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Assist. Prof. Dr. Fae`q A.A.Radwan



Critical Stress

Strength of Material

Modulus of Elasticity

Axial Load

Critical Load

Factor of Safety


Column Transverse Displacement

Cross Section Area

Moment of Inertia

Radius of Gyration

Elastic Deformation

Angle of Deflection

Yield Strength Ultimate Strength


The purpose of this project is to observe the effects of how a simple column reacts under
loading. By varying the end supports a column will experience different modes of
buckling. For the purposes of this project, a buckled column will be defined as a column
that displays physical failure. The column is no longer able to support the loading and is
forced to deflect laterally. Using the design of steel part which is setup in the machine to
get different end supports of the columns and using compression machine to give the
load, the loading mechanisms are to be loaded incrementally until a failure in the column
is noticeable.
In the experiment eleven specimens with different supporting ends are used, and Euler's
equation is used to calculate the critical load theoretically to compare it with the value
which is obtained experimentally for every column. The columns will be tested within
their elastic ranges. The material tested will be COPPER (E = 101 GPa). 9 similar
columns will be tested, with different end conditions.



2.1 Introduction
2.2 Deflection of beam

3.1 Introduction
3.2 Buckling of column
3.3 Critical load
3.4 Stress Vs strain curve


5.1 Axial load
5.2 Eccentric axial load

6.1 equipment
6.1.1 Test machine
6.1.2 Design of cylinder steel part
6.2 Procedure
6.3 Calculation
6.3.1 Formula
6.3.2 Data
6.4.1 Theoretically part
6.4.2 Practically part



A beam is a structural element that carries load primarily in bending. Beams generally
carry vertical gravitational forces. The loads carried by a beam are transferred to columns,
walls, or girders, which then transfer the force to adjacent structural compression

Columns are defined as relatively long, slender member subjected to compressive

stresses. The most common example of a column is the vertical supporting member of a
building. This brings into account why the study of columns is so important: there is a
large human safety factor involved. The objective of this project exercise is to verify
Euler's formula for the critical load, Pcr, for different end conditions, and to investigate the
load-displacement behavior.


2 . 1 In t ro d u c t i o n

Beams are characterized by their profile (the shape of their cross-section), their length,
and their material. In contemporary construction, beams are typically made of steel,
reinforced concrete, or wood. One of the most common types of steel beam is the I-beam
or wide-flange beam (also known as a "universal beam" or, for stouter sections, a
"universal column"). This is commonly used in steel-frame buildings and bridges. Other
common beam profiles are the C-channel, the hollow structural section beam, the pipe,
and the angle.

The primary tool for structural analysis of beams is the Euler-Bernoulli beam equation.
Other mathematical methods for determining the deflection of beams include "method of
virtual work" and the "slope deflection method". Engineers are interested in determining
deflections because the beam may be in direct contact with a brittle material such as glass.
A stiffer beam (high modulus of elasticity and high second moment of area) produces less
deflection. Mathematical methods for determining the beam forces (internal forces of the
beam and the forces that are imposed on the beam support) include the "moment
distribution method", the force or flexibility method and the matrix stiffness method.

2.2 Deflection of beam

In engineering mechanics, deflection is a term that is used to describe the degree to which
a structural element is displaced under a load. The deflection of a member under a load is
directly related to the slope of the deflected shape of the member under that load and can
calculated by integrating the function that mathematically describes the slope of the
member under that load. Deflection can be calculated by standard formulae (will only
give the deflection of common beam configurations and load cases at discrete locations),
or by methods such as "virtual work", "direct integration", "Castigliano's method",
"Macaulay's method" or the "matrix stiffness method" amongst others.
Fig 2.1 deflection in beam

An example of the use of deflection in this context is in building construction. Architects

and engineers select materials for various applications. The beams used for frame work
are selected on the basis of deflection, amongst other factors.

The elastic deflection f and angle of deflection φ (in radians) in the example image, a
(weightless) cantilever beam, can be calculated (at the free end) using:

3 EI

The deflection at any point along the length of the beam can be calculated using the
above-mentioned methods.

The deflection must be considered for the purpose of the structure. When designing a
steel frame to hold a glazed panel, one allows only minimal deflection to prevent fracture
of the glass.


3.1 Introduction

A column in structural engineering is a vertical structural element that transmits, through

compression, the weight of the structure above to other structural elements below. Other
compression members are often termed columns because of the similar stress conditions.
Columns can be either compounded of parts or made as a single piece. Columns are
frequently used to support beams or arches on which the upper parts of walls or ceilings
rest. The term column in architecture refers specifically to such a structural element that
also has certain proportional and decorative features.

If the load on a column is applied through the center of gravity of its cross section, it is
called an axial load. A load at any other point in the cross section is known as an
eccentric load. A short column under the action of an axial load will fail by direct
compression before it buckles, but a long column loaded in the same manner will fail by
buckling (bending), the buckling effect being so large that the effect of the direct load
may be neglected. The intermediate-length column will fail by a combination of direct
compressive stress and bending.

As the axial load on a perfectly straight slender column with elastic material properties is
increased in magnitude, this ideal column passes through three states: stable equilibrium,
neutral equilibrium, and instability. The straight column under load is in stable
equilibrium if a lateral force, applied between the two ends of the column, produces a
small lateral deflection which disappears and the column returns to its straight form when
the lateral force is removed. If the column load is gradually increased, a condition is
reached in which the straight form of equilibrium becomes so-called neutral equilibrium,
and a small lateral force will produce a deflection that does not disappear and the column
remains in this slightly bent form when the lateral force is removed. The load at which
neutral equilibrium of a column is reached is called the critical or buckling load. The state
of instability is reached when a slight increase of the column load causes uncontrollably
growing lateral deflections leading to complete collapse.
In engineering, buckling is a failure mode characterized by a sudden failure of a structural
member subjected to high compressive stresses, where the actual compressive stresses at
failure are smaller than the ultimate compressive stresses that the material is capable of
withstanding. This mode of failure is also described as failure due to elastic instability.
Mathematical analysis of buckling makes use of an axial load eccentricity that introduces
a moment, which does not form part of the primary forces to which the member is

3.2 Buckling of column

When a structure (subjected usually to compression) undergoes visibly large

displacements transverse to the load then it is said to buckle. Buckling may be
demonstrated by pressing the opposite edges of a flat sheet of cardboard towards one
another. For small loads the process is elastic since buckling displacements disappear
when the load is removed.

Local buckling of plates or shells is indicated by the growth of bulges, waves or ripples,
and is commonly encountered in the component plates of thin structural members.

Buckling proceeds in manner which may be either:

x Stable - in which case displacements increase in a controlled fashion as loads are

increased. The structure's ability to sustain loads is maintained, or
x Unstable - in which case deformations increase instantaneously, the load carrying
capacity nose- dives and the structure collapses catastrophically.
x Neutral equilibrium - is also a theoretical possibility during buckling - this is
characterized by deformation increase without change in load.

Buckling and bending are similar in that they both involve bending moments. In bending
these moments are substantially independent of the resulting deflections, whereas in
buckling the moments and deflections are mutually inter-dependent - so moments,
deflections and stresses are not proportional to loads.
If buckling deflections become too large then the structure fails - this is a geometric
consideration, completely divorced from any material strength consideration. If a
component or part is prone to buckling then its design must satisfy both strength and
buckling safety constraints - that is why we now examine the subject of buckling.

Fig 3.1

Buckling has become more of a problem in recent years since the use of high strength
material requires less material for load support - structures and components have become
generally more slender and buckle- prone.

3.3 Critical load

For an axially loaded straight column with any end support conditions, the equation of
static equilibrium, in the form of a differential equation, can be solved for the deflected
shape and critical load of the column. With hinged, fixed or free end support conditions
the deflected shape in neutral equilibrium of an initially straight column with uniform
cross section throughout its length always follows a partial or composite sinusoidal curve

Elements of critical load:

E = modulus of elasticity

I = area moment of inertia

Le = column effective length factor

x moment of inertia (I):

The second moment of area, also known as the area moment of inertia or second moment
of inertia, is a property of a shape that is used to predict its resistance to bending and
deflection which are directly proportional. This is why beams with higher area moments
of inertia, such as I-beams, are so often seen in building construction as opposed to other
beams with the same area. It is analogous to the polar moment of inertia, which
characterizes an object's ability to resist torsion.

The second moment of area is not the same thing as the moment of inertia, which is used
to calculate angular acceleration. Many engineers refer to the second moment of area as
the moment of inertia and use the same symbol I for both, which may be confusing.
Which inertia is meant (acceleration or bending) is usually clear from the context and
obvious from the units.

• Ix = the moment of inertia about the axis x

• 𝛿𝐴 = an elemental area

• y = the perpendicular distance from the axis x to the element 𝛿𝐴

Intuitively, the second moment of area, measuring the resistance to bending, can be
likened to a person's attempt to stop a force from turning a lever: the farther a person
places a hand from the pivot the more leverage is obtained and the easier it is to resist the
turning force. In the above formula, the hand's resisting turning is replaced with the sum
of small sections of the object (infinitesimally small in the limit); the leverage is
proportional to the square of the distance from the 'pivot'. Each small section adds its own
contribution depending on its position and proportional to how big it is in cross section;
each piece can be split into smaller pieces being summed up until the infinitesimal size is
reached and the result is accurate (i.e. the limit of the integral).
The above can only be used on its own, when sections are symmetrical about the x-axis.
When this is not the case, the second moment of area about both the x- and the y-axis and
the product moment of area, Ixy, are required.

Circular cross section which is our case

– D3

x Column effective length factor:

Column effective length factor, whose value depends on the conditions of end support of
the column and it is the overall column length minus the portion that takes into account
the end condition , as follows,

For both ends pinned (hinged, free to rotate), k = 1.0.

For both ends fixed, k = 0.50.

For one end fixed and the other end pinned, k = 0.70.

For one end fixed and the other end free to move laterally, k = 2.0

Fig 3.1
3.4 Stress Strain Diagram

A stress–strain diagram is a graph derived from measuring load (stress – σ) versus

extension (strain – ε) for a sample of a material. The nature of the curve varies from
material to material. The following diagrams illustrate the stress–strain behavior of
typical materials in terms of the engineering stress and engineering strain where the stress
and strain are calculated based on the original dimensions of the sample and not the
instantaneous values. In each case the samples are loaded in tension although in many
cases similar behavior is observed in compression.

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Fig 3.2 Stress Strain Diagram

1. Ultimate Strength (Su) 2. Yield Strength 3. Rupture

4. Inelastic region 5. Necking region.

x Yield strength (SY)

The yield strength or yield point of a material is defined in engineering and materials
science as the stress at which a material begins to deform plastically. Prior to the yield
point the material will deform elastically and will return to its original shape when the
applied stress is removed. Once the yield point is passed some fraction of the deformation
will be permanent and non-reversible. In the three-dimensional space of the principal
stresses (σ1, σ2, σ3), an infinite number of yield points form together a yield surface.

Knowledge of the yield point is vital when designing a component since it generally
represents an upper limit to the load that can be applied. It is also important for the
control of many materials production techniques such as forging, rolling, or pressing. In
structural engineering, this is a soft failure mode which does not normally cause
catastrophic failure unless it accelerates buckling

x Inelastic region

Work hardening, strain hardening, or cold work is the strengthening of a material by

increasing the material's dislocation density. In metallic crystals, irreversible deformation
is usually carried out on a microscopic scale by defects called dislocations, which are
created by fluctuations in local stress fields within the material culminating in a lattice
rearrangement as the dislocations propagate through the lattice. At normal temperatures
the dislocations are not annihilated by annealing. Instead, the dislocations accumulate,
interact with one another, and serve as pinning points or obstacles that significantly
impede their motion. This leads to an increase in the yield strength of the material and a
subsequent decrease in ductility.

x Elastic region

In this region, the stress and strain are directly proportional, and the behavior of the
material is said to be linear elastic. Beyond point A, the linear relationship between stress
and strain no longer exists; hence, the stress at A is called the proportional limit. For
copper, this limit is in the range 70 MPa.

x Young's modulus (E)

In solid mechanics, Young's modulus is a measure of the stiffness of a given material. It

is also known as the Young modulus, modulus of elasticity, elastic modulus or tensile
modulus (the bulk modulus and shear modulus are different types of elastic modulus). It
is defined as the ratio, for small strains, of the rate of change of stress with strain. This
can be experimentally determined from the slope of a stress-strain curve created during
tensile tests conducted on a sample of the material. Young’s modulus, E, can be
calculated by dividing the tensile stress by the tensile strain:
x Strength of material (S)

The strength of a material is the maximum stress it can withstand without failure; it is
obtained from a tensile test on a specimen of the material. Common metals follow stress-
strain relations of the forms illustrated

Fig 3.3

Fig 3.4

The stress in a brittle material, Fig 3.3.A, cannot exceed the ultimate strength, Su.
Ductile also display such an upper limit, Fig 3.3.B, but the yield strength, Sy, is often
more relevant as it forms a bound above which plasticity and excessive deformation may
occur. Most modern ductile do not possess a distinct yield so in this case an artificial
value is usually defined - the offset yield, Fig 3.4, based upon some maximum acceptable
permanent deformation (e.g. 0.2%) remaining after load release. Yields and ultimate are
material properties; representative values for many materials are cited in the literature.

Safety Factor

Clearly a component is safe only if the actual load applied to the component does not
exceed the components of critical load. The degree of safety is usually expressed by the
safety factor, n (FS):-

n = critical load / actual load = PCr / Papplied

. . . . And it follows that:

If n = 1 then the component is on the point of failure

If n < 1 then the component is in a failed state

If n > 1 then the component is safe.

Fig 4.1safety factor

The safety factor is usually expressed as a ratio of nominal loads. A higher value of the
safety factor seems to indicate a safer component - however this is not necessarily the
case as the inevitable variations must be kept in mind.

In Fig 4.1.A, n = 1.25 based on nominal values, but because of the relatively large
variations in both actual and maximum loads, there is a significant probability of the
actual load exceeding the maximum, and hence of failure.

For a negligible failure probability with these levels of variations, the nominal safety
factor must be increased by reducing the actual load applied to the component, as
indicated in Fig 4.1.B - Alternatively the maximum load could be increased, by
increasing the material's strength or the component's dimensions.

Fig 4.1.C, illustrates how the probability of failure may be decreased also by reducing the
variations of the actual and/or maximum loads. This can be accomplished by a better
understanding of what's going on - we'll amplify this later.

When an assemblage of components is subjected to a single load, the assembly's safety

factor is the smallest of the component safety factors - 'a chain is only as strong as its
weakest link'. If a component or an assemblage is subjected to a number of different
simultaneous loads, then the concept of a single safety factor may be inappropriate - but
nevertheless all potential failure mechanisms must be investigated when deciding whether
an implement is safe to use or not.

If, the stress in a component is proportional to the actual load on the component, then the
safety factor may be interpreted also as a stress ratio:-

n = σallowable / σactual

Such an interpretation is evidently inapplicable to assemblages. Stresses are proportional

to load for the majority of practical elements, so we usually assume that the stress ratio
interpretation applies. But this is NOT the case with some not uncommon failure
mechanisms such as buckling, in these cases we must fall back on the fundamental load


Buckling column assumptions depend on the critical load location and there are two

I) Axial load

II) Eccentric axial load

I) Axial Load

In the case of an ideal column under an axial load, the Euler-Bernoulli column Equation
is to be used to fined critical load acting on the column .Buckling is a stability problem. A
long, slender column is subjected to compressive axial. There exists a critical load, Pcr
such that the column has three states:

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In analyzing a column, a pinned - pinned column, Fig 5.1, is assumed to have a buckled
shape and internal forces and moments as shown in, Fig 5.2, the bending moment
equations still hold:
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Fig 5.1
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Fig 5.2


This leads to the differential equation for deflection:

This is a homogeneous, linear second order differential equation with constant

coefficients. For convenience we introduce the notation:

The differential equation for deflection is written as:

With a solution of:

For a pinned - pinned column there is no lateral deflection at the ends or the boundary

Applying these boundary conditions yields:


This leads to two possibilities, C1 = 0, which gives a trivial solution of v(x) = 0

everywhere. The other possibility is:

This equation is satisfied when:


This leads to the following expression for the load:

The critical load is called the Euler buckling load, is then the n = 1 case and is given by:

For other end conditions the critical loads are:

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The critical load can be expresses as a stress:

In general the critical load for different end supports can expresses as effective length as
shown below:

The radius of gyration of a cross-section is:

The term L/k is called the slenderness ration for the column.

Euler buckling is limited to columns with slenderness ratio values

For values of the slenderness ratio less than 80, empirical formulas are used to calculate
the critical stress value. One such empirical formula is a parabolic curve that is tangent to
the Euler curve at a common point A and equal to the yield stress for a zero value of the
slenderness ratio as shown in. This equation can be written as:

If we equate the value and the slope of the Euler and parabolic equation we find:

II) Eccentric axial load

In the case of an ideal column under an axial load, the column remains straight until the
critical load is reached. However, the load is not always applied at the centroid of the
cross section, as is assumed in Euler buckling theory. This section analyzes a simply-
supported column under an eccentric axial load.
Consider a column of length L subject to an axial force P (F). On one end of the column,
the force P is applied a distance e from the central column axis, as shown below.

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Fig 5.3 fig 5.4

Balance the moments on the free-body diagram on the right requires that,

P (v  e) M

The governing equation for the column's transverse displacement v (w) can then be
written as,

d 2v P Pe
dx 2 EI EI
Where M was eliminated using Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. The above equation
contains a non-homogeneous term -Pe/EI and its general solution is,


The coefficients A and B depend on the boundary conditions. For a simply supported
column the boundary conditions are,

The solution for the column's displacement is therefore,

In practice, engineers are usually interested in the maximum stress rather than the
displacement curve alone. The secant formula discussed in this section derives the
maximum stress from the displacement formula obtained in the previous section.

The normal stress in the column results from both the direct axial load F and the bending
moment M resulting from the eccentricity e of the force application,
The maximum stress is located at the extreme fiber on the concave side (y = c) of the
middle point (x = L/2) of the column,


Obtained by applying basic trigonometric relations to the displacement formula in the

previous section. The parameter c is the distance from the centroidal axis to the extreme
fiber on the concave side of the column.

Expanding the formula for the maximum stress, we have,

The radius of gyration K is defined as.

Working K into the above stress equation results in the secant formula for maximum

The secant formula indicates that in addition to the axial load P and cross-section area A,
the maximum stress also depends on the slenderness ratio
Chapter six


6.1 Equipment:

1) 10 copper column
2) Caliper
3) Micrometer
4) Combination wrench
5) Pliers
6) Test Machine
7) Cylinder steel part :
x Design Parts:
Design of column:

Fig 6.1 Column

Design of cylinder steel part:

This project needs a special design of end support of columns as shown below:

Fig 6.2 Lower cylinder

Fig 6.3 Upper cylinder (outer)

Fig 6.4 Upper cylinder (inner)

Fig 6.5 Assembly
6.2 Procedure

1) install the cylinder formed steel part to the machine

2) connect the cooper column to the cylinder steel formed part (pin-pin)
3) switch the machine-on which it compress the column automatically and after this
operation the buckling occur
4) repeat that procedure to the same cylinder steel formed part two times more to get
more accuracy reading
5) repeat same procedure but with another formed of cylinder steel part (pin-fixed ,
6) we get the results from the computer which connected to the machine

6.3 Calculation

6.3.1 Formula:


Moment of inertia

Radius of gyration
Slenderness ratio

Critical load

Critical stress

6.3.2 Data

Quantity Types of Gage Diameter Ar e a Moment of Radius of Slenderne

of column supports Length inertia gyration ss ratio
2 4 2
L(m) D(m) A(m ) I(m ) K(m ) (m-1)
3 Pin-pin 0. 2 0.0055 1.963E-5 3.066E-4 1.25E-3 145.45
3 Pin-fix 0. 2 0.0055 1.963E-5 3.066E-4 1.25E-3 101.82
3 Fix-fix 0. 2 0.0055 1.965E-5 3.066E-4 1.25E-3 72.273

Table 6.1
6.4 Results

6.4.1 Theoretically part 𝜎

Types of supports Length Critical load (KN) Critical stress (MPa)

Pin-pin 0.2 1.1194 47.123

Pin-fix 0.2 2.2844 96.2004

Fix-fix 0.2 3.303 139.095

Table 6.2




stress (NPa)





0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
Slendrens ratio

Fig 6.6
6.4.2 Practically part

Type of supports
(KN) (KN) (KN)

Pin-pin 0.9402 1.117 1.104

Pin-fix 1.9501 1.440 2.612
Fix-fix 2.662 4.146 2.6207

Table 6.3

Type of supports
(MPa) (MPa) (MPa)

Pin-pin 39.5936 47.039 46.4916

Pin-fix 82.12244 60.64537 110.009
Fix-fix 112.1019 174.596 110.3627

Table 6.4

Type of supports ERROR

(KN) (KN)

Pin-pin (sample 1) 1.1194 0.9402 16%

Pin-pin (sample 2) 1.1194 1.117 0.214%
Pin-pin (sample 3) 1.1194 1.104 1.4%
Pin-fix (sample 1) 2.2844 1.9501 14%
Pin-fix (sample 2) 2.2844 2.612 14%
Pin-fix (sample 3) 2.2844 1.440 37%
Fix-fix (sample 1) 3.303 2.662 19%
Fix-fix (sample 2) 3.303 4.146 26%
Fix-fix (sample 3) 3.303 2.6207 21%
Table 6.5
x Shown in figures below the relation between the load and extension, when the
load increase extension increase with decrease in the cross-section area which
means the column become weaker until reach the critical load then the
buckling occurred, for different end support of column.



load (KN)



0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6
Extension (mm)

Fig 6.7 Sample 1

load (KN)

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5
Extension (mm)

Fig 6.8 Sample 2


load (KN)


0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
Extension (mm)

Fig 6.9 Sample 3



load (KN)



0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
Extension (mm)

Fig 6.10 Sample 1

Fig 6.11 Sample 2

Fig 6.12 Sample 3


Fig 6.14 Sample 1

Fig 6.15 Sample 2

Fig 6.16 Sample 3





Strees (MPa)






0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
Slendrens ratio
Fig 6.17 Stress Vs Slenderness ratio (for all columns)
First of all the aim of the experiment is to find the maximum load can be applied to the
column before the buckling occurred, with different end support.
From the experiment the result was closed to the theoretically calculation, which is shown

Type of supports (KN) (KN) ERROR

Pin-pin (sample 1) 1.1194 0.9402 16%

Pin-pin (sample 2) 1.1194 1.117 0.214%

Pin-pin (sample 3) 1.1194 1.104 1.4%
Pin-fix (sample 1) 2.2844 1.9501 14%
Pin-fix (sample 2) 2.2844 2.612 14%

Pin-fix (sample 3) 2.2844 1.440 37%

Fix-fix (sample 1) 3.303 2.662 19%
Fix-fix (sample 2) 3.303 4.146 26%
Fix-fix (sample 3) 3.303 2.6207 21%

Using specific metal, is copper, which its actual modulus of elasticity 101 GPa, and yield
strength 70 MPa, as a column.
The error as shown in table was simple and occurred because:
The first error occurred because it does not have accuracy in milling ship which stated
It’s not smooth surface which have some scratched
The columns diameter different since have some curve at the end of column.

The second error was with the support of columns, because thy connected in such away
that between columns and supports have small space which effect negative in measuring.

To avoid that error of occurring again must flow following steps:

To be much carefully in milling with high accuracy so the error will decrease down
To have uniform cross section through the column
To drilling the supporter carefully so the space occurred will decrease or become to the
suitable size needed.

Book references

R.C. Hibbeler – MECHANCS OF MATERIAL – SI Edition – Copyright 2003

Bernard J.Hamrock, Bo Jacobson, Steven R.Schmid –FUNDANNTALS OF MACHINE

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