a new
chapter. As if emphasizing that all was well as it ended so well for all of them. He did not go
into the details of what had befallen upon him in the form of agony and incarceration.
b) He ascribed all that had come his way to the actualization of his dream, O my father! this is the
fulfillment of my vision of old! God hath made it come true! (Al-Qurn, 12: 100). This meant
that it was the divine plan to elevate him.
c) He mentioned the good outcome, kindness and graciousness of Allah. He was indeed good
to me when He took me out of prison and brought you (all here) out of the desert. (Al-Qurn,
12: 100). He did not dwell in the past, but started with his gaining release from the prison and
attaining authority in the land.
d) He imputed to insinuations of Satan whatever had happened, (even) after Satan had sown
enmity between me and my brothers. (Al-Qurn, 12: 100).
e) While ascribing the enmity to the insinuations of Satan, Joseph made first person (himself) preceded them, although he was a minor and unable to do something. By this he intended to say
that all humans are vulnerable to evil temptation.



He used the expression me and my brothers which suggested the brotherly bond and affection
thereof and his overflowing sentiments towards them.

This is the great model that aught to be the ideal for all Muslim minorities all over the globe. They
must invoke the role model of Joseph (pbuh) in their attitude towards their domicile where Allah had
made them to settle as well as towards their motherlands and their kith and kin.
There is no doubt that if we Muslims behave as Joseph did, the whole world will embrace Islam
seeking their salvation in it, just as the masses of East Asia did when they were so impressed by the
morality of the traders and their calling.
5.3b Model II: Model of migrants to Abyssinia for Muslims in Non-Muslim states
Books on biography of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) report that when Quraish increased their
atrocities and harassment of his Companions at Mecca to a horrendous level, he permitted some of
them to emigrate. Eminent historian Ibn Katheer reports through Muhammad Bin Ishaq: When the
Messenger of Allah (pbuh) saw the ordeal his companions were undergoing, while he himself was
being protected by the Almighty and his uncle Abu Tlib, and that he was not able to ward off their
ordeal, he told them: what if you migrate to the land of Abyssinia? The king there does not oppress
anyone; Being a land of truth, Allah may drive away your ordeal. Upon this a number of Muslims
comprising several of his companions set out on their way to Abyssinia to avoid further affliction and
to flee with their faith in Allah. This was the first migration in the history of Islam; the first among the
Muslims to migrate was Othmn Bin Affan and his wife Ruqayyah the daughter of the Messenger of
Allah (pbuh).202

Ibn Ishaq reports: Then migrated Jafar Bin Abi Tlib and his wife Asm Bin Umais; there she
gave birth to their son Abdullah Bin Jafar. Then many Muslims followed suit until they communed in the land of Abyssinia.203

Imm Ahmad narrates in his Musnad through Ibn Masood saying, The Messenger of Allah
(pbuh) delegated us to Najshi (Negus the king of Abyssinia). We were about eighty men including: Abdullah Bin Masood, Jafar, Abdullah Bin Arfatah, Uthmn Bin Mazoon and Abu
Moosa. These people went to Najshi. (Coinciding with this) Quraish sent Amr Bin Al-s and
Amrah Bin Al-Wald with a present. When they called on Najshi, they prostrated in front of
him and then hastened to his right and left and said to him, A group of our cousins have arrived
in your land turning away from us and our creed. The king asked about where they were? They
said, in your land; you may call them. The king called them. Jafar told his comrades that he
would speak on their behalf and they followed him. When he entered, he greeted the king but did
not prostrate. They asked him, What is to you that you do not prostrate before the king? Jafar
replied, we prostrate to none but Allah the Almighty, we have been enjoined to offer prayers
and pay Zakt. Amr said to the king, They are against you regarding Jesus Christ. He said,
What do you say about Jesus the son of Mary and his mother? Jafar said, We say as Allah
said: he is the word of Allah bestowed on Virgin Mary who was never touched nor impregnated
by a man. He said: he then picked up a twig from the ground and said, O people of Abyssinia,
priests and monks, by God, they are not exceeding on to what we say except the (size of this)

202 Al-Bidyah Wa-Annihyah Hafidh Imduddeen Ad-Dimashqi (701-774) Edited by Dr. Abdullah Abdul Muhsin At-Turki
Dru Hijr 1997 (4/166-167)
203 Seerat Ibn Ishq P: 208; Seerat Ibn Hishm (1/323)


twig. We welcome you and all those who came from him (Muhammad). I bear witness that he
is a prophet, he is the one whose mention we find in the Bible. He is the prophet about whom
Jesus the son of Mary gave glad tidings. Settle down wherever you may like; by God, had I not
been in this state of being king, I would go to him and lift his shoes. He then ordered the gifts
of the adversaries to be returned and it was returned to them. Then Abdullah Bin Masood hurried (back) and was able to participate in the battle of Badr. It is reported that when told about
his death, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) prayed for him seeking Allahs forgiveness for him.
According to Ibn Kathr, this is a good and strong attribution and proper context. It implies
that Abu Moosa was among those who had migrated from Mecca to Abyssinia although some
of the narrators have not mentioned his name. Allah is most knowledgeable.204

It is worth mentioning here about an aggression against Abyssinia and the stance of the migrated
Companions thereof. Ummu Salamah, who was one of the migrants, reports: We stayed with
a virtuous shelter provider in a very good house. It was not late when an Abyssinian revolted
against him seeking kingship for himself. By God, we had not experienced grief worse than
that, fearing that the rebel may overpower Negus and the new king may not know our worth as
Negus knew. We continued praying for Allahs support for Negus. When Negus set out with his
forces, the Companions said to each other: Who can go and be present at the battle and see who
is defeated? Zubair who was the youngest migrant said, me. They inflated a skin bottle for
him which he tied on his chest. With it he began to swim the Nile till he came out at the other
bank and met the people (of Negus) and was present at the battle. Allah defeated the rebel king
and he was killed. Negus triumphed over the rebel. Zubair returned waving his garment and
shouting, Rejoice, Allah has made Negus triumphant. Ummu Salamah said: We swear by Allah,
we had not ever been so happy with anything as with the triumph of Negus. We then stayed with
him till some of us left and returned back to Mecca while others stayed there.205

Morale of the story:

1) Admittance to others hearts is achieved through common constant values and by describing the
good aspects of their icons. In the court of Negus, Jafar read out the forepart of the Chapter
Mary of the Holy Qurn which describes the nobleness of Jesus Christ (pbuh) and his mother
Virgin Mary (pbuh) so that the king was moved to tears. In that situation, he did not rather read
what the Holy Qurn relates about the belief of some Christians in trinity nor the criticism of
the Christians. This denotes that the Muslim minority should always strive to find the common
grounds and the pleasant aspects.
2) Adherence to constant values of the religion whatsoever be the circumstances. We learn that the
Companions of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) did not prostrate in front of the king of Abyssinia in spite of their difficult situation and precarious state although the tradition and protocol
demanded them to prostrate. They entered into the kings court just after the delegation of the
Quraish presented their precious gifts, prostrated to the king and pleaded for repatriation of
the Muslim migrants. The Muslim migrants entered and greeted without prostrating. When the
king asked, Why did you not greet me as did these comers from your people. Jafar said, So
far as greeting is concerned, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) had informed us that the greeting
of the people of paradise is peace be unto you; he has commanded us to greet like that and
we greeted you how we greet each other. According to another narration, He has also com-

204 Musnad Ahmad (1/461).

205 Al-Bidyah Wa-Annihyah Hafidh Imduddeen Ad-Dimashqi (701-774) Edited by Dr. Abdullah Abdul Muhsin At-Turki
Dru Hijr 1997 (4/185-186).


manded us to prostrate to none but Allah.206

This requires the Muslim minority to necessarily commit themselves to their religion and not to
give up their beliefs and religious constants; they must not accept what contradicts with those
beliefs and constants or leads to their fusion loosing their religious identity. This is a very vital
issue, else what is the value of staying and living a peaceful and comfortable life while the belief and constant values may be in peril. Hence they must give up all that is valued and sacrifice
everything in protection of their Islamic identity and the identity of the coming generations.
3) Permissibility of migrating to the land of infidelity and domiciling there. We observe that the
Companions of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) stayed there till the year of Khyber incident.
Jafar says, We left and reached Medina. I was received by the Messenger of Allah (pbuh); he
embraced me and said, I cant say whether I am happy for the triumph of Khyber or for arrival
of Jafar.207
4) Love for the new homeland that opened its arms to them; grieving for triumph of its enemies
over its people and sovereignty; praying for its triumph and feeling glad for that; delegating
representatives to witness the incident and praying for its victory.208 This signifies that there
is no contradiction between this and allegiance to Allah, to His Messenger and to Muslims in
5) Faithfulness to the domicile. Baihaqi and others report through Abu Ammah: A delegation
of Negus of Abyssinia paid a visit to the Messenger of Allah (pbuh). When he himself served
them, the Companions said, O Messenger of Allah, we suffice you (to serve them). He said,
They treated my companions with honor; it is my pleasure to honor them.209 In this kind
hospitality of the Abyssinian delegation by the Messenger of Allah (pbuh), although they were
not Muslims, there is further substantiation to the proposition that a Muslim must be faithful to
whosoever has been kind to him whatsoever be his religion and be thankful to Allah for that.
This is what could be derived from this beautiful episode. It sheds light on the brilliant model of Jafar
and his comrades in the land of emigration. May Allah be pleased with all of them.

206 Musnad Ahmad (1/461); Al-Bidyah Wa-Annihyah (4/173)

207 Al-Bidyah Wa-Annihyah (4/179); Al-Mujam Al-Kabeer by Tabarni (2/1478); Majmau Zawid (6/30)
208 Al-Bidyah Wa-Annihyah (4/185-186); Seerat Ibn Ishq P: 197; Seerat Ibn Hisham (/339)
209 Dalilu An-nubuwwah by Baihaqi (2/307); Al-Bidyah Wa-Annihyah (4/194)


Pivot VI
We and the West: Conflict or Dialogue?
Confrontation or Coexistence?


We and the West: Conflict or Dialogue?

Confrontation or Coexistence?
6.1 After having participated in obliterating Communism, WE became the victim.
6.2 The Western reality and the conflict (The Crusades, Imperialism, Christianization, Orientalism).

6.2 a Samples from Western intellectuals of clash

6.2 b Report of the RAND Corporation

6.2 c Fukuyama

6.2 d Samuel Huntington

6.2 e Pope Benedict XVI

6.2 f Islam and the West Who is fighting who?

6.2 g The Dilemma.

6.2 h Major threats to mutual relation between the two.
6.3 Stance of Islam towards clash of civilizations.

6.3 a Is the clash non-existent?

6.3 b The natural law of positive struggle and repelling with what is better.
6.1 After the participation of Muslims (Us) with the West (the Other) in wiping out Communism, we became the victim.
Not many would have believed that the clash of Capitalism with the Communist block would come to
an end so swiftly, that the cold war which continued for about half a century after World War II would
be buried along with its imprints so quickly, and that the Soviet Union (USSR) will cease to exist in
1992 and that it would fall in the arms of the capitalist West; no one would have imagined that the
socialist economy and extremist Communism would give way to capitalistic free market economy
and that globalization, G8 and WTO would hold sway.210
Many had thought that with the end of that bitter conflict, which took hundreds of millions of lives
and siphoned trillions of dollars, will really end the age of bloody strife and with that a new age of
mutual understanding, dialogue and international peace and global tranquility will become a reality.
People had expected that as a result of that anticipated transformation humankind would enjoy serenity and harmony so that the rich world will be free to come to the rescue of the poor world comprising more than two thirds of the whole world and spend a part of the hefty cost of the warmongering
to bliss the underprivileged by providing for their basic needs so that they too could live a fairly
decent life worthy of a human being; so that they can spare something for the miserable, sick and afflicted children of the world, who suffer from poverty, malnutrition and dearth of medicine.
All these expectations were shattered against the rock of the reality which rather swayed most of the
Western rulers and intellectuals to fabricate yet another even bitter conflict the clash with Islam
and its civilization and mark them the Enemy No. 1 in place of the Ex-Soviet Union. This is in spite
of the reality that Islam played a very vital role in nullifying the atheistic ideology of Communism
and in quelling the polemical materialism on which the communist philosophy is grounded. Muslims
played the major role through Afghan Jihd in defeating the USSR. Even Western intellectuals (like
Brejensky, Advisor for National Security to President Carter) acknowledged that that without Afghan
Jihd against USSR, the latter would not have crumbled so swiftly. Hence it was expected that the

210 This study was compiles in 2002 and updated subsequently for this book.


West would reconcile with Islam and Muslims on the basis of justice and peaceful coexistence instead
of clash and aggression.
It seems that given the present situation, the Western intellectuals are headed in two different directions. The first is inclined to think that the relation must be based on dialogue, coexistence and good
neighborliness, while the other trend (which is the dominant trend), especially during the 1990s leading to adoption of The Clash of Civilizations and treating Islam as the major menace threatening
the Western Civilization, security of the Western states and the Western values system . The latter are
propelled by the excessively overblown ego in the aftermath of the wars and conflicts of Crusades,
provocations of the churches against Islam and Muslims since the decline of Roman empire in Levant
and Egypt which led to the fall of Constantinople to Islam and Muslims, affirming total crumbling of
the Roman Empire at the hands of Sultan Muhammad Al-Fteh, and by justifications of the Orientalists shoring up support for the imperialists to invade Muslim lands.
Throughout the era of cold war, most of the Western political leaders and intellectuals did not express
their intentions because the Enemy No. 1 in their eyes was the red ideology of Communism behind
which stood a giant nuclear super power dominating half of the European continent with immense
influence in most countries of the world.
During those long years they wanted the Muslim World to stand with them against the Soviet Union
and to that end exploited the religious strength of Islam. It is absolutely true that, to achieve their
goals, in many cases they were successful in pushing the Muslim countries into the conflict between
Capitalism and Communism. Through Christian-Muslim dialogue and through contacts between formal governmental Islamic organizations and the Church, they were able to hit severe blows to the
atheistic communist ideology.
According to my personal belief the Christian ideology could not have harmed Communism anyway
worth mentioning. What really dealt a serious blow to Communism, unraveled its system and make
it crumble, was Islamic belief and the comprehensive Islamic ideology harmonizing between the
religious texts and the intellect.
This does not mean that what those Muslim thinkers contributed was with the intention of serving the
Western strategy, because they did what they did was only with the intention of serving their religion
in the face of the atheistic ideology which branded all religions including Islam as opium of the
people and did not recognize any moral values regarding family and wealth; hence this defense was
an Islamic obligation before being anything else.
What we intend to emphasize is that the Western leaders benefited from every intellectual blow hit to
the atheistic Communist ideology; they also gained from every clash between Muslims and the Communism. This was nowhere more unmistakable than in Afghanistan wherein they mobilized all their
abilities and capabilities to defeat the Soviet Union or to undermine it. Afghanistan, where USSR got
trapped provided a golden opportunity to beat it so much so that the wealth of all those counties which
orbit the trajectory of the West, was drudged to avail that opportunity. The fear of Soviets reaching
those countries through warm waters and toppling their systems some of whom were dependent on
the West for their survival was tremendously exaggerated to make the best of the historic opportunity.
The long-pursued goal of bringing down the Soviet Union with Muslim wealth and Muslim blood
was actualized for the West. But all results of the victory went to the advantage of the West alone.


Even the Mujahidn who had fought valiantly, their differences led them to mutual fighting and the
scenario eventually ended up in the form of Taliban Movement, which too dwindled and terminated
in shambles. Neither Mujahidn nor Taliban could benefit nor achieve anything worth mention. They
could neither establish the Islamic state nor could they protect their system; for others, they could
not prove to be an ideal model of sacrifice, selflessness and putting the wider interests of the Muslim
Ummah before their own narrow interests.
So far as the Arab Mujahidn (Arab Afghans) are concerned, their fate was the worst and most piteous. The same rulers who encouraged them and supported them with financial, moral and logistical
support turned against them and thwarted their return back to their own motherlands, so that they do
not become a source of another trouble that could be exploited in the interest of imperialistic powers.
From this reality we understand the Qurnic guidance for Muslims that they should not rejoice over
the defeat of one power by another or for victory of one over other if they themselves are not going
to benefit in anyway from the clash of two powers. Allah says, A. L. M. The Roman Empire has
been defeated- In a land close by; but they, (even) after (this) defeat of theirs, will soon be victorious- Within a few years. With God is the Decision, in the past and in the Future: on that Day shall
the Believers rejoice- With the help of God. He helps whom He will, and He is exalted in might, most
merciful. (It is) the promise of God. Never does God depart from His promise: but most men understand not. (Al-Qurn, 30: 1-6).
The faithful should rejoice when they themselves triumph by the grace of Allah, as He granted them
triumph when they were able to bring down two empires which had been engrossed in bickering between themselves for long, namely the Roman and Persian empires in early Islamic times.
How the West (especially USA) treated Muslims throughout the Cold War is mirrored precisely in
the words of the American intellectual Samuel Huntington author of The Clash of Civilizations.
After mentioning various civilizations Islamic, Chinese, Japanese, Indian, Slavic Orthodox, Latin
American, African he vehemently suggests that the Western Civilization should unite with all other
civilizations to subdue the Islamic Civilization and to humble China so that other civilizations too can
come to their senses and the Western Civilization alone prevails marvelously.211
6.2.a The Western reality and intellectual output suggest the need for clash:
A prcis of the reality and the history (The Crusades, Imperialism, Christianization and Orientalism).
When we look at the Westerns reality and the conflict of the West with the Muslim World, and at
most of the Western intellectual output, it becomes evident that it is the West which craves for clash
to achieve its ambitions and to realize its imperialistic hegemony over not only the Muslim World
but the East as a whole for occupation, exploitation and complete subjugation. The West started this
process with invasion of the Middle East by Alexander the Great. The Greek and Roman occupiers
stayed here for about a millennium until the Islamic conquests dislodged them. Then starting with 489
Hijra came the Crusades, one after the other, without having ceased till today. Levant was subjugated
by Crusaders for about two centuries, during which they occupied Al-Quds (Jerusalem) until it was
liberated by Salhuddn Al-Ayyubi (Saladin 591 Hijra). When they were disappointed with Muslim

211 Article: Samuel Huntington The Clash of Civilizations Published in As-Siyasah Ad-Duwaliyyah Magazine (Al-Ahram Center for Political &
Strategic Studies, Cairo No: 116, April 1994.; Al-Hilal Journal November 993 Special Issue; Dr. Ahmad Al-Qididi Islam and the Clash
of Civilizations Al-Ummah Book Series No:44, P: 52


Middle East, the Western Crusaders focused their efforts to detour the Muslim World with the purpose
of uprooting Islam and Islamic Civilization instead from Western Europe. This was achieved by invading Andalusia (897 1492 Hijra) and annihilating Muslims through ethnic cleansing. Not even a
single Muslim was left but confronted with two options of being killed or burnt to death or convert to
Christianity. Only those who fled to Al-Maghrib (North Western Africa) to save their faith, were able
to save their skin. There after they again came back to invade the heart of the Muslim World (Egypt
and Levant). Napoleon Bonapartes (1769-1821 A.D.) invasion of this region resulted in severe long
ranging consequences; it was followed by British, French, Dutch, Italian and Australian imperial
occupation of the Islamic World throughout the last two centuries and finally culminated in the fall
of the Ottoman Empire - the last symbol of Islamic political unity - and in laceration of the Muslim
World to petty insignificant countries.
In prcis, the historical experience of the Muslim World with the Western has been marred with
clashes based on ignorance about Islam, fear from Islam, clash for political dominance and economic
interests, and because of the Churchs inflaming of disorder because of its fear that Christians may
be affected by Islam and its teachings and thereby embrace it. This is why they even labeled Muhammad, the Final Messenger of Allah (pbuh), as imposter. One such instance was portraying Jesus
Christ (pbuh) being slaughtered by Muhammad (pbuh).212 For inflaming sentiments of revenge from
Muslims, the Slogan of Pope Urban II was: The endorsed holy war is not for conquering just a
single city, but whole regions of Asia.213 The Pontiff even misrepresented the text of the Bible to
limit the denotation of truly complying Christians to only those who participated in the Crusades. He
said, He who does not carry his cross and follow me, is not worthy of being a pupil214 He even
passed an edict pronouncing that collective annihilation of the infidels (meaning Muslim and other
non-Christians) is legitimate and equivalent to offering immolation to seek pleasure of the Lord. It
was said, A Christian who annihilates the enemies of his religion, really presents sacrifice to please
the Lord.215 That is why the Crusaders legitimized the holy land of Al-Quds (Jerusalem) whereby
they not only occupied it in 492 Hijra but slaughtered about seventy thousand worshipers, ascetics,
women and children. Their horses ran over the blood of those slaughtered between the debris of the
devastation. Ibn Kathr and other historians report that the Crusaders desecrated Al-Quds (Jerusalem)
for a full week legitimizing murder, plunder and rape. More than sixty thousand were killed, among
them were Imms of mosques, scholars, worshipers and ascetics who had been there away from their
native places. The crusaders looted all that was in the Mosque and then converted it into a stable for
their horses.216 In contrast to this, when Salhuddn (Saladin) prevailed over them, he dealt with them
with beneficence, treated their sick, helped their poor to secure the release of their prisoners and thus
marvelously established his magnificence, both in war as well as in peace.
What the Crusaders did in Andalusia (Muslim Spain) in the form of genocide, scorching to devastation and burning helpless Muslims to death in public celebrations is a black spot of disgrace on the
face of the humankind.
What the English did Palestine and was followed by American patronage of the Zionist perpetrator in
all their stances, deeds, terrorist actions, mass killings, destructions, expulsions, massacres like the
ones in Sabra and Shateela and numerous day to day heinous crimes, all express the Wests attitude
212 Abdul Fattah Abdul Maqsood As-Saleebiyyah Ilal-Abad Egypt, 1975 - P: 44
213 Ali Abdul Haleem Mahmoud Al-Ghzw Ath-Thaqfi Saudi Arabia, 1982 P:27
214 Luke: 14/27
215 Abdul Fattah Abdul Maqsood As-Saleebiyyah Ilal-Abad P:44
216 Bidyah Wa-Annihyah (12/135); Al-Kmil (8/164)


of continuing with is odious discord towards the tyrannized Muslims.

What we all witness and heard in our own time about the Christian Serbs brutality against the Muslims of Bosnia and Herzegovina, did not only surpass anyones imagination of massacre and genocide but even the people of West themselves were astounded, which led to prosecution of the Serb
leader at the International War Crimes Tribunal.
What America (USA) is perpetuating these days against Muslims in Afghanistan, needless to mention
the inhuman treatment of the detainees at Guantanamo, and what is being carried out in the form of
destruction, use of weapons of mass destruction, killing of the injured in mosques, disgusting treatment of the captives in the Abu-Ghareeb prison at the hands of soldiers in uniform is all appalling and
denotes the intensity of a depraved antagonism.
Are all these heedless dispositions and devastating wars not enough for arousing and triggering malevolence and revulsion among Muslims of the world. According to the American historian Kevin
Reilly, The bloodbaths have taught the Muslim to hate the West as they never did in brief we find
the Islamic civilization which was destroyed by the Crusaders in Jerusalem, was so refined that it
should have opened the eyes of the invaders and desisted them (from doing what they did) in favor
of peace. He adds, The people whose fathers, sons, brothers, daughters and sisters we killed or
tortured to death, whose lands we confiscated and whom we made to march naked from their homes,
the same people were kind enough to give us from their own food after we were routed, they gave us
life when we were starving and showed benevolence when we were at their mercy.217
Continuous patronage of everyone who rebels against Islam:
Muslims also notice that anyone who rebels against Islam has been finding the West at his back
supporting with money and protection. This has been obvious at the level of parties, governments,
intellectuals and individuals. We have seen how the West dignified Salman Rushdi, honored him, rewarded him and conferred generously upon him their prizes and medals, just as they did to his likes.
This has not just been a matter of tactic but strategy, as we learnt from the RAND Corporations report
for the year 2003 titled Civil Democratic Islam Partners, Resources and Strategies.
Campaigns of Christianization:
The west never desisted from its intense attempts to Christianize the Muslim World with all given
means while exploiting the cursed trilogy (of ignorance, disease and poverty) to tame the underprivileged and convert them to Christianity, even though there are hundreds of millions of idol worshipers whom they could have targeted with their campaigns. Right since the days of the Crusades, the
West has left no stone unturned to Christianize the Muslim World. They have been deputing missions
throughout the Muslim World, spending billions of dollars on them and organizing hundreds of conferences to ponder on this mission. One such conference was organized in the State of Colorado under
the slogan of Donate a Dollar Christianize a Muslim.218
The Simplified Encyclopedia of Contemporary Religions defines Orientalism as: The intellectual
trend that set on to study the Islamic East from various aspects covering its civilization, religions,
literatures, languages and cultures.219
217 Cavin Raylay The West and the World Translated by Abdul Wahhb Al-Maseeri Kuwait, 1405 Hijra/1981 AD. (backtranslated from
Arabic to English)
218 Please refer to the proceedings of the Colorado Conference
219 (The Simplified Encyclopedia of Contemporary Religions) Published by Drun-Nadwah Al-lamiyah Press and Publishing, Riyadh


Although the concept of Orientalist studies had come into existence long back, but major part of it
took the Christian religious composition in Vienna in 1312 A.D. when the Church decided to establish
a chair for Arab, Islamic and related subjects in the universities of Paris and Bologna etc. in order to
learn about the Islamic Civilization and deter its influence on Christians. But the focus was on learning the Arabic language to translate the Holy Qurn, the Sunnah and other Islamic sciences into the
European languages in a distorted manner so that these distorted translations could become a major
barrier in the face of Islams spread. That was exactly what the early Orientalists had done even before the Vienna Resolution. Peter Miguel translated the Holy Qurn to Spanish language in 1143 in
an aggressively distorted manner with the objective of exploiting it as a trumpet to shore up support
for the Crusades.220 He called on the whole of Europe to fight this barbaric religion. Besides this
Crusadic dimension of Orientalism, most of the Orientalists were ignorant of the finesse of the Arabic
language and other basic branches of Islamic knowledge which are essential tools for understanding
Islam and its Law. They seldom hid their subjectivity, fabrication and arrogance.
Orientalism played a great and vital role in shaping the Western perspective of the Orient in general,
and of the Islamic World in particular and it reflects the intellectual background of the theory of Clash
of Civilizations.221 This account of ours is not aimed to carry out sweeping generalizations; certainly
there have been Orientalists characterized with fairness and objectivity.
The intellectual output:
Before saying anything about this output, I would like to elucidate the reality that not all Western
intellectuals including the Orientalists are the same and similar. Among them are those who have
characterized themselves with fairness and depended on scientific facts without falling prey to the
general milieu and not having been pushed by dubious covert organizations and missionaries. These
have been a minority; the vast majority of intellectuals and Orientalists has been of those who look
at Islam and Islamic Civilization with contempt and enmity. This majority have been trying with
various means to distort its realities, concepts, actuality and history to create psychological barriers
to deter people from Islam. Dr. Muhammad Amrah writes in this context, There are innumerable
writings that speak of the West being the axis (of the human civilization) and due to this paradigm the
Western Civilization been tending to contain others, taming them, fusing them into the pattern of its
own civilization and value system. This tendency of the West has led it to adopt the path of clash in its
relation with others. It has, rather, given its clash with others the notion of a noble cultural mission
from which it hurls to civilize others, contain them and obliterate their individuality, traits, identity
and advantages.222
When we look into the infrastructure of the Western philosophy we find that the tendency of confrontation with others is predominantly its most important pillar and the strongest theoretical palisade.
The Hegelian theory (Hegel, 1770-1831) of the philosophy of history stands on the notion of the modern age superseding the ancient time through clash with the latters constituents, eliminating them and
replacing them with itself.
Likewise was the Darwinian theory (Darwin, 1809-1882) of Origin and Evolution which is based on
the philosophy of struggle of the creatures towards survival of the fittest and extinction of the weakness and annihilation of the weakest.
220 Ibid.
221 Ibid.
222 Dr. Muhammad Amrah Foreword of the book Hiwru Al-Hadhrt by Atiyyah Fathi Al-Manar Publishers P:8


Above all these comes the philosophy of struggle between social classes whether in the form of Communism or in the liberal capitalistic form.223
Most of the Western philosophers and leaders believe that their civilization is the fittest and the best
qualified to survive and that the people of other civilizations must submit to the Western Civilization
and its values so that they can live in bliss and power. According to them obliteration of other civilizations, and even their people if needed, as they did with the red Indians - is a genuine requirement like
mercy killing of a terminally sick, which implies that death is better and more merciful than suffering
from pain.
But the reality and facts speak that the West never aimed its arrows towards any other civilization as it
did towards the Islamic Civilization and as it has been slandering it and harming it for centuries. The
reason, perhaps, lies in more than one motivation. Most important among these are:
The Islamic Civilization is characterized with constituents of innate strengths, defiance, comprehensiveness and integrity which qualify it to be treated by the West as the biggest challenge to its
fabricated fallacious strife with others.
The West, through its interim tactics is attempting to utilize all its given capabilities to suppress Islam and Islamic Civilization followed by other civilizations. This is what Samuel Huntington
expressed unequivocally in his book The Clash of Civilizations when he proposed to the decision
makers in the West, especially in USA, to start with shattering of the Islamic and Chinese Civilizations followed by others.
After the fall of Soviet Union and the end of Cold War, the West, especially USA, did not make
redundant its intelligence agencies which enjoy huge budgets and have a big army of intellectuals,
Orientalists, journalists and writers on their payrolls but targeted all these capabilities and facilities
towards the new enemy in the form of the Green Enemy (Islam). This was systematically orchestrated
through Global War Against Terror (or so called 3rd World War) starting with the Fundamentalist
Islam, then the Political Islam and finally Islam itself as it is.
In order to maintain their hefty budgets, it is never in the interest of these secret services and intelligence agencies to reduce the level of threat from this new enemy or to trim down their privileges
instead of inflating them. Their perks and privileges have, in fact, shot up and their dominance on
thoughts and opinions of the political leaders, intellectuals and the society in general remains undeterred. This why they expressed unambiguously: In the Past Islam has brought down two civilizations together the Roman Civilization in the West and the Sassanide Civilization of Persia in the
East. Today even with its feebleness and dispersion it was able to rout the Soviet Union (one of the
two Super Powers). Hence it is not improbable that it can trounce yet another remaining single Super
Power. Thus it is imperative to mobilize the military forces and direct all intellectual, informative and
economic capabilities to bring down Islam (and to consume it before it dines on us).
The whole cavalries of the Capitalist-Communist Clash along their men and horses have set their
direction towards the domain of Islam to combat it with full force and in it they are well reinforced
with power, finance and media. Through any terrorist act performed by an individual belonging to
the Muslim nation, even just by name, they have been trying to portray Islam (not the individual/s) as
fanatic, undemocratic and anti-West. They have been condemning and denouncing it for being violent, brutal, and uncivilized in order to infuriate the public opinion and sensitivity against Islam and
thereby prepared it to accept wholeheartedly any action against Islam.224

223 Ibid
224 Atiyyah Fathi Al-Weshi The Dialogue of Civilizations Al-Manrah Publishers, Kuwait, 1422 H P:62


All means of mass media have been put at the behest of this campaign. In its issue of April 16, 1979,
the TIME Magazine published the picture of a Muazzin calling to Prayers with a clear caption underneath reading: Return of a Mujahid (holy warrior). The Magazine dealt in detail with the Islamic
renaissance and concluded that this uprising represents the spirit of fanaticism and return to barbarism
of the Middle Ages.
The Magazine observed some minor things, yet it construed big and strange inferences on their bases.
For example, it observed about revival, in Egypt, of the use of Islamic expressions like inshAllah
(Allah willing), Bismillah (I begin with the name of Allah) and Al-Hamdulillah (Praise be to Allah) at the time of eating and riding a vehicle. It observed about Algeria that young boys regularly
attend the congregational prayers in mosques. It observed about Tunisia that the students there overlay with paint nude or exposed pictures painted on walls. It observed about Muslim women taking
to dressing themselves in the Islamic manner, and so on. Such phenomenon, observed by TIME
Magazine (blown out of proportion), are quite regular and ordinary in any Muslim society and people
are used to these, and in no way do such things denote the spirit of bigotry or return to barbarism as
purported by the TIME Magazine.
Luis Bernard, the historian with Jewish roots, along with his disciples (most of whom too are Jewish)
led the campaign on the academic and theoretical fronts; on the journalistic front, it was led by Judith
Miller. According to Dr. Edward Said, these people were able to project Islam as the lone candidate
for being the chatter stock for the media to be interlinked with terror.225 They succeeded in depicting Islam as the new enemy for whom America and its military and intelligence apparatuses had been
hunting so desperately. This was confirmed by the Washington Post in 1991, stating that a study was
being carried out by the Pentagon and the CIA emphasizing the need to find out the new enemy and
that Islam was the main candidate.226 Prior to that report, ex US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger
had emphasized in the spring of 1990 at the Annual International Conference of Chambers of Commerce, The new front that the West will have to face is the Arab and Islamic World considering it to
be the new enemy of the West. The World must wakeup and watch out the dangers looming over from
the side of Islam.227
In fact in 1990 and 1991, British newspaper Sunday Telegraph and many other American, French
and European newspapers and magazines had published several articles in contempt of Islam i.e.
before the collapse of Soviet Union. That was a signal and prelude to vilification of Islam as enemy
and antagonist in place of Communism; pictures were published of men in Arab costumes standing in
front of mosques in Europe with their guns pointed to Europeans. On October 21, 1991, Mary Frances
Stribua (an MP from French National Front) called upon her supporters to stand up as Crusaders of
the twentieth century to wage a war against Islam in France so that France does not become the land
of Islam. Her call was a clear incitement to a ruthless fight against Islam.
A pretentious question, Why they Hate Us?:
The Western media was able to cunningly put a statement in the form of a question affirming indirectly with a tone of certainty, Why Muslims hate us; why do Arabs hate us? The unmistakable
connotation of the question was skillfully infused into the minds of the Westerns masses as: All

225 Al-Mujtama Magazine, Kuwiat, 1417 Hijra, P:45

226 Ibid.
227 Atiyyah Fathi Al-Weshi The Dialogue of Civilizations Al-Manrah Publishers, Kuwait, 1422 H P:65


Muslims, especially the Arabs, hate the West. The irony is that not only was this fabrication turned
into a reality, but instead of ascribing the causes of hatred to the imperial and tyrannical attitude of the
West; instead of attributing its roots to the Wests support of oppression and repression in the Muslim
World and to implantation of the strange state of Israel in the heart of the Muslim World, they related
its causes to Muslims detestation of Western liberties: freedom of expression, freedom of belief and
freedom to choose the government etc. President George W. Bush too expressed similarly and his
Secretary of State, General Colin Powell said, They hate the American value system, the system that
upholds the human rights. They neither like our political system nor our democracy; in fact they abhor
our achievements as a society. Although President Bush and his Secretary of State, were speaking
specifically about terrorists, but as Jameel Matar puts it, the attitude articulated through relating terrorists and Americas respect for democracy is not at all new; in fact this is what even the fathers and
forefathers in the West have been venting.228
The Western media, especially the American media, has been successful in getting through this lie
to the America public and to most of the European peoples making them believe that we hate them,
their political and scientific institutions, their democratic system, their liberties and their technological and scientific triumphs. Essentially the truth is that Muslims do not hate the positive aspects of the
Western life, they only hate the attitude and actions of those Western leaders who represent tyranny,
occupation and double standards in their dealings.
In this context we may mention the study carried out by two Western thinkers, Ian Buruma and Avishai Margalit, in which they have left no stone unturned to delve for conformity and congruence between Arabs and Muslims and Nazis in their abhorrence of the West. The two writers have concluded
that there are four factors that constitute the basis of this hatred, namely: civility, intellect, bourgeoisie
and womens rights.229
There are writers and researchers who focus on reinforcing the roots of this hatred in order to turn
the whole Western world against Islam and Muslims. One of them is Brooks who quotes Bin Laden
expressing his abhorrence of the West and then generalizes those quotes for all Muslims. Likewise,
there are many television anchors and presenters, like Dan Razor, Letout Kohleen, Daniel Pipes, Peter
Bergen, Hail and many others.230
Role of the Cinema:
For quite a long time Western cinema too has played a very effective role in defaming and slandering Islam and Muslims. For example the film The Dance of the Seven Veils is full of winks, glints,
gesticulations, suggestions and offenses to Islam and the Messenger of Islam (pbuh). The film is a
Hollywood production. Another such film is The Sheikh, 1921, Coffee House in Cairo, 1924,
The Bride of the Desert, 1928 and Casablanca, 1942. A researcher has counted the Western films
about Islam and Muslims in the 1920s to be 87.231
Most of these films were Melodramatic full of stunts revolving around adventures about sex and violence in the desert, portraying Arabs and Muslims as barbaric, unsophisticated and savagely obsessed
with dance, abduction of women and raiding for looting and robbery, as if they were bands of bandits.

228 Jaml Matar - Research published as part of the book Siniyatu Al-Karhiyah Centre for Arab Unity Studies , 2004 P:268; (the quote s of
President Bush and Colin Powell have been backtranslated from Arabic)
229 Ibid. P: 217-276
230 Ibid.
231 Ibid. Atiyyah Fathi Al-Weshi The Dialogue of Civilizations


Yet another film named Phoenix, 1962, depicts Muslim-Arab personality as conscienceless. In the
film, a plane emergency lands in the Libyan desert and the pilot and his crew seek help from a caravan
of Arabs. Instead of lending a helping hand, the Arabs come and slit their throats without any pity or
The Film titled Exodus, 1966, portrays the character of a ruthless Arab who kills a fifteen year old
Israeli girl in cold blood. The film Cast a Giant Shadow, 1966, shows Arabs laughing and glorifying God upon killing an Israeli girl who fails to come out of the car. In 1973, when Arabs threatened
the use of oil as weapon, Jane Fonda, who had pleaded against the Vietnam war, played the lead role
in the film Rollover. The film depicts the Arabs as religious bigots, anti feminine, anti civilization
who want to destroy the Western civilization.
One more film The Wind and the Lion, 1975, shows Arabs kidnapping a woman and seeking from
the American president a huge ransom for freeing her. In the film Network, 1977, Arabs are shown
as fanatics from the Middle Ages taking over the USA. The theme of the film Black Sunday, 1977,
is about Arab terrorists planning to kill football fans, including the US president, at a major soccer
event, but an Israeli officer thwarts the conspiracy and rescues all those who were doomed to die.
The film Wrong is Right, 1982, revolves around an Arab king who prepares to handover two small
nuclear devices to the leaders of a revolutionary group and seeks from them to explode the bombs in
Israel and New York unless the American president resigns. The film Sahara, 1982, shows an Arab
Sheikh muttering mantras over a young girl he had just raped.
The two parts of the Hollywood film Iron Eagle, 1985, 1988, represents the turning point towards
portraying Islam as the Enemy No. 1 of the West in place of Communism. This film was followed by
a series of films focused on depicting the paranormal Muslim Arab enemy in possession of nuclear
weapons of mass destruction. These include films like The Delta Force and Revenge, 1986, The
Death before Disgrace, 1986, Stealing Heaven, 1988, and Anna in Seals, 1990.232
After the incident of World Trade Centre bombing in September 1992, the interest of Hollywood in
portraying Muslims in General and Arabs in particular as bands of wicked fanatics ready to destroy
everything, took greater strides.
This role did not remain contained to the written media and cinema only, but television networks too
joined the foray and played their role in slandering and defaming Islam and Muslims. In the film Paradise Road which films the World Trade Centre bombing in September 1992 the lead actor playing
the role of a US intelligence officer says, Here is the Sheikh coming along with his disciples. They
believe that we are devils and that the road to Paradise passes through our destruction. Thereupon the
officer hurls dirty abuses upon Muslims. The film concludes with a Sheikh reciting the Qurn and
then saying, Wait for the coming blasts.
The film Jihd in America maligns the historical as well as contemporary Islamic icons slandering
them with worst vilification and symbolizes Arabs and Muslims as the source of every menace afflicted upon this world. Another film Executive Order paints Arabs as murderers and those who erratically blast bombs provoked some Americans to the extent that they went on rampage of a mosque
and killed all those who were in at that time.
232 Ibid.


Hollywood film The Siege was made with a hefty budget and promoted through a vast aggressive
propaganda and marketing campaign. The film attempts to send unequivocal messages to the American citizens in first place and to Western viewers in general to the effect that Arabs and Muslims
are terrorists by nature, upbringing, culture and religion, and that the civilized world which hosted
millions of them is capable of restraining them by virtue of the genuine American bravery. The film
unmistakably instigates to clash and confrontation.233
In the film Islam and the Sword was shown in Europe continuously for five years. The film presents
Islam as a creed essentially calling to violence and cruelty, a creed that is against civilization, progress
and civility. The film shows scenes depicting extremist groups, scenes of female circumcision in a
disgusting manner, and scenes of unhygienic dwellings and primitively backward and filthy places
in the Muslim World intentionally and relates these scenes to the nature of Islam. According to AlHayt Newspaper, Walt Disney has produced a film titled Three Days of the Condor which depicts
Arabs as evil mercenaries and merchants of white slaves. There are two Arab Muslims who act in a
ridiculously ludicrous manner and are nicknamed as Soldiers of Faith. The duo speaks broken and
flawed English, wear lousy laughable outfits, are pictured like utter idiots and dubbed as bloodsuckers. They are made to say, We shall never give up our struggle for Jihd.234
Study of Islam
Egyptian daily Al-Ahram Newspaper published a study about the manner of studying Islam in the
Western schools and universities and the curriculum of Islamic Studies taught. The study found that
Islam is taught in a distorted and amputated manner; generally, it is not presented as a major heavenly
religion, it is presented through history in a manner that belittles its civilization. Al-Ahram mentions
the case of a female teacher at a school who distributed to the students a handout containing some
of the glorious attributes of Allah along with some adjectives opposite to the attributes. The teacher
asked the students to suitably relate the attributes and adjectives to Islam and Christianity. It was
found that the students were taught the positives glorious attributes and adjectives to Christianity and
the remaining, which implied toughness and force, to Islam.235
The role of Muslims in our own defamation
No doubt that this kind of Western attitude and fierce onslaught against Islam and what it stands for
along with the negative role of the media and the cinema clearly lack credibility and are obviously
blunt in their prejudices, but these alone were not instrumental in slandering and distorting the image
of Islam and Muslims. The disposition and conduct of some of the Muslim groups and individuals,
especially in the West, certainly facilitated the remonstrating malicious elements in marketing their
venomous merchandise. We have seen and heard in the West that among the Muslim communities
there, there are those who without sound knowledge and qualifications issue Fatws legitimizing
the eating up of others possessions while in the West; and that they really plan to destroy the West
although they have been living there and those countries sheltered them from the persecution they
faced in their motherlands.
Likewise the harshness and crudeness of some Algerian groups with Muslims and others in the form
of slaughtering women and children, in existence of Fatws legitimizing such acts, caused ascription
of accusations of hideousness to all Muslims. In Iraq too infiltrators from among the Bathists and
foreign secret services committed hideous crimes of slaughtering, murdering and kidnapping of those
who were never proven guilty, which is a prerequisite in the Islamic law for sentencing someone to
233 Ibid.- P:73
234 Al-Hayt Newspaper September 7, 1997
235 Al-Ahram Newspaper, July 12, 1996


death. All these irresponsible acts had a colossal impact and it should not be surprising when in the
near future films produced with a highly professional and effective production techniques will show
us these acts attributed to Islam and Muslims and thereby convince the West of the distorted image of
Islam and Muslims being the reality.
In contrast the Muslim countries previously did not rise up to their responsibility of rebuffing these
false accusations with scientific means and effective professional media. The Muslim World did not
come up with serious research and qualified studies to be published and circulated in the major international languages. Its efforts in presenting Islam in an appropriate scientific manner at the global
level are insignificant as compared to the immense and enormous work of the opponents of Islam and
Muslims at all levels, be it academic, curricular, intellectual or through mass media. We Muslims as
a whole are undoubtedly guilty of disregarding our responsibilities. The Western World today does
not know about Islam more than what the adversaries of Islam have presented to it about it. This is
substantiated clearly by the studies and statistics indicating the extent of ignorance of the people in
the West about Islam in general, let alone about the real essence of Islam.
Need for clash - Samples from Western intellectuals of clash
There are numerous Western thinkers who have embraced the theory of clash of civilizations. We
shall briefly mention three samples, one institutional - in light of what has appeared in the RAND
Corporations recent report - and the other two from the writings of two prominent American intellectuals who play a vital role in influencing and formulating the American foreign policy.
6.2.b The Report of the RAND Corporation 2003-2004
In presenting a prcis of this report, we shall mention the important sections related to the subject of
clash with brief commentary on each:
The very first paragraph of its summary preceding the actual study asserts, There is no question that
contemporary Islam is in a volatile state, engaged in an internal and external struggle over its values,
its identity, and its place in the world. Rival versions are contending for spiritual and political dominance. This conflict has serious costs and economic, social, political, and security implications for
the rest of the world. Consequently, the West is making an increased effort to come to terms with, to
understand, and to influence the outcome of this struggle.
We may comment on this assertion as follows:
If the internal struggle here means intellectual, political and social differences, then they
ought to know that these differences are not a product of this century or of the previous centuries.
Some of these differences have emerged out of nature of the acceptable interpretative differences
while others have risen out of the endeavors and interferences of Others (especially through ideologies of Liberalism, Communism, Socialism, Atheism and Permissiveness). Immense efforts have
been put in by Orientalists and Islam adverse intellectuals, supported by Western policies (including
those of Communism) designed to extirpate Islam with all given means. These efforts took the form
of onslaught of Western occupations and Communist invasions of the Muslim World.
Wherever the Westerns imperialists went, in Asia, Africa or elsewhere, they imposed their own laws,
systems, habits and traditions on the occupied peoples. Same was true in case of the Communist aggression against many Muslim countries. The occupation took the form of intellectual invasion as
well as military takeover of many Muslim lands by both, the West as well as the Soviet Union.


Consequent to various factors (which are beyond the scope of discussion herein) many in the occupied Muslim lands were affected by the imported ideologies, which in turn led to conflict between the
alien ideologies and the pristine Islamic creed and value system.
Hence this internal conflict, if it was right to call it so, is a consequence of the military and intellectual
occupation of our Islamic World by Others. As it is, since it is an internal conflict, the Muslim World
should be left alone to determine its own intellectual course and conduct its value system by itself
without any external intervention.
Secondly, this conflict is not about benefiting from the new and gaining from modernity; the conflict
is between preserving the constants and between efforts of obliterating the constants, simply because
Islam urges upon its faithful to benefit from all that is advantageous from the past as well as from all
that is beneficial in the present.
Instigating the world of Other (non-Muslim world) towards this conflict and alarming it as
being threatened. How are they supposed to react? The report warns on page 8: This conflict has
dangerous costs attached to it and serious economic, political and security related implications on the
remaining parts of the World.
The report from its beginning to its end ascribes the conflict to Islam itself, to its inability to
develop and to non-communication with the major international trend (P: 8). Likewise (on P: 10) it
labels it as radical Islam or conservative (orthodox) Islam etc.
This is a blunder and strange intermingling. These attributes, if applicable, can be applied on Muslims
not on Islam itself. Islam is just one intact entity represented in the Holy Qurn and the Sunnah. So far
as interpretations are concerned, those are of Muslims. As far as the derogatory attributes of behavior
and attitude - like being radical or conservative - are concerned these can be attributed to individuals
only, not to Islam as a creed.
The report does not give Islam its due for being extremely concerned and caring about knowledge and building a marvelous civilization and then leading that civilization for centuries. According
to the American thinker, Paul Kennedy, Islam, for centuries prior to the European renaissance, led
the world in mathematics, cartography, medicine and several other aspects of science and industry;
Islamic World had its libraries, universities and centers of learning when Japan and America did not
have anything of that sort and even Europe possessed very little.236
The report divides Muslims into three major groups:
The Radical Fundamentalists who want the society to be conservative and are suspicious
about modernity, innovation and change.
The Modernists who want the Muslim World to be part of the progress the whole world is
witnessing. They want to modernize Islam and introduce reforms to it in order to make it go along
with the time.
The Mainstream Secularists who want the Muslim World to accept the notion of separating
the religion from the state as is the case of the Western democracy.
Then the report deals with these groups and emphasizes upon the West (including the USA) to study
these groups in detail. The report concludes that it is not sound to side with the radicals. It categorizes
the Wahhabi ideology in Saudi Arabia and the Iranians among the radicals for simply and generally


being anti-West and anti USA in particular. It declares that among these traditionalists there is no one
who sincerely accepts modern democracy; hence peace with them shall not endure. It declares the
modernists and the secularists as the nearest to the West from amongst these groups and recommends
that they should be supported. The report puts forward a plan about the manner of supporting them
through encouragement, printing their books, supporting them with money and media, introducing
their point of view in the curricula, publicizing their views through all possible media, providing
them a political program through which they can operate and assisting them in building independent
organizations of the civil society. (P: 10-11).
The report adopts (promoting the notion that separation of religion and state is viable in Islam too).
It is very obvious that the report suggests to the West that it should not recognize anything else other
than Civil Democratic Islam (and this is very much the theme of the report) just like Civil Democratic
Christianity. In West there are many political parties bearing names like Christian Democratic Party
or Democratic Christian Party, which in fact do not belong to Christianity in any way except by name
and some sentiment. According to the report the West should shun cooperating with even traditional
Muslims (including the conservatives and the reformists). (P: 22).
We can say that the report is trying to instigate yet another more dangerous conflict against Islam and
Muslims, which could even prove to be the worst in the whole of history because it targets the essence
of the religion itself. As if the report suggests to the West that there is no feasibility of coexistence
with this religion because it produces what is detrimental to the Western civilization and if they really want to coexist with the Muslim countries, they must revamp it to be like Christianity. This is
exactly to what some of the Western thinkers have called to. Samuel Huntington had published an
article much before the September, 11 disaster, in which he mentioned that all other religions except
Islam had been secularized. According to that article Islam is the only religion is the history which has
preserved its texts pristine as they were, hence it was imperative that all of us join forces to secularize
this religion.
Spreading misgivings about the Qurn:
The report vehemently instigated and strongly persuaded for change even to the Qurnic text. On
Page 42, the report states, We must strive to find a better interpretation for this subject (admonishing
/ beating wives) because neither the traditionalist Islamists nor the reformists among the conformists
are able to do so.
The report did not stop here at seeking better interpretation of the Qurnic texts but attempted to
spread suspicions about their being genuine claiming that distortion and deletion had taken place
therein, as there were at least two chapters that were lost in the process of its assembling together.
On Page 40, the report reads, The Qurn was not recorded in writing until well after the Prophets
death. It was then assembled by collecting various scraps of bark or bone upon which witnesses to
the revelations had recorded them and by locating individuals who had memorized certain chapters
and sections and having them dictate the text as best they recalled it. This project eventually resulted
in the production of several versions of the Qurn , which differed from each other. Eventually, to pre-

236 For details, please refer to Dr. Ahmad Al-Qadidis book Al-Eidaad Lil Qarn Al-Ashreen; Kitaab Al-Ummah Al-Islam Wa Ssiraa Al-Had
haaraat P:60-61


vent discord, all versions but one was destroyed (see Parwez, 2002). It is widely accepted that at least
two chapters were lost in that process. Modernists point out that some may also have been falsely or
inaccurately recorded. To traditionalists, however, who revere it as infallible and divine, each letter
of the Qurn and even the paper it is printed on, that notion is anathema.
This statement of the report clearly contradicts the Qurnic assertion: We have, without doubt, sent
down the Message; and We will assuredly guard it (from corruption). (Al-Qurn, 15: 9). Furthermore this is one of the worst things to infuriate Muslim nation as a whole because all Muslims,
including Sunnites and Shiites, even just non-Mulims, believe that it is the only holy book that has
remained uncorrupted.237
The report goes on to explain that it is imperative to find out partners for supporting democratic Islam
through alliances with secularists who are our best partners in the Islamic World (P: 44), whereas all
Islamists, even the traditionalist among them (like conformists to various schools and mystics) are not
suitable for being our agent trustees who can help make democratic Islam a reality. (P: 45).
The report encourages the Western leaders do their best for secularization of Islam, just as Mustafa
Kamal Ataturk did in Turkey, and that they need not consider it arduous. The report seems to have
forgotten that Mustafa Kamal Ataturk failed miserably at the grass root level in spite of the military
state of seventy years. Whatever little he achieved was through force, intimidation and worst kind of
persecution of the faithful Muslims. Above all, the report seems to have missed that one of the important reasons of hatred towards the West is its support to the tyrannical dictatorial systems which keep
working towards actualizing its interests.
The prescriptions prescribed for the West by its thinkers and institutes of strategy are not prescriptions for healing and recovery but are selfsame of diseases. These play the role of fuel of benzene and
gasoline poured over flames of blazing pyre of clash and therefore Muslims do not trust in any solution put forward by the West. The Western solutions, even if correct, are not favored with any trust
at all because Muslims know that the West does not relish true Islam of any sort and that the West
premeditatedly and with all defiance wants them to change their religion itself.
When we ponder over the treatises of the political decision makers in the West, especially of the
Americans, or those who design policies for the decision makers, and of the institutes of strategy
which are so close to the kitchens of decision making, we find that the West does not want to solve the
problem of terrorism and extremism in the Muslim World, because terrorism and extremism provide
it an excuse to carry out whatever it designs. It gives it justification (unlawful though) for occupying
Afghanistan, Iraq and any other place it wants. It provides it a pretext for controlling strategically
important locations, oil fields and strategic waterways etc.
Solution of terrorism or extremism does not lie in formal international terrorism or official intellectual extremism. It must be treated through sound deliberations in the form of innovative reformist and
moderate ideology which is embraced by most of the Muslim peoples and major trends of Muslim
thought. However the report fails to mention this aspect. The menace of terrorism and extremism cannot be tackled but through wiping out the reasons of terrorism and extremism, the foremost among
which is the terrorism of the state of Israel against the Palestinian people in their occupied land, their
assassinations and expulsions, and destruction of the scale that has not seen its like in the history of
237 For example Dr. Maurice Bucaille the author of the book The Bible, the Qurn and Science has scientifically substantiated that the Holy
Qurn is divinely guarded.


criminal tyranny. In spite of all this the United States of America stands by Israel with all its given
material and financial power, military might and with the Power of Veto at the UN Security Council.
The treatment of the Muslim World and the Islamic movements too is featured with the same attitude.
The attitude and behavior of Britain, France, Italy, Holland, Spain and other countries, which occupied the Muslim lands and continue to occupy some, towards the occupied lands and the subjugated
peoples, too was not different. All this has left deep impressions of hatred, antagonism and antipathy,
but the matter is not Muslim specific; human beings in general everywhere hate the occupiers whosoever the occupier may be. Sheikh Ahmad Yasin once said, If my brother occupies my land and takes
over my house, I shall fight him. When Saddam Hussain occupied Kuwait, the people of Kuwait
detested the Iraqi regime and its disciples. Not only the people of Kuwait did so but even within Iraq
the Kurds and Shiites strongly abhorred the Bath Partys regime, its supporter and its associates for
their heinous deeds. Even Allah exceptionally excused the oppressed saying, God loveth not that
evil should be noised abroad in public speech, except where injustice hath been done; for God is He
who heareth and knoweth all things. (Al-Qurn, 4: 148).
In view of all this, the West should comprehend that Muslims abhor it only because they have been
a victim of its injustices. Hence if it wants to mend and repair, it needs to eliminate the sources and
causes of hatred, ensure justice and equity between all, measure all with one yardstick and give up its
obvious double standards to which the whole world stands witness. Oppression, even if it is from parents to their own children, breeds hatred, malignity and sentiment of revenge. The biggest evidence
to this effect is that the report itself mentions (on page: 66-67):
In Eastern Europe, Balkan Muslims have developed and now practice an orthodox yet assimilated,
secularized, modernist variant of Islam (Schwartz, 2002). Eastern Europe also provides dramatic
instances of Western-Islamic friendship and cooperation, such as the (albeit belated) intervention of the West on behalf of persecuted Bosnian and Albanian Muslims. Non-Muslim European
civil society rallied impressive support and displayed a high amount of solidarity and initiative. A
Catholic organization, Caritas, raised a million dollars in one day just by asking Austrian supermarket shoppers to add a donation to their bill. Interestingly, the campaign played on the notion
that the beleaguered Bosnians should be helped because they were neighborsreligion was not
mentioned. This chapter of recent history deserves more prominence. Hundreds of thousands of
Bosnian refugees were warmly taken in by Western European communities and individual families
during that conflict.
International criminal courts are applying the principles of secular human rights in an effort to punish those who perpetrated ethnic cleansing against Muslims in the Balkans, seeking justice for them
on secular grounds. Balkan Muslims enjoy a higher level of development than most of the Muslim
world. This can demonstrate that friendship with the West is possible and that embracing democratic
values leads to desirable outcomes and a better quality of life.
It is positive that Muslims who have naturalized in Europe and America have adapted themselves to
their domiciles as their own countries and are patriotic to those countries within the limits of consistency with the glorious Islamic Law.
Spreading incredulity about the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh):
The noble Tradition of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) has been fiercely slandered in many ways, for


The above mentioned RAND report hints to forging of sayings by people of different opinions
and politicians and attributing them to Muhammad. It reads (on P: 77): Almost since the inception
of Islam, proponents of opposing views have put their own visions and interpretations forward on the
basis, primarily, of hadith. We can refer to this form of ideological conflict as the hadith wars.
This generalization contradicts not only with the reality about Hadth and the painstaking efforts of
its scholars, but conflicts with the scientific methodology of research, which the RAND Corporation
was supposed to have followed in preparation of the report. For not following the scientific methodology, the report concludes that those who engaged in hadith wars lost those wars. Even as the
report ascribed the reason of losing to prevalent illiteracy among Muslim, the truth is that this prior
generalized verdict against the noble Hadth by the report is not at all justified, needless to mention
that Hadth is the second source of legislation in Islam and interprets the Holy Qurn.
This conclusion could be due to ignorance, of those who prepared the report, about the great efforts
of scholars of Hadth, since the first century (Hijra) until this day in service and defense of Hadth sifting the authentic and the acceptable and rejecting the forged and the feeble using extremely strict
standards. This is why the report acknowledged: Hadith is supposed to be judged by multiple complicated variables, the first of which is the context and reliability of the hadith. (P: 77).
The report says, In theory, the study of hadith is a science and, indeed, a highly complex one.
But in practice, the rigorous standards are meaningless, and politics reign supreme. (P: 78).
Spreading incredulity about the most reliable books of Hadth (Al-Bukhri). The report says
that the Muslims claim Al-Bukhari was the most truthful and reliable compiler who collected six
hundred thousand hadith and then sifted them and selected just seven thousand and six hundred of
them. The report inquires scathingly about this work, If we allow one single hour to process each
hadith, Al-Bukhari would have had to work non-stop for about seventy years. Yet he is said to have
completed this work in sixteen years. Was it physically possible for Al-Bukhri to have examined that
many hadith? The answer is no. (P: 81).
The report ignores that this equation is based on ignorance about the veracity and essence of AlBukharis work as well as about the number of Hadth. Actually this number includes narrations and
the chains of narration. There could be, for example, a single Hadth with twenty chains and narrations while being just a single Hadth. Furthermore, Allah had gifted Al-Bukhri with extraordinary
wisdom, great talent and huge memory; he would not have needed all those hours when the narrators
were of a limited number and he knew them. Based on his expertise, he could have reached his conclusion about a particular Hadth in just a few minutes. Besides this, there are certain Hadth which
are well known for their feebleness and being forged or others which are famous for their authenticity.
Both these categories do not need a great effort. Above all the divine benediction which is bestowed
in the life of people (like Al-Bukhari) for their sincerity, devotion and dedication to service of the
noble tradition of the final Messenger of Allah (pbuh) (makes them achieve what most people cant
just imagine).
Succinctly speaking, harping on the incredulity already spread by some Orientalists does not kindle
the candles of love and security but lead to hatred, disgust and more of clash and collision.
6.2.c Fukuyama:238
Francis Fukuyama published his famous article The End of History in the Summer 1989 issue of
the American Interest journal and latter expanded it to a book published in 1991. According to him
the movement of the history shapes within the framework of philosophy of clash between opposites;
238 A Japanese American professor at George Mason University specializing in Sociology. He worked as Deputy Director of Policy Planning at State
Department (Ministry of Foreign Affairs) before working at RAND Corporation for Strategic Studies. He became famous after publishing his
article The End of History which was expanded and published in the form of a book in 1991 under the same title. The book was translated to
Arabic by Hussein Ash-Sheikh: Beirut 1993. For details about his other publications, please refer to: Fathi Al-Weshiss above referred book (The
Dialogue of Civilizations), P:43


when one overpowers the other, the movement ends there. Hence the defeat that the Communist block
faced and the definite triumph the Western democracy and Capitalism witnessed globally, the process
led to disappearance of the causes of clash. As a result of this overwhelming global victory, Western
democracy and Capitalism reign supreme without any rival, hence all other civilizations have to succumb to the West.239
In the perception of Fukuyama, the West, after the triumph of liberal democracy, has reached the peak
of intellectual and material power and military and political ascendancy. This is evident from the fall
of regions and countries of Eastern Europe in the lap of the West. Rest of the countries of the world
will have to follow the suit if they want to have progress and advancement. Communism, which
posed the biggest challenge to the capitalistic democracy, has gone and the followers of Communist
ideology have adopted the course of the West.
In his book, Fukuyama has focused on Islam as well. According to him, in spite of the talk about the
global appeal of Islam, the obvious and definite reality remains that the religion of Islam does not
have any appeal beyond the regions dominated by the Islamic culture. The days of Islamic cultural invasion are bygone; although there are about a billion people with their affinity to the Islamic culture,
they are not able to challenge the liberal democracy at the intellectual or theoretical level.240
Fukuyama considers Saddam Hussein and his Bathist regime to be representing Islam and hence
his defeat and fall mean the defeat of Islam. He goes on to say that with the end of the Cold War, the
West saw a blatant challenge from Iraq under the leadership of Saddam Hussein, in whose ideological
formation Islamic religion is an important factor.241
Fukuyama has thus dropped the curtain of the history on all civilizations with exception of the Western civilization which is based on democratic capitalism. He says that certainly the life shall continue
from birth to death; incidents shall continue to outbreak but there shall not be any advancement or
progress with regard to principles, beliefs and institutions.242
He rationalizes his theory by saying that all other philosophies are inferior and thus unable to resist;
Western liberal values are at the peak, how can other civilizations stand against them, and if they happen to stand in their face, they shall perish for good.
The philosophy of Fukuyama must not be understood that the clash has ended for good. It is based
on inevitability of clash of civilizations, which in turn is based on inevitability of the history. But the
Western civilization has reached today to a stage where it is capable of containing all other civilizations and values and to annihilate them.
6.2.d Samuel Huntington:243

239 Francis Fukuyama. The End of History. Translated by: Hussein Ash-Sheikh, Beirut. P:239
240 Ibid. P:226; Atiyyah Fathi Al-Weshi The Dialogue of Civilizations P:62
241 Ibid. (Fukuyama) P:61
242 Ibid. (Fukuyama) P:16
243 A Jewish America intellectual and a university professor. He worked as director of John Olin Institute at the Harvard University. He rose to fame
for his theory of Clash of Civilizations. In 193 he wrote an article on that subject and later expanded it to a book titled The Clash of Civilizations. He has other publications to his credit, like The Third Wave, which was translated to Arabic and published by Suad As-Sabh Publishing House, Cairo; For details about his other publications, please refer to: Fathi Al-Weshiss above referred book (The Dialogue of Civilizations),


This Jewish American thinker is credited for unequivocally articulating the actuality of the Western
attitude towards the Islamic civilization, prevalent at least in modern times. He could express the
Western mind-set which is tendentious towards the philosophy of clash between civilizations, not as
his own stance he preferred and heralded, but as an actual inevitability of the Western attitude towards
other civilizations. Dr. Muhammad Amrah says, While we reject the philosophy of clash, I had
wished that we look at what Samuel Huntington has presented, as truthful expression of the reality of
Western stance in its relation with others. That is the reality that we have experienced through history.
What Huntington has explicitly disclosed to us as being constant and is going to continue in the near
and distant future, the man deserves credit for not cheating us, as is the case of other Western writers
and of most of our own westernized people.244
In spite of this, the theory of Samuel Huntington spurred a massive storm of criticism and rejection
from most of the writers and intellectuals in the Muslim World. They wrote extensively about it, but
the stance of Dr. Muhammad Amrah is realistic and deserves consideration and contemplation. The
matter is not of the opinion of one or many of the Western intellectuals; it is rather the perception of
institutes of strategic studies and policy designers. As a matter of fact realities on the ground stand
witness to it.
Let us briefly annotate the main themes of Samuel Huntingtons theory:245
Firstly, according to the author, modern times are marred by clashes. Conflict between civilizations is
prevalent on international policies; and the dividing lines between the civilizations shall be the battle
lines of future.
The author discusses the phenomenon of conflict between civilizations in the past and asserts that
along with the end of the Cold War, the international policies have been turning West oriented and
moving west-wards in such a manner that interaction between the Western civilization and other
civilizations is becoming the main focus of these policies. But he identifies this interaction with clash
between the Western civilization on one hand and Islamic and Chinese civilizations on the other.
When the West will have wiped these two civilizations another round of clash will start between the
West and other remaining civilizations, namely Indian, Japanese, Slovak Orthodox, Latin American
and African civilizations.
The author traces back the history of clash between the Western civilization and Islam to the inception of Islam and its spreading out and says that the clash along the fault line between the Western
and Islamic Civilizations has been going on since 1300 years. The epicenter of the clash in the future
will again be between the West and the Islamic and Asian countries.
The author defines civilization as cultural entity and the cultural identity is the woof and warp of this
entity; it includes the religion, identity and history; it is diverse and distinct because of the language,

244 Ibid. (Dr. Muhammad Amrah. P:9)

245 This is based on the translation by As-Siysah Ad-Duwalia, No: 116, April 1994


history, culture and traditions, religion being the most important. Then he inquires about the causes
of clash between civilizations.
Why do civilizations clash? He replies that the reason lies in following things:
1. The basic and substantial differences between civilizations in terms of religion, history, language, culture, traditions and definition of relation between God and humans and between
individual, group and family.
2. Transformation of the world into a smaller place. The world has become a small village whose
sides and centre react to everything taking place anywhere on the globe. In other words intensive interaction between civilizations has been taking place.
3. Economic modernization and social change taking place throughout the world have been striping
people of their identities and the religion has been coming in to fill the vacuum, which leads to clash.
4. Consciousness of the West of its being at the peak of its power and that it certainly has the
power and will; yet the Middle Eastern people want re-islamization which leads to clash.
5. Cultural characteristics and differences are the least of things that can be changed. These are followed by the religion. The writer says that religion is the biggest disuniting factor in severity and
extent, it is a factor bigger than even race. A person may be half French and half Arab. A person
may be a resident of two countries and hold dual nationality, but it is difficult to be half Catholic
and half Muslim. It is obvious that the clash between civilizations takes place at two levels. At the
micro level neighboring groups clash violently across the line of values between civilizations.
After accounting these details, Huntington says that on both sides the interaction between Islam and
the West is considered clash of civilizations. The author finally concludes that in comparison with
other civilizations, the West right now is at the extraordinarily peak of its power. Its opponent super
power has disappeared from the global scene. A military clash between the western countries themselves is inconceivable; western military might has no competitor. In future, the West is going to be
the pivot of the international policies regarding conflict between the West and the rest of the world
until non-Western civilizations are turned to adopt Western system of values.
This very briefly is the summary of Huntingtons theory of clash between civilizations or their conflict. However some thinkers are of the view that this is not Huntingtons own theory.246 According to
them it is just an expression of the reality of Western standpoint and that there are incalculable writings that are West centric and have made the Western civilization inclined to containment of others,
taming them and fusing them into its own pattern of civilization and value system. This tendency has
adopted the path of clash in relation with others; it has rather made the clash with others, containing
them and negating their individuality, specialty and identity the noble mission of the Westerner is
its civilization, civilization that civilizes those others. Islam, its nations, its civilization and its world
have had a superabundant portion from the Western endeavor through the clash of civilizations. The
man (Samuel Huntington) has not tried to deceive us in any way, but expressed the western standpoint
which is tendentious to the philosophy of clash between civilizations, not as his own perception but
as a real inevitability. He simply is a describer. He is a describer when he says that the clash across
the fault line between the Western and Islamic civilizations has been going on since 1300 years. Same
applies when he specifies that the epicenter of the clash in the near future shall be between the West
and the Muslim countries,247 or when he proposes to the decision makers to handle the clash in two
stages: to start with there is no other way except to start exterminating the Islamic civilization. On


246 Dr. Muhammad Amrah Foreword of the book Hiwru Al-Hadhrt by Atiyyah Fathi Al-Manara Publishers 247 Ibid. P:8,9,11
247 Ibid. P:8,9,11

the other hand Samuel Huntington tries to evoke and revive the phenomenon of crusades. He often
comes up with the term Christianity while dealing with the subject of Western civilization. He and
his likes eagerly try to resurrect, in the hearts and minds of Christians, those who died in the name of
Christianity so that they can confront the religion of Islam. They strive for this cause keeping in mind
that iron is dented only with iron and with purpose of psychological preparation for religious clash.
This of course is the most dangerous of all clashes, yet they want to rally the comprehensive apparatus
of clash, including moral, religious and material mobilization to confront the imminent danger to the
Western civilization posed by Islam and its followers.248
6.2.e The stance of Pope Benedict XVI towards Islam
Soon after Benedict XVI was chosen to head the Catholic Church, the world was taken by surprise
when he delivered his speech in front of a large congregation of his disciples at South Germanys
Gutenberg University on September 12, 2006. Relating a dialogue between the Emperor of Byzantine
with a Persian man, the Pope vehemently attacked Islam, in the guise of the words of the Emperor,
without any justification or reasonability. The lecture caused an uproar and infuriated the Muslim
world reminding them of the bitter memories of acts of the Christian Crusaders, especially the Catholics, against Islam and Muslims and of what was done not only to Muslims but even to the followers
of other religions in Spain and Levant etc.
A large number of Muslim scholars rebuffed those controversial allegations. Through his valuable
book The Pope and Islam, his eminence Sheikh Yusuf Al-Qaradwi, president of the International
Union of Muslim Scholars too responded and scientifically refuted the suggestive allegations of the
Pope. 249
In the following pages, we are quoting the two credible communiqus of the International Union of
Muslim Scholars:
Communiqu No. 1
Rebuttal of the assertions of Pope Benedict XVI
Communiqu of president of the International Union of Muslim Scholars250
Islam the religion of reason and mercy
In the name of Allah, the Gracious, the Merciful
I was taken by surprise and Muslims across the globe were astonished by the assertions of the pope
Benedict XVI, during his visit to Germany, about Islam and its relation to intellect on one hand and
to violence on the other hand.
Being the highest authority of Christendom, we expected the Pope to deliberate, scrutinize and consult when he had to talk about a great religion like Islam which has been existent on the globe for
fourteen centuries, is followed by one and a half billion humans and possesses the divine document
containing the final testament revealed to the humankind the Holy Qurn which continues to be
read just as inscribed during the caliphate of Uthmn (mAbpwh), is recited as was recited in the lifetime of Muhammad, the final messenger, (pbuh) and is learnt by tens of thousands of hearts across
the world.
248 Atiyyah Fathi Al-Weshi The Dialogue of Civilizations P:85
249 Published (in Arabic) by Al-Wahbah Publishers, Cairo, 1428 A.H. / 2007 A.D.
250 The communiqu was issued on Shabn 21, 1427 Hijra / September 14, 2006 AD with the signature of the President of the International Union
of Muslim Scholars and broadcast by Al Jazeera Satellite Channel, published by periodicals and news agencies. For details, please refer to IUMS


But the Pope who is reported to be holding the professorship of Theology and History of Belief at
the University of Ratisbon since 1969 hastily disparaged Islam, rather attacked its belief and law, in
a manner that is not appropriate to come from a personality like his.
In a swarming congregation of more than two hundred thousand persons the Pope spoke of Islam
without referring to its Holy book, the Qurn or quoting from the tradition of its messenger, Muhammad (pbuh). The Pope, instead, settled for mention of a dialogue of the 14th century between the then
emperor of Byzantine and a Persian Muslim intellectual, wherein the emperor had ridiculed the man
saying, Show me what is new that was brought by Muhammad? You will not find anything other
than villainous inhuman substance, like his orders to spread the religion - that he preached - with the
blade of sword!
The Pope forgot that Muhammad (pbuh) had come with what is by far much more prolific than what
Christianity or Judaism before that came with; that he had come with a system of harmony between
spirituality and materialism, between this worldly life and the life hereafter, between the light of the
intellect and the light of revelation; that he had come to set equilibrium between the individual and
the society, between rights and responsibilities; that he unmistakably established brotherhood among
different social classes in the society and between societies and diverse peoples; and that the book he
came with said, O mankind! We created you from a single (pair) of a male and a female, and made
you into nations and tribes, that ye may know each other (not that ye may despise (each other). Verily
the most honoured of you in the sight of God is (he who is) the most righteous of you. (Al-Qurn,
The Pope forgot that even though the religion of Muhammad (pbuh) prescribed matching an offense
with a similar offence, but it preferred forgiveness and; that it called to peace while at the same time
commanded its believers to be always prepared for war, to strike terror into (the hearts of) the enemies, of God and your enemies (Al-Qurn, 8:60); that Islam established womens rights and honored
her as human being, as woman, as daughter, as spouse, as mother and generally as a member of the
society; and that Islam abolished many regulations that had become yokes of Judaism, allows them
as lawful what is good (and pure) and prohibits them from what is bad (and impure); He releases
them from their heavy burdens and from the yokes that are upon them. (Al-Qurn, 7:157)
So far as the slanderous dialogue of the Byzantine emperor - claiming that Muhammad came with
nothing but wickedness and anti-humanism and ordered his disciples to spread his religion with
sword is concerned, that had been a fabrication based on sheer ignorance of the history or an undiluted lie. History has not seen any one who fought wickedness, called to righteousness, prescribed
dignity of a human being and revered human nature as was done by Muhammad (pbuh) who was sent
as Mercy for all creatures (Al-Qurn, 21:107)
Claiming that Muhammad (pbuh) ordered his followers to spread his religion with the blade of the
sword, is the biggest deceit. Here is what his Holy Qurn ordered him and his faithful, Invite (all) to
the Way of thy Lord with wisdom and beautiful preaching; and argue with them in ways that are best
and most gracious. (Al-Qurn, 16:125). The fact is that Islam never overpowered a people by sword,
it rather overpowered the sword which was unsheathed against it right from the day one. Muhammad,
the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) continued bearing the harassment and ordeal inflicted against him
and his companions on the path of Allah until it was revealed to him, To those against whom war


is made, permission is given (to fight), because they are wronged;- and verily, God is most powerful
for their aid; (They are) those who have been expelled from their homes in defiance of right,- (for no
cause) except that they say, our Lord is God. (Al-Qurn, 22:39-40).
Islam prescribed Jihd for self-defense and to resist persecution persecution being more criminal
than murder and graver than killing. Allah says in the Holy Qurn, Fight in the cause of God those
who fight you, but do not transgress limits; for God loveth not transgressors. (Al-Qurn, 2:190). At
another place He says, Therefore if they withdraw from you but fight you not, and (instead) send
you (Guarantees of) peace, then God Hath opened no way for you (to war against them). (Al-Qurn,
Islam does not acknowledge the faith of someone who enters into its fold coercively, Allah says, Let
there be no compulsion in religion: Truth stands out clear from Error. (Al-Qurn, 2:256).
What does his holiness say about what is mentioned in the Bible in the Book of Deuteronomy, A
town where Moses and those with him enter, they must kill all its males with the edge of the sword
So far as the promised land is concerned, it is a religious requirement that they leave no human
being alive there. This means genocides and exterminations similar to those executed by Christian
Europeans with the Red Indians, when they entered America, or with Aborigines, when they entered
We had high expectations from his holiness that even from his out of context talk about Islam and the
Messenger of Islam (pbuh), he would deduce something objective, for example about the violence
carried out by some Muslims, that it was partly legitimate and in accordance with religions, laws,
rules and morality, as in case of the national resistance in Palestine or Lebanon or Iraq etc., and that
branding it all as violence and terrorism was an obvious injustice and distortion of the facts. We expected him to state that some of the violence has been condemned by Muslim masses everywhere
like the episodes of September 11 and that most of the unjustifiable violence emanated from the
injustices perpetrated against Muslims world over before the very eyes of religious leaders of the
West, who hush up and close their eyes towards these and some of them even bless these.
However, in his mass the Holy Father said that God in the Islamic belief was ultimately exalted and
His will was not associated with anything of our expressions of faith or even with intellect! The Pope
compared Islam with Christian thought saturated with Greek philosophy and thereupon asserted that
Christianity rejected inaction on what was logical and against nature.
Had the pontiff bothered himself or delegated to one of his disciple to refer even cursorily to the
springhead of Islam (the holy Qurn), he would have found tens of verses, rather hundreds, which extol the intellect and call for contemplation and meditation and which reject dubiousness in the sphere
of beliefs just as they disapprove following the desires and blindly patterning after the predecessors
and the men of influence. Reasoning is so imbibed into the Islamic belief that one of the great writers
[Abbs Mahmoud Al-Aqqd] penned a book titled Deliberation an Islam Religious Obligation.
It suffices us to quote two of the divine sayings: Say: I do admonish you on one point: that ye do
stand up before God,- (It may be) in pairs, or (it may be) singly,- and reflect (within yourselves).
(Al-Qurn, 34:46) Do they see nothing in the government of the heavens and the earth and all that
God hath created? (Al-Qurn, 7:185).


Had the Pope referred to the sayings of some of the great Muslim scholars, like Al-Ashari, AlMturdi, Al-Bqillni, Al-Juweini, Al-Ghazzli, Ar-Rzi, Al-midi etc, he would have certainly
found them saying, Intellect is the basis of citing the sources; had there been no intellect there would
not have been corroboration with the sources nor would have revelation been substantiated, because
verification of prophethood too actualizes through intellect only; prophethood of a particular person
also is ascertained through nothing but intellect.
Prudent scholars of Islam do not recognize the faith of someone who believes in Islam just patterning after his ancestors without using his own mind and pondering over its substantiations, even in a
general sense. The author of Al-Jawharah says, Whosoever imitates (others in belief) in oneness of
Allah, his faith can be subject to refutation.
If it was desirable to compare the two religions - Islam and Christianity -, we would find that it is
Christianity which does not reckon with the intellect in the sphere of beliefs and it commands: believe first and then know; believe blindly; close your eyes and follow me. In Islam, on the other hand,
knowledge precedes faith and faith is the fruit of knowledge. Allah says, And that those on whom
knowledge has been bestowed may learn that the (Quran) is the Truth from thy Lord, and that they
may believe therein, and their hearts may be made humbly (open) to it (Al-Qurn, 22:54).
Imm Muhammad Abduh penned his book Islam and Christianity with Science and Civilization to
rebuff the claims of one of the eastern Christians who said that Christianity accommodated science
and civilization unlike Islam. The rebuttal was scientific and substantiated with logic, history and religious authenticity and scientific facts. He said, The foundations on which Islam stands are the ones
right fertile for fruitfulness of civilization and civility. This includes faith in the intellect, rejection
of religious clout, and synergizing between the worldly life and the life hereafter. This is in contrast
with Christianity which is founded on preternatural and does not believe in observance of the laws as
emphasized by Islam. One of the Christians theologians (Augustine) says, I believe in it because it
is inconceivable or unreasonable!
Had Islam discarded the intellect or disregarded it, how could they have established the marvelous
civilization that integrated knowledge and faith, material creativity and spiritual transcendence, from
which the whole world kept drawing and deriving for more than eight hundred years? Europe was the
main beneficiary and acquired from it the inductive experimental approach instead of Aristotelian
syllogistic approach. This has been testified by historians of science, like Gustave Le Bon, Robert
Briffault, George Sarton and many others.
It was through Islamic civilization that Europe came to know of Aristotles philosophy as it was
elaborated by the great Muslim philosopher Ibn-Rushd. Had Ibn-Rushd not existed, Europeans would
not have known Aristotle!
The assertion of the Pope that the will of God in Islam was absolute and unrestricted, although correct in general, but the scholars of Islam are unanimous that the will of Allah is coupled with his
knowledge and both are correlated; He does not will anything contrary to wisdom; one of His attributes frequently appearing in the Holy Qurn is Al-Hakm (the Judicious / the Wise). He is wise
in His creating and in His lawgiving; He does not create anything in vain nor does He set a law just
for futility; He does not enact anything that could not be beneficent and virtuous for his creation. His
final Messenger, Muhammad (pbuh) said in his invocation, Beneficence lies in Your presence and
wickedness does not find its way to You.


Muslim theologians of the Mutazilite school go to the extent of asserting that the act of beneficence
and highest virtuousness is an obligation upon Allah the Almighty.
This has not been the first time when the current Pontiff has taken a negative stance against Islam and
Muslims which depicts negligence or apprehension or something more.
In his first pontifical mass, after his election in late April 2005, he did not mention Muslims even with
a single world, whereas he mentioned the dear brethren from the Jewish people with words brimming with love and honor.
During the celebrations of the International Day of the Youth in the German city of Cologne, in late
August (of that year), he met with representatives of the Muslim community of the metropolis and
expressed his deep concern about the spread of terrorism. In this meeting he stressed upon Muslims
the need to tear out the spitefulness from their hearts and to confront all expressions of intolerance
and discard whatever violent behavior may manifest from them!
This reprehensive tone had a peevish impact on the hearts of Muslims because of what it manifested
of narrow vision and the superficial perception of the sources and reasons of terrorism.
Similar impact was left by the audience of his holiness to the US resident Italian writer (Oriana Fallaci) who is known for her inciting fiery books and blazing articles against Islam and Muslims and
believes that there is no such thing like radical Islam or moderate Islam. According to her the whole
of Islam is extremist and that the difference between Christianity and Islam is substantial.
Previously all such stances used to be considered negative towards Muslims, however in modern
times the matter has taken the manifestation of being against Islam itself. In light of the Holy Qurn,
we Muslims consider Christians as being nearest to Muslims (Al-Qurn, 5:82). Muhammad the Final
Messenger of Allah said, I am the most intimate of all to Jesus the son of Mary.
The Holy Qurn has dedicated a whole full chapter to Mary the mother of Jesus. One of the major
chapters of the Qurn (l-Imrn / the House of Imrn) dwells upon the family of Jesus. Who does
not know of the revered status of Jesus and his book in Islam? We Muslims do not want to escalate
the situation, but we seek an interpretation for what is happening and what is the purpose of all this.
We also seek from the Pontiff to make an apology to the Muslim nation for having affronted their
We had wished from his holiness to call for a positive dialogue between religions and to a real discourse between civilizations instead of confrontation and clash. We have previously responded positively to the invitation from Saint Jedio Association of Rome for a Muslim-Christian dialogue. We
have also witnessed a session of dialogue with Christian clerics in Rome and Barcelona at what was
called Muslim-Christian Summit. We also participated in Muslim-Christian dialogue conferences
at Doha. After all that, does his holiness want us to shut the doors of dialogue and prepare for clash
in war or renewed crusades?
President George W. Bush of USA renewed the crusades and declared them unambiguously in the
name of Christianity. We Muslim, on our part, call to peace because our religion instructs us to do
just that. However if war is imposed on us, we shall have to reluctantly fight it and therein we shall
be looking for either of the two pleasant outcomes as mentioned in the Holy Qurn (Al-Qurn, 9:52).
Our Holy Qurn tells us, Fighting is prescribed for you, and ye dislike it. But it is possible that ye


dislike a thing which is good for you, and that ye love a thing which is bad for you. But God knoweth,
and ye know not. (Al-Qurn, 2:216).
Our Messenger (pbuh) tells us, do not wish meeting the enemy; seek safety from Allah; but when
you happen to come face to face (with your enemy), be steadfast and know that that the paradise lies
under the shade of swords.251
We hereby call to toleration, not to bigotry, to dialogue, not to confrontation, and to peace, not to war.
However, we shall not accept that anyone attack our belief, our Law and our values or blaspheme our
beloved Messenger of Allah (pbuh) with a word of affront, in which case Allah has permitted us to
defend ourselves, because He does not love the oppressors.
Chairman of the International Union of Muslim Scholars
Dr. Yusuf Al- Qaradhawi
Communiqu No. 2
Communiqu of the International Union of Muslim Scholars252
Regarding the position of Pope Benedict XVI
towards Islam and the Messenger of Allah (pbuh)
Praise be to Allah; peace and blessings be upon the Messenger of Allah, his family, his companions
and those who pursue his path.
The International Union of Muslim Scholars, although, provided a chance to the Pope Benedict XVI
to omit the untrue utterances which were offensive to Muslims, to their religion, to their Holy Book
and to the Messenger (pbuh), and in spite of the communiqus issued by the Chairman of International Union of Muslim Scholars Prof. Dr. Yusuf Al-Qaradwi and its Secretary General Prof.
Muhammad Salm Al-Aw, the Union sees that there is no need for the Pontiffs apology, because an
apology after insult is of no use; the Union had sought only omission of the indicated text from the
formal speech.
The International Union of Muslim Scholars, although, provided a chance to the Pope to omit the
untrue utterances which were offensive to Muslims, to their religion, to their Holy Book and to the
Messenger (pbuh), and in spite of the subsequent communiqus issued by the Chairman of International Union of Muslim Scholars Prof. Dr. Yusuf Al-Qaradwi and its Secretary General Prof.
Muhammad Salm Al-Aw, wherein the Union declared that there was no need for the Pontiffs
apology, because an apology after insult was of no use, the Union had sought only omission of the indicated text from the formal speech, however, these calls fell on deaf ears and there was no response.
Since then whenever the Pope has spoken, he has been just alluding to misunderstanding of his utterances as having accused Muslims, and that the Muslims were outraged in support of their religion,
their book and their prophet simply for not having understood him. The Pope repeated time and
again that what he had said was nothing but quoting the Byzantine Orthodox emperor (whom the
Pope considers non-Christian) and that those quotations did not represent his own views, even though
251 Unanimously accepted as authentic
252 The communiqu was issued on Wednesday, September 26, 2006 Please refer to IUMS website:


the whole lecture from A to Z was based on the Emperors utterances, which clearly meant that the
Pope intended to adopt what he reported from the emperor, build on that and emphasize on its moldy
content in the minds of his audience throughout the Catholic world.
The International Union of Muslim Scholars has taken notice of the fact that all the themes of his
lecture and its content, although very offensive towards Islam, mentioned other religions by name
but failed to mention Islam even once. Instead, it mentioned Muslims. While the Union realizes the
stance of Catholicism about all religions and belief systems of the world, it is not acceptable to exclude Islam alone from amongst the major world religions (which according to Catholic doctrine are
blasphemous); it was in plain sight that he mentioned all religions one after the other, except Islam,
and when it came to Islam, irrespective of Vaticans own stance about it, he mentioned Muslims only
as groups and peoples not as the people of a religion.
The Union was taken aback that when, on Monday, 2nd Ramadhn 1427 Hijra / 25th September,
2006, the Pope met with ambassadors of the Muslim countries at Vatican, he did not make any mention of his lecture whatsoever and called for dialogue as it was the need of the future, as he claimed.
In view of the above, the Union declares that the dialogue to which the Pope is calling is neither viable nor logical as the Holy Qurn guides, And dispute ye not with the People of the Book, except
with means better (than mere disputation), unless it be with those of them who inflict wrong (and
injury) (Al-Qurn, 29:46). Yes, we have been wronged and severely offended by the utterances of
the Pope and that is not going to be undone by what he has said in his meeting with the ambassadors.
The Holy Qurn prevents Muslims from sitting with those who make a mockery of their book, saying, Already has He sent you Word in the Book, that when ye hear the signs of God held in defiance
and ridicule, ye are not to sit with them unless they turn to a different theme: if ye did, ye would be
like them. (Al-Qurn, 4:140).
Based on these facts, the Union has decided not to engage in any contact whatsoever with the Vatican
or its representative organizations or its diplomats in the Arab and Islamic countries or anywhere else
until a new stance of the Pope comes to light which shall make a constructive and feasible dialogue
possible. The Union declares this decision for information of the whole Muslim World and calls
upon those responsible for religious and political affairs to take a stand that is in line with their faith,
conscience, honor of their nation and their belonging to the final Messenger of Allah (pbuh) and his
noble companions (mAbpwt). This cultural boycott is the least they must do towards insistence (of
the Pope) on not accepting the truth and towards obvious egotism apparent in not withdrawing the
untrue utterances from his speech that have offended Muslims.
It is imperative that the Union remind the Pope and all Christians of how the Holy Qurn has described the Christian pontiffs as well as the common Christians. Allah says, and nearest among them
in love to the believers wilt thou find those who say, We are Christians: because amongst these are
men devoted to learning and men who have renounced the world, and they are not arrogant. And
when they listen to the revelation received by the Messenger, thou wilt see their eyes overflowing with
tears, for they recognise the truth: they pray: Our Lord! we believe; write us down among the witnesses. (Al-Qurn, 5:82-83).
The least that Muslims expect from Christians is comparable equity, without which positive relation
between the two sides shall not be viable nor shall any dialogue bear virtuous fruits.


Praise is due to Allah, the Lord and Cherisher of all existence.

Signed by:
The Secretary General
Muhammad Salm Al-Aw

Professor Yusuf Al-Qaradwi

6.2.f Islam and the West - Who is fighting the other?

Through their enormous media machines, armies of media workers and skilled analysts, most of the
Western political leaders can change facts and depict truth as untruth and establish unreality as reality
till the victim appears to be the oppressor and the tyrant looks like the tyrannized. This is what we
have been seeing in most parts of the Muslim world, in Palestine and elsewhere.
Thus have they been able to depict Islam as religion of terror and Muslims as aggressors who fight
the West in general, hate it, its civilization and its democratic values.
However, the truth is quite opposite of this impression. As mentioned hereinabove, Islam in its essence and practice is the religion of mercy and magnanimity. Muslims have been the victims of
the Western tyranny (including occupation, plundering of wealth, looting of heritage, obliteration
of identity and supporting of dictatorship), and they continue to be in the stage of resistance to the
occupiers as they have not yet regained their complete freedom; they, in fact, are going through the
weakest phase of the entire history of the Muslim Nation.
Despite all this, most of the Western leaders look at Islam and Muslims as the worst enemy of the
West and of its civilization. In July, 1990, when NATO heads of states held their first summit meeting
in London after the fall of Soviet Union and disintegration of Warsaw Pact (the military arm of the
Communist Block), to which - as mentioned previously - Islam and Muslims contributed a great deal,
the meeting was described to be the most important in the history of NATO since 1949. During the
meeting, confrontation with Islam was not only part of the deliberations but was very much high on
the agenda. This was indicated in the statement of the Italian Foreign Minister who happened to be
the head of the European Ministerial Council that term. Newsweek magazine published its interview
with him (in the issue of July 2, 1990; P: 56). The interview touched several issues about NATO under
the title Why should NATOs Mission Change? One of the questions was: Since the West no longer
faces a military threat from the East, why does Europe then need NATOs striking force?
The Ministers reply was: It will be wrong to forfeit the security organization that has been built over
forty years. Although we are going to witness a phase of peace but the tension between some of the
NATO countries continues to exist, like in case of Greece and Turkey. [] It is true that the confrontation with Communism no more exists, but yet there is a possibility of another confrontation replacing the confrontation with Communism, that is the confrontation between the West and the Islamic
When the magazine asked another question: How could such confrontation be avoided? the Minister
replied: Europe has to solve its problems so that the Western model becomes most attractive and more
acceptable to others in various parts of the world.


Commenting on this, Fahmi Huwaidi said, We do not want to exaggerate in this regard We want to
put the utterances in their context without sounding alarming or sycophantic, especially when these
are the utterances of a high official of an important European country, besides his capacity of representing the political will of whole of the European Union. These were issued and publicized on the eve
of the European Unions summit meeting. The speaker is important and the occasion too is important,
hence we must deal with what he has said with due seriousness and responsibility.
The Ministers utterances confirm what we have been saying that this is not the first instance when
this subject has been touched. In fact such discourse has been constantly present in the European
and American media ever since the Iranian Islamic revolution took place in 1979. This discourse
reached its peak recently subsequent to the hubbub that followed the publication of Salman Rushdis
book The Satanic Verses. British newspaper Daily Telegraph was among those who unequivocally
expressed this stance. The newspaper, in its issue of Sunday, 19th February 1989, published two articles titled Why Cant the West forget its Antagonism to Islam? and We Are in Need of Lessons for
Confrontation of Islam. Another article that has come to my attention among many such writings is
an article published by Washington Post on February 16, 1990, titled The New Arch of Crisis The
International Islamic Intifaada.
Over and above what the Western media has been publishing in this regard, I have heard loud voices
from Washington, when in January of this year there were politicians and academics who unambiguously said exactly similar to what the Italian Minister has said. According to all of them the confrontation with Islam and Muslims is the substitute candidate for the confrontation that ended against
the Eastern Communist Block, especially when the latter has actually ceased to be a block, its Communist ideology is fast waning and its Eastern-ness has turned to be nothing more than geography!
I have also noticed that this point has been appended to the inquisitions of the Westerners in Egypt
including diplomats and journalists. Usually their inquiries used to revolve round three themes: what
is the stance of the Islamists towards terrorism, non-Muslims and women? Especially during the last
two years a third theme has been added to the inventory: position towards the West!
We do not want to go into the details of evidences and witnesses; the matter has been dogmatized
and confrontation between the West and Islam has now become a hot issue of pondering for Western
strategic thought more than any other time in the past.253
It is important to underline that neither our own assertions nor those of Islamic thinkers are meant to
generalize; the subject matter is the Western political strategy which is dominated by the major powers and is intended to be implanted. Similarly one must distinguish between Islam as being a religion
which the Almighty designed to be mercy for whole existence and Muslims of our times who have
been suffering the oppression, occupation, persecution and highhandedness, wherein it is possible
that someone of them may happen to behave irresponsibly. In spite of all that, the alleged resentment
of Muslims against the West is nothing but political; it is not ideological; there are no Muslims who
hate the West just for being the West, whereas the hate of the Westerners is political and ideological.
(It was more than 14 centuries ago) when Muslim were deeply saddened upon Romans (who represented the West and Christianity) being defeated by idolaters, but then Allah revealed His glad tidings
saying, A. L. M. The Roman Empire has been defeated - In a land close by; but they, (even) after
(this) defeat of theirs, will soon be victorious - Within a few years. With God is the Decision, in the
253 Fahmi Huwaidi Ash-Sharq Newspaper, Qatar ZulHijjah 25, 1410 Hijra / July 17, 1990


past and in the Future: on that Day shall the Believers rejoice - With the help of God. He helps whom
He will, and He is exalted in might, most merciful. (Al-Qurn, 30:1-5).
The discourse and methodology of reformist Islamists, like Jamluddin Al-Afghni, Muhammad
Abduh, Rashd Rida, scholars of moderate approach and contemporary temperate Islamic parties
do not manifest any enmity or hatred towards the West for its being the West. They, rather, call to
benefiting and advantaging from the sciences which have propelled the West to progress, they call to
respect of human rights, civil and economic liberties and mechanisms of democracy and other virtues
that do not contradict with the glorious Shariah, and they call to dialogue and peaceful coexistence.
Certainly, all of them are against oppression, occupation, unjust political positions and double standards in dealings.
If there are some people or groups or states that attack the West, they have their own specific circumstances that must not be swept in generalization over Islam itself or over all Muslims. According
to Fahmi Huwaidi, Islamic revolution in Iran, through its discourse and stances continues to be
model of anti-Western Islamic position. To be accurate, this description applies especially to the first
republic that was led by Ayatullah Khomeini; (in other words) currently it is now the second republic,
which is subject to revision of what we wrote last week.
Even if the Iranian position continues to remain as it was, it will be of arbitrariness and coarsening
to generalize it over all Muslims or world or over Islam itself; it will be appropriate to understand
such a position within the frame of Iranian experience, which suffered the worst of the subjugation by
the West and of the tyranny of the Shahs regime supported and sustained by the West.
Perhaps the problem and the complex of the Wests contemporary enmity of Islam are that it does
not want to turn away its eyes from Iran nor from the extremist groups in the Arab world, which (the
latter) rejects all Islamist as well as non-Islamist and consequently antagonizes the West. However, if the Islamic sphere is seen from a wider angle and scope of the view is broadened to cover
its vast expanse, what will be revealed will be quite contrary to the general impression. What will
be uncovered shall be transcending above the overt and unjustified enmity. This will clear the vision
towards a totally different topography for relation varying between curves of acceptance and tension,
which in all circumstances remain relative and justifiable.254
6.2.g Dilemma of the Western Leaders
The dilemma of most of the Western leaders lies in the triad which dominates their train of thought,
which is:
1. Necessity of existence of an enemy in front of them or to create one to justify all that they seek,
as is the case of the USA which through its declaration of war on Islamic terror, occupied,
directly or indirectly, most parts of the Muslim World.
2. Passivity to the religious policies of the international Zionism and of far-right Christian Zionism.
3. Imposition of the Western values and the Western model including all that is good and bad,
right and wrong, virtuous and bizarrely perverted - on the world. This was proclaimed, as
mentioned hereinabove, in July 1990 by the then head of the NATO for setting up the post
Soviet Western strategy. This has also been corroborated by theorists like Samuel Huntington,
Fukuyama, Bernard Lewis etc. and substantiated by RAND Corporations report, as mentioned

254 Fahmi Huwaidi Ash-Sharq Newspaper, Qatar ZulHijjah 25, 1410 Hijra / July 17, 1990


earlier. All of them are unanimous about the threat to the world if the Western model is not applied.
This is what the Holy Qurn had expressed about, Nor will they cease fighting you until they turn
you back from your faith if they can. (Al-Qurn, 2:217).
The West does not reject Islam only as religion and faith but snubs the civilizational project of Islam
as well; it not only fails to acknowledge the cultural independence of Muslims but disregards overall
independence of Muslim states to have their own political and economic resolve.
The political West does not also want to implement even Western democracy in a free and fair manner, because it fears that it will benefit those who do not follow their course, like Islamist and other.
RAND Corporations report also suggests that the West ought not to support the Secularists too (like
traditionalist Muslims) unconditionally because some of them too hate the West or have their own
agendas.255 This is why the major Western powers have been supporting any regime or system howsoever dictatorial, military or monarchist that might be under one precondition of protecting their
interests. Certainly in most cases, if not all, the record of these imperialistic countries with Muslim
peoples is not based on principles or morality.
In a nutshell and to make a long story short, most of the Western political leaders (especially American, British, French and Italian) want just one thing from the Muslim countries, and that is nothing but
complete compliance to their dictation. This is what the Holy Qurn has unambiguously elucidated:
Never will the Jews or the Christians be satisfied with thee unless thou follow their form of religion.
(Al-Qurn, 2:120). The world used in this verse is millat which (although translated by Abdullah
Yusuf Ali as religion) means religion, values and socio-cultural model.
Hence the ball is in the Wests court; they are the ones who foment clashes. The day these policies
and attitudes change and the strategy regarding Muslims turns to be fair, the world shall be merry in
peace. Without such paradigm shift, the whirligig of the reactions and clashes shall continue to whirl.
It is true that some of the Western countries benefit from these clashes, but in the long run they shall
have to bear the consequences of their wrong doings. It is but natural that the corollaries shall bring
about the curse and end to their power. This has been the law of the Almighty for nations, empires and
civilizations. Allah says, Such days (of varying fortunes) We give to men and men by turns: that God
may know those that believe, and that He may take to Himself from your ranks Martyr-witnesses (to
Truth). And God loveth not those that do wrong. (Al-Qurn, 3:140).
6.2.h Major threats to the Muslim-European relations
There is a fear being instigated by the West towards Muslims in general and towards Arabs in particular. This fear has two manifestations. The first manifestation is disposed in the perception of threat
from extremist and fundamentalist Islamic movements as they express and from the Islamic terrorism. They justify this fear because the responsibility for the episodes of September 11 was ascribed
to these movements or to Al-Qida, as was the responsibility of other blasts and explosions in Europe
and other places attributed to them, especially Madrid Train Bombing, blasting of American embassy
in Kenya besides other destructions and devastations in USA and Europe which took thousands of
European and American lives.

255 RAND Report, as referred to earlier hereinabove


Secondly, they do not hide the fear from the radicals who live in the West itself based on political
asylum or through naturalization in Western countries. They are afraid of their issuance of radical
fatwas (religious edicts) permitting the possessions of those infidels and legitimizing their women.
However, the real manifestation of threat of the Europeans and Americans is about Islam itself. They
fear that Islam is spreading amongst them and moving towards becoming the first religion after the
role of other religions had ended and people had been suffering from spiritual vacuity and emptiness,
which can be filled only by a balanced religion that maintains equilibrium between the needs of body,
soul, mind and intellect at the same time. This can be achieved through Islam alone. Experiments corroborate that whosoever comes to know the reality of Islam fails to resist embracing it, when Allah
wills. They are also afraid of the real threat of the monsters awakening as they name it from the
deep slumber, uniting its forces and setting up a single state or federation or union consisting of more
than a billion and four hundred million Muslims and then dominate over the geographical area that is
supposed to be most strategic and dangerous from all aspects. The geographical region is located at
the heart of the North, South, East and West and most of the shipping ways and straits, and highways
and communication lines between ends of the globe pass through it. Needless to mention that Allah
has bestowed the Muslim World with major deposits of important raw materials, like oil, gas and iron
etc, on which the whole global economy depends on and is tantamount to being the spinal cord of the
modern western civilization.
A nation with such a huge population and with all those capabilities, if it unites, the West would imagine that it will target all its strength against them. They would be disregarding that Muslims are the
nation of mercy for the whole of existence and that they are the bearers of the message of humanity,
beneficence, virtue and dignity for all human beings.
The West is scared of the Islamic unity and potency. They are scared that the oil supplies may be disrupted again as it happened in 1973 during the war on 10th of Ramadhn. The West ignores that this
right was exercised to support the genuine Arab-Palestinian right in the land of Palestine.
The West is nervous about Islam for being a comprehensive and all-encompassing message for humankind without discrimination, covering all components of the human personality including soul,
body, intelligence, emotions and intellect. They are nervous that Islam is capable of challenging the
Western philosophy and ideologies. Islam is feared for its powerful message, for its influence on its
believers, for its potential to bring bliss and contentment through its guidance and direction. Muslims
are feared that if they abide by Islam, the Wests power will shake, its interests will be enfeebled, its
domination over the Muslim world will wane, it will be deprived of the bounties from the Muslim
world and finally its exploitation and imperialistic supremacy of more than two centuries will end.
The West is made to believe that its interests lie in weakness, disintegration and laceration of Muslims
(divide and rule). Had the West been just and fair, it would have known that whatsoever long be the
tenure of tyranny, it has to confront the downfall; howsoever dark black the night may be, it has to
give way to the dawn.
The West is scared of Muslims because it wronged them over centuries; it wronged them by occupation, by exploitation, by sucking their blood and by building its civilization with their riches and
toil. It is scared of them for having transplanted the state of Israel in the heart of their land and then
supported it with all given means. It is scared of them because it wronged them by snatching their
freedom, by collaborating with and supporting the despotic, tyrant and oppressive rulers as long as
they remained accomplishing the interest and advantages of the West.


The West is scared because it has had many experiences with earnest and devoted Muslim resisting
fighters (mujhidn) and it is well aware that throughout the history, especially the modern history,
the occupiers of Muslim lands were driven out by none other than those self-sacrificing men.
The West is scared of the Muslim world, because when it vacated it after occupation, it left behind
innumerable and countless problems problems of poverty and backwardness, problems related to
neglecting the infrastructure, problems of border disputes with neighboring states, problems of discrepancies in geographical maps of every state and problems out of inciting the national and sectarian
This is what the Western politics has done against Muslims throughout the recent centuries. How
could then Muslims let the imperialistic West continue abusing the Muslim lands through colonization and occupation?
This is the question that calls for answer.
6.3 Islamic Position Regarding Clash of Civilizations
What we understand from the Qurnic texts and from the life of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh), is that
Islam calls to dialogue instead of clash and to coexistence instead of confrontation. The Holy Qurn,
from cover to cover, represents a message of dialogue and call to reciprocating with that which is
better; war is only the last resort to effectuate justice after all the means of understanding would have
been thwarted and all windows of dialogue would have been shut.
This is what was done by the Messenger of Allah himself (pbuh) when he was delegated with the
divine message. He started with dialogue and debate and contested with the finest argument. Allah
revealed to him, Invite (all) to the Way of thy Lord with wisdom and beautiful preaching; and argue
with them in ways that are best and most gracious. (Al-Qurn, 16:125).
The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) and his noble companions (mAbpwt) observed patience upon being
severely persecuted by the pagans with their material and abstract means. A number of them were
killed through inhuman treatment and torture, yet the faithful responded to the tyrants with what the
Almighty commanded them: To you be your Way, and to me mine. (Al-Qurn, 109:6). When the
Messenger of Allah (pbuh) was assaulted and injured in Tif, the angel in-charge of mountains offered to destroy the people of Tif by obliteration, he turned down the suggestion. Bukhri, Muslim
and others have narrated through isha that she asked the Messenger of Allah (pbuh), Did you witness a day worse than the day of Uhud? He replied, of all that I experienced from your people, the
experience of the day of Aqabah (at Tif) was the hardest. That day I introduced myself to Ibn Abd
Ylail bin Abd Kill, he did not consent to what I wanted. Thereupon I left with a troubled face. I
recuperated only at (the place named) Qarn Ath-Thalib; when I raised my head, I saw a cloud was
shading me and when I looked into it, I saw Gabriel. He called out to me saying, Allah the Almighty
heard the talk of your nation to you and what they replied to you; Allah has sent the angel of mountains to you to order him whatsoever you wished about them. He said, The angel of mountains called
out to me, greeted me and then said, O Muhammad, Allah has heard the talk of your nation to you;
I am the angel of mountains and your Lord had sent me to you to order me whatsoever you wish; if
you wish, I would place the two nearby mountains over them. The messenger of Allah replied to him
saying, But I pray to Allah to bring out from their loins who would worship Allah alone and ascribe


not anything as partner to Him.256 This authentic Hadeeth clearly establishes that the Messenger
of Allah (pbuh) never wished destruction to the infidels, even to those who harmed him; he wished
guidance to them because his message is the message of guidance. Allah says, A.L.M. This is the
Book; in it is guidance sure, without doubt, to those who fear God. (Al-Qurn, 2:2) And, We sent
thee not, but as a Mercy for all creatures. (Al-Qurn, 21:7).
Some young men argued with me saying did Noah (pbuh) not pray for destruction of his people as
the Holy Qurn narrates, And Noah, said: O my Lord! Leave not of the Unbelievers, a single one on
earth! For, if Thou dost leave (any of) them, they will but mislead Thy devotees, and they will breed
none but wicked ungrateful ones. (Al-Qurn, 71:26-27)?
I replied to them saying, Firstly, Noah (pbuh) did not pray thus but after having lived with them for
nine hundred and fifty years calling them to the right path; he kept calling them with all given overt
and covert means and by convincing and by warning them, as Allah says, He said: O my Lord! I
have called to my People night and day: But my call only increases (their) flight (from the Right).
And every time I have called to them, that Thou mightest forgive them, they have (only) thrust their
fingers into their ears, covered themselves up with their garments, grown obstinate, and given themselves up to arrogance. So I have called to them aloud; Further I have spoken to them in public and
secretly in private, Saying, Ask forgiveness from your Lord; for He is Oft-Forgiving; He will send
rain to you in abundance; Give you increase in wealth and sons; and bestow on you gardens and
bestow on you rivers (of flowing water). What is the matter with you, that ye place not your hope for
kindness and long-suffering in God. (Al-Qurn, 71:5-13).
Secondly, Noah (pbuh) did not pray thus but only after having been told by Allah the Almighty,
None of thy people will believe except those who have believed already! So grieve no longer over
their (evil) deeds. (Al-Qurn, 11:36). I then told those young men, Have we first done what Noah
(pbuh) did? Has any revelation come to us that none of the addressees of our call will believe anymore?
Thirdly, the approach of the Final Messenger of Allah, Muhammad (pbuh) varies from the approach
of Noah and Moses (pbut) who invoked against Pharaoh and his people that they do not believe
until they see the painful doom. His approach coincided with that of Abraham (pbuh), who was his
model in line with the divine guidance. This is apparent from his preference to the opinion of AbuBakr (mAbpwh) and those who were in favor of being kind to the prisoners of the battle of Badr. He
preferred their opinion to that of Omar Ibn Al-Khattb (mAbpwh) who had suggested executing the
prisoners. On that occasion he had likened his stance of kindness to that of Abraham (pbuh).257
In light of this, we can assert, The general basis and principle in Islam is to reciprocate with what
is better instead of clash and conflict unless called for by the dire exigency.
According to Islam, competing leads to mutual benefit and civilized interaction, not to clash of
The philosophy of Islam about civilizations is based on shoving towards better, this leads to the process of succession and civilized interaction, not to clash between civilizations.
If we look at the source texts of Islam, we find them unmistakably indicative of the need to seize the
opportunity for everything that is beneficial and virtuous; we have been commanded to seek knowl-


256 Authentic Hadeeth, narrated by Bukhri (Fathul Bri): (6/312); Muslim: (3/1420)
257 For this story, please refer to Sharhu An-Nuwawi Al Muslim (12/86-87); Dr. Karam Al-Omari As-Seerah An-Nabawiyah As-Saheehah Qatar
University P:368

edge with all its useful types and disciplines and to read and study texts and ponder over the universe
and its phenomenon. There are numerous insistent texts in this regard.258
This is why Islam emphasizes upon the need for interaction of civilizations through knowledge, reading, traveling through the earth and pondering over it, its peoples and the nations living on it in order
to grasp the divine laws that govern the universe and the existence of nations and civilizations how
they advance, triumph, consolidate, get defeated and fall into backwardness. Allah says, Many were
the Ways of Life that have passed away before you: travel through the earth, and see what was the
end of those who rejected Truth. (Al-Qurn, 3:137). The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) too emphasized
upon it in his own eloquent way, Wisdom is the stray camel of a faithful; wherever he finds it, he
deserves it most.259
Through knowledge, reading and deliberating over history interaction between civilizations takes
place whereby succeeding civilizations benefit from preceding civilizations and build on them. This
is what Muslims did by drawing upon all previous civilizations without any sensitivity or embarrassment as long as there was virtue, knowledge or wisdom. We even learn from the history astonishing
episodes of honoring knowledge and men of knowledge by Muslim Abbasid caliphs. That was the
reality; precious gifts, awards and valued remuneration were bestowed for works of translation and
science whatsoever the sources were.
This interaction can take place through an attitude of moderation between isolation and reticence and
between blind aping and docility, wherein Islamic civilization draws upon that is advantageous with
other civilizations while preserving its identity and civilizational uniqueness.260
Allah the Exalted has elucidated the wisdom behind the differences and diversity of civilizations as
Firstly, To each among you have we prescribed a law and an open way. If Allah had so willed, He
would have made you a single people, but (His plan is) to test you in what He hath given you: so strive
as in a race in all virtues. The goal of you all is to Allah. It is He that will show you the truth of the
matters in which ye dispute (Al-Qurn, 5:48). Allah has thus illustrated that victorious are the people
who compete in all virtues, worldly as well as otherworldly.
Secondly, competition and movement towards the better, or in other words, the law of shove between
peoples brings out the best and the most virtuous. The earth being the sphere of human activity, empowering thereon takes place through this law of shove.
6.3.a Existence of Clash is it a Myth?
To answer this question to is a plain NO. The clash is a reality and it certainly does exist. Similarly
difference is a reality and a fact. However, Islam demands unity instead of discord; it calls for coexistence instead of confrontation and to dialogue instead of strife, although clash continues to remain a
divine law for life. This is how we can harmonize the understanding of those verses that speak about

258 For details of Ilm (knowledge) and Qirah (reading) and their derivations, please refer to Al-Mujam Al-Mufahras li Alfz Al-Qurn Al-Kareem
Wa-As-Sunnah An-Nabawiyah; Wa-As-Sunnah An-Nabawiyah; Yusuf Al-Qaradwi Ar-Rasool Wa-Al-Ilm P: 3 (Humankind has not known
any religion like that of Islam caring so much about seeking knowledge); Abdul Aziz At-Tuwaijari Al-Hiwr Min Ajl At-Taayush P:23
259 Narrated by Tirmidhi and Ibn Mjah Sunan Ibn Mjah, Kitb Az-Zuhd Bb Al-Hikmah (4/1395)
260 Dr. Muhammad Amrah Al-At Al-Hadhri Doha, P:105


clash and shove towards better and best.

In light of the Holy Qurn and the sayings of the Final Messenger of Allah (pbuh) Muslims are not
supposed to foment clash or be pleased with clashes. Muslims are there to disseminate guidance, to
portray divine mercy for whole of mankind and creatures and to rescue the wondering and wandering to the straight path. This exactly was the understanding of the first generation of Muslims. When
Ribei Bin mir was sent as an envoy of the Muslim army to Rustum, the commander in chief of
the Persian Sassanide military, the latter asked him of his purpose, whether it was wealth or position?
Ribei replied saying, Allah has sent us to liberate the people from worship of the slaves (of Allah)
to the worship of Allah alone, from melancholy of the worldly life to the abundance of the world and
of the hereafter, and from tyranny of the religions to the justice of Islam.
So the phenomena of clash is existent. It is rather one of the social laws at the level of religions, nations, groups and even at the level of individuals, but Islam seeks to force it out as far as possible, to
decelerate its intensity and impact and to turn it into impetus for reciprocation with better in order to
reach to the better results in both the cases, i.e. in case clash takes place in reality on the ground, or
in case it does not take place. It turns the phenomena of clash to be a vehicle of positive movement,
vigor, growth, augmentation and to be a sign of life and its continuity.
In other words, Islam aims at shoving Muslims to turn the phenomena of clash, if and when it takes
place, in spite being undesirable, to an engine of life and to a persistent movement of acceleration
towards readiness for dialogue, debate, argument and preparedness for combat and to prevail, so that
the Nation does not fall in the state of languor and self-indulgence leading to departure of grace and
obstruction of progress.261
So Islam has illustrated to its Nation that worlds material, intellectual, social and economic fields
are the fields of contrast realities of competition and emulation, of progress and retardation; these are
battle fields of triumph and defeat; these are spheres of collision between virtue and vice, justice and
injustice, truth and untruth, love and hatred, purity and vengeance, and right and wrong. This rubric
shall not cease except if life itself ceases to be, as it is one of the secrets among many secrets of the
existence, survival, continuity, progress, civilization and building.
In substantiation of the above, there are many verses of the Holy Qurn:
Firstly, regarding the phenomenon of clash, Allah tells the faithful, Nor will they cease fighting you
until they turn you back from your faith if they can. (Al-Qurn, 2:217). This verse is explicit that the
enemies of Islam and Muslims will continue, with all capabilities of combat at their disposal, to fight
against them until they turn them back from their religion (Islam) to any other religion and expel them
from their creed to any other creed, if they could. What is important with them is to banish Muslims
from Islam. This being their goal, it wont be viable to please them except by following their creed.
Allah says, Never will the Jews or the Christians be satisfied with thee unless thou follow their form
of religion. (Al-Qurn, 2:120). And, Thus have We made for every prophet an enemy among the
sinners: but enough is thy Lord to guide and to help. (Al-Qurn, 25:31). And, We have made some
of you as a trial for others: will ye have patience? (Al-Qurn, 25:20). And the Qurn narrates Ibls
(the Satan) telling Allah, Then, by Thy power, I will put them all in the wrong, Except Thy Servants
amongst them, sincere and purified (by Thy Grace). (Al-Qurn, 38:82-83).

261 OmarObaid Hasanah Foreword of the book of Dr. Ahmad Al-Qadidi referred to earlier P: 10-11


Secondly, Being a reality of life, the phenomenon of clash cannot be dismissed as being non-existent,
Islam aim at handling it through the following steps:
1. Looking for common attributes between Muslims and others so that they accept each other in
principle; stepping on that commonalty, they can agree to have a dialogue. These common attributes are:
a. People of the Book (Jews and Christians) share with Muslims the source of religion, Allah
the Almighty. As there are common issues, there comes the need to call them to the common
grounds between us and them. Allah says, O People of the Book! come to common terms as
between us and you: That we worship none but God; that we associate no partners with him;
that we erect not, from among ourselves, Lords and patrons other than God. If then they turn
back, say ye: Bear witness that we (at least) are Muslims (bowing to Gods Will). (Al-Qurn,

Based on this principle, Muslim men have been allowed to marry women of from amongst the
People of the Book. Thereby a Jewish or a Christian woman becomes wife of a Muslim and her
brothers become uncles of his children and her father and other become his kith and kin. This
is in addition to common human grounds and the honor granted to human being as children of
Adam and Eve. Allah says, We have honoured the sons of Adam (Al-Qurn, 17:70).

b. People other than the People of the Book share with Muslims humanity and the instinct of
search for truth. Allah says, Say: Who gives you sustenance, from the heavens and the earth?
Say: It is God; and certain it is that either we or ye are on right guidance or in manifest error!
Say: Ye shall not be questioned as to our sins, nor shall we be questioned as to what ye do.
(Al-Qurn, 34:24-25).
c. Permission to non-Muslims to reside in the land of Islam and Muslims upon their acknowledging the political authority of the state. Thereupon only the capable pay a reasonable amount of
dues known as jizyah - against the guarantee of peace and security. Jizyah (capitation) is like
what in todays terminology is called tax.
2. Taking off from this position about common attributes with others we move to dialogue and understanding towards coexistence. This is what is known as Zimmah (protection under Islamic
rule). Zimmah implies that non-Muslims living under the protection of Islamic state enjoy full
rights. They are allowed to perform their religious rituals, breed their pigs and brew their liquor (although, in Islam, both are considered mother of all impurities and abominations). It is
prohibited to commit aggression against their liquors and pigs. Scholars of the Hanafi School
of jurisprudence hold the view that if anyone destroys something of these two, he must be held
responsible to pay the damages besides bearing reprimand.262
3. If in spite of all endeavors peaceful co-existence is not possible, then Jihd in Islam has its
rules, regulations, etiquettes and sublime ethics, which no people other than Muslims, especially their first generation, were able to implement.
4. Substantiation of the law of shove: This natural law means that clash does take place between
virtue and vice, truth and untruth, and congenial and abominable, just as it takes place between
oppressors and oppressed, between a tyrant and another tyrant, between despotic and subju262 Badiu As-Sanye Muassasatu At-Trkh Al-Arabi, Beirut (6/169)


gated, among the imperious elements themselves, and in-between those who posses clout, authority and power.
So clash, from the Islamic perspective, does not exist except between truth and untruth or
among the commune of vice themselves; the phenomenon of clash is to continue as long as
untruth continues to hit at the truth.

So far as the law of shove is concerned, it means that it is usual for the divine laws of Allah
the Almighty to terminate the untrue at the hands of the true or at the hands of their likes or (at
times) by espousing truth through a person of lewdness.263 This is why some scholars believe
that among the divine laws is that Allah does not leave the world at the mercy of a single tyrant
(i.e. a dictator or a state) to rule for a long time. Allah either drives him away through another
despot or at the hands of the people of truth and justice.

Hence the law of shove is nothing but a manifestation of the mercy of Allah the Almighty and
one of the equations through which divine justice is actualized, truth becomes unmistakable
and depravity and untruth are shoved. Allah says, By Gods will they routed them; and David
slew Goliath; and God gave him power and wisdom and taught him whatever (else) He willed.
And did not God check one set of people by means of another, the earth would indeed be full of
mischief: But God is full of bounty to all the worlds. (Al-Qurn, 2:251).

This verse bespeaks about the exalted divine wisdom in tussle of forces and competing of
powers, which is to safeguard the aptness of the earth, prevent its decay, stagnation and being
ruined. This is how the secret unfolds to the humans about the vast expansive realms of this
world swelling with people who are in constant strife, competition and extreme multiplicity of
objectives. The secret is that behind all the happenings there is that wise designing hand that
holds all the strings to ultimately lead this fiercely competing and emulous pageant towards
virtue, viability and growth.264

Hence the life without shove stagnates and rotes; without competition, struggle, friction and
diverse movements, energies are obstructed and not released. In nonexistence of this natural
law, life would be stricken by lassitude and sluggishness, and its abundant hidden assets would
not be mobilized nor would it advance and progress.

According to Imm Ar-Rzi, Interest of an individual does not materialize except when a
community is formed. That is why it is said that the human being is social by nature. However
congregation leads to contention, which that pilots to rivalry first and then to fighting. Hence it
is imperative for the divine wisdom to have devised the divine law to be implemented between
the created He then goes on to say that those who are shoved away by the despotic and the

263 Both, Bukhri and Muslim have narrated through Abu Hurairah: We witnessed (a battle) along with the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) wherein he
mentioned about a man who claimed to be a Muslim that he was from amongst the people of hellfire. During the fight the man fought fiercely and
was injured. When the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) was told about the fight the man put up and that he had died, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh)
said: to hellfire. Thereupon some people suspected; meanwhile it was reported that the person had not died, but was has been badly wounded.
When at night, the person could not endure his wounds and killed himself. When this was mentioned to the Messenger of Allah (pbuh), he
exclaimed: Allah is the Greatest; I bear witness that I am the servant of Allah and His Messenger. He then ordered Bilal to call out to the people:
none shall enter the paradise except when faithful; Allah (at times) supports this religion through a lewd man. See: Al-Bukhri (Fathul Bri)
Kitb Al-Jihad Chapter: Allah Supports the Religion Through a Lewd Man (6/179), Hadith No: 3062; Muslim Kitb Al-Eimn (1/105);
Ahmad (2/309), 5/45).
264 Sayyid Qutb - Fee Zill Al-Qurn (1/270)


tyrants are either the ingenuous or otherwise shove, in this sense, does not take place between the truthful.265
Allah the Almighty has elucidated other aspects of wisdom in the shove, for example: Did not
God check one set of people by means of another, there would surely have been pulled down
monasteries, churches, synagogues, and mosques, in which the name of God is commemorated
in abundant measure. (Al-Qurn, 22:40). In other words, this checking was meant to safeguards the divine laws, people of virtue and places of worship.
Through the aforementioned two verses of the Holy Qurn (2:251 and 22:40) it becomes evident that the law of shove has great advantages and abundant wisdom behind it, for example:
Firstly: repelling corruption from the earth, maintaining it viable and revamping it.

Secondly: Emphasize upon freedom of belief and worship along with freedom of intellectual
choice. The above mentioned last verse (Al-Qurn, 22:40) explicates that the shove is to safeguard the places of worship and that Allah has permitted Jihd to Muslims in order to protect
freedom of belief and religion through securing the places of worship. In this lies a clear denotation that the religion of Islam genuinely protects freedom of religion and safeguards the
places of worship.

Thirdly: Urging upon the faithful to continue with constant movement, maintain unwavering
vigilance, steer the movement of life towards awakening, advancement and progress with justice and equity in order to accomplish flourishing of the civilization in the shade of faith, knowledge and virtue. This is because forces of falsehood are ever ready and prepared to overtake
and dominate whenever a chance is given; they are capable of coming up with justifications and
charging the virtuous and the just with corruption and aberrance, just as the influential among
the people of Pharaoh said to him, Wilt thou leave Moses and his people, to spread mischief in
the land, and to abandon thee and thy gods? He said: Their male children will we slay; (only)
their females will we save alive; and we have over them (power) irresistible. (Al-Qurn,

Fourthly: The shove does not necessarily go in favor of Muslims unless they leave no stone
unturned to achieve triumph by equipping themselves with necessary means of triumph. To
elaborate this point, let us look at the narrative about Talut and Goliath in the Holy Qurn. It
starts with the verse 2:243 Didst thou not Turn by vision to those who abandoned their homes,
though they were thousands (In number), for fear of death? God said to them: Die: Then He
restored them to life. For God is full of bounty to mankind, but Most of them are ungrateful.
And concludes with verse 2:251 By Gods will they routed them; and David slew Goliath; and
God gave him power and wisdom and taught him whatever (else) He willed. And did not God
check one set of people by means of another, the earth would indeed be full of mischief: But God
is full of bounty to all the worlds.

The story contains the keys of the triumph of a small force over a big force, which are:
1. True and effective faith which keeps the human being the slave anchored with his Master Allah the Almighty in all circumstances.

265 At-Tafsr Al-Kabr Dr Ihyi At-Turth Al-Arabi, (6/190-191)


2. Jihd (striving and struggling) in the path of Allah to actualize truth and justice and avert oppression.
3. Full and complete preparation to the maximum extent possible with the given means and capabilities.
4. Selecting wise leadership characterized with material, physical and intellectual strength.
5. Obedience and compliance with patience against cravings and upon affliction and calamities.
6. Initially people are found to be enthusiastic but only the well nurtured and patient can be trusted.
In this case, at the outset, all showed enthusiasm for combat they said to a prophet (That was)
among them: Appoint for us a king, that we May fight in the cause of God. (Al-Qurn, 2:246).
They even justified their enthusiasm thus: He said: Is it not possible, if ye were commanded
to fight, that that ye will not fight? They said: How could we refuse to fight in the cause of
God, seeing that we were turned out of our homes and our families? (Al-Qurn, 2:246).
7. But when Allah commanded them to fight and the matter became serious, they backtracked but
when they were commanded to fight, they turned back, except a small band among them. (AlQurn, 2:246). Thereafter Talut tested that small group too by asking them to avoid drinking
water from the stream and yet a number of them failed the test: but they all drank of it, except
a few. (Al-Qurn, 2:249).
8. What is important is to keep rearing and nurturing the men.
9. Sacrificing possessions and life in the path of Allah and trust in Allah the Almighty for granting success and triumph. but those who were convinced that they must meet God, said: How
oft, by Gods will, Hath a small force vanquished a big one? God is with those who steadfastly
persevere. (Al-Qurn, 2:249).


Another Quranic verse (22:40) to which we referred above, came in sequence after mentioning
what was inflicted on the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) and his noble companions in the form of
harassment and yet how comprehensively - materially and otherwise - they prepared for Jihd
in the path of Allah and offered great sacrifices in the form of possessions and self. They were
driven out of their native place but remained patient on what all they suffered in the cause of
monotheism and establishing Islam.

Fifthly: What is required from Muslims in context of the law of shove is to keep striving towards the best and accelerating towards excellence in everything. This is what the Holy Qurn
commands them. Many verses seek to compete and accelerate towards the better, worthier and
more virtuous. Allah says, Be ye foremost (in seeking) Forgiveness from your Lord. (AlQurn, 2:57) and And those Foremost (in Faith) will be Foremost (in the Hereafter). (AlQurn, 2:56).

By foremost the Holy Qurn means the foremost in every righteous and advantageous deed,
towards every better and more virtuous endeavor for the worldly life and the otherworldly life.
Allah describes those who are admitted to paradise: It is these who hasten in every good work,
and these who are foremost in them. (Al-Qurn, 23:61).

When we deliberate over the expression hastening in this verse and then over the description
of the faithful that they stay ahead of good deeds (although translated by Abdullah Yusuf Ali as
who are foremost in them), the eloquent Quranic expression connotes to the intensity of se-

riousness to keep striving in a better and more virtuous manner, as if they always stayed ahead
of the good deeds and as if virtue itself followed them!
6.3.b Reciprocating with what is the best
Reciprocating with what could be the best possible is yet another rubric of the divine course to
achieve progress and to safeguard the most virtuous and most pious. This is to accomplish higher
degree of welfare for the land, society and the people. This has been commanded by Allah the Almighty in two verses, the first being: Repel evil with that which is best: We are well acquainted with
the things they say. (Al-Qurn, 23:96) Here the context is that of address to the Messenger of Allah
(pbuh): Say: O my Lord! if Thou wilt show me (in my lifetime) that which they are warned against,Then, O my Lord! put me not amongst the people who do wrong! And We are certainly able to show
thee (in fulfillment) that against which they are warned. Repel evil with that which is best: We are well
acquainted with the things they say. (Al-Qurn, 23:96)
The second verse (41:34) complimented by the following verse (41:35), reads: Nor can goodness
and Evil be equal. Repel (Evil) with what is better: Then will he between whom and thee was hatred
become as it were thy friend and intimate! And no one will be granted such goodness except those
who exercise patience and self-restraint,- none but persons of the greatest good fortune. (Al-Qurn,
Both these divine commandments are unambiguous to the effect that Allah the Almighty directed
His Messenger (pbuh) to repel with what is better and not to return like for like. Unquestionably this
address through him is meant for his Muslim Nation too and the following rules and wisdom can be
derived from it:
1. Obligation of reciprocating with that is better. Islam being the religion of mercy, beneficence
and exalted morality, it seeks to shun war as long as it is possible. War is like cauterization
resorted to after all medication fails, as the Arabic adage goes the final medicine is cauterization. This is why Allah counts it as a great favor to the faithful that He prevented combat from
them; He says, And it is He Who has restrained their hands from you and your hands from
them in the midst of Makka, after that He gave you the victory over them. And God sees well all
that ye do. (Al-Qurn, 48:24).

This verse is explicit in that the achievement of triumph and fulfillment of purpose without
combat are from amongst the greatest benefactions of Allah. In other words even avoidance of
combat along with assurance of triumph is one of the great blessings of Allah, because Allah
counted it as a favor from Him that after granting them the victory, He restrained the hands of
the faithful from the infidels. The verse implies that killing of an infidel even in war is not a purpose in itself and hence a Muslim should not be desirous of killing even an enemy combatant;
a Muslim should, instead, be concerned about achieving the desired goal. Guarantee of triumph
without combat as being one of the greatest blessing of Allah has been substantiated through
the following verse of the Holy Qurn: O ye who believe! Call in remembrance the favour of
Allah unto you when certain men formed the design to stretch out their hands against you, but
((Allah)) held back their hands from you: so fear Allah. And on Allah let believers put (all) their


trust. (Al-Qurn, 5:11).

In this context (i.e. the context of reciprocating with that is better) the Treaty of Hudaibiyah is
a signpost. The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) was keen on signing it even when Quraish set suppressive conditions against Muslims and were not ready to treat Muslims as a party of equal
standing. The treaty was marred by the doggedness of the representative of Quraish (Suhial
Bin Amr) not allowing the document be started with In the Name of Allah, The Gracious,
The Merciful and to delete the title of Messenger of Allah - from doing of which Ali (mAbpwh) excused himself. Upon that the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) himself held the document
and crossed them out with his own noble hand. The most despotic clause for Muslims was that
if a Muslim became a renegade, he would not be repatriated by Quraish to Muslims, but if a
Quraishite embraced Islam and entered the State of Islam, he must be repatriated to Quraish.
What added insult to injury was that during the process of preparing the treaty document Abu
Jandal Bin Suhial Bin Amr (a Meccan Muslim) appeared overstrained tied in shackles. Having
escaped from lower side of Mecca, he threw himself in the midst of Muslim. Suhail (who happened to be his father) said, O Muhammad he is the first one I want you to take action against
and return him to me. The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) replied, We have not signed the treaty
yet. Suhail Said, By God, if that is the case, then (imagine that) I never agreed with you on
anything. The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said, Leave him for me. Suhail said, I am not
going to allow that to you. In short, he returned Abu Jandal to Mecca.266

In spite of all that, the treaty was signed. The Holy Qurn dubbed it as the victory as a whole
chapter named al-Fath (meaning the victory) was revealed while Muslims returned back to
Medina. The chapter starts with the verse Verily We have granted thee a manifest Victory.
Upon that the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said, Tonight a chapter (of the Holy Qurn) has been
revealed to me and that is dearer to me than anything which has seen the sunlight.267 He then
recited it to them at (a place named) Kurul Ghameem. Upon that a man said, O Messenger
of Allah, is that (really) a victory? He replied, Yes, By Allah in whose hands my soul lies, that
is a victory.268

History and the reality confirm that the Treaty of Hudaibiyah, in spite of its evidently suppressive terms and bitterness of some of the prominent companions, was in real terms a manifest
victory. Even Omar Ibn Al-Khattb had exclaimed: why should we be humiliated in our religion. However it proved to be a great triumph and win for Muslims. It implied recognition of
the Muslim entity by Quarish and opened doors for calling Arab tribes to Islam and for alliances
with them. The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) had gone to Hudaibiyah in 6th year of Hijra with
just fourteen hundred. Then just after two years when Mecca was conquered, he had with him
a strong force of ten thousand. Describing the Treaty of Hudaibiyah Imm Zuhri writes, The
treaty of Hudaibiyah was a bigger victory than any other earlier victory in Islam. It used to be
fighting wherever people met. When it was ceasefire and the war came to an end and people felt
safe with each other, they met and negotiated about their issues and mutual disputes; any reasonable person who was told about Islam, embraced it. Just in those two years as many people
entered into Islam as had entered throughout all previous years.269 Commenting on this Ibn
Hishm writes, Evidence to Zuhris claim lies in fact that the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) had

266 For details, please refer to books on biography of the Messenger (pbuh) and to Bukhri (Fathul Bri), Hadeeth No: 2731, 2732, 2698, 2699;
Musnad Ahmad (4/325); As-Seeratu An-Nabawiyah As-Saheehah by Akram Al-Umari P: 434-448.
267 Bukhri (Fathul Bri), Hadeeth No: 4177
268 Sunan Abu Dawood Kitb Al-Jihd Hadeeth No: 2736; Musnad Imm Ahmad (3/420); Al-Mustadrak (2/456)
269 Seerat Iban Hishm: (3:322); As-Seeratu An-Nabawiyah As-Saheehah - Akram Al-Umari P: 457


left for Hudauibiyah with one thousand and four hundred, whereas at the time of conquering
Mecca, just two years later, he left with ten thousand.270

On the other hand, had combat and martyrdom been desired goals in themselves, the intransigence of Quraish with the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) and his noble companions - who happened to be miserably oppressed, being prevented from pilgrimage to the House of Allah and
being dictated suppressive conditions provided the best opportunity for a martyrdom project
so that whosoever laid down his life would be duly rewarded by Allah. But the Messenger of
Allah (pbuh) wanted to achieve what Allah the almighty wanted from him and his companions,
i.e. establishing Islamic life, guiding people, developing the earth and realizing the goals of being Allahs vicegerent on the earth; it was not death-craft for whatsoever noble reasons, as long
as death-craft did not help realize the desired goal of spreading the Call, establishing Islam,
developing the earth and attaining the position of being Allahs vicegerent on the earth.

2. The obligation is to practice the best and strive towards the optimum in everything. In dialogue,
it is imperative to communicate with superior approach; in dispute, it is essential to argue with
better; in dealing with others it is desired to be superior; in building, construction, service to
humankind and to the society, it is of the essence to be the best; in sciences and arts it is crucial
to adhere to the finest.

[The Arabic equivalent for better (comparative) as well as the best (superlative) is ahsan.
While dealing with others and reciprocating to them, a Muslim is supposed to deal with the
best]. The best here means the superlative, the most virtuous and the worthiest. That is the optimum desired level in all walks and fields of life until it is impossible to go any further, be it
intellect, visualization, performance, conduct and deeds related to the worldly life as well as to
the otherworldly life, not just one of them. Islam is the religion of well-being and bliss of both
phases of the life.

On the other hand, if taken in the sense of comparative, it would mean reciprocation with better;
it is fairer than fair, superior to pleasant, and worthier than worthy. In other words, it is relative to another deed or attribute. Something considered better today may turn to be just good
tomorrow or it may subside even to the level of being just acceptable or even inferior. Hence
it is of importance to the Muslim Nation to consciously observe the degree of superiority from
the perspective of both place and time, but the movement must be upwards only.

At the personal, social, group and national levels, the Holy Qurn has emphasized upon the
importance of adhering to the best, the worthiest and the most robust (approach) with the objective of defense, protection, progress, advancement and creativity. Allah says, He Who created
Death and Life, that He may try which of you is best in deed: and He is the Exalted in Might,
Oft-Forgiving. (Al-Qurn, 67:2) and That which is on earth we have made but as a glittering
show for the earth, in order that We may test them - as to which of them are best in conduct.
(Al-Qurn, 18:7).

270 Ibid.


So the trials and test in this world are for ascending to better, not to mere good. In other words,
for superseding and surpassing between civilizations, just doing good does not suffice, instead
one needs to do better than others. Allah describes his faithful and those who deserve glad tidings of advantage in this world and paradise in the hereafter that they are those who utilize their
intellect upon hearing and do not follow anything but the best. Allah says, Those who eschew
Evil,- and fall not into its worship,- and turn to God (in repentance),- for them is Good News:
so announce the Good News to My Servants, Those who listen to the Word, and follow the best
(meaning) in it: those are the ones whom God has guided, and those are the ones endued with
understanding. (Al-Qurn, 39:17-18).

In the same chapter, Allah commands of following the best: And follow the best of (the courses) revealed to you from your Lord, before the Penalty comes on you - of a sudden while ye
perceive not (Al-Qurn, 18:55).

Allah orders Muslims to adhere to the best course in everything: And spend of your substance
in the cause of God, and make not your own hands contribute to (your) destruction; but do
good; for God loveth those who do good. (Al-Qurn, 2:195). Likewise, they are supposed to
utter nothing but the best: Say to My servants that they should (only) say those things that are
best (Al-Qurn, 17:53). When arguing, their argument is required to be superior to that of
their contestants: and argue with them in ways that are best and most gracious. (Al-Qurn,

When we deliberate over the numerous relevant verses of the Holy Quran in this context, we
explore that Allah the Exalted seeks from His slaves to follow the principle of contributing their
best in every aspect of life: in speech, deeds, dealings, attitude, knowledge and creativity as
this is in harmony with His own attributes (mentioned in the Holy Qurn) as being: the best
to create; We have indeed created man in the best of moulds; He Who has made everything which He has created most good; He Who has given you shape, and made your shapes
beautiful; that His law is the best of all laws, that His religion is the best of all religions; He
Who will certainly bestow, on those who patiently persevere, their reward according to the
best of their actions. ; that he shall not suffer to perish the reward of any who do a (single)
righteous deed.; that for those who who do right is a goodly (reward); Yea, more (than in
measure)!; that He rewards benevolently those who do good To those who do good, there
is good in this world, and the Home of the Hereafter is even better and excellent indeed is the
Home of the righteous. All this substantiates nothing other than the importance of superseding
and surpassing others towards superior quality and optimum performance, of acting in the best
possible way while dealing with Muslims as well as others, whether in peace or in adversity,
and of dealing with the universe and exploiting its riches and treasures.

In modern times the Western World has been leading in science and technology, just because it
is always on its path of reaching and achieving the best and that it proactively works on envisaging different possible scenarios for everything in order to select the best possible actions and

3. In calling to the straight path of Allah and effectively spreading His religion, the positive results
of reciprocating in a superior manner are guaranteed by Allah, as He says, Nor can goodness
and Evil be equal. Repel (Evil) with what is better: Then will he between whom and thee was
hatred become as it were thy friend and intimate! (Al-Qurn, 41:34).


The syntax and semantics of the verse imply constancy and permanence, which means that the results, by the grace of Allah, are certain to be positive, wherein yelling turns to humbleness, rage to
tranquility, provocation and anger to good word, and placid tone and merciful smile surface on the
fuming face of the scornful, unruly and ignoramus.271 On the contrary, if an offence is confronted
in kind, the matter would get worse and aggravate to open antagonism wherein arrogance leads to
crime and the things go out of control towards nothing but belligerence and warfare.

4. This approach (of reciprocating with the superior deportment and acting virtuously come what
may) is a hard arduous task of which only those are capable who have been well nurtured in
patience, commitment, composure and purposefulness. Allah says, And no one will be granted
such goodness except those who exercise patience and self-restraint,- none but persons of the
greatest good fortune. (Al-Qurn, 41:35).

Such magnanimity, certainly, requires rearing and cultivating that make a human being truly a
slave of Allah, not of his whims and fancies, capable of pinning down his rage, competent to
forgive and respond with righteousness while being conscious of his marked purpose of spreading the divine message of Islam and serving the cause of Islam. It requires a Muslim to have a
big heart that is compassionate and magnanimous in spite of being in the position of retaliation
in kind. It also necessitates balancing between the high-minded tolerance allowed in Islam and
subservient docility rejected by the faith, wherein the moderators role must go towards the
interest of Islam, its directives, its prohibitions and its values, not to the personal interests, selfish whims and fancies or to transitory stormy emotions. The following verse connotes to this
solemnity of purpose: If a suggestion from Satan assail thy (mind), seek refuge with God; for
He heareth and knoweth (all things). (Al-Qurn, 7:200).

This certainly is an exhausting course to pursue a course of maneuvering through desires of

human self, its tendencies, its complications and its intricate gullies until a herald of the mission can get hold of the steering spot and the point of docility thereof.272

In my own opinion the precept of reciprocating with the best is not specific to situations of an
individual facing the rage of another individual. It applies to all situations of confrontation and
clash, wherein it is imperative to adopt the approach of reciprocating in a better manner for
reaching to the ideal situation. Unquestionably, espousing this method is not so painless; indeed
it is the portion of those who are privileged with the greatest good fortune. Who is better in
speech than one who calls (men) to God, works righteousness, and says, I am of those who
bow in Islam? Nor can goodness and Evil be equal. Repel (Evil) with what is better: Then will
he between whom and thee was hatred become as it were thy friend and intimate! And no one
will be granted such goodness except those who exercise patience and self-restraint,- none but
persons of the greatest good fortune. (Al-Qurn, 41:33-35).

This is what I have tried to elucidate. If I have been right, that must the grace of Allah the
Almighty; if otherwise, I beg for His pardon and seek His forgiveness. I supplicate to Him to
accept this modest contribution of mine and reward me benevolently. I conclude my invocation
by saying: Praise is due to Allah the Cherisher and Sustainer of all existence and may peace
and blessings of Allah be upon His final Messenger, Muhammad, his family and all his noble

271 Sayyid Qutb - Fee Zill Al-Qurn (2/3122)

272 Sayyid Qutb - Fee Zill Al-Qurn (2/3122)