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EEE1001/PHY1002

Magnetic Circuits
Just as we view electric
circuits as related to the
flow of charge, we can
also view magnetic flux
flowing around a
magnetic circuit.

The circuit
is of length
l=2r

B and
circulate

r
Crosssection of
core is A

The sum of fluxes

entering a point must
sum to zero
The sum of MMF drops
around any closed loop
equals the current
enclosed

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N turns

EEE1001/PHY1002

Magnetic Circuits
We can now introduce
a new concept. In
analogy to resistence
in electrical circuits, we
have a quantity which
measures the
resistance a magnetic
material has to the
flow of flux:

The circuit
is of length
l=2r

B and
circulate

r
Crosssection of
core is A

i
N turns

Reluctance, S.

MMF = S
C.f. V=iR
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Magnetic Circuits
MMF = S
H=Ni/l
B=H=Ni/l
=BA=AH
=(A/l) Ni
(l/A) = Ni

The circuit
is of length
l=2r

B and
circulate

r
Crosssection of
core is A

i
N turns

+
F
-

l
S = AA
A
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Magnetic Circuits in Series

li
Siron = A
AA
lg
Sgap = AA
0A
The reluctances
resistances:

i
li

lg

F=Ni

Ni=(Siron+Sgap)
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Siron

+
F
-

S
S

Sgap

EEE1001/PHY1002

Magnetic Circuits in Parallel

l3, A3
i2

i1

l1, A1

l2, A2

A typical parallel
magnetic circuit
involves a pair of coils
inductively coupled.
The net flux can flow
in the three arms in
either direction
depending on the
strength of the source
of flux, the MMFs
C.f. emf sources in
parallel circuits.

EEE1001/PHY1002

Magnetic Circuits in Parallel

S1

Reluctances:

S2

+
F1
-

S
3

F2
-

S1=l1/A1
S2=l2/A2
S3=l3/A3

Circuits:
N1i1 = 1S1 + (1+2)S3
N2i2 = 2S2 + (1+2)S3

Fields, Materials and Devices 1

EEE1001/PHY1002

reluctance in a solenoid
can be expressed as
a function of flux
through the core, and
a function of the
current in the coil:
a) =N
b) =Li

But we just saw that

MMF=S
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EEE1001/PHY1002

reluctance in a solenoid
Combining these:
a) =N
b) =Li
c) MMF=S = Ni

Li = N = N (MMF/S)
Li = N ( Ni /S )
So
N2

L = AA
S

EEE1001/PHY1002

N2
L = AA
S

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Voltage and inductance

that

d
V = dt
Again, if the coil
carrys a current i, we
may use
a) =N
b) =Li
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Voltage and inductance

d
V = dt
Substitution of these
expressions for , we
get:
V=N(d/dt)
V=d(iL)/dt
V=i(dL/dt)+L(di/dt)
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Voltage and inductance

V=N(d/dt)
V=d(iL)/dt
V=i(dL/dt)+L(di/dt)

If L is indepentent of
time, then

di
V = L dt
We use this in
determining stored
energy
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Stored energy
We shall assume a
fixed inductance, L.
Then the voltage
across the system
may be expressed as
V = iR + L(di/dt)

This may be
converted to a power
by multiplication by
the current
iV = i2R + iL(di/dt)
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Stored energy
Ohmic losses

iV =

Magnetic power

2
iR

di
+ iL(di/
dt

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Stored energy
The energy is the
time integral of the
power
This can be
evaluated rather
simply in the limit
of a time
independent L, as

di
W= iL dt
dt

W = Li 2
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Self and mutual inductance

Up to this point we
have largely only
been concerned
with single coils.
However, we are
often in practice
interested in
coupled coils.
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Self and mutual inductance

Suppose two coils are
wrapped around a
common magnetic
path.
Coil 1 is driven by a
voltage V1, and coil 2
is disconnected.
The flux from the first
coil couples the
second coil through
the magnetic flux
circulating in the core.

V1

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coil 2 is
2=N21

where

V1

1=L1i1 / N1

Hence
2= N2L1i1 / N1

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Self and mutual inductance

We specify the
coefficient of fluxlinkage in coil 2
due to the primary
current is called
the mutual
inductance, or

2 = M i1

V1

M=

N2L1
N1

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Self and mutual inductance

In fact there are
two sources of flux
Self-inductance
The flux from the
second coil

i1

i2

1=L11i1+12
2=L22i2+21
12 is the flux
the current in coil 2,
M12i2
21 is the flux
the current in coil 1,
M21i1

Fields, Materials & Devices

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Mutual induction
For a system of an arbritrary number of sources
of flux, the simplest way to express the set of
equations that we need to solve is matrix based:

Here, Lii is the self inductance of source i, and

Mij=Mji is the mutual inductance of coil i due to
coil j.
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Mutual induction

V2=d2/dt
V2=d(N21)/dt
V2=N2 d1/dt
V2=N2 d(1/N1)/dt
V2=(N2/N1) d1/dt
V2=(N2/N1) V1

V1

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V2

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Mutual induction

N1V2= N2V1
This assumes that
all the flux from coil
In practice, some
flux is lost

V1

Flux leakage
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V2

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Mutual induction and energy

We shall look at
the example of a
pair of sources, but
the principles apply
generally.
Taking time
derivitives of the
coupled equations.
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Mutual induction and energy

so that there is no stored energy.
We want to find the total energy when there is both
current in coil 1 and coil 2.
current in coil 1 to i1 before introducing any current into
coil 2.
The total input power is then given by:

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Mutual induction and energy

Since there is no current in coil 2, all terms
in i2 disappear.

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Mutual induction and energy

The energy is the time integral of the
power:

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Mutual induction and energy

We now introduce a current in coil 2 up to
i2, maintaining the current in coil 1 at i1
(so di1/dt=0)

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i1

i2

The total energy

stored in the two coil
system is the sum of
these two processes.
There are two terms
related to the selfinductance that weve
seen before, plus an
their interaction.

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Coil sits in radial magnetic field

Circumferential current creates
axial movement in reaction to
magnetic field
south

coil

north

Diaphragm
needs to be
light and
stiff e.g.
cardboard

south
force = B magnet il
i=

Vaudio
2

R 2 + (L )

sin(t + )

impregnated

force v audio

EEE1001/PHY1002

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Applications of Electromagnetic Forces

Electric motors :
Electrical power is
input
Energy flows in
electromagnetic fields
Conversion into
mechanical power

Should it be an
electric or magnetic
field?
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Applications of Electromagnetic Forces

Both H- and E-fields
store energy.
Force acts in a sense
that minimises energy
stored in the field
Work done = F.dr
We equate w.d. to the
sum of
the loss in stored
energy
Input electrical energy
Losses

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Magnetic case
Iron

l
Iron

A coil wound around a

piece of iron
d.c. current

Coil arrangement
separated from another
piece of iron by an air-gap
Magnetic flux flows across
gap and exerts a force of
attraction
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Magnetic case
Iron

Energy density stored in

the gap is
B

Area, A

Iron

B2
0 H dB = 0 dB = 2
B

Energy stored in the gap

is the gap volume

B2Al
E=
2
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Magnetic case
Iron

Area, A

Iron

B2Al
E=
2
Let us now suppose the
gap is reduced by an
amount l.
The energy stored is
reduced by
B2Al

E =

EEE1001/PHY1002

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Magnetic case
Iron

Area, A

Iron

For a small enough

change, the force is given
by (E/l), so
B2A

F=

The force density is then

B2
F=
2
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Magnetic case
Iron

Area, A

Iron

B2
F=
2
For iron, the magnetic flux
density saturates around
B=1T
What force density does
this correspond to?

EEE1001/PHY1002

33%

0,
00
0

Nm
2

Nm
2

33%

40

0.
04

m
2

33%

40

1. 0.04 Nm2
2. 40 Nm2
3. 400,000 Nm2

:10

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Magnetic force and induction

Alternative approach uses the energy as a
function of the inductance of the coil producing
the field:
Stored energy = Li 2

The force is the rate of change with position

F =d

1 Li 2 = 1 i 2 dL
dx 2
2 dx

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Electric case
In direct analogy with the magnetic case, the
energy stored per unit volume is
D

E dB =
0

D 2 E 2
dD =
=
2
2

The force based upon a small distance change

is
F = E2A
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Electric case
The force per unit area is then

F = E2 = DE
The maximum value of electric field strength is
dictated by the breakdown field.
If this is around 3x106 V/m for air, what is the
maximum force per unit area?

EEE1001/PHY1002

33%

0,
00
0

Nm
2

Nm
2

33%

40

0.
04

m
2

33%

40

1. 0.04 Nm2
2. 40 Nm2
3. 400,000 Nm2

:10

EEE1001/PHY1002

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Magnetic field based forces are generally

greater in practical machines

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Electric field motors

There is an exception
at the small length
scale.
This image is of a
micro-motor, the
rotational forces of
which are based upon
electrostatics.

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Force of alignment
The basic mechanism
behind motors is that
the fields are
arranged so as to
bring parts into
alignment.
force

flux lines

airgap
magnetically
permeable
material

force

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Force of alignment
We now have the iron
offset in the xdirection.
The stored energy is
reduced if the
components are
brought closer to
vertical alignment.
There is a force of
alignment
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Force of alignment
The force is given by
the rate of change of
stored energy with
movement
Fx=i 2(dL/dx)
Fy=i 2(dL/dy)

This is the force

present in reluctance
motors
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Continuous motion

B
+

back-iron

stator tooth
+

+
rotor

B
+

winding

Continuous motion
is achieved by
careful design of the
coils and rotating
components.
Here coils are
energised in
sequence to
generate rotation.

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Continuous motion

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Example application

Vacuum cleaner

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Force from mutual induction

Again, the two coil
components
experience a force of
alignment to minimise
the magnetic energy.
Here it is the mutual
inductance in play
Fx=i1i2(dM12/dx)

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Application of F=BiL
We can look at the
field generated by
one coil, and
calculate the force on
the second using
F=BiL

This may be
performed on either
set of current carrying
coils.
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Application of F=BiL
The BiL force
induces motion in the
direction of the force,
which therefore has
an associated amount
of work.
For a small
displacement in the xdirection, the work
done is
W.d. = BiLx
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Application of F=BiL
The conductor of
length L moving at a
speed ux orthogonal
to a magnetic field of
flux density B also
induces a voltage:
V=BLux
V=BL (x/t)

This voltage opposes

the current.
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Application of F=BiL
To maintain the current
against the induced,
opposing voltage,
electrical power must
be supplied:
P = Vi
P = BLi (x/t)

Rearraning yields:
P t = BLi x

or the energy
supplied electrically
balances the work
done.
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