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- flexural test lab report
- Column Buckling Lab
- Buckling of Columns
- BUCKLING OF STRUTS
- Curved Beam Analysis With Energy Methods
- Structures Lab Report
- Mechanics of Materials - Beam Deflection Test
- Buckling of Strut Report
- Buckling of Struts Lab Report
- STRUCTURE1 LAB REPORT buckling test
- Buckling of Columns
- buckling of struts
- Buckling
- Bukling Lab Report
- Beam Deflection Lab
- Buckling Report
- Buckling
- Experiment 4 Stuructur
- Strut Buckling
- Column Buckling

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MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

DEPARTMENT

BUCKLING OF COLUMNS

MADE BY :

ENG.THAER ASSI

SUPERVISOR

Assist. Prof. Dr. Fae`q A.A.Radwan

2008

SYMBOLS

Stress

Critical Stress

Strength of Material

Modulus of Elasticity

Axial Load

Critical Load

Factor of Safety

Eccentricity

Moment of Inertia

Radius of Gyration

Elastic Deformation

Angle of Deflection

Ⅱ

Abstract

The purpose of this project is to observe the effects of how a simple column reacts under

loading. By varying the end supports a column will experience different modes of

buckling. For the purposes of this project, a buckled column will be defined as a column

that displays physical failure. The column is no longer able to support the loading and is

forced to deflect laterally. Using the design of steel part which is setup in the machine to

get different end supports of the columns and using compression machine to give the

load, the loading mechanisms are to be loaded incrementally until a failure in the column

is noticeable.

In the experiment eleven specimens with different supporting ends are used, and Euler's

equation is used to calculate the critical load theoretically to compare it with the value

which is obtained experimentally for every column. The columns will be tested within

their elastic ranges. The material tested will be COPPER (E = 101 GPa). 9 similar

columns will be tested, with different end conditions.

Ⅲ

CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGMENT Ⅰ

SAMPELS Ⅱ

ABSTRACT Ⅲ

CH 1. INTRODUCTION

CH.2 BEAM

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Deflection of beam

CH.3 COLUMN

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Buckling of column

3.3 Critical load

3.4 Stress Vs strain curve

CH.5 THEORY

5.1 Axial load

5.2 Eccentric axial load

CH.6 EXPERMENT

6.1 equipment

6.1.1 Test machine

6.1.2 Design of cylinder steel part

6.2 Procedure

6.3 Calculation

6.3.1 Formula

6.3.2 Data

6.4 RESULTS

6.4.1 Theoretically part

6.4.2 Practically part

CONCLOSION

REFERENCE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

A beam is a structural element that carries load primarily in bending. Beams generally

carry vertical gravitational forces. The loads carried by a beam are transferred to columns,

walls, or girders, which then transfer the force to adjacent structural compression

members.

stresses. The most common example of a column is the vertical supporting member of a

building. This brings into account why the study of columns is so important: there is a

large human safety factor involved. The objective of this project exercise is to verify

Euler's formula for the critical load, Pcr, for different end conditions, and to investigate the

load-displacement behavior.

CHAPTER TOW

BEAMS

2 . 1 In t ro d u c t i o n

Beams are characterized by their profile (the shape of their cross-section), their length,

and their material. In contemporary construction, beams are typically made of steel,

reinforced concrete, or wood. One of the most common types of steel beam is the I-beam

or wide-flange beam (also known as a "universal beam" or, for stouter sections, a

"universal column"). This is commonly used in steel-frame buildings and bridges. Other

common beam profiles are the C-channel, the hollow structural section beam, the pipe,

and the angle.

The primary tool for structural analysis of beams is the Euler-Bernoulli beam equation.

Other mathematical methods for determining the deflection of beams include "method of

virtual work" and the "slope deflection method". Engineers are interested in determining

deflections because the beam may be in direct contact with a brittle material such as glass.

A stiffer beam (high modulus of elasticity and high second moment of area) produces less

deflection. Mathematical methods for determining the beam forces (internal forces of the

beam and the forces that are imposed on the beam support) include the "moment

distribution method", the force or flexibility method and the matrix stiffness method.

In engineering mechanics, deflection is a term that is used to describe the degree to which

a structural element is displaced under a load. The deflection of a member under a load is

directly related to the slope of the deflected shape of the member under that load and can

calculated by integrating the function that mathematically describes the slope of the

member under that load. Deflection can be calculated by standard formulae (will only

give the deflection of common beam configurations and load cases at discrete locations),

or by methods such as "virtual work", "direct integration", "Castigliano's method",

"Macaulay's method" or the "matrix stiffness method" amongst others.

Fig 2.1 deflection in beam

and engineers select materials for various applications. The beams used for frame work

are selected on the basis of deflection, amongst other factors.

The elastic deflection f and angle of deflection φ (in radians) in the example image, a

(weightless) cantilever beam, can be calculated (at the free end) using:

PL3

fB

3 EI

The deflection at any point along the length of the beam can be calculated using the

above-mentioned methods.

The deflection must be considered for the purpose of the structure. When designing a

steel frame to hold a glazed panel, one allows only minimal deflection to prevent fracture

of the glass.

CHAPTER THREE

COLUMNS

3.1 Introduction

compression, the weight of the structure above to other structural elements below. Other

compression members are often termed columns because of the similar stress conditions.

Columns can be either compounded of parts or made as a single piece. Columns are

frequently used to support beams or arches on which the upper parts of walls or ceilings

rest. The term column in architecture refers specifically to such a structural element that

also has certain proportional and decorative features.

If the load on a column is applied through the center of gravity of its cross section, it is

called an axial load. A load at any other point in the cross section is known as an

eccentric load. A short column under the action of an axial load will fail by direct

compression before it buckles, but a long column loaded in the same manner will fail by

buckling (bending), the buckling effect being so large that the effect of the direct load

may be neglected. The intermediate-length column will fail by a combination of direct

compressive stress and bending.

As the axial load on a perfectly straight slender column with elastic material properties is

increased in magnitude, this ideal column passes through three states: stable equilibrium,

neutral equilibrium, and instability. The straight column under load is in stable

equilibrium if a lateral force, applied between the two ends of the column, produces a

small lateral deflection which disappears and the column returns to its straight form when

the lateral force is removed. If the column load is gradually increased, a condition is

reached in which the straight form of equilibrium becomes so-called neutral equilibrium,

and a small lateral force will produce a deflection that does not disappear and the column

remains in this slightly bent form when the lateral force is removed. The load at which

neutral equilibrium of a column is reached is called the critical or buckling load. The state

of instability is reached when a slight increase of the column load causes uncontrollably

growing lateral deflections leading to complete collapse.

In engineering, buckling is a failure mode characterized by a sudden failure of a structural

member subjected to high compressive stresses, where the actual compressive stresses at

failure are smaller than the ultimate compressive stresses that the material is capable of

withstanding. This mode of failure is also described as failure due to elastic instability.

Mathematical analysis of buckling makes use of an axial load eccentricity that introduces

a moment, which does not form part of the primary forces to which the member is

subjected.

displacements transverse to the load then it is said to buckle. Buckling may be

demonstrated by pressing the opposite edges of a flat sheet of cardboard towards one

another. For small loads the process is elastic since buckling displacements disappear

when the load is removed.

Local buckling of plates or shells is indicated by the growth of bulges, waves or ripples,

and is commonly encountered in the component plates of thin structural members.

increased. The structure's ability to sustain loads is maintained, or

x Unstable - in which case deformations increase instantaneously, the load carrying

capacity nose- dives and the structure collapses catastrophically.

x Neutral equilibrium - is also a theoretical possibility during buckling - this is

characterized by deformation increase without change in load.

Buckling and bending are similar in that they both involve bending moments. In bending

these moments are substantially independent of the resulting deflections, whereas in

buckling the moments and deflections are mutually inter-dependent - so moments,

deflections and stresses are not proportional to loads.

If buckling deflections become too large then the structure fails - this is a geometric

consideration, completely divorced from any material strength consideration. If a

component or part is prone to buckling then its design must satisfy both strength and

buckling safety constraints - that is why we now examine the subject of buckling.

Fig 3.1

Buckling has become more of a problem in recent years since the use of high strength

material requires less material for load support - structures and components have become

generally more slender and buckle- prone.

For an axially loaded straight column with any end support conditions, the equation of

static equilibrium, in the form of a differential equation, can be solved for the deflected

shape and critical load of the column. With hinged, fixed or free end support conditions

the deflected shape in neutral equilibrium of an initially straight column with uniform

cross section throughout its length always follows a partial or composite sinusoidal curve

shape.

E = modulus of elasticity

x moment of inertia (I):

The second moment of area, also known as the area moment of inertia or second moment

of inertia, is a property of a shape that is used to predict its resistance to bending and

deflection which are directly proportional. This is why beams with higher area moments

of inertia, such as I-beams, are so often seen in building construction as opposed to other

beams with the same area. It is analogous to the polar moment of inertia, which

characterizes an object's ability to resist torsion.

The second moment of area is not the same thing as the moment of inertia, which is used

to calculate angular acceleration. Many engineers refer to the second moment of area as

the moment of inertia and use the same symbol I for both, which may be confusing.

Which inertia is meant (acceleration or bending) is usually clear from the context and

obvious from the units.

• 𝛿𝐴 = an elemental area

Intuitively, the second moment of area, measuring the resistance to bending, can be

likened to a person's attempt to stop a force from turning a lever: the farther a person

places a hand from the pivot the more leverage is obtained and the easier it is to resist the

turning force. In the above formula, the hand's resisting turning is replaced with the sum

of small sections of the object (infinitesimally small in the limit); the leverage is

proportional to the square of the distance from the 'pivot'. Each small section adds its own

contribution depending on its position and proportional to how big it is in cross section;

each piece can be split into smaller pieces being summed up until the infinitesimal size is

reached and the result is accurate (i.e. the limit of the integral).

The above can only be used on its own, when sections are symmetrical about the x-axis.

When this is not the case, the second moment of area about both the x- and the y-axis and

the product moment of area, Ixy, are required.

D3

I

64

Column effective length factor, whose value depends on the conditions of end support of

the column and it is the overall column length minus the portion that takes into account

the end condition , as follows,

For one end fixed and the other end pinned, k = 0.70.

For one end fixed and the other end free to move laterally, k = 2.0

Fig 3.1

3.4 Stress Strain Diagram

extension (strain – ε) for a sample of a material. The nature of the curve varies from

material to material. The following diagrams illustrate the stress–strain behavior of

typical materials in terms of the engineering stress and engineering strain where the stress

and strain are calculated based on the original dimensions of the sample and not the

instantaneous values. In each case the samples are loaded in tension although in many

cases similar behavior is observed in compression.

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The yield strength or yield point of a material is defined in engineering and materials

science as the stress at which a material begins to deform plastically. Prior to the yield

point the material will deform elastically and will return to its original shape when the

applied stress is removed. Once the yield point is passed some fraction of the deformation

will be permanent and non-reversible. In the three-dimensional space of the principal

stresses (σ1, σ2, σ3), an infinite number of yield points form together a yield surface.

Knowledge of the yield point is vital when designing a component since it generally

represents an upper limit to the load that can be applied. It is also important for the

control of many materials production techniques such as forging, rolling, or pressing. In

structural engineering, this is a soft failure mode which does not normally cause

catastrophic failure unless it accelerates buckling

x Inelastic region

increasing the material's dislocation density. In metallic crystals, irreversible deformation

is usually carried out on a microscopic scale by defects called dislocations, which are

created by fluctuations in local stress fields within the material culminating in a lattice

rearrangement as the dislocations propagate through the lattice. At normal temperatures

the dislocations are not annihilated by annealing. Instead, the dislocations accumulate,

interact with one another, and serve as pinning points or obstacles that significantly

impede their motion. This leads to an increase in the yield strength of the material and a

subsequent decrease in ductility.

x Elastic region

In this region, the stress and strain are directly proportional, and the behavior of the

material is said to be linear elastic. Beyond point A, the linear relationship between stress

and strain no longer exists; hence, the stress at A is called the proportional limit. For

copper, this limit is in the range 70 MPa.

is also known as the Young modulus, modulus of elasticity, elastic modulus or tensile

modulus (the bulk modulus and shear modulus are different types of elastic modulus). It

is defined as the ratio, for small strains, of the rate of change of stress with strain. This

can be experimentally determined from the slope of a stress-strain curve created during

tensile tests conducted on a sample of the material. Young’s modulus, E, can be

calculated by dividing the tensile stress by the tensile strain:

x Strength of material (S)

The strength of a material is the maximum stress it can withstand without failure; it is

obtained from a tensile test on a specimen of the material. Common metals follow stress-

strain relations of the forms illustrated

Fig 3.3

Fig 3.4

The stress in a brittle material, Fig 3.3.A, cannot exceed the ultimate strength, Su.

Ductile also display such an upper limit, Fig 3.3.B, but the yield strength, Sy, is often

more relevant as it forms a bound above which plasticity and excessive deformation may

occur. Most modern ductile do not possess a distinct yield so in this case an artificial

value is usually defined - the offset yield, Fig 3.4, based upon some maximum acceptable

permanent deformation (e.g. 0.2%) remaining after load release. Yields and ultimate are

material properties; representative values for many materials are cited in the literature.

CHAPTER FOUR

Safety Factor

Clearly a component is safe only if the actual load applied to the component does not

exceed the components of critical load. The degree of safety is usually expressed by the

safety factor, n (FS):-

The safety factor is usually expressed as a ratio of nominal loads. A higher value of the

safety factor seems to indicate a safer component - however this is not necessarily the

case as the inevitable variations must be kept in mind.

In Fig 4.1.A, n = 1.25 based on nominal values, but because of the relatively large

variations in both actual and maximum loads, there is a significant probability of the

actual load exceeding the maximum, and hence of failure.

For a negligible failure probability with these levels of variations, the nominal safety

factor must be increased by reducing the actual load applied to the component, as

indicated in Fig 4.1.B - Alternatively the maximum load could be increased, by

increasing the material's strength or the component's dimensions.

Fig 4.1.C, illustrates how the probability of failure may be decreased also by reducing the

variations of the actual and/or maximum loads. This can be accomplished by a better

understanding of what's going on - we'll amplify this later.

factor is the smallest of the component safety factors - 'a chain is only as strong as its

weakest link'. If a component or an assemblage is subjected to a number of different

simultaneous loads, then the concept of a single safety factor may be inappropriate - but

nevertheless all potential failure mechanisms must be investigated when deciding whether

an implement is safe to use or not.

If, the stress in a component is proportional to the actual load on the component, then the

safety factor may be interpreted also as a stress ratio:-

n = σallowable / σactual

to load for the majority of practical elements, so we usually assume that the stress ratio

interpretation applies. But this is NOT the case with some not uncommon failure

mechanisms such as buckling, in these cases we must fall back on the fundamental load

interpretation.

CHAPTER FIVE

THEORY

Buckling column assumptions depend on the critical load location and there are two

cases:

I) Axial load

I) Axial Load

In the case of an ideal column under an axial load, the Euler-Bernoulli column Equation

is to be used to fined critical load acting on the column .Buckling is a stability problem. A

long, slender column is subjected to compressive axial. There exists a critical load, Pcr

such that the column has three states:

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In analyzing a column, a pinned - pinned column, Fig 5.1, is assumed to have a buckled

shape and internal forces and moments as shown in, Fig 5.2, the bending moment

equations still hold:

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a ga in. I f the red x still a ppea rs, y ou m a y ha v e to delete the i m age a nd then insert it a ga in.

Fig 5.1

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Fig 5.2

And

coefficients. For convenience we introduce the notation:

For a pinned - pinned column there is no lateral deflection at the ends or the boundary

conditions:

And

everywhere. The other possibility is:

But

SO

This leads to the following expression for the load:

The critical load is called the Euler buckling load, is then the n = 1 case and is given by:

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In general the critical load for different end supports can expresses as effective length as

shown below:

So

The term L/k is called the slenderness ration for the column.

For values of the slenderness ratio less than 80, empirical formulas are used to calculate

the critical stress value. One such empirical formula is a parabolic curve that is tangent to

the Euler curve at a common point A and equal to the yield stress for a zero value of the

slenderness ratio as shown in. This equation can be written as:

If we equate the value and the slope of the Euler and parabolic equation we find:

And

II) Eccentric axial load

In the case of an ideal column under an axial load, the column remains straight until the

critical load is reached. However, the load is not always applied at the centroid of the

cross section, as is assumed in Euler buckling theory. This section analyzes a simply-

supported column under an eccentric axial load.

Consider a column of length L subject to an axial force P (F). On one end of the column,

the force P is applied a distance e from the central column axis, as shown below.

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th e imag e an d th en in ser t it ag ain .

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Balance the moments on the free-body diagram on the right requires that,

P (v e) M

The governing equation for the column's transverse displacement v (w) can then be

written as,

d 2v P Pe

v

dx 2 EI EI

Where M was eliminated using Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. The above equation

contains a non-homogeneous term -Pe/EI and its general solution is,

Where

The coefficients A and B depend on the boundary conditions. For a simply supported

column the boundary conditions are,

In practice, engineers are usually interested in the maximum stress rather than the

displacement curve alone. The secant formula discussed in this section derives the

maximum stress from the displacement formula obtained in the previous section.

The normal stress in the column results from both the direct axial load F and the bending

moment M resulting from the eccentricity e of the force application,

The maximum stress is located at the extreme fiber on the concave side (y = c) of the

middle point (x = L/2) of the column,

Where,

previous section. The parameter c is the distance from the centroidal axis to the extreme

fiber on the concave side of the column.

Working K into the above stress equation results in the secant formula for maximum

stress,

The secant formula indicates that in addition to the axial load P and cross-section area A,

the maximum stress also depends on the slenderness ratio

Chapter six

Experiment

6.1 Equipment:

1) 10 copper column

2) Caliper

3) Micrometer

4) Combination wrench

5) Pliers

6) Test Machine

7) Cylinder steel part :

Pin-pin

Pin-fixed

Fixed-fixed

x Design Parts:

Design of column:

This project needs a special design of end support of columns as shown below:

Fig 6.3 Upper cylinder (outer)

Fig 6.5 Assembly

6.2 Procedure

2) connect the cooper column to the cylinder steel formed part (pin-pin)

3) switch the machine-on which it compress the column automatically and after this

operation the buckling occur

4) repeat that procedure to the same cylinder steel formed part two times more to get

more accuracy reading

5) repeat same procedure but with another formed of cylinder steel part (pin-fixed ,

fixed-fixed)

6) we get the results from the computer which connected to the machine

6.3 Calculation

6.3.1 Formula:

Area

Moment of inertia

Radius of gyration

Slenderness ratio

Critical load

Critical stress

6.3.2 Data

of column supports Length inertia gyration ss ratio

2 4 2

L(m) D(m) A(m ) I(m ) K(m ) (m-1)

3 Pin-pin 0. 2 0.0055 1.963E-5 3.066E-4 1.25E-3 145.45

3 Pin-fix 0. 2 0.0055 1.963E-5 3.066E-4 1.25E-3 101.82

3 Fix-fix 0. 2 0.0055 1.965E-5 3.066E-4 1.25E-3 72.273

Table 6.1

6.4 Results

Pin-pin 0.2 1.1194 47.123

Table 6.2

160

140

120

100

stress (NPa)

80

60

40

20

0

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160

Slendrens ratio

Fig 6.6

6.4.2 Practically part

Type of supports

(KN) (KN) (KN)

Pin-fix 1.9501 1.440 2.612

Fix-fix 2.662 4.146 2.6207

Table 6.3

Type of supports

(MPa) (MPa) (MPa)

Pin-fix 82.12244 60.64537 110.009

Fix-fix 112.1019 174.596 110.3627

Table 6.4

(KN) (KN)

Pin-pin (sample 2) 1.1194 1.117 0.214%

Pin-pin (sample 3) 1.1194 1.104 1.4%

Pin-fix (sample 1) 2.2844 1.9501 14%

Pin-fix (sample 2) 2.2844 2.612 14%

Pin-fix (sample 3) 2.2844 1.440 37%

Fix-fix (sample 1) 3.303 2.662 19%

Fix-fix (sample 2) 3.303 4.146 26%

Fix-fix (sample 3) 3.303 2.6207 21%

Table 6.5

x Shown in figures below the relation between the load and extension, when the

load increase extension increase with decrease in the cross-section area which

means the column become weaker until reach the critical load then the

buckling occurred, for different end support of column.

PIN-FIX:

2.5

2

load (KN)

1.5

0.5

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6

Extension (mm)

1.6

1.4

1.2

1

load (KN)

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5

Extension (mm)

2.5

1.5

load (KN)

1

0.5

0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

Extension (mm)

FIX-FIX:

2.5

2

load (KN)

1.5

0.5

0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

Extension (mm)

Fig 6.11 Sample 2

PIN-PIN

Fig 6.16 Sample 3

200

180

160

140

120

Strees (MPa)

100

80

60

40

20

0

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160

Slendrens ratio

Fig 6.17 Stress Vs Slenderness ratio (for all columns)

CONCLUSION

First of all the aim of the experiment is to find the maximum load can be applied to the

column before the buckling occurred, with different end support.

From the experiment the result was closed to the theoretically calculation, which is shown

below:

Pin-pin (sample 3) 1.1194 1.104 1.4%

Pin-fix (sample 1) 2.2844 1.9501 14%

Pin-fix (sample 2) 2.2844 2.612 14%

Fix-fix (sample 1) 3.303 2.662 19%

Fix-fix (sample 2) 3.303 4.146 26%

Fix-fix (sample 3) 3.303 2.6207 21%

Using specific metal, is copper, which its actual modulus of elasticity 101 GPa, and yield

strength 70 MPa, as a column.

The error as shown in table was simple and occurred because:

The first error occurred because it does not have accuracy in milling ship which stated

below:

It’s not smooth surface which have some scratched

The columns diameter different since have some curve at the end of column.

The second error was with the support of columns, because thy connected in such away

that between columns and supports have small space which effect negative in measuring.

To be much carefully in milling with high accuracy so the error will decrease down

To have uniform cross section through the column

To drilling the supporter carefully so the space occurred will decrease or become to the

suitable size needed.

REFERENCES

Book references

ELEMENTS – International edition – Copyright 1999

MATERIALS – Third edition – Copyright 2002

DESIGN – Fifth edition – Copyright 1989

Web references:

www.engineeringtools.com

www.wikipedia.com

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