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PA 259 FINAL EXAM PART 2 MA. ETHEL CHRISTINE S. DIN SN: 2010-79689 March 22, 2013

Differentiate the concepts of local government and local governance.

The concept of local government is way too far from what the concept of local governance apparently is. It is like the difference from the old system to a new one; old style that was rekindled and; a sort of primitive culture that was modernized. Local government concept viewed as a traditional system of governing the people is basically bound to some pertinent objectives – to facilitate, control and provide services. This concept, as stated is quite different from the concept of local governance wherein the aforementioned functions/roles of local government have come some changes and also some additions. These additions include the public participation, some alternatives/tools that the local government uses towards local development, community/social development and economic development.

Despite the fact that both concepts have the same organizational structure from the local chief executive to its barangay officials, I viewed this like having the same facts but treated as individually different. So to speak, being labelled or defined both concepts having different roles. In local government, the local chief executive is the sole facilitator or the manager or the authority but it should be noted that the role of the LCE as the manager/authority is only limited in its scope. Consequently, the LCE takes account merely the internal concerns of his/her organization. Nonetheless, in the concept of local governance, the LCE aside from being the manager/facilitator/authority on its own organization has to deal with its constituents. Having said so, the LCE is responsible to address what the constituency needs such as accessible health care, employment, quality education, security and protection, infrastructures and other basic services that the government should provide. With this concept, the government officials such as the LCE, the local council and like are introduced to the idea of accountability, transparency, effectiveness and cost-efficiency.

To discuss the aspect of local legislation, there comes the idea of CITIZEN PARTICIPATION (whether it is practiced or not). Unlike the local government concept wherein the local council is the only body who decides, deliberates and even casts votes before a policy issue whether to pass such proposal or to debunk (apart from the approval/denial of the LCE), is very different from the concept of local governance wherein citizens are much more aware, informed, engaged and even participates in the policy making process. Said concept gives an avenue to the people to actively participate, contribute ideas and best possible solutions to address such issue and ensured that theirs are heard, considered and adopted.

In the area of generating sources revenue income/ maximizing the available resources, there is a huge difference between the two concepts. The local government concept merely depends on the internal revenue income being allotted by the national government for the operation of their daily process. On the other hand, in the concept of local governance, there are

different alternatives/tools/systems in maximizing the resources for a better provision of services to the people. The idea of new public management is introduced such as the application of Public-Private Partnership (Built-Operate-Transfer (BOT) arrangement), contracting out, outsourcing of services and anything that involves the private sector, citizens, and non-government organizations.

Write an essay on the topic: “Citizen Participation has come of age in the Philippines”.


Citizen participation to be fully practiced in a country is definitely a long process and it cannot be achieved overnight. Nonetheless, citizen participation has come of age in the Philippines. The Philippines has actually taken some initiatives to achieve and to satisfy what the concept of “citizen participation” has required.

The very example that could support this premise that citizen participation is fully practiced in the Philippines is the undertaking made by the City of Naga. The City Government of Naga undertook a measure to empower the people of Naga through the passage of the Empowerment Ordinance. Guided by the principle to empower people, Naga City has recognized through a resolution the official non-government organization which represents the people of Naga – The Naga City People’s Coalition. NCPC’s role despite some challenges and doubts has fully satisfied the idea and application of citizen participation.

NCPC as based on the aforesaid ordinance and resolution has become a member of the Sangguniang Panglungsod of Naga City Government (local council/legislative body) and became a member of significant committees. Indeed, the people of Naga became heard and not only that, they became part of the policy making process not only being one of the stakeholders but also part of the decision making body.

Apart from the example of people empowerment in the City of Naga, the Philippines undertook some recourse like the adoption of a bottom-up process (BuP) of budgeting (which refers to the participatory budgeting), participatory auditing and the participation of civil society observer in the procurement process in the government to ensure whether the right procedures are being observed from the pre-bid conference up to the awarding of contract to the bidder who qualifies the requirements set by the end-user.

These factors can actually support the statement that indeed, citizen participation has come of age in the Philippines.