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Lecture 4 Product life cycle

Product life cycle Concurrent engg

PLM

PRODUCT CYCLE

Computer Aided Design

Computer Aided Drafting & Documentation

DRAFTING

PROCESS

PLANNING

Drafting & Documentation DRAFTING PROCESS PLANNING PRODUCTION SCHEDULING PRODUCT CONCEPT CUSTOMER &

PRODUCTION

SCHEDULING

DRAFTING PROCESS PLANNING PRODUCTION SCHEDULING PRODUCT CONCEPT CUSTOMER & MARKETS DESIGN Computer

PRODUCT

CONCEPT

CUSTOMER & MARKETS

SCHEDULING PRODUCT CONCEPT CUSTOMER & MARKETS DESIGN Computer Aided Process Planning NEW EQUIPMENT &

DESIGN

SCHEDULING PRODUCT CONCEPT CUSTOMER & MARKETS DESIGN Computer Aided Process Planning NEW EQUIPMENT & TOOLING
SCHEDULING PRODUCT CONCEPT CUSTOMER & MARKETS DESIGN Computer Aided Process Planning NEW EQUIPMENT & TOOLING

Computer Aided Process Planning

NEW EQUIPMENT & TOOLING

Computer Aided Process Planning NEW EQUIPMENT & TOOLING PRODUCTION QUALITY CONTROL Computerised Scheduling, MRP,

PRODUCTION

QUALITY CONTROL
QUALITY
CONTROL
NEW EQUIPMENT & TOOLING PRODUCTION QUALITY CONTROL Computerised Scheduling, MRP, Shop floor control Computer

Computerised Scheduling,

MRP, Shop floor control

Computer Aided quality Control

Computer Controlled Machines

CONTROL Computerised Scheduling, MRP, Shop floor control Computer Aided quality Control Computer Controlled Machines
CONTROL Computerised Scheduling, MRP, Shop floor control Computer Aided quality Control Computer Controlled Machines

CAD

CAMCAI

C A x IN PRODUCT CYCLE

CAD CAMCAI C A x IN PRODUCT CYCLE CAE Analysis Assembly Mechanism/Kinematics Geometric Data Base CNC

CAE

Analysis

Assembly

Mechanism/Kinematics

Geometric Data Base
Geometric
Data Base

CNC

Programming

Modeling

Drafting

Robotics Language
Robotics
Language

Inspection

Base CNC Programming Modeling Drafting Robotics Language Inspection Assembly Stations Process Planning Products
Base CNC Programming Modeling Drafting Robotics Language Inspection Assembly Stations Process Planning Products

Assembly

Stations

Process

Planning

Base CNC Programming Modeling Drafting Robotics Language Inspection Assembly Stations Process Planning Products

Products

Base CNC Programming Modeling Drafting Robotics Language Inspection Assembly Stations Process Planning Products
Variation of sales volume through the life of a product The cycle through which a

Variation of sales volume through the life of a product

The cycle through which a product goes through from development to retirement is

called the product life cycle.

Product Development Cycle

-Industries have to design and re-design their products to stay put in the

market -Upon Initial introduction to market, customers define the survival of a product based on satisfying customers need and their perception - Elaborate network is enabled to service customer problems with regard to the problems -Inspite of being successful in case of deficiencies, today’s market demands product recall

Successful Product…

#1 The sales volume will pick up gradually and peak after some time. The product will continue to sell for some time. #2 The sales will then start gradually declining owing to availability of better

products in the market. It is time for the company to introduce a new and

improved product in the market as well as to retire the old product. #3 The companies will usually advice the customers that the old product will be further supported by the sales and service department only for a limited

period of time.

Product Life Cycle

Sales and Profits ($) Sales Profits Time Product Introduction Growth Maturity Decline Develop- ment Losses/
Sales and
Profits ($)
Sales
Profits
Time
Product
Introduction
Growth
Maturity
Decline
Develop-
ment
Losses/
Investments ($)
($) Sales Profits Time Product Introduction Growth Maturity Decline Develop- ment Losses/ Investments ($)

The product development Cycle

The product development Cycle The idea of a product may come from a - patent -

The idea of a product may come from a

- patent

- suggestion of the customers

- feedback of the sales and service department

- market research carried out by the marketing or from the R&D department

The next stage is the conceptualization of the product

-The cost at which the product could be sold in the market - the overall design in terms of shape, functional specifications, ergonomics, aesthetics etc are considered in detail and finalized

Design Stage

design department who carefully designs each assembly and each

component of the assembly.

Detailed design analysis and optimization is carried out at this stage. A design may have several variants.

The design department creates these designs through a top down

approach or a bottom up approach.

In top down approach, the entire assembly is designed first and individual designs are done latter. In bottom up approach, the component design is done first and the product is realized by

assembling the components suitably.

Engineering the product consists of process planning, tool design, facility design, capacity planning, quality assurance activities, procurement, assembly planning, etc.

Marketing Stage

have the responsibility of carrying out appropriate product launch activities as well as planning the sales and service network, advertising and training of sales and service personnel.

Product Development Spiral The design development process is an iterative process Instance from the Ford

Product Development Spiral

The design development process is an iterative process Instance from the Ford 1920s model to the current model the amount of design iteration that has taken place

Product Sustainability – Life Cycle @ Ford

Product Sustainability Life Cycle @ Ford

Product Sustainability – Life Cycle @ Ford
Product Sustainability – Life Cycle @ Ford

Traditional or sequential Engineering

The traditional product development process at the prototype development

stage is sequential.

It includes product design, development of manufacturing process and supporting quality and testing activities, all carried out one after another.

This situation assumes that there is no interaction among the major departments involved in product manufacturing during the initial development process.

Design department in a typical sequential product development process

finalizes the design without consulting the manufacturing, quality or purchase departments.

Any Change may require starting from the first sequence

Design changes will involve both material and time wastages.

response to the market requirements will be slow compared to a competing company which can create an error free design at the first instance.

Design and Re-design path Across the wall approach in a traditional design

Design and Re-design path

Design and Re-design path Across the wall approach in a traditional design

Across the wall approach in a traditional design

Concurrent Engineering

Concurrent engineering/ Simultaneous Engineering / Parallel Engineeing is a methodology of restructuring the product development activity in a manufacturing organization using a cross functional team approach

is a technique adopted to improve the efficiency of product design and reduce the product development cycle time.

brings together a wide spectrum of people from several functional areas in the design and manufacture of a product

Representatives from R & D, engineering, manufacturing, materials management, quality assurance, marketing, vendor development etc. develop the product as a team.

Everyone interacts with each other from the start, and they perform their tasks in parallel. Intensive teamwork between product development, production planning and manufacturing is essential for satisfactory implementation of concurrent engineering.

The teamwork also brings additional advantages ; the co-operation between various specialists and systematic application of special methods such as QFD (Quality Function Deployment), DFMA (Design for Manufacture and Assembly) and FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis) ensures quick optimization of design and early detection of possible faults in product and production planning.

CE can be defined as…

“Integrated approach to product-design that

takes into account all stages of a product’s life

cycle from design to disposal including costs, quality, testing, user needs, customer support,

and logistics”

Sales & R&D Service Design & QC & QA Product Engineering Planning & Manufacturing Purchase
Sales &
R&D
Service
Design &
QC & QA
Product
Engineering
Planning &
Manufacturing
Purchase

May also include Finance, Outsourcing

The activities necessary to complete a particular task within a specific engineering discipline have to

The activities necessary to complete a particular task within a

specific engineering discipline have to emerge wherever possible

from their sequential flow into a concurrent workflow with a high degree of parallelism Total quality management is thus closely related to concurrent

engineering.

An example of various activities done in parallel
An example of various activities done in
parallel

Typical Characteristics of concurrent engineering

Integration of product and process development and logistics support

Closer attention to the needs of customers

Adoption of new technologies

Continuous review of design and development

process

Rapid and automated information exchange

Cross functional teams

Rapid prototyping

The CE Approach

Focuses on optimizing and distributing resources within a company or unit during design and development

Collaboration is required

Involves implementation, appraisal, and continuous improvement initiatives

Must be applied throughout a system to be

successful (requires strong leadership)

How can the data be managed

Design changes, status reviews, releases and their effects on cost, delivery and quality have to

be managed.

How work flows and the information flow, storage,retrieval and decision making can be

supported and controlled.

and decision making can be supported and controlled. information systems have to be developed which integrate

information systems have to be developed which integrate the different engineering disciplines and

their support tools

Product life cycle management (PLM)

This tool views the entire life cycle of a product as a process that can be

managed,

measured,

monitored

modified

to achieve continuous improvement.

PLM helps manufacturers acquire the capability to collaborate internally (within the organization) and externally (outsourcing partners or vendors) collaborate on product development, manufacture, market and service till the retirement of the

product, consistently maintaining the highest possible efficiency throughout the

value chain.

Product Life Cycle Management is a total production system that tracks a product from inception to disposal

The Scope of PLM

Product Lifecycle Plus the engineering business systems to make the process work with the rest
Product
Lifecycle
Plus the engineering business
systems to make the process
work with the rest of the company

Components of PLM

Engineering Design Design management - Design, validation using CAE Engineering process - CAD drawing realase, CAM Change management- Design changes,process changes, roles changes Design colloboration from multi sites

Knowledge management and process automation Design iterative data documentation versions control

product structure and configuration management

archiving and creating a knowlege respositary

Product visualisation visualization and collaboration capabilities enable team members to view the digital mock up or exchange their representations Aesthetics and ergonomics - concept team to design and sales service involvement

Real time collaboration Secure,adoptive and user friendly real time collaborative enables rapidness in all functional areas

Project Management

Assessing and capturing customer requirements

Supply Chain management

PLM integrates the procurement/outsourcing related processes with the rest of the

engineering

The product development teams can assess through various functionalities the design content, cost efficiency, product quality and suppliers capabilities

Manufacturing

Planning for assembly process, factory layout , robot programming, worker safety

and ergonomic studies

Servicing capability

Common PLM softwares

Siemens PLM Enovia of DS Winchill of PTC ARAS