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Sustainable Cities and Society 14 (2014) 456462

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Sustainable Cities and Society


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/scs

Energy audit, an approach to apply the concept of green building for a


building in Jordan
K. Hassouneh a, , A. Al-Salaymeh b,1 , J. Qoussous a
a
b

Architecture Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, The University of Jordan, Amman 11942, Jordan
Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, The University of Jordan, Amman 11942, Jordan

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:
Available online 27 August 2014
Keywords:
Green building
Energy audit
Low energy building

a b s t r a c t
An energy audit for one department at the faculty of Engineering and Technology at the University of
Jordan has been conducted as a way to apply the concept of green building to an existing structure.
According to the Jordanian green building code, a classication for the green building has been carried
out according to its saving in energy and water in addition to the other factors such as indoor quality and
material.
The heating and cooling loads were calculated and the results were compared with the values for
the same building after amendments to the windows and walls. The insulation for external walls of the
building has been introduced in addition the double glazing instead of the current single glass windows
for the building. The electricity for the lighting consumption of this building was obtained and analyzed
and the potential of utilizing a lighting sensor for different halls and rooms was studied and analyzed.
The boiler performance has been studied and an estimation of efciency enhancement was proposed. It
has been found that choosing a larger window area facing south, east and west can save more energy
in winter and decreasing the heating costs using a certain types of double glazing, while decreasing the
glazing area facing north can save money and energy. Also, it has been found that the payback period for
the annual saving in fuel and electricity bills is less than 3 years. The needed investment for obtaining
the energy saving is shown in the paper.
2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

1. Introduction and methodology


Energy took an important place through the Human being history, starting from the prehistoric age. Before 1970, the supply and
consumption of energy were relatively obscure matter to most people. Within less than a decade, however, energy has emerged as
one of the most provocative words of the times.
Energy demand in Jordan is increasing largely during the last
20 years and it will continue increasing by the same rate. Energy
consumption might be doubled between 2015 and 2020 referring
to low production of energy and high growth of energy, (Al-Saeh,
Al-Heeh, & Dolat, 2010).
The shortages and high prices that occurred with the oil
embargo of 1973 and the rapid economical development, combined

Corresponding author. Tel.: +962 65355000; fax: +962 65355588.


E-mail addresses: k.hassouneh@ju.edu.jo (K. Hassouneh), salaymeh@ju.edu.jo
(A. Al-Salaymeh), jawdatqoussous@hotmail.com (J. Qoussous).
1
Tel.: +962 65355000x22788; fax: +962 65300851.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scs.2014.08.010
2210-6707/ 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

with the growing prices of energy, lead to an increasing recognition


and understanding for the need of energy audit.
The running cost of green building is considered to be less than
conventional buildings because the benets of typical green buildings exceed the additional costs. Within the rst two or three years
and over a 15 year period provide nancial benets about ten times
larger than the extra cost of building green.
Now homeowners and business owners are interested in
upgrading their homes and facilities to be more energy efcient
and to reduce the cost of their monthly energy bills, (Free Guide,
2010).
In the last few years, energy and electricity price in Jordan
increased many times. The energy bill for Jordan represents 20%
of the Jordanian GDP and it affects the most aspects of the Jordanian life. Therefore, the motivation in the country is moving quickly
toward the energy saving buildings in order to reduce the operating
cost of the building.
The main goal of this study is to use energy audit to reduce
energy consumption rate of an existing building at the University of
Jordan, by understanding how energy is being presently used and
possibly being wasted and to recommend proper condition that

K. Hassouneh et al. / Sustainable Cities and Society 14 (2014) 456462

ensure human comfort of users of the department. The novelty of


this study is that it suggests some important points that should
be taken into consideration to reduce energy bell in an important
building in Jordan.
The methodology which was adopted for this audit was
visual inspection and data collection, observations on the existing
condition of the facility, equipments and quantication, identication/verication of energy consumption and other parameters by
measurements and potential energy saving opportunities.
The calculation of the cooling and heating loads in each zone
of the building is the most important step in determining the size
of the cooling and heating equipment. Cooling and heating load
calculations were conducted to size HVAC (heating, ventilating, and
air-conditioning) systems and their components. In principle, the
loads were calculated to maintain the indoor design conditions and
reduce energy consumption, e.g. (Bhatia, 2012; Green Seal, 2011).
As inltration in building has great effect on the fuel consumption, highly performance and very well sealed openings (doors and
windows) were used in the building so the inuence of inltration
was considered to be ignorable.

457

Heat transfer (gain) through the building skin by conduction, as


a result of the outdoorindoor temperature difference.
Solar heat gains (radiation) through glass or other transparent
materials.
Heat gains from ventilation air and/or inltration of outside air.
Internal heat gains generated by occupants, lights, appliances,
and machinery.
Because of the inherent differences in these types of heat ows,
they are calculated using the following equations
Heat transfer through oor, doors and ceiling
Q = U A (T adj Ti)

(4)

Heat gain due to solar effects


Qs = U A (CLTD)corr.

(5)

Heat gain through the glass window


Qg = A (SHG) (CLF) (SC)

(6)

Heat gain due to occupancy


2. Study case

Qoc = (No. of person SG/1000) (CLF)oc.

(7)

The heat gain due to lights

The case study, which was investigated, was a department at


the faculty of engineering and technology at the University of Jordan in Amman. The total area of each oor in the department
is about 400 m2 . The maximum temperature at the University of
Jordan is taken as 35 C, and the minimum is 2.4 C. The inside
designed temperature is considered as 24 C, the maximum relative humidity is 75% and the minimum relative humidity is taken
to be 45%. The Latitude of Amman is 32.1 N and the longitude is
35.52 E. The department has ve oors; each oor has unequal sections: classrooms, halls, bathrooms, stairs and ofces. One oor at
the department was built under ground and the other four oors
stand over it by 13 m.

Tadj = 29 C.

3. Heating and cooling load calculation

(CLTD)corr. = (CLTD + LM)k + (25.5 Ti ) + (To,m 29.4)f

The calculation of heating and cooling loads on a building or zone


is the most important step in determining the size of the cooling and
heating equipment which means savings in initial and operating
cost of mechanical equipment and increased comfort to occupants.
Heat loss is divided into two groups:

where k = 1.0 and f = 1.0 for no roof fan and 0.75 if there is roof fan.
To nd the saving, cost and payback period the following equations were used

The heat transmission losses through walls, oor, ceiling, glass,


or other surfaces.
The inltration losses through cracks and openings, or heat
required to warm outdoor air used for ventilation.
The following equations are mainly used to calculate the heating
load,
Q = A U (Ti To)

(1)

Qsensible = Vf air Cp (Ti To)

(2)

where U is the overall heat transfer coefcient and its values for
wall is 1.7 W/m2 C, for doors is 2.8 W/m2 C, and for window single
glass is 6.7 W/m2 C (AL-Saad and Hammad, 2009).
Vf = No. of ACH/h Room Volume

(3)

air = 1/vo ,
Using psychometric chart, it was found that the value of
vo = 0.89 m3 /kg (AL-Saad and Hammad, 2009).
Cooling loads fall into the following categories, based on their
sources:

QLt = (Insulated lamp A/1000) (CLF)Lt.

(8)

Heat transmitted due to inltration


Qf = (Vf/vo) (ho hi)

(9)

where U for oor is 2.1 W/m2 C, for doors is 2.8 W/m2 C, for ceiling
is 1.8 W/m2 C and for window single glass is 6.7 W/m2 C (AL-Saad
and Hammad, 2009). The above values of U were obtained from
Amman Chamber of Industry 2007.
(10)

S = (Q 1 Q 2) N H Ce, f

(11)

Cost = Aw,g (Cost of new unit + Installation process)

(12)

Payback period = Cost/Saving

(13)

Heating and cooling load can be reduced by changing the type


of window glass and insulating walls (NLPIP, 1990). Using double
glass instead of single glass reduces solar heat gain in windows as
shown in the Fig. 1.
The more heat ow resistance insulation provides, the lower
the heating and cooling cost. Properly insulating the building not
only reduces heating and cooling costs but also improves comfort,
(Touqan, Yaseen, Zakarneh, & AL-zamer, 2012).
In this work, the glass was changed from single glaze to double
glaze so that the U-value has been changed from 6.7 W/m2 C to
3.5 W/m2 C. Also the walls were insulated so that the U-value has
been changed from 1.7 W/m2 C to 1.2 W/m2 C.
4. Lighting audit
The energy which is used for lighting inside the building is large
and replacing the conventional lighting xtures and lambs with
more efcient xtures and lambs can help in reducing the operating
costs and the overall effects of electricity generation on the environment. To conduct lighting audit, basic lighting information was

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K. Hassouneh et al. / Sustainable Cities and Society 14 (2014) 456462

Fig. 1. (a) Single window glass and (b) double window glass, e.g. (EEG, 2006).

Table 1
Lighting components and their powers.
Lights

Number of
units

Power per unit


(Watt)

Halogen spotlight
Fluorescent lights
Sum

54
283

36
36

Total power
(Watt)
1944
10,188
12,132

gathered. Information which is needed in order to understand the


contribution of lighting in the current energy bill at the department
is the number of light bulbs, their location, and their operation time.
The previous studies showed that the replacement of the lighting
is very economic and the payback period is very short. Therefore, a
systematic approach has been used to identify the utilized lighting
equipment which is currently in service, e.g. (Wang, Huang, & Cao,
2010). The used lighting system in the department depends mainly
on usage of halogen spot lights and uorescent lights. The department has ve oors includes ofces, classrooms, bathrooms and
corridors, and the distribution of the lights are shown in Table 1.
4.1. Energy efcient lights
A compact uorescent light bulb (CFL) is a uorescent light
bulb that has been compressed into the size of a standard-issue
incandescent light bulb. Installing compact uorescent light bulbs
is a simple way to save energy and money, while protecting the
environment. CFLs use up to 75% less energy Compared to generalservice incandescent lamps giving the same amount of visible light.
CFL also use one-fth to one-third the electric power, and last
815 times longer. They reduce greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to climate change, (Al-Saeh et al., 2010) and considered as
a good choice for the environment. A CFL has a higher purchase
price than an incandescent lamp, but can save over ve times its
purchase price in electricity costs over the lamps lifetime.
The following equations were used to calculate the saving in
energy by adapting new efcient lights:
S = (P1 P2) N H Ce

(14)

Cost = N (Cost of new unit + Installation process)

(15)

4.2. Occupancy sensors


Sensors located throughout a building can help to maximize the
energy savings potential of infrequently used areas. Some lecture
rooms in the department have the light even there is no one in these

halls since there is no sensor installed. There are two main occupancy sensor technologies for lighting; infrared (IR) and ultrasonic
(US). Sensors work best in areas with low occupant densities, such
as meeting rooms, hallway, laundry rooms, warehouses, loading
areas, and storage spaces. The cost of the sensors can be covered in
a short time through energy savings. Even though lamp life may be
somewhat shortened by increased onoff switching, the overall life
of lamps is usually extended by the reduced daily burn hours. As
with any automated controls, maintenance practices must ensure
that the sensor controls are operating properly. The proper installation and maintenance of daylight and occupancy sensors is an
essential task. Placement of sensors should take into account furniture placement and the geometry of the space as much as possible,
as occupancy sensors need to sense all occupants to avoid turning
off lights while the space is occupied. At the same time, false-on
incidents can be triggered by an automatic on/off sensor that senses
passersby in an adjoining hallway if the settings are too sensitive.
Sensors with too low a sensitivity or too short a delay time can
annoy occupants.
Lights in bathrooms or other infrequently used areas are frequently left on for extended periods, either due to forgetfulness or
deliberately to serve as nightlights, they can be a signicant source
of lighting energy use.
LED-based lights provide sufcient illumination to assist occupants in the transition from light to dark, and then switch on the
appropriate light when occupants enter the space or resume movement. These systems address concerns about lights turning off in
areas where occupants tend to remain inactive for long periods,
and can reduce lighting energy use in these areas by 5075%, e.g.
(NLPIP, 1990).
The following calculations were made to calculate electricity
consumption for each kind of light and its saving
S = P1 N H Ce

(16)

Saving = Etotal saving rate

(17)

4.3. Ballasts
Ballasts consumed electricity while they are providing the necessary circuit conditions (voltage, current and wave form) to start
and operate Fluorescent lamps. There are three kinds of ballast,
magnetic, hybrid and electronic ballast.
For higher power installations, too much energy wasted in resistive ballast, so alternatives are used that depend upon the reactance
of inductors, capacitors, or both, (NLPIP, 1990).

K. Hassouneh et al. / Sustainable Cities and Society 14 (2014) 456462

459

Table 2
Total area for each zone in the building.
Zones

Denition for each zone

Total area (m2 )

Zone 1
Zone 2
Zone 3
Zone 4
Zone 5

Basement
Ground
First oor
Second oor
Third oor

190.80
85.000
192.12
192.06
197.74

Table 3
Heating and cooling load for zone 1 in the case of single glazing and noninsulated
walls.

Fig. 2. Energy balance diagram of a boiler (EEG, 2006).

Zone 1

4.4. Dimmers
Dimmers are devices used to vary the brightness of a light. By
decreasing or increasing the RMS voltage and, hence, the mean
power to the lamp, it is possible to vary the intensity of the light
output.
Dimmers range in size from small units the size of a light
switch used for domestic lighting to high power units used in large
hall lighting installations. Small domestic dimmers are generally
directly controlled, although remote control systems are available.
Modern professional dimmers are generally controlled by a digital
control system. In newer systems, these protocols are often used in
conjunction with Ethernet, (Free Guide, 2010).
Previous studies for dimmers showed a variable saving can be
achieved depending mainly on the dimming percentage of light
which can be controlled by the user.
5. Boiler
Boilers are available in different types just like re tube, water
tube, packaged, uidized pulverized fuel, stoker red, high pressure
steam and low pressure steam. All of those types consist of a burner,
control and pressure vessel, e.g. (Al-Saeh et al., 2010).
Boilers are often one of the largest energy consumers in the
building. Boiler operation and maintenance is therefore a good
place to start when looking for ways to reduce energy consumption and energy bill. Boiler efciency tests help us to nd out the
deviation of boiler efciency from the best efciency and target
problem area for corrective action, (EEG, 2006).
The combustion process in a boiler can be described in the form
of an energy ow diagram. This shows graphically how the input
energy from the fuel is transformed into the various useful energy
ows and into heat and energy loss ows. The thickness of the
arrows indicates the amount of energy contained in the respective
ows (Fig. 2).
A heat balance is an attempt to balance the total energy entering
a boiler against that leaving the boiler in different forms. Boiler efciency, in the simplest terms shows the difference between energy
input and energy output. Boiler efciency can be indicated by combustion efciency, thermal efciency and fuel to uid, (EEG, 2006)
many factors affects boiler efciency such as, stack temperature,
fuel specication, excess air, ambient temperature, radiation and
convection losses, e.g. (Al-Saeh et al., 2010)
The efciency of the old boiler and a new one was calculated in
order to calculate fuel saving using the following calculations
% efciency saving = (new old/new) 100%

(18)

Fuel saving (Liter) = Fuel consumption efciency saving

(19)

Saving (JD) = Saving (Liter) Tariff (JD/Liter)

(20)

It is very necessary to control the level of concentration of the


solids in suspension and dissolved in the boiled water. Blow down
is necessary to protect the surfaces of the heat exchanger in the

Class 1
Class 2
Class 3

Floor area (m2 )

64.8
65.8
60.2

Cooling load

Heating load

(Kw)

(Kw/m2 )

(Kw)

(Kw/m2 )

13.5
13.2
12.3

0.2089
0.2006
0.2052

8.2
8.4
7.0

0.1265
0.1277
0.1163

Table 4
Heating and cooling load for zone 1, in the case of double glazed windows and
insulated walls.
Zone 1

Class 1
Class 2
Class 3

Floor area (m2 )

64.8
65.8
60.2

Cooling load

Heating load
2

(Kw)

(Kw/m )

(Kw)

(Kw/m2 )

12.8
12.9
11.7

0.1975
0.1960
0.1944

6.7
7.6
6.7

0.1034
0.1155
0.1113

boiler. However, blow down can be a signicant source of heat loss,


if improperly carried out (EEG, 2006).
Conductivity measurement is used for monitoring the overall TDS present in the boiler. A rise in conductivity indicates
a rise in the contamination of the boiler water. Conventional
methods for blowing down the boiler depend on two kinds of
blow down, intermittent and continuous. Controlling boiler blow
down can signicantly reduce treatment and operational costs that
include, lower pretreatment costs, less make-up water consumption, reduced maintenance downtime, increased boiler life and
lower consumption of treatment chemicals.
6. Results
The calculation for heating and cooling load of the department
has been carried out for different scenarios. The rst scenario took
into consideration the current situation of the department which
has a single glass for windows and its external walls are not insulated. A schematic diagram of the department was made and the
department was classied into 5 zones each zone indicates one
oor as shown in Table 2.
Cooling and heating load for each zone was calculated considering the existing situation in which walls are not insulated and
single glass windows are used. It was found that the cooling load
which is required for each zone is much higher than the heating
load for the same zone.
The second scenario took into consideration is the new situation of the department which has a double glass for windows and
its external walls are insulated. It was found that the cooling load
which is required for each zone is also much higher than the heating
load for the same zone.
A sample of the above results is abbreviated in Tables 3 and 4.
6.1. Heating and cooling load cost and payback period
After calculating the value of heating and cooling load in each
oor for each condition, nding the cost, saving and payback period,

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K. Hassouneh et al. / Sustainable Cities and Society 14 (2014) 456462

Fig. 3. Monthly saving due to new situation for heating and cooling load.

Fig. 4. Monthly saving due to new situation for lighting system.

Table 5
The cost, saving and payback period for each oor.
Floors

Saving
(JD/year)

Cost (JD)

3490
13,106
7677
8622
8411
41,306

7410
11,903
11,359
5984
5774
42,430

Basement
Ground
First oor
Second oor
Third oor
Total

Payback period
(months)
16.2
11.0
8.1
8.3
8.2
12.3

it was found that the payback period for the whole department is
about 1 year which is very economic and money and energy saving
(Table 5).

installing dimmers. It is also found that replacing the halogen lamps


with and energy efcient lamps, can save energy as shown in
Table 6, these lamps used for general lighting and any reduction
in there wattage will lead to around (2540%) saving electricity.
By installation of occupancy sensors inside the department to
prevent dissipation of energy with no one is occupying, studies
show a saving off (4050%). The lighting components will be connected to a sensor to achieve a 40% in classrooms, 13%in private
ofces, 3080% in corridors. Energy saving for the lights with occupancy sensors is shown in Table 7.
The electronic ballasts can be used with the lamps to eliminate
the dissipation of energy, many studies showed a saving percentage (2040%) when using these electronics ballasts as sown in
Table 8.Using dimmers in the department can also save energy as
shown in Table 9.

6.2. Lighting system


The lighting system was analyzed to discover the main opportunities of the electricity saving by applying proper energy auditing
methods such as using efciency lights, installing occupancy
sensors, replacing the magnetic ballast by electrical ballast and

6.3. Boiler saving analysis


The performance parameters of a boiler, like efciency and evaporation ratio, reduces with time due to poor combustion. A heat

Table 6
Energy saving from replacing halogen lights with energy saving lights.
Light

Number of units

Power (Watt)

Saving (JD/year)

Cost (JD)

Payback period months

Halogen spot light

54

13

938.39

162

2.07

Table 7
Summary of energy saving for the lights with occupancy sensors.
Light

Number of
units

Power (Watt)

Power (Watt)

Cost of electricity (JD/year)

Saving
(JD/year)

Halogen spot light


Fluorescent lights for the classrooms
Fluorescent lights for the ofces

54
153
130

36
36
36

1944
5508
4680

1468.79
4161.57
3535.97
9166.33

440.64
1664.63
459.68
2564.95

Payback period months

2.8

Table 8
Energy saving from replacing magnetic ballast by electrical ballast.
Light

Number of units

Power (Watt)

Saving (JD/year)

Cost of (JD)

Payback period months

Fluorescent lights

54

36

1539.51

1981

15.4

K. Hassouneh et al. / Sustainable Cities and Society 14 (2014) 456462

461

Table 9
Energy conservation measures by installation of dimmer.
Light

Number of units

Power (Watt)

Power (Watt)

Cost (JD)

Saving (JD/year)

Payback period months

Halogen spot light

54

36

1944

312

293.6

12.7

balance helps us to identify avoidable and unavoidable heat losses.


Boiler efciency tests help us to nd out the deviation of boiler
efciency from the best efciency and target problem area for corrective action (EEG, 2006).
It was found that the total fuel consumption for the engineering faculty is 360,000 Liter of diesel and for the department is
51,429 Liter of diesel with cost of 36,000 JD for the whole year. The
target of this study is to compare the possible current efciency
with target one which is 95% and the current one is 70%. According
the previous data and equations, the saving was found to be about
25% as shown below:
% efciency saving = 95 70% = 25%
Fuel saving (Liter) = 51,429 0.25 = 12,857.25 Liter.
So, by improving the efciency of combustion from 70% to 95%,
the amount of fuel saved will be 12,857.25 Liter and the money
saving was calculated using previous equations taking into consideration the cost tariff which is 0.7 (JD/Liter).
Saving (JD) = 12,857.25 0.7 = 9000.08 JD
Fig. 5. The percentage saving in (JD/year) for each system.

Total heating and cooling load for the whole building was calculated and the results in using single glass and double glass were
compared, it was found that the value of heatingcooling load

Fig. 6. Annual saving in Liter for each assumed efciency %.

Fig. 7. Annual saving in JD for each assumed efciency %.

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K. Hassouneh et al. / Sustainable Cities and Society 14 (2014) 456462

Fig. 8. The percentage saving in (JD/year) for each system %.

changed and reduced in the insulated areas while poorly insulated


areas will continue to be major sources of heat/cooling loss.
It was found that the initial cost for changing the amount of
heating and cooling load is 42,430 JD and according to this initial
cost the amount of saving will be approximately about 3442.16 JD
through 12 months as shown in the following diagram (Fig. 3).
Calculations of amount of saving in lighting system was calculated as shown in the following diagram (Fig. 4).
The percentage of saving using each lighting system is shown
below in Fig. 5.
It was found that when the efciency of the boiler increases the
amount of saving in Liter and JD increased because the amount of
heat loss reduced when the boiler efciency increased as shown in
Figs. 6 and 7.
A according to the previous calculation of saving it was found
that if the walls are insulated and window are replaced from single
to double 74% of the annual amount paid by the university will be
saved as shown in Fig. 8.
7. Conclusions
It was found that insulation resists the ow of heat, keeping
the building cooler in summer and warmer in winter. A properly
insulated building allows for HVAC equipment rightsizing which
means that less money is spent on initial equipment costs, and more
money is saved in the long run as your HVAC equipment does not
work as hard to maintain a comfortable temperature.
Also, it has been found that installing double glass rather than
single one reduces heat loss through building, and around 60% of

heat loss in the building occurs through standard, single pane windows. The cost of double glazing will pay for itself very quickly by
saving in heating bills. Once the double glazing has been installed,
heating costs should decrease by around 1012%. As well as saving on heating bills, double glazing is very good at cutting down on
noise pollution and internal condensation.
The electrical bill for the department in 2012 indicates that the
electrical consumption of the building is 98,589.6 kWh per year
with cost 22,675.6 JD, this means that the electrical load building has a good saving potential to be investigated. Calculations
of lighting showed that the electrical load consumption for each
kind of light which is 1944 W, for halogen spot light and 10188 for
uorescent lights.
Installing occupancy sensors in class rooms, ofces and other
facilities which let light when need for it, the occupancy sensors will turn the light off when no occupants in the room, this
trend can provide saving of (2050%) depends in the facility function.
Replacing the magnetic ballasts by electronic ballasts which can
reduce the energy losses and heat and eliminate hum and annoying icker, the electronic ballasts can provide an energy saving by
(2535%).
Installing dimmers in the rooms and other facilities which need
a variable luminance in several periods of the day, the dimmers
can provide a good potential saving which ranges from 10% to 60%
depending on the user.
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