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# Chapter 34

Geometric Optics

## Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

Chapter 34
Geometric Optics
34-1 Reflection and Refraction at a Plane Surface
34-2 Reflection at a Spherical Surface

34-4 Thin Lens

34-1

## Reflection and Refraction at a Plane Surface

OBJECTIVES
Given an object in front of a plane mirror:
Calculate the location of the image
Calculate the lateral magnification of the image
Determine whether the image will be real or virtual, and upright
or inverted

34-1

## Reflection and Refraction at a Plane Surface

What is an object?
anything from which light rays radiate
light could be emitted by the
object itself

## light could be emitted by another

source and then reflected from the
object

34-1

## Reflection and Refraction at a Plane Surface

1. Point Object

no physical extent

2. Extended Object

## made up of a very large

number of point objects
Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

Point object P
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34-1

## Reflection and Refraction at a Plane Surface

What is an image?

34-1

## An image can be:

1. Real image
outgoing rays really do pass through an image point

34-1

## An image can be:

2. Virtual image
outgoing rays don't actually pass through the image point

34-1

## Reflection and Refraction at a Plane Surface

Sign Rules
1. Sign rule for the
object distance s
When the object is on the
same side of the reflecting or
refracting surface as the
incoming light, the object
distance s is positive;
otherwise, it is negative.

s is positive.
Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

34-1

## Reflection and Refraction at a Plane Surface

Sign Rules
2. Sign rule for the
image distance s
When the image is on the
same side of the reflecting or
refracting surface as the
outgoing light, the image
distance s' is positive;
otherwise, it is negative.

s is negative.
Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

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34-1

## Reflection and Refraction at a Plane Surface

Sign Rules
3. Sign rule for the
of a spherical surface:
When the center of curvature C is
on the same side as the
curvature is positive; otherwise,
it is negative.

## For a plane reflecting or refracting

surface, R is infinite.
Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

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34-1

Reflection

Note:
s is negative
image is virtual

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34-1

## Plane Mirror: Image of an Extended Object

Reflection

where:

y : object height
y : image height
s : object distance
s : image distance

## The image formed by a plane mirror is always erect (y > 0).

Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

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34-1

## Reflection and Refraction at a Plane Surface

Lateral Magnification
Sign Conventions:

## If m > 0: image orientation same with that of object

If m < 0: image orientation different from that of object

where:

y : object height
y : image height
s : object distance
s : image distance

## If |m| > 1: magnified

If |m| < 1: reduced
If |m| = 1: same size
If y > 0: image upright
If y < 0: image inverted
If s > 0: image real
If s < 0: image virtual
Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

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34-1

## Reflection and Refraction at a Plane Surface

Plane Mirror

Reflection

where:

y : object height
y : image height
s : object distance
s : image distance

Lateral Magnification

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34-1

Example:

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34-1

Example:

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34-1

## Reflection and Refraction at a Plane Surface

Seatwork:
A bug at about eye level is 5 cm in front of a plane mirror. You
are behind the bug, 20 cm from the mirror. What is the
distance between your eyes and the apparent position of
the bugs image in the mirror?

## Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

18

Chapter 34
Geometric Optics
34-1 Reflection and Refraction at a Plane Surface
34-2 Reflection at a Spherical Surface

34-4 Thin Lens

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34-2

## Reflection at a Spherical Surface

OBJECTIVES
Given an object in front of a spherical mirror:
Calculate the location of the image
Calculate the lateral magnification of the image
Determine whether the image will be real or virtual, and upright
or inverted

## Given an object placed in front of a spherical mirror, draw

the principal rays and locate the image

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34-2

Concave Mirror

Convex Mirror

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34-2

## Reflection at a Spherical Surface

Concave Mirror:
Point object

optic axis

Object P

V
C

R>0

Image P

s>0
Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

s> 0

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34-2

## Reflection at a Spherical Surface

Concave Mirror:
Extended object

Image
Object

y>0

y < 0
R>0

s>0
Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

s> 0

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34-2

## Reflection at a Spherical Surface

Concave Mirror:
Focal Point and Focal Length

where:
f > 0: focal length
R > 0: radius of curvature

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34-2

## Reflection at a Spherical Surface

Concave Mirror:
Focal Point and Focal Length

where:
f > 0: focal length
R > 0: radius of curvature

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34-2

Concave Mirror:
Graphical Method

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34-2

Example:

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34-2

## Reflection at a Spherical Surface

Seatwork:
A mosquito landed 20 cm in front of a concave mirror with
20 cm radius of curvature. How far from the mirror will the
mosquitos image be formed?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

## 40 cm behind the mirror

10 cm behind the mirror
10 cm in front of the mirror
20 cm in front of the mirror
At infinity

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34-2

Concave Mirror

Convex Mirror

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34-2

## Reflection at a Spherical Surface

Convex Mirror:
Point object

Image P

optic axis
V

Object P

R<0

s>0

s< 0
Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

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34-2

## Reflection at a Spherical Surface

Convex Mirror:
Extended object

Image
Object

y>0

y > 0
V

C
R<0

s>0
Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

s< 0

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34-2

## Reflection at a Spherical Surface

Convex Mirror:
Focal Point and Focal Length

where:
f < 0: focal length
R < 0: radius of curvature

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34-2

## Reflection at a Spherical Surface

Convex Mirror:
Focal Point and Focal Length

where:
f < 0: focal length
R < 0: radius of curvature

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34-2

Convex Mirror:
Graphical Method

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34-2

Example:

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34-2

## Reflection at a Spherical Surface

Seatwork:
You hold a large silver spoon a distance of 5.0 cm in front of
your face. The radius of curvature of the spoon is -20.0 cm.
What is the distance between the object and the image and
the nature (real or virtual) of the image?

## Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

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Chapter 34
Geometric Optics
34-1 Reflection and Refraction at a Plane Surface
34-2 Reflection at a Spherical Surface

34-4 Thin Lens

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34-3

## Refraction at a Spherical Surface

OBJECTIVES
Given an object in front of a spherical surface or interface
separating two media:
Calculate the location of the image
Calculate the lateral magnification of the image
Determine whether the image will be real or virtual, and upright
or inverted

## Calculate the apparent depth of an object when observed

across a boundary changing indices of refraction

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34-3

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34-3

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34-3

## Refraction at a Spherical Surface

Refracting surface:
Object-Image Relationship and Magnification

Note:
na : index of refraction of material 1
nb : index of refraction of material 2

## valid for both concave and

convex refracting surface
Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

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34-3

Example:

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34-3

Seatwork:

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34-3

## Refraction at a Spherical Surface

A special case:
Plane refracting surface

Material 1 Material 2
Object-Image Relationship

na

nb

Magnification

## Plane refracting surface

Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

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34-3

Example:

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34-3

Seatwork:

## Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

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Chapter 34
Geometric Optics
34-1 Reflection and Refraction at a Plane Surface
34-2 Reflection at a Spherical Surface

34-4 Thin Lens

## Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

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34-4

Thin Lens

OBJECTIVES
Differentiate a converging lens from a diverging lens
Given an object in front of a lens or series of lenses:
Calculate the location of the image
Calculate the lateral magnification of the image
Determine whether the image will be real or virtual, and upright
or inverted

Relate the radii of curvature of the lens in air and its index
of refraction of the focal length of the lens
Given an object placed in front of a lens or series of lenses,
draw the principal rays and locate the image
Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

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34-4

Thin Lens

What is a lens?
an optical system with two refracting surfaces

Thin lens
two spherical surfaces close enough together
negligible thickness

Converging Lens
Diverging Lens
Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

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34-4

Thin Lens

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34-4

Thin Lens

## f: focal length (f > 0)

F1 :1st focal point
F2 : 2nd focal point
Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

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34-4

Thin Lens

Converging Lens:
Graphical Method and Principal Rays

s>0

f>0

s> 0

## Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

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34-4

Thin Lens

Converging Lenses:
Object-image relationship and Magnification

## If s > 0: image real

If s < 0: image virtual

where:
f : focal length
s : object distance
s : image distance

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34-4

Thin Lens

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34-4

Thin Lens

## f: focal length (f < 0)

F1 :1st focal point
F2 : 2nd focal point
Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

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34-4

Thin Lens

Diverging Lens:
Graphical Method and Principal Rays

f<0

s< 0

s>0

## Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

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34-4

Thin Lens

Diverging Lenses:
Object-image relationship and Magnification

## If s > 0: image real

If s < 0: image virtual

where:
f : focal length
s : object distance
s : image distance

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34-4

Thin Lens

Example:

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34-4

Thin Lens

Example:

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34-4

Thin Lens

Example:

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34-4

Thin Lens

## Diverging lens: f < 0

y'

s = 16 cm
s = -12 cm

|f | = 48 cm |f | = 48 cm
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34-4

Thin Lens

Example:

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34-4

Thin Lens

Example:

## Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

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34-4

Thin Lens

Lensmakers equation

## Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

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34-4

Thin Lens

Lensmakers equation

where:

f : focal length
n : index of refraction of thin lens
R1 : radius of curvature of 1st surface
R2 : radius of curvature of 2nd surface
Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

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34-4

Thin Lens

## Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

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End of Chapter 34

Geometric Optics

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