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# College of Engineering Pune.

## (MA-12004) Engineering Mathematics - III

(Academic Year: 2015-16) TUTORIAL # 4
1. Derive the following equations:
(a) One-dimensional wave equation which governs the transverse vibrations of an elastic
string of length L.
(b) Two-dimensional wave equation which governs the vibrations of a stretched elastic
rectangular membrane.
(c) One-dimensional heat equation which governs the heat flow in a long thin bar of length
L with insulated lateral surface.
2. (a) Obtain the deflection u(x, t) of a vibrating elastic string of length L at any point x and
any time t > 0, where the deflections are governed by the p.d.e. utt = c2 uxx subject to
the boundary conditions u(0, t) = u(L, t) = 0 and initial displacement u(x, 0) = f (x),
initial velocity ut (x, o) = g(x).
(b) Obtain the deflection u(x, y, t) at any point (x, y) of a vibrating rectangular membrane
0 < x < a, 0 < y < b, at any time t > 0, where the vibrations are governed by the
p.d.e. utt = c2 (uxx + uyy ) subject to the boundary condition u = 0 on the boundary
of the membrane for all t 0 and initial displacement u(x, y, 0) = f (x, y), initial
velocity ut (x, y, o) = g(x, y).
(c) Obtain the temperature u(x, t) at any point x and any time t > 0 in a thin long
bar of length L, where the heat flow is governed by the p.d.e. ut = c2 uxx under
the homogeneous boundary conditions u(0, t) = u(L, t) = 0 and initial temperature
distribution u(x, 0) = f (x).
(d) Obtain the temperature u(x, t) at any point x and any time t > 0 in a thin long bar
of length L, where the heat flow is governed by the p.d.e. ut = c2 uxx if both the ends
of the bar are insulated and initial temperature distribution is u(x, 0) = f (x).
3. Find the deflection u(x, t) of an elastic string of length L = 1 when c = 1, initial velocity
is zero and the initial deflection is
(a) f (x) = kx(1 x2 )
3b

L x, 0 x L/3
3b
(L 2x), L/3 x 2L/3
(b) f (x) =
L

3b
(x L), 2L/3 x L.
L
4. Find the deflection u(x, t) of an elastic string of length L = when c = 1, initial deflection
is zero and the initial velocity is g(x) = b sin(3x/L) cos(2x/L).
5. Find the temperature u(x, t) in a bar of length 10 cm, that is perfectly insulated laterally,
whose ends are kept at 00 C, density 10.6 gm/cm3 , thermal conductivity 1.04 cal/(cm sec
0
C), specific heat 0.056 cal/(gm 0 C) and initial temperature is
(a) f (x) = k sin(0.2x),

## x, 0 < x < 2.5

2.5, 2.5 < x < 7.5
(b) f (x) =

## 10 x, 7.5 < x < 10.

(c) f (x) = 2 0.4|x 5|.
6. Find the temperature u(x, t) in a laterally insulated bar, whose both the ends are insulated,
L = , c = 1 and initial temperature is
(a) f (x) = cos(2x), (b) f (x) = 1 (x/), (c) f (x) = (x 2 )2 .
7. What is the limit w(x) of the temperature of a long bar of length L as t if the ends
are kept at u(0, t) = U1 = constant and u(L, t) = U2 = constant?
8. The ends A and B of a rod 10 cm long have temperature 200 C and 400 C respectively
until steady state prevails. Then the temperature of the ends are changed to 500 C and
100 C respectively. Find the subsequent temperature distribution in the rod. Show that
the temperature at the middle point of the rod remains unaltered all the time.
9. A rod 100 cm long has its ends kept at 00 C and 1000 C until steady state condition prevails.
The two ends are then suddenly insulated and maintained thereafter. Find the temperature
in the rod. Show that the sum of the temperatures at any two points equidistant from the
centre is always 1000 C.
10. Solve ut = c2 uxx subject to the boundary conditions ux (1, t) = 0 (i.e. this end is insulated),
u(0, t) = 10 and initial condition u(x, 0) = 1 x, 0 < x < 1 (L = 1).
11. Show that the problem consisting of non-homogeneous heat equation ut c2 uxx = N ex
subject to the boundary conditions u(0, t) = 0 = u(L, t) and initial condition u(x, 0) =
f (x), 0 < x < L can be reduced to a problem for the homogeneous heat equation by setting
u(x, t) = w(x) + v(x, t) and determining w so that v satisfies the homogeneous equation
and the conditions v(0, t) = 0 = v(L, t), v(x, 0) = f (x) w(x).
12. If the first eigenfunction u1 (x, t) = B1 sin(x/L) exp(21 t) of a heat conducting bar decreases to half of its value within 10 seconds, what is the value of the diffusivity?
13. Find the deflection u(x, y, t) of a rectangular membrane (0 < x < a, 0 < y < b) with c = 1,
if the initial velocity is zero and the initial deflection is given by
(a) f (x, y) = k sin(x) sin(y), a = b = 1.
(b) f (x, y) = xy( x)( y), a = b = .
(c) f (x, y) = xy(a2 x2 )(b2 y 2 ), 0 < x < a, 0 < y < b.
14. Show that among all the rectangular membranes of the same area A = ab and the same c,
the square membrane is the one for which u11 has the lowest frequency.
15. Consider the rectangular membrane 0 < x < 2, 0 < y < 1. Determine an eigenvalue
corresponding to which there are two or more different(independent) eigenfunctions.
16. Determine and sketch the nodal lines of the eigenfunctions umn (x, y, t) where m; n = 1, 2, 3
for the rectangular membrane 0 < x < 1, 0 < y < 3.

17. Find the steady state temperature distribution in a thin rectangular metal plate 0 < x <
a, 0 < y < b with its two faces insulated, under the boundary conditions:
(a) u(0, y) = u(x, 0) = u(x, b) = 0, u(a, y) = g(y), 0 < y < b.
(b) u(0, y) = u(a, y) = u(x, 0) = 0, u(x, b) = f (x) = 100, 0 < x < a.
(c) u(0, y) = u(a, y) = 0, uy (x, b) = 0 (i.e. the side y = b is insulated) and u(x, 0) =
f (x), 0 < x < a.
18. Find the steady state temperature distribution in a thin sheet of metal plate which occupies
the semi-infinite strip
(a) 0 x < , 0 y b with the boundary conditions: u(, y) = u(x, 0) = u(x, b) = 0
and u(0, y) = u0 sin(y/b), where u0 is a constant.
(b) 0 x , 0 y < with the boundary conditions: u(0, y) = u(x, ) = u(, y) = 0
and u(x, 0) = u0 = constant.
19. Solve the following p.d.es by the method of separation of variables.
(a) ux + uy = (x + y)u, (b) 2xzx 3yzy = 0.
20. Solve the following p.d.es as o.d.es.
(a) uxy = ux , (b) uxx + 9u = 0, (c) uy = 2xyu.
21. Consider the problem of finding the deflection u(x, t) of an elastic string of length L = 1,
with c = 1, initial velocity zero and the initial deflection f (x) = 2x, 0 < x < 1/2; f (x) =
2(1 x), 1/2 < x < 1. Express u(x, t) as superposition of two functions. Also draw figures
of u(x, t) for t = 0, 2/5, 1.