Sie sind auf Seite 1von 84
EXAMPLE 1: THREE-SPAN CONTINUOUS STRAIGHT COMPOSITE I GIRDER Load and Resistance Factor Design (Third Edition
EXAMPLE
1:
THREE-SPAN
CONTINUOUS
STRAIGHT COMPOSITE
I GIRDER
Load
and Resistance
Factor Design
(Third Edition -- Customary
U.S. Units)
by
and
Michael A.
Grubb, P.E.
Robert E. Schmidt, E.I.T.
Bridge
Software Development International, Ltd.
Cranberry
Township, PA
SITE-Blauvelt Engineers
Pittsburgh, PA
B S
D
I
DESIGN PARAMETERS SPECIFICATIONS: LRFD Third Edition (2004) STRUCTURAL STEEL: - ASTM A 709 Grade HPS
DESIGN PARAMETERS
SPECIFICATIONS:
LRFD Third
Edition (2004)
STRUCTURAL STEEL:
- ASTM A 709 Grade HPS
70W
for flanges
in
negative-flexure
regions
- ASTM A 709 Grade 50W
for all other girder and cross-frame steel
CONCRETE:
f' c
= 4.0 ksi
REINFORCING STEEL:
F y = 60
ksi
ADTT: 2,000 trucks per day
B S
D
I
BRIDGE CROSS -SECTION B S D I
BRIDGE CROSS
-SECTION
B S
D
I
CROSS -FRAMES (Article 6.7.4.1) “The need for diaphragms or cross-frames shall be investigated for all
CROSS
-FRAMES
(Article
6.7.4.1)
“The need for diaphragms or cross-frames shall be
investigated
for all stages of assumed construction
procedures and the
final
condition. The
investigation
should
include, but
not be limited to the
following:
w
Transfer
of lateral wind loads from the bottom of the girder
to the
deck & from the deck to the
bearings,
w
Stability of the
compression,
bottom flange for all loads when it is in
w
Stability of the
top flange
in compression prior to
curing of
the deck,
w
Consideration
of any flange lateral
bending effects,
and
w
Distribution
of
vertical dead & live
loads applied
to
the
structure.”
B S
D
I
BRIDGE FRAMING PLAN B S D I
BRIDGE
FRAMING
PLAN
B S
D
I
CROSS-SECTION PROPORTIONS Web Depth Span-to-Depth Ratios (Table 2.5.2.6.3 -1) 0.032L = 0.032(175.0) = 5.6 ft
CROSS-SECTION PROPORTIONS
Web Depth
Span-to-Depth Ratios (Table
2.5.2.6.3 -1)
0.032L = 0.032(175.0) = 5.6 ft = 67.2
in.
Use 69.0
in.
Web Thickness (Article 6.10.2.1.1)
D
69
(
t
=
=
= 0.
46 in.
w
) min.
150
150
B S
D
I
CROSS-SECTION PROPORTIONS (continued) Flange Width (Article 6.10.2.2) ( b = D/ 6 = 69. 0
CROSS-SECTION PROPORTIONS
(continued)
Flange Width (Article 6.10.2.2)
( b
= D/
6
= 69.
0 /6
= 11
.5
in.
f
) min.
L
100( 12)
(
=
=
= 14
.1 in.
b fc
) min.
85 85
Flange Thickness (Article 6.10.2.2)
( t
= 1.1t
=
1.1 0.5625
(
)
=
0.62 in.
f
) min
w
B S
D
I
B S D I
B S
D
I
CROSS-SECTION PROPORTIONS (continued) Flange Width-to- Thickness (Article 6.10.2.2) b 18 f = ) = 10.
CROSS-SECTION PROPORTIONS
(continued)
Flange Width-to-
Thickness
(Article 6.10.2.2)
b
18
f
=
) = 10.
3 < 12.
0 ok
2t
2 0.875
(
f
Flange Moments of Inertia (Article 6.10.2.2)
3
1 16
(
)
I yc
= 12
= 0.51
0 .1 < 0.51 < 10
ok
3
I 1. 375 18
(
)
yt
12
B S
D
I
DEAD LOADS (Article 3.5.1) Component Dead Load (DC 1 ) DC 1 = component dead
DEAD
LOADS
(Article 3.5.1)
Component
Dead Load (DC 1 )
DC 1
= component dead load acting on the
noncomposite
section
- Concrete
deck
= k/ft (incl. integral w.s.)
5.106
- Overhang tapers
= 0.142
k/ft
- Deck haunches
= 0.183
k/ft
- SIP forms
= 0.480
k/ft
- Cross-frames
= 0.120
k/ft
& details
TOTAL
= 4 girders
6.031
k/ft ¸
= 1.508
k/ft +
girder weight
B S
D
I
DEAD LOADS (continued) Component Dead Load (DC 2 ) DC 2 = component dead load
DEAD
LOADS
(continued)
Component
Dead Load (DC 2 )
DC 2
= component dead load acting on the
composite section
- Barriers
= 0.520/2
= 0.260 k/ft
Note
: Distributed
equally
to
exterior girder
& adjacent
interior girder
Wearing Surface Load
(DW)
- Wearing
surface
= [0.025 x
40.0]/4
girders
= 0.250
k/ft
Note
: Distributed
equally to
each girder
B S
D
I
Basic LRFD Design Live Load HL-93 - (Article 3.6.1.2.1) Design Truck: Þ or Design Tandem:
Basic LRFD
Design
Live Load
HL-93
-
(Article
3.6.1.2.1)
Design Truck:
Þ
or
Design Tandem:
Pair of 25.0 KIP axles
spaced
4.0 FT apart
superimposed on
Design Lane Load
0.64 KLF uniformly
distributed load
B S
D
I
LRFD Negative Moment Loading (Article 3.6.1.3.1) For negative moment between points of permanent-load contraflexure
LRFD Negative
Moment Loading
(Article 3.6.1.3.1)
For
negative moment between points
of
permanent-load contraflexure & interior-pier
reactions,
check
an additional load
case:
Add a second
design truck to the design
lane
n
load,
with
a
minimum
headway between the
front
and
rear
axles
of
the
two
trucks
equal
to
50 feet.
Fix
the
rear-axle spacing of both
design trucks
n
at 14
feet,
and
Reduce all loads by
10 percent.
n
B S
D
I
LRFD Fatigue Load (Article 3.6.1.4.1) Design Truck only => w/ fixed 30-ft rear- n axle
LRFD
Fatigue
Load
(Article 3.6.1.4.1)
Design Truck only
=>
w/ fixed 30-ft rear-
n
axle spacing
placed in
a single
n
lane
B S
D
I
LOAD for OPTIONAL LIVE-LOAD DEFLECTION EVALUATION Refer to Article 3.6.1.3.2: Deflection is taken as the
LOAD for
OPTIONAL
LIVE-LOAD
DEFLECTION EVALUATION
Refer
to Article 3.6.1.3.2:
Deflection
is taken as the larger
of:
- That
resulting
from
the design truck by
itself.
- That
resulting
from
25% of the design
truck
together
with the design
lane
load.
B S
D
I
WIND LOADS (Article 3.8) 2 2 æ ç ö V V DZ DZ Eq. (3.8.1.2.1-1)
WIND
LOADS
(Article
3.8)
2
2
æ ç ö
V
V
DZ
DZ
Eq.
(3.8.1.2.1-1)
P
= P
÷
= P
D
B
B
V
10 ,000
è ø
B
=
base wind pressure =
0.050 ksf for
beams
P B
V DZ = design
wind velocity at elevation Z
=
base wind velocity at 30 ft height =
100 mph
V B
For this example,
assume the
bridge is 35 ft above low ground
& located
in
open country.
B S
D
I
WIND LOADS (continued) æ V ö æ Z ö 30 V = 2. 5V ç
WIND
LOADS
(continued)
æ
V
ö
æ
Z
ö
30
V
= 2. 5V
ç
÷ ln
ç
ç
÷ ÷ 1)
Eq. (3.8.1.1-
DZ
o
V
Z
è
ø
è
ø
B
o
=
friction velocity = 8.2 mph for
open
country
V o
V 30 =
wind velocity at 30 ft above
low ground = V B = 100
mph in absence
of
better information
Z
=
height of
structure above low
ground
(>
30 ft)
=
friction
length of upstream fetch
= 0.23 ft for open
Z o
country
B
S
D
I
WIND LOADS (continued) æ 100 ö æ 35 ö = 2.5 ( 8 .20 )
WIND
LOADS
(continued)
æ
100
ö
æ
35
ö
= 2.5
(
8
.20
)
ç
÷
ln
ç
÷
= 103
.0
mph
V DZ
è
100 ø
è 0.23 ø
2
é
(
103.0
)
ù
P
= 0.
050
=
ê
ú
D
0.053 ksf
10,000
ë
û
w = P
h
=
0.
053(
10.
41)
= 0. 55 kips
/ ft >
0 .3 kips
/ ft
D
exp.
ok
B
S
D
I
Basic LRFD Design Equation S ? i ? i Q i £ fR n =
Basic
LRFD
Design
Equation
S
? i ? i Q i £ fR n =
R
Eq.
(1.3.2.1-1)
r
where:
?
= ? D ?
? I
i
R
· for maximum g’
³
? i
0.95
s
1
· 0.95 for minimum
? i =
³
g’s
h
h
h
D
R
I
?
= Load factor
i
f
= Resistance factor
=
Nominal
force effect
Q i
R n
R r =
=
Nominal
resistance
Factored resistance = f
R
n
B
S
D
I

Load Combinations and Load Factors

Load Combination

DC

LL

WA

WS

WL

FR

TU

TG

SE

Use One of These at a Time

DD

IM

CR

DW

CE

SH

EQ

IC

CT

CV

EH

BR

EV

PL

       

Limit State

ES

LS

STRENGTH-I ? p 1.75 1.00 - - 1.00 0.50/1.20 - - - - ? TG
STRENGTH-I
? p
1.75
1.00
-
-
1.00
0.50/1.20
-
-
-
-
? TG
? SE

STRENGTH-II

?

p

1.35

1.00

-

 

- 1.00

0.50/1.20

? TG

? SE

-

-

-

-

STRENGTH-III

?

p

 

- 1.00

1.40

 

- 1.00

0.50/1.20

? TG

? SE

-

-

-

-

STRENGTH-IV

               

-

 

-

       

EH,

EV, ES, DW

?

p

- 1.00

-

- 1.00

0.50/1.20

   

-

-

-

-

DC

ONLY

1.5

STRENGTH-V

?

p

1.35

1.00

0.40

0.40

1.00

0.50/1.20

?

TG

?

SE

-

-

-

-

EXTREME-I ? p 1.00 - - 1.00 - - - 1.00 - - - ?
EXTREME-I
? p
1.00
-
-
1.00
-
-
-
1.00
-
-
-
? EQ

EXTREME-II

?

p

0.50

1.00

-

-

1.00

-

-

-

EXTREME-II ? p 0.50 1.00 - - 1.00 - - - 1.00 1.00 1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

- SERVICE-I 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.30 0.30 1.00 1.00/1.20 - - - - ? TG
-
SERVICE-I
1.00
1.00
1.00
0.30
0.30
1.00
1.00/1.20
-
-
-
-
? TG
? SE

SERVICE-II

1.00

1.30

1.00

- -

1.00

1.00/1.20

 

-

 

-

- -

-

-

SERVICE-III

1.00

0.80

1.00

- -

1.00

1.00/1.20

?

TG

?

SE

- -

-

-

FATIGUE-LL, IM & CE ONLY

-

0.75

-

- -

-

-

 

-

 

-

- -

-

-

Load Factors for Permanent Loads, ? p Load Factor Type of Load Maximum Minimum DC:
Load
Factors
for
Permanent
Loads, ? p
Load Factor
Type
of Load
Maximum
Minimum
DC:
Component and
1.25
0.90
Attachments
DD:
Downdrag
1.80
0.45
DW: Wearing Surfaces
1.50
0.65
and
Utilities
EH:
Horizontal
Earth
Pressure
Active
1.50
0.90
At-Rest
1.35
0.90
EV:
Vertical Earth
Pressure
• Overall
Stability
1.35
N/A
• Retaining
1.35
1.00
Structure
1.30
0.90
• Rigid Buried
Structure
1.35
0.90
• Rigid Frames
1.95
0.90
B S
D
I
LRFD LOAD COMBINATIONS (continued) Construction Loads (Article 3.4.2): STRENGTH I - Construction loads -> Load
LRFD LOAD
COMBINATIONS
(continued)
Construction Loads (Article 3.4.2):
STRENGTH I
- Construction
loads
->
Load
factor = 1.5
-
DW
->
Load
factor = 1.25
STRENGTH III
- Construction
dead
loads
->
Load
factor = 1.25
- Wind loads
->
Load
factor = 1.25
- DW
->
Load
factor = 1.25
STRENGTH V
- Construction
dead
loads
->
Load
factor = 1.25
- DW
->
Load
factor = 1.25
B S
D
I
STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS Summary -- Live-Load Distribution Factors: Strength Limit State Interior Girder Exterior Girder
STRUCTURAL
ANALYSIS
Summary -- Live-Load Distribution Factors:
Strength Limit State
Interior Girder
Exterior
Girder
Bending
Moment
0.807
lanes
0.950
lanes
Shear
1.082
lanes
0.950
lanes
Fatigue
Limit
State
Interior Girder
Exterior
Girder
Bending
Moment
0.440
lanes
0.750
lanes
Shear
0.700
lanes
0.750
lanes
B S
D
I
STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS (continued) Distribution Factor for Live-Load Deflection: æ N ö L DF = m
STRUCTURAL
ANALYSIS
(continued)
Distribution
Factor for
Live-Load
Deflection:
æ N
ö
L
DF = m
÷
3 ç
÷
N
ç è ø
b
3
ö
= 0.85
æ ç = 0. 638
÷
lanes
è 4
ø
B S
D
I
STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS (continued) Dynamic Load Allowance – Impact (IM) COMPONENT IM Deck Joints – All
STRUCTURAL
ANALYSIS
(continued)
Dynamic Load
Allowance – Impact (IM)
COMPONENT
IM
Deck Joints
– All
Limit States
75%
All Other Components
15%
- Fatigue & Fracture Limit State
33%
- All Other
Limit States
(applied to design truck only…not
to design lane
load)
B S
D
I
B S D I
B S
D
I
B S D I
B S
D
I
B S D I
B S
D
I
B S D I
B S
D
I
STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS (continued) Live Load Deflection Design Truck + IM (SERVICE I): (D span =
STRUCTURAL
ANALYSIS
(continued)
Live
Load
Deflection
Design Truck + IM
(SERVICE
I):
(D
span
=
0.91 in. (governs)
LL+IM ) end
(D
LL+IM ) center span = 1.23 in. (governs)
100%
Design Lane
+ 25% Design Truck + IM
(SERVICE I):
(D
end span
= + 0.25(0.91) = 0.83
0.60
in.
LL+IM )
(D
center span
= + 0.25(1.23) = 1.16
0.85
in.
LL+IM )
B S
D
I
LRFD LIMIT STATES The LRFD Specifications require examination of the following limit states: SERVICE LIMIT
LRFD LIMIT
STATES
The
LRFD
Specifications
require examination of
the following limit states:
SERVICE
LIMIT
STATE
n
FATIGUE
&
FRACTURE
LIMIT STATE
n
STRENGTH
LIMIT
STATE
n
-
(CONSTRUCTIBILITY)
EXTREME EVENT
LIMIT
STATE
n
B S
D
I
SECTION PROPERTIES Section 1 -1 (@ 0.4L 1 ) Effective Flange Width (Article 4.6.2.6): Interior
SECTION
PROPERTIES
Section
1
-1 (@ 0.4L 1 )
Effective Flange
Width
(Article 4.6.2.6):
Interior Girder
L
100 .0
x
12
=
=
300 .0 in.
4
4
or
b
16 .0
tf
1 2.0t
+
= 12
.0
(
9.0
)
+
= 116 . 0 in. (governs)
s
2
2
or
average
spacing
of girders
= 144 .0 in.
B
S
D
I
SECTION PROPERTIES (continued) Section 1 -1 (@ 0.4L 1 ) Effective Flange Width (Article 4.6.2.6):
SECTION PROPERTIES (continued)
Section
1
-1 (@ 0.4L 1 )
Effective Flange
Width
(Article 4.6.2.6):
Exterior Girder
116.0
L
100.
0 x 12
+
= 58.
0 +
= 208. 0 in.
2
8
8
or
116.0
b
16.
0
tf
+ 6. 0t
+
= 58.0 +
6.0 9.0
(
)
+
= 116.
0 in.
s
2
4
4
or
116.0
+
width of the overhang = 58.
0 + 42.0
in.
= 100.0
in.
(governs)
2
B
S
D
I
SECTION PROPERTIES (continued) Section 1 -1 (@ 0.4L 1 ) Plastic Moment (Article D6.1 --
SECTION PROPERTIES (continued)
Section
1
-1 (@ 0.4L 1 )
Plastic Moment (Article D6.1 -- Appendix D):
P
+
P
+
P
=
A
F
= 75. 25( 50) =
3, 763 kips
t
w
c
steel
y
'
P
= 0. 85f
b
t
=
0.85 (4. 0)( 100.0
)(9
.0)
=
3, 060
kips
s
c
eff
s
3, 060 kips
< 3, 763
kips
\
PNA is in the
top flange, use Case
II
t
é P
+ P
-
P
ù
c
w
t
s
y =
+ 1
ê
ú
2
P
ë
c
û
=
0. 44 in. from the top of the top flange
P
c
[
2
2
]
M
=
y
+
(
t
-
y
)
+
[
P d
+
P
d
+
P d
]
p
c
s
s
w
w
t
t
2t
c
= 170,
382 kip -in. =
14,199 kip
- ft
M p
B
S
D
I
SECTION PROPERTIES (continued) Section 1 -1 (@ 0.4L 1 ) Yield Moment (Article D6.2.2 --
SECTION PROPERTIES (continued)
Section
1
-1 (@ 0.4L 1 )
Yield Moment (Article D6.2.2 -- Appendix D):
M
M
M
D1
D2
AD
F
=
+
+
y
S
S
S
NC
LT
ST
é
1 .25
(
2, 202 12
)(
)
1.25 335 12
(
)(
)
+ 1. 50 322
(
)(
12
)
M
ù
AD
50
= 1.0
+
+
ê
ú
ë
1,973
2,483
2,706
û
M
= 78,
206 kip-
in. = 6, 517
kip-ft
AD
M
= M
+
M
+ M
y
D1
D2
AD
M
= 1.0
[
1.25
(
2,202
)
+ 1.25
(
335
)
+ 1
. 50 322
(
)
+ 6,517
]
y
M
= 10, 171 kip- ft (M
/M
= 1
.4)
y
p
y
B
S
D
I
SECTION PROPERTIES (continued) Section 2-2 (@ Interior Pier) Effective Flange Width (Art. 4.6.2.6): Exterior Girder
SECTION PROPERTIES (continued)
Section
2-2 (@ Interior Pier)
Effective Flange
Width
(Art. 4.6.2.6):
Exterior Girder
=
100.5 in.
Min. Concrete
Deck Reinforcement
(Article 6.10.1.7):
9.0
é
1
3.0
ö æ
18 2
ö ù
A
=
(
2
2
43.0
)
+ 2
æ ç + 0.5
÷ ç
3
.5 -
÷
= 33. 17 ft
= 4,776 in.
deck
ê
ú
12
ë
12
è
2
ø è
12
ø û
2
0
.01
(4, 776) = 47.76 in.
47.76
2
2
= 1
.11
in .
ft = 0.
0926
in.
in.
43.0
2
@ 4.63 in. from bot.
of
0. 0926( 100. 5) = 9.
30
in.
the deck
B
S
D
I
Constructibility B S D I
Constructibility
B S
D
I
DECK-PLACEMENT SEQUENCE B S D I
DECK-PLACEMENT SEQUENCE
B S
D
I

Table 1: Moments from Deck-Placement Analysis

Span -> 1

Unfactored Dead-Load Moments (kip-ft)

 

Length (ft)

12.00

24.00

42.00

48.00

56.00

72.00

84.00

96.00

100.00

Steel Weight

143

250

341

353

352

296

206

74

21

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

SIP Forms (SIP) Cast

63

110

147

151

150

124

84

27

4

1 870

1544

2189

2306

2387

2286

1983

1484

1275

2 -168

-336

-589

-673

-786

-1010

-1179

-1347

-1403

3 14

28

50

57

67

86

101

115

120

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sum of Casts + SIP

779

1346

1797

1841

1818

1486

989

279

-4

Max. +M

933

1654

2336

2457

2537

2410

2067

1511

1279

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

DC 2 + DW

275

477

643

661

657

551

386

148

52

Deck, haunches + SIP 786

1360

1822

1870

1850

1528

1038

335

53

M = 352 + 2,537 = 2,889 kip-ft

Table 2: Vertical Deflections from Deck-Placement Analysis

Span ->1

Unfactored Vertical Dead-Load Deflections (In.)

 

Length (ft)

12.00

24.00

42.00

48.00

56.00

72.00

84.00

96.00 100.00

Steel Weight

-.17

-.32

-.47

-.50

-.51

-.47

-.39

-.29

-.25

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

SIP Forms (SIP) Cast

-.07

-.14

-.20

-.21

-.21

-.20

-.16

-.12

-.10

1 -1.32

-2.50

-3.78

-4.04

-4.27

-4.30

-3.95

-3.33

-3.08

2 .27

.52

.86

.96

1.08

1.25

1.32

1.32

1.31

3 -.01

-.03

-.04

-.04

-.05

-.05

-.05

-.04

-.03

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sum of Casts + SIP -1.14

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

DC 2 + DW

=====================================================================

-2.14

-.32

-3.16

-.46

-3.34

-.48

-3.46

-.49

-3.30

-.45

-2.84

-.38

-2.17

-.28

-1.91

-.24

-.17

Total

-1.48

-2.78

-4.09

-4.32

-4.46

-4.22

-3.61

-2.74

-2.40

Deck, haunches + SIP-.92

-1.71

-2.47

-2.59

-2.64

-2.43

-2.02

-1.47

-1.27

Table 3: Unfactored Vertical Dead-Load Reactions from Deck-Placement Analysis (kips)

 

Abut. 1

Pier 1

Pier 2

Abut. 2

Steel Weight

-13.

-53.

-53.

-13.

sum

-13.

-53.

-53.

-13.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

SIP Forms (SIP)

-6.

-21.

-21.

-6.

 

-19.

-74.

-74.

-19.

sum Cast 1

-80.

-55.

-55.

-80.

 

-99.

-129.

-129.

-99.

sum Cast 2

13.

-75.

-75.

14.

 

-85.

-204.

-204.

-85.

sum Cast 3

-1.

-110.

-110.

-1.

sum

-86.

-314.

-314.

-86.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sum of Casts + SIP -73.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

DC 2 + DW

=====================================================

-261.

-90.

-261.

-90.

-73.

-26.

-26.

Total

-112.

-404.

-404.

-112.

Deck, haunches

-74.

-261.

-261.

-74.

+ SIP

DECK-PLACEMENT ANALYSIS (continued) Calculate f bu : (at Section 1-1 -> 56¢-0² from abut.) For
DECK-PLACEMENT
ANALYSIS
(continued)
Calculate f bu
: (at
Section
1-1 -> 56¢-0² from abut.)
For STRENGTH
I:
= 1 .0( 1. 25)(2,
889)( 12)
Top
flange:
= - 27. 41ksi
f bu
1,581
.0( 1. 25)(2, 889)( 12)
Bot. flange:
= 1 21
=
.96
ksi
f bu
1,973
For STRENGTH
IV:
= 1 .0( 1.5 )(2,889 )(12)
Top
flange:
= - 32 .89
ksi
f bu
1 ,581
= 1.0( 1.5 )(2,889 )(12)
= 26. 36 ksi
Bot. flange:
f bu
1 ,973
B
S
D
I
DECK- OVERHANG LOADS F = P tan a 3 .5 ft ö - 1 o
DECK- OVERHANG
LOADS
F = P
tan a
3 .5 ft
ö
- 1
o
a = tan
æ ç
÷ ÷ =
31 .3
ç
5.75 ft
è
ø
B S
D
I
DECK OVERHANG LOADS (continued) Deck overhang weight: P = 255 lbs/ft Construction loads: Overhang deck
DECK OVERHANG
LOADS
(continued)
Deck overhang weight:
P
= 255 lbs/ft
Construction loads:
Overhang
deck forms:
P
= 40
lbs/ft
Screed rail:
P
= 85
lbs/ft
Walkway:
P
= 125 lbs/ft
Railing:
P
= 25
lbs/ft
Finishing machine:
P
= 3000 lbs
B S
D
I
DECK OVERHANG LOADS (continued) Determine if amplification of first-order compression-flange f l is required: L
DECK OVERHANG
LOADS
(continued)
Determine if
amplification of first-order
compression-flange f l
is
required:
L b = 24¢-0²
C R
b
b
If:
L
£
1.
2L
then,
no amplification
b
p
f
F
bm
yc
æ
ö
ç
÷
0.85
ç
÷
Otherwise:
f
=
f
³
f
Eq. (6.10.1.6-4)
l
l 1
l 1
ç
f
÷
1
-
bm
ç
÷
F
è
ø
cr
Or:
f
=
(AF )f
³
f
l
l
1
l 1
B
S
D
I
DECK OVERHANG LOADS (continued) C R b b L £ 1 .2L Eq. (6.10.1.6-2) b
DECK OVERHANG
LOADS
(continued)
C R
b
b
L
£
1
.2L
Eq. (6.10.1.6-2)
b
p
f
F
bm
yc
R b =
1.0
C b =
1.0
f bu = -32.89 ksi (STRENGTH IV)
f bm =
E
L
= 1. 0r
b
where:
fc
p
t
r
=
F
t
yc
1
D
t
ö
12
ç æ 1 +
c
w
÷
è 3 b
t
ø
Eq. (6.10.8.2.3-4)
fc
fc
Eq
. (6.10.8.2.3-9)
B
S
D
I
DECK OVERHANG LOADS (continued) For the steel section at Section 1-1, D c = 38.63
DECK OVERHANG
LOADS
(continued)
For
the steel
section
at
Section
1-1,
D c = 38.63
in.
16
r
=
= 3
.90 in.
t
æ
1
38.63 (0. 5) ö
12
ç
1 +
÷
è
3
16( 1)
ø
1. 0( 3. 90)
29
,000
=
= 7.83
ft
L p
12
50
1
.0(
1.
0)
1. 2 7
(
.83
)
= 11.
59 ft <
L
24. 0 ft
b =
-
32.89
50
B
S
D
I
DECK OVERHANG LOADS (continued) Therefore, amplification of the first-order compression-flange f l is required: 2
DECK OVERHANG
LOADS
(continued)
Therefore,
amplification of the first-order
compression-flange f l is
required:
2
C R
p
E
b
b
F
=
Calculate
F
cr
2
Eq.
(6.10.8.2.3-8)
cr :
æ L
ö
b
ç
÷
r
è
ø
t
Note:
2
1
.0 (1.
0) p
( 29, 000)
F
may exceed
F
=
= 52. 49 ksi
cr
cr
2
æ 24( 12) ö
ç
R
in this
b R h F yc
÷
calculation.
è
3
.90
ø
Note:
assumes K = 1.0 (see Appendix A of example)
B
S
D
I
DECK OVERHANG LOADS (continued) The amplification factor is determined as: For STRENGTH I: 0.85 AF
DECK OVERHANG
LOADS
(continued)
The
amplification factor is determined as:
For STRENGTH I:
0.85
AF =
=
1
.78 >
1.0
ok
æ
ç ç 1 -
- 27.
41 ö
÷
÷
52.49
è ø
For STRENGTH IV:
0.85
AF =
=
2.28 >
1.0
ok
æ
ç ç
- 32.
89 ö
1 -
÷
÷
52.49 ø
è
B S
D
I
DECK OVERHANG LOADS (continued) For STRENGTH I: Dead loads: P = 1 .0 1. 25
DECK OVERHANG
LOADS
(continued)
For STRENGTH I:
Dead loads:
P
= 1 .0 1. 25 ( 255) + 1.5
[
( 40
+ 85
+ 25 + 125)
] = 731.3
lbs / ft
F
= F
= P tan a
= 731
.3 tan( 31
.3
o ) = 444.6 lbs /
ft
l
F
L 2
2
l
0. 4446 24
(
)
b
M
=
=
= 21. 34 kip -
ft
l
12
12
= . 34( 12)
M
21
l
Top
flange:
f
=
= 6. 00 ksi
l
S
2
l
1( 16)
6
= . 34( 12 )
M
21
l
Bot.
flange:
f
=
= 3. 45 ksi
l
2
S l
1 . 375( 18 )
6
B S
D
I
DECK OVERHANG LOADS (continued) For STRENGTH I: Finishing machine: P = 1 .0 1.5( 3000)
DECK OVERHANG
LOADS
(continued)
For STRENGTH
I:
Finishing machine:
P = 1
.0 1.5( 3000)
[
] = 4,500
lbs
o
F = P
= P tan a = 4, 500 tan( 31. 3 )
= 2, 736 lbs
l
P L
2. 736 24
(
)
l
b
M
=
=
= 8. 21 kip -
ft
l
8 8
M
= 8. 21( 12)
Top flange:
f
= l
= 2. 31 ksi
l
S
2
l
1( 16)
6
M
= 8. 21( 12)
Bot. flange:
f
= l
= 1 .33
ksi
l
S
2
l
1.375 ( 18)
6
B S
D
I
DECK OVERHANG LOADS (continued) For STRENGTH I: Top flange: f total = 6.00 + 2
DECK OVERHANG
LOADS
(continued)
For
STRENGTH
I:
Top
flange:
f
total
= 6.00 + 2
.31
= 8.31
ksi
l
* AF
= (8.31)(1.78) =
14.79 ksi < 0.6F yf
= 30
ksi
ok
Bot. flange:
total
= 3.45 + 1 .33 =
4.78 ksi
f l
* AF
= (4.78)(1.0) = 4.78 ksi < 0.6F yf
= 30
ksi
ok
B S
D
I
DECK OVERHANG LOADS (continued) For STRENGTH IV: Dead loads: P = 1. 0 1. 5(255
DECK OVERHANG
LOADS
(continued)
For
STRENGTH IV:
Dead
loads:
P
=
1. 0 1. 5(255
[
+ 40
+ 85
+
25
+ 125
)
]
= 795
lbs
/ ft
o
F
=
F
= P tan a
=
795 tan( 31. 3 )
=
483 .4
lbs / ft
l
2
F L
2
l
0.
4834
(
24
)
b
M
=
=
=
23. 20 kip
-
ft
l
12
12
M
l
= (12 )
23.20
Top flange:
f
=
=
6. 52 ksi
l
S
2
l
1( 16 )
6
M
= 23. 20( 12)
l
f
=
= 3.
75
ksi
Bot. flange:
l
S
2
l
1.375
(18 )
6
Finishing
machine:
Not
considered
B
S
D
I
DECK OVERHANG LOADS (continued) For STRENGTH IV: Top flange: f total = 6. 52 ksi
DECK OVERHANG
LOADS
(continued)
For STRENGTH
IV:
Top flange:
f
total
= 6. 52 ksi
l
* AF =
6.52(2.28) = 14.87 ksi
14.87 ksi < 0.6F
yf = 30 ksi
ok
Bot. flange:
f
total
= 3. 75 ksi
l
* AF = 3.75(1.0) =
3.75 ksi
3.75 ksi < 0.6F
yf = 30 ksi
ok
B S
D
I
CONSTRUCTIBILITY - FLEXURE (Article 6.10.3.2) Determine if the section is a slender-web section: 2D E
CONSTRUCTIBILITY
-
FLEXURE
(Article 6.10.3.2)
Determine if
the
section is a slender-web section:
2D
E
c
£
5.7
Eq. (6.10.6.2.3-1)
t
F
w
yc
2D
2( 38. 63)
c
=
= 154.5
t
0.5
w
E
29
,000
5
.7
= 5.7
=
137.
3 < 154.5
F
50
yc
Therefore,
the section is a slender-web section.
Go
to
Article 6.10.8 to compute
F
nc .
B
S
D
I
CONSTRUCTIBILITY - FLEXURE (Article 6.10.3.2) For discretely braced compression flanges: f + F f £
CONSTRUCTIBILITY
-
FLEXURE
(Article 6.10.3.2)
For
discretely
braced compression
flanges:
f
+ F
f
£
f
R
Eq. (6.10.3.2.1-1)
bu
l
f
h
yc
1
f
+ £
f
f
F
Eq. (6.10.3.2.1-2)
bu
l
f
nc
3
f
£
f
F
Eq. (6.10.3.2.1-3)
bu
f
crw
For
discretely
braced tension flanges:
f
+
f
£
f
R
F
Eq. (6.10.3.2.2-1)
bu
l
f
h
yt
B
S
D
I
LOCAL BUCKLING RESISTANCE Top Flange (Article 6.10.8.2.2) Determine the slenderness ratio of the top flange:
LOCAL BUCKLING RESISTANCE
Top
Flange
(Article
6.10.8.2.2)
Determine
the
slenderness
ratio of the top flange:
16
b fc
l
=
=
= 8.0
f
2t
2
(
1 )
fc
29,
= 0.38
E = 0.38
000 = 9.2
l pf
50
F yc
Since
:
= R R
Eq. (6.10.8.2.2-1)
l f
<l pf
F nc
b
h
F yc
= 1
.0 (1. 0)( 50)
= 50 .0 ksi
F nc
FLB
B S
D
I
6.10.8 Flexural Resistance - Composite Sections in Negative Flexure & Noncomposite Sections Basic Form of
6.10.8 Flexural Resistance
- Composite
Sections in
Negative Flexure & Noncomposite Sections
Basic
Form
of
All
FLB & LTB
Eqs
È
F
˘
l
ˆ
yr
f -
pf
=
Í 1
-
Ê Á
ˆ ˜ Ê Á l
˜
˙ R R F
=R b RF
F nc
h
Á 1 -
˜
yc
˜ Á
F nc
h
yc
Í -
R
l
˙ b
F yc
¯
Ë
rf
pf
¯
or
Î Ë l
˚
F n
Anchor
point 1
h
M n
=R b RF
F nc
h
yc
È
ˆ ˜ Ê L
- L
ˆ ˘
F yr
b
p
or
= C
Í
1
-
Ê Á
1 -
Á
˜
˜ ˙ R F
R
£ R
R F
F max
M
M
F nc
b
˜ Á
b
yc
b
h
yc
max
max
Í
R F
L
-
L
˙ h
Î
Ë Á
h
yc
¯ Ë
r
p
M max
¯ ˚
Anchor
point 2
or
M M M
= F £
RRF
F r
r r r
F nc
cr
b
h
yc
compact
compact
noncompact
noncompact
R p
2 E
C b
b
2
(inelastic buckling)
(inelastic buckling)
ˆ
L b
Á Ê
˜
˜
r
Á Ë
t
¯
nonslender
nonslender
slender
slender
(elastic buckling)
(elastic buckling)
l l
l l
B S
D
L p or l
or l rf
or b f c /2t fc
I
p p
pf
L r
r r
L b
LAT. TORSIONAL BUCKLING RESISTANCE (Article 6.10.8.2.3) Determine the limiting unbraced length, L r : E
LAT.
TORSIONAL
BUCKLING
RESISTANCE
(Article
6.10.8.2.3)
Determine
the
limiting unbraced length,
L
r :
E
L
=
p
r
Eq. (6.10.8.2.3-5)
r
t
F
yr
where:
F
=
0. 7F
£
F
yr
yc
yw
=
0. 7( 50)
=
35.0
ksi < 50 ksi
0.5F yc
=
25 ksi
ok)
F yr
p ( 3. 90)
29,000
Therefore:
=
= 29.39
ft
L r
12
35 .0
B
S
D
I
LAT. TORSIONAL BUCKLING RESISTANCE (Article 6.10.8.2.3) Since L p = 7.83 ft < L b
LAT.
TORSIONAL
BUCKLING
RESISTANCE
(Article
6.10.8.2.3)
Since
L p =
7.83 ft <
L b = 24.0 ft < L r = 29.39
ft:
é
F
ö
æ
L
-
L
ö ù
æ b
yr
p
= C
1
-
ç 1 -
÷
÷
ê
R
£ R
R F
R h
F nc
b
÷ ç ç
÷ ú
b
F yc
b
h
yc
ë R F
L
ç è -
ø
è
L p
h
yc
r
ø û
Eq. (6.10.8.2.3-2)
é
æ
35.
0
ö æ
24
.0 -
7
.83
ö
ù
= 1. 0 1
- ç 1 -
(
÷ ç
1 .0 (1. 0)( 50) = 38.
)
75 ksi
F nc
ê
÷ ú
1. 0( 50)
ë è
ø è
29.
39
-
7.83
ø
û
<
1. 0(1
.0)( 50) = 50 ksi
Therefore:
= 38.75
ksi
(<
50.0 ksi)
F nc LTB
F nc FLB =
B S
D
I
\ F nc =
F nc LTB = 38.75 ksi
6.10.8 Flexural Resistance - Composite Sections in Negative Flexure & Noncomposite Sections Basic Form of
6.10.8 Flexural Resistance
- Composite
Sections in
Negative Flexure & Noncomposite Sections
Basic
Form
of
All
FLB & LTB
Eqs
È
F
l
ˆ
˘
yr
f -
pf
=
Í 1
-
Á Ê
1 -
ˆ ˜ Ê Á l
˜
˙ R R F
=R b RF
F nc
˜
h
yc
Á
˜ Á
F nc
h
yc
Í -
R
l
˙ b
Î l
Ë
F yc
¯
Ë
rf
pf
¯
or
˚
F n
M n
Anchor
point 1
h
=R b RF
F nc
h
yc
È
ˆ ˜ Ê L
- L
ˆ ˘
F yr
b
p
or
= C
Í
1
-
Ê Á
1
-
Á
˜
˙
R F
£ R
R F
F max
M
M
F nc
b
h
yc
b
h
yc
max
max
Í
Á L
Ë R F
˜
- L
˜
˙ R b
Î
h
yc
¯ Ë Á
r
p
M max
¯ ˚
Anchor
point 2
or
M M M
= F £
RRF
F r
r r r
F nc
cr
b
h
yc
compact
compact
noncompact
noncompact
R p
2 E
C b
b
(inelastic buckling)
(inelastic buckling)
L
ˆ 2
b
Á Ê
˜
˜
r
Á Ë
t
¯
nonslender
nonslender
slender
slender
(elastic buckling)
(elastic buckling)
l l
l l
L p or l
or l rf
or b f c /2t fc
B S
D
I
p p
pf
L r
r r
L b
CONSTRUCTIBILITY - FLEXURE Top Flange For STRENGTH I: + f l £ f R Eq.
CONSTRUCTIBILITY
- FLEXURE
Top
Flange
For STRENGTH
I:
+ f l
£
f
R
Eq. (6.10.3.2.1-1)
f bu
f
h
F yc
+ f
=
-
27 .41
ksi
+
14 . 79 ksi
= 42 . 20 ksi
f bu
l
f
= 1.0 (1. 0)( 50 )
= 50 . 0 ksi
f
R h
F yc
42 .20
ksi
< 50 .0 ksi
ok
( Ratio
= 0. 844 )
1
+
£
f
Eq. (6.10.3.2.1-2)
f bu
f l
f
F nc
3
1
14.
f
+
f
= - 27.41
ksi
+
bu
l
3
79 ksi = 32. 34 ksi
3
f
= 1
.0 (38
. 75) = 38. 75 ksi
f
F nc
32.
34 ksi <
38. 75 ksi
ok
(Ratio
= 0.835
)
B S
D
I
WEB BEND-BUCKLING RESISTANCE (Article 6.10.1.9) 0. 9Ek F = £ min( R F ,F 0.
WEB
BEND-BUCKLING
RESISTANCE (Article 6.10.1.9)
0.
9Ek
F
=
£
min( R F
,F
0.
7)
crw
h
yc
yw
2
æ
D ö
ç
÷
ç
÷
Eq
. (6.10.1.9.1-1)
t
è
w
ø
9
k =
(
)
2
D
D
c
9
k =
28.7
2 =
(
38.63
69
.0
)
0.
9( 29, 000)( 28. 7)
F
=
= 39. 33 ksi
< R F
= 1.0( 50) = 50 ksi
ok
crw
2
h
yc
69.0
æ ç ö
÷
è ø
0
.5
B
S
D
I
CONSTRUCTIBILITY - FLEXURE Web & Top Flange (continued) £ f Eq. (6.10.3.2.1-3) f bu f
CONSTRUCTIBILITY
- FLEXURE
Web
& Top Flange (continued)
£
f
Eq. (6.10.3.2.1-3)
f bu
f
F crw
f
= 1. 0( 39. 33)
= 39. 33 ksi
f
F crw
-
27. 41ksi
< 39. 33 ksi
ok
(Ratio = 0.697
)
For STRENGTH
IV:
+ f
£
f bu
l
f f
R h
F yc
Eq. (6.10.3.2.1-1)
+ f
=
- 32. 89 ksi
+ 14. 87 ksi
= 47.76
ksi
f bu
l
R
= 1. 0(1. 0)( 50) =
50 .0 ksi
f f
h
F yc
47.
76 ksi <
50.0 ksi
ok
(Ratio
= 0. 955)
B S
D
I
CONSTRUCTIBILITY - FLEXURE Top Flange (continued) & Web 1 + f £ f Eq. (6.10.3.2.1-2)
CONSTRUCTIBILITY
- FLEXURE
Top Flange (continued)
& Web
1
+
f
£ f
Eq. (6.10.3.2.1-2)
f bu
l
f F nc
3
1
+ f
=
- 32. 89 ksi
+
14.87 ksi = 37 .85
ksi
f bu
l
3
3
= 1.0 (38.
75) = 38. 75 ksi
f f
F nc
37 .85
ksi < 38. 75 ksi
ok
(Ratio = 0. 977)
£
Eq. (6.10.3.2.1-3)
f bu
f f
F crw
f
= 1. 0( 39. 33)
= 39.33
ksi
f
F crw
- 32. 89 ksi
< 39. 33 ksi
ok
(Ratio = 0. 836)
B S
D
I
CONSTRUCTIBILITY Wind Load - Section 1 -1 Calculate f bu due to the steel weight
CONSTRUCTIBILITY
Wind Load
-
Section
1
-1
Calculate f bu
due to the steel weight within the
unbraced length
containing Section 1-1:
For STRENGTH III:
1 .0 (1. 25)( 352)( 12)
f
=
= - 3. 34 ksi
Top Flange:
bu
1,581
1 .0 (1. 25)( 352)( 12)
f
=
= 2.68
ksi
Bottom Flange:
bu
1,973
Calculate the factored wind force
on the steel
section:
1
.0
(
1.25 (0. 053)( 2.0
)
+ 69.0 + 2. 0)
W =
= 0.403 kips /
ft
12
B
S
D
I
BRIDGE FRAMING PLAN B S D I
BRIDGE
FRAMING
PLAN
B S
D
I
CONSTRUCTIBILITY Wind Load - Section 1-1 (continued) Assume Span 1 of the structure resists the
CONSTRUCTIBILITY
Wind
Load -
Section 1-1 (continued)
Assume Span
1 of
the structure resists the lateral
wind force as a propped cantilever with
an
effective span
length
of 120¢-0²
(i.e.
assume
top
lateral bracing
provides an
effective line of fixity
20¢-0²
from the pier):
2
2
=
9 WL
=
M 1 -
1
e
128
9 ( 0.403 )(120 .0)
128
= 408 .0 kip
- ft
(Note:
refined
3D analysis =>
405.0 kip-ft)
B S
D
I
CONSTRUCTIBILITY Wind Load - Section 1-1 (continued) Proportion total lateral moment to top & bottom
CONSTRUCTIBILITY
Wind
Load -
Section 1-1 (continued)
Proportion total lateral moment to top &
bottom
flanges
according to relative lateral
stiffness of each
flange.
Then,
divide total lateral moment equally
to
each
girder:
3
3
1( 16)
1.
375( 18)
4
4
Top Flg:
I
=
= 341
.3
in.
Bot Flg:
I
=
= 668.
3 in.
l
l
12
12
= 408.0( 341. 3)
Top Flange:
M
= 34. 48 kip -
ft
l
(341 .3 + 668.
3)4
= 408.0( 668. 3)
Bottom Flange:
M
= 67. 52 kip -
ft
l
(341 .3 + 668.
3)4
B
S
D
I
CONSTRUCTIBILITY Wind Load - Section 1-1 (continued) Separate calculations indicate that lateral bending stresses
CONSTRUCTIBILITY
Wind
Load -
Section 1-1 (continued)
Separate calculations indicate that
lateral bending
stresses
in
the top
(compression)
flange may be determined from a
first-
order analysis (i.e. no amplification
is
required).
= 48( 12)
34.
Top Flange:
f
= 9. 70 ksi
< 0.6F
= 30.
0 ksi
ok
l
2
yf
1 ( 16)
6
= 52( 12)
67.
Bottom Flange:
f
= 10
.91
ksi < 0. 6F
= 30.0
ksi ok
l
2
yf
1. 375( 18)
6
B
S
D
I
BRIDGE FRAMING PLAN B S D I
BRIDGE
FRAMING
PLAN
B S
D
I
CONSTRUCTIBILITY Wind Load - Section 1-1 (continued) Calculate the shear in the propped cantilever at
CONSTRUCTIBILITY
Wind
Load -
Section 1-1 (continued)
Calculate
the shear
in
the propped
cantilever
at
the assume
effective line of fixity:
5
= WL
=
5 (0. 403)( 120.0) = 30. 23 kips
V f
- f
e
8
8
Resolve the
shear into a
compressive force in the
diagonal
of
the top
bracing:
2
æ
( 20.0)
+ ( 12.0
)
2 ö
P = 30.23 ç
÷ ÷ =
- 58. 76 kips
12.0
ç è
ø
B S
D
I
CONSTRUCTIBILITY Wind Load - Section 1-1 (continued) Separate calculations (see example) indicate a compressive
CONSTRUCTIBILITY
Wind
Load -
Section 1-1 (continued)
Separate calculations (see example) indicate a
compressive force
of -19.04 kips in
the diagonal
to the
self-weight of the steel. Therefore, the total
compressive force
in the
bracing
diagonal is:
(-58.76 kips)
+ (-19.04 kips)
= -77.80
kips
( Note:
refined 3D analysis
=> -67.0 kips)
B S
D
I
CONSTRUCTIBILITY Wind Load - Section 1-1 (continued) Estimate the maximum lateral deflection of Span 1
CONSTRUCTIBILITY
Wind
Load -
Section 1-1 (continued)
Estimate the maximum lateral
deflection of Span 1
of the
structure
(i.e. the
propped cantilever)
due to the factored
wind load
using the
total
lateral moments of inertia of the
top & bottom flanges of all four girders at Section
1-1:
4
WL
0
. 403( 120.0
)
4 (
1, 728)
= e
=
= 6
.7 in.
D l
max.
185EI
185( 29, 000)( 341.3
+ 668.3 )4
( Note:
refined 3D analysis
=> 7.0 inches)
If the top lateral bracing were not present:
= 140¢-0²
=>
12.3 inches
L e
D l
max. =
B S
D
I
CONSTRUCTIBILITY Performance Ratios POSITIVE-MOMENT REGION, SPAN 1 (Section 1-1) Constructibility (Slender-web
CONSTRUCTIBILITY
Performance
Ratios
POSITIVE-MOMENT REGION,
SPAN 1 (Section 1-1)
Constructibility (Slender-web section)
Flexure (STRENGTH I)
Eq. (6.10.3.2.1-1) –
Top flange
0.844
Eq. (6.10.3.2.1-2) –
Eq. (6.10.3.2.1-3) –
Eq. (6.10.3.2.2-1) –
Top flange
0.835
Web bend buckling
Bottom flange
0.697
0.535
Flexure (STRENGTH III – Wind load
on
noncomposite structure)
Eq. (6.10.3.2.1-1) –
Top flange
0.261
Eq. (6.10.3.2.1-2) –
Eq. (6.10.3.2.1-3) –
Eq. (6.10.3.2.2-1) –
Top flange
Web bend buckling
Bottom flange
0.170
0.085
0.272
Flexure (STRENGTH IV)
Eq. (6.10.3.2.1-1) –
Top flange
0.955
Eq. (6.10.3.2.1-2) –
Eq. (6.10.3.2.1-3) –
Eq. (6.10.3.2.2-1) –
Top flange
Web bend buckling
Bottom flange
0.977
0.836
0.602
Shear (96¢-0²
from the abutment) (STRENGTH IV)
0.447
B S
D
I
CONSTRUCTIBILITY Shear (Article 6.10.3.3) Interior panels of stiffened webs must satisfy: V £ f Eq.
CONSTRUCTIBILITY
Shear (Article 6.10.3.3)
Interior panels of stiffened webs must satisfy:
V
£
f
Eq.
(6.10.3.3-1)
u
v
V cr
(
V
= 1. 0(1 .5)( - 79)
= -
119 kips
u
) DC
1
at 96¢-0² from
the abutment
V
= V
= CV
p Eq.
(6.10.9.3.3-1)
n
cr
V
p = 0. 58F
Dt
= 1, 001kips
w
yw
C =
0.266 (for 207-inch stiffener
spacing)
= 0. 266(1
, 001)
= 266
kips
> V
=
-
119 kips
(Ratio =
0.447)
V cr
u
B S
D
I
CONSTRUCTIBILITY Section 2-2 (Interior Pier) In regions of negative flexure, the constructibility checks for
CONSTRUCTIBILITY
Section
2-2
(Interior Pier)
In
regions of negative
flexure,
the constructibility checks
for flexure generally do not
control
because the sizes of the
flanges in these regions are normally
governed
by the sum
of
the factored
dead and
live load stresses
at
the strength
limit
state. Also,
the maximum accumulated
negative
moments
during the deck placement in these regions
typically do
not differ significantly from
the calculated DC 1
negative moments.
Deck overhang brackets
and wind
loads do induce lateral bending into the
flanges, which
can
be considered
using the flexural
design
equations.
Web
bend-buckling
and shear should
always
be checked
in
these regions for
critical
stages
of
construction (refer to the
design
example).
B S
D
I
CONSTRUCTIBILITY Concrete Deck (Article 6.10.3.2.4) Unless longitudinal reinforcement is provided according to the
CONSTRUCTIBILITY
Concrete
Deck
(Article 6.10.3.2.4)
Unless longitudinal reinforcement is provided
according
to the
provisions of Article
6.10.1.7,
f
f r = 0.9f r
f deck £
'
f
= 0.24
f
= 0.24
4.
0
= 0. 480 ksi
r
c
f
= 0. 90( 0. 480)
= 0. 432 ksi
f r
B
S
D
I

Table 1: Moments from Deck-Placement Analysis

Span -> 1

Unfactored Dead-Load Moments (kip-ft)

 

Length (ft)

12.00

24.00

42.00

48.00

56.00

72.00

84.00

96.00

100.00

Steel Weight

143

250

341

353

352

296

206

74

21

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

SIP Forms (SIP) Cast

63

110

147

151

150

124

84

27

4

1 870

1544

2189

2306

2387

2286

1983

1484

1275

2 -168

-336

-589

-673

-786

-1010

-1179

-1347

-1403

3 14

28

50

57

67

86

101

115

120

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sum of Casts + SIP

779

1346

1797

1841

1818

1486

989

279

-4

Max. +M

933

1654

2336

2457

2537

2410

2067

1511

1279

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

DC 2 + DW

275

477

643

661

657

551

386

148

52

Deck, haunches + SIP 786

1360

1822

1870

1850

1528

1038

335

53

M = 352 + 2,537 = 2,889 kip-ft

CONSTRUCTIBILITY Concrete Deck (continued) Calculate the longitudinal concrete deck tensile stress at the end of
CONSTRUCTIBILITY
Concrete
Deck (continued)
Calculate the longitudinal concrete
deck tensile
stress at the end of Cast
1 (use
n
=
8):
1. 0(1
.5
)( -
1, 403)( 23. 20)( 12)
=
= 0. 453 ksi >
0. 432 ksi
f deck
161,518
(8)
Therefore,
provide
one-percent
longitudinal
reinforcement
(No.
6
bars or smaller @ £ 12²).
Extend to
95.0
feet
from the abutment.
Tensile force = (0.453)(100.0)(9.0)
= 408 kips
B
S
D
I
Service Limit State B S D I
Service
Limit
State
B S
D
I
SERVICE LIMIT STATE Elastic Deformations (Article 6.10.4.1) Use suggested minimum span-to-depth ratios (optional
SERVICE LIMIT
STATE
Elastic Deformations
(Article
6.10.4.1)
Use
suggested minimum
span-to-depth
ratios
(optional -
Article 2.5.2.6.3)
Check live-load deflections
(optional -
Article 2.5.2.6.2):
= .0( 12)
140
End Spans:
D
= in. > 0. 91in
2.10
.
ok
ALLOW
800
= .0( 12)
175
Center
Span:
D
= in. > 1
2.63
.23 in.
ok
ALLOW
800
B S
D
I
SERVICE LIMIT STATE Permanent Deformations (Article 6.10.4.2) Under the SERVICE II load combination: 1.0DC +
SERVICE LIMIT STATE
Permanent Deformations (Article 6.10.4.2)
Under the
SERVICE II load combination:
1.0DC + 1.0DW
+ 1.3(LL+IM)
Top steel flange of composite
sections:
f
£
0.95 R F
f
h
yf
Eq. (6.10.4.2.2-1)
f
l
Bottom
steel flange of composite sections
:
f
+
£
0.
95R
F
f
h
yf
2
Eq. (6.10.4.2.2-2)
Web
bend-buckling:
f
£
F
c
crw
Eq.
(6.10.4.2.2-4)
B
S
D
I
SERVICE LIMIT STATE Permanent Deformations (continued) Check top flange (Section 1-1): 0.95 R F =
SERVICE LIMIT
STATE
Permanent
Deformations
(continued)
Check top
flange (Section 1-1):
0.95 R F
= 0. 95(1
.0)( 50) = 47. 50 ksi
h
yf
£
0.95 R F
f f
h
yf
é 1.0(2,202)
1.0(335
+
322)
1.3(3,510) ù
= 1.0
+
+
12 =
- 22.30 ksi
f f
ê ë
1,581
4,863
13,805
ú û
-
22.30 ksi < 47.50 ksi
ok
(Ratio
= 0.469)
B S
D
I
SERVICE LIMIT STATE Permanent Deformations (continued) Check bottom flange (Section 1 -1): f l f
SERVICE LIMIT
STATE
Permanent
Deformations
(continued)
Check bottom
flange (Section 1
-1):
f
l
f
+
£ 0. 95R
f
h
F yf
2
é 1.0(2,202)
+ 1.0(335 + 322)
+ 1.3(3,510)
ù
= 1.0
12 = 36.80 ksi
f f
ú
ë ê 1,973
2,483
2,706
û
36.80 ksi
+
0 < 47.50 ksi
ok
(Ratio
=
0.77 5)
For composite
sections in positive
flexure
with
D/t w £
150,
web
bend
-buckling
need
not be checked at the service
limit
state.
B S
D
I
SERVICE LIMIT STATE Permanent Deformations (continued) Check Section 2-2 (interior pier): n Article 6.10.4.2.1
SERVICE LIMIT
STATE
Permanent
Deformations
(continued)
Check Section
2-2
(interior
pier):
n Article 6.10.4.2.1
-- for members with
shear connectors
provided
throughout their entire length
that
also satisfy
the
provisions of Article 6.10.1.7 (i.e.
one percent
longitudinal reinforcement
is
provided in the deck
wherever the tensile stress in the deck
due to the
factored
construction loads or the
SERVICE
II load
combination exceeds
the modulus of rupture),
flexural
stresses
caused
by SERVICE II
loads applied to the
composite section
may
be
computed using the short-
term or long-term composite
section, as appropriate,
assuming the
concrete deck
is effective for both
positive and negative flexure.
B S
D
I
SERVICE LIMIT STATE Permanent Deformations (continued) Check Section 2-2 (interior pier): Flange major- axis
SERVICE LIMIT
STATE
Permanent
Deformations
(continued)
Check Section
2-2
(interior
pier):
Flange major-
axis bending stresses at Section
2-2 and
n
at the first flange transition located 15¢-0²
from
the
interior pier are checked under the SERVICE II
load
combination and do not
control. Stresses acting
on the
composite section
are computed assuming the concrete
is effective
for negative
flexure,
as permitted in Article
6.10.4.2.1.
Web bend-buckling must be checked for composite
n
sections
in
negative flexure under
the SERVICE II
load
combination:
f
£
Eq. (6.10.4.2.2-4)
c
F crw
B S
D
I
WEB BEND- BUCKLING RESISTANCE (Article 6.10.1.9) 0. 9Ek F = £ min(R F ,F 0.
WEB
BEND-
BUCKLING
RESISTANCE
(Article
6.10.1.9)
0.
9Ek
F
=
£
min(R
F
,F
0.
7)
crw
h
yc
yw
Eq. (6.10.1.9.1-1)
2
æ
D ö
ç
÷
ç
÷
t
è
w
ø
9
where:
k
=
Eq. (6.10.1.9.1-2)
2
(
D
)
c D
According to Article D6.3.1
(Appendix D), for
composite
sections in negative flexure at the service limit state
where
the concrete is
considered effective in tension for
computing flexural stresses on the
composite section,
as
permitted
in
Article
6.10.4.2.1,
D c is
to
be computed as:
æ
-
f
ö
Eq. (D6.3.1-1)
c
D
= ç
÷ d -
t
³
0
c
ç
÷
fc
f
+
f
è
c
t
ø
B
S
D
I
WEB BEND- BUCKLING RESISTANCE (Article 6.10.1.9) Check the bottom-flange transition (controls): é 1 .0( -
WEB
BEND- BUCKLING
RESISTANCE
(Article
6.10.1.9)
Check the
bottom-flange
transition
(controls):
é 1 .0( -
2, 656 )
+ 1.0(
- 373 + - 358)
+ 1.3(
- 2, 709 ) ù
= 1.0
12
= - 38. 88 ksi
f f
ê ë
1,789
2 ,246
2,463
ú û
- ( - 38 . 88 )
ö
=
æ ç
÷ 71 .0
-
1.
0
= 43 .25
in . >
0
ok
D c
÷
- 38 .88
+ 23 .
51
è ç
ø
9
k
=
=
22 .9
2
(
43.25
69.0
)
= .9( 29, 000)( 22.9)
0
-
38 .88
<
39
. 72
ksi
= 39. 72 ksi
F crw
2
æ
69.0
ö
ç
÷
ok
Ratio = (0.979)
è
0.5625 ø
B S
D
I
SERVICE LIMIT STATE Performance Ratios POSITIVE-MOMENT REGION, SPAN 1 (Section 1-1) Service Limit State Live-load
SERVICE LIMIT
STATE
Performance
Ratios
POSITIVE-MOMENT REGION, SPAN 1
(Section 1-1)
Service Limit State
Live-load deflection
0.433
Permanent deformations
(SERVICE
II)
Eq. (6.10.4.2.2-1)
– Top flange
0.469
Eq. (6.10.4.2.2-2)
– Bottom flange
0.775
INTERIOR-PIER SECTION (Section
2-2)
Permanent
deformations (SERVICE II)
Eq. (6.10.4.2.2-1) –
Top flange
@ Section 2-2
0.415
Eq. (6.10.4.2.2-1) –
Top flange
@ Flange transition
0.368
Eq. (6.10.4.2.2-2) –
Bottom flange
@ Section 2-2
0.604
Eq. (6.10.4.2.2-2) –
Bottom flange
@ Flange transition
0.609
Eq. (6.10.4.2.2-4) –
Eq. (6.10.4.2.2-4) –
Web bend buckling
Web bend buckling
@ Section 2-2
0.898
@ Flange transition
0.979
B S
D
I