Magnetic Circuits
Just as we view electric
circuits as related to the
flow of charge, we can
also view magnetic flux
flowing around a
magnetic circuit.
The circuit
is of length
l=2r
B and
circulate
r
Crosssection of
core is A
N turns
EEE1001/PHY1002
Magnetic Circuits
We can now introduce
a new concept. In
analogy to resistence
in electrical circuits, we
have a quantity which
measures the
resistance a magnetic
material has to the
flow of flux:
The circuit
is of length
l=2r
B and
circulate
r
Crosssection of
core is A
i
N turns
Reluctance, S.
MMF = S
C.f. V=iR
Fields, Materials & Devices
EEE1001/PHY1002
Magnetic Circuits
MMF = S
H=Ni/l
B=H=Ni/l
=BA=AH
=(A/l) Ni
(l/A) = Ni
The circuit
is of length
l=2r
B and
circulate
r
Crosssection of
core is A
i
N turns
+
F

l
S = AA
A
Fields, Materials & Devices
EEE1001/PHY1002
i
li
lg
F=Ni
Ni=(Siron+Sgap)
Fields, Materials & Devices
Siron
+
F

S
S
Sgap
EEE1001/PHY1002
i1
l1, A1
l2, A2
A typical parallel
magnetic circuit
involves a pair of coils
inductively coupled.
The net flux can flow
in the three arms in
either direction
depending on the
strength of the source
of flux, the MMFs
C.f. emf sources in
parallel circuits.
EEE1001/PHY1002
Reluctances:
S2
+
F1

S
3
F2

S1=l1/A1
S2=l2/A2
S3=l3/A3
Circuits:
N1i1 = 1S1 + (1+2)S3
N2i2 = 2S2 + (1+2)S3
EEE1001/PHY1002
MMF=S
Fields, Materials & Devices
EEE1001/PHY1002
Li = N = N (MMF/S)
Li = N ( Ni /S )
So
N2
L = AA
S
EEE1001/PHY1002
N2
L = AA
S
EEE1001/PHY1002
10
d
V = dt
Again, if the coil
carrys a current i, we
may use
a) =N
b) =Li
Fields, Materials & Devices
EEE1001/PHY1002
11
EEE1001/PHY1002
12
If L is indepentent of
time, then
di
V = L dt
We use this in
determining stored
energy
Fields, Materials & Devices
EEE1001/PHY1002
13
Stored energy
We shall assume a
fixed inductance, L.
Then the voltage
across the system
may be expressed as
V = iR + L(di/dt)
This may be
converted to a power
by multiplication by
the current
iV = i2R + iL(di/dt)
Fields, Materials & Devices
EEE1001/PHY1002
14
Stored energy
Ohmic losses
iV =
Magnetic power
2
iR
di
+ iL(di/
dt
EEE1001/PHY1002
15
Stored energy
The energy is the
time integral of the
power
This can be
evaluated rather
simply in the limit
of a time
independent L, as
di
W= iL dt
dt
W = Li 2
Fields, Materials & Devices
EEE1001/PHY1002
16
EEE1001/PHY1002
17
V1
EEE1001/PHY1002
18
where
V1
1=L1i1 / N1
Hence
2= N2L1i1 / N1
EEE1001/PHY1002
19
2 = M i1
V1
M=
N2L1
N1
EEE1001/PHY1002
20
i1
i2
1=L11i1+12
2=L22i2+21
12 is the flux
linking coil 1 due to
the current in coil 2,
M12i2
21 is the flux
linking coil 2 due to
the current in coil 1,
M21i1
EEE1001/PHY1002
21
Mutual induction
For a system of an arbritrary number of sources
of flux, the simplest way to express the set of
equations that we need to solve is matrix based:
EEE1001/PHY1002
22
Mutual induction
V2=d2/dt
V2=d(N21)/dt
V2=N2 d1/dt
V2=N2 d(1/N1)/dt
V2=(N2/N1) d1/dt
V2=(N2/N1) V1
V1
V2
EEE1001/PHY1002
23
Mutual induction
N1V2= N2V1
This assumes that
all the flux from coil
1 links coil 2.
In practice, some
flux is lost
V1
Flux leakage
Fields, Materials & Devices
V2
EEE1001/PHY1002
24
EEE1001/PHY1002
25
EEE1001/PHY1002
26
EEE1001/PHY1002
27
EEE1001/PHY1002
28
EEE1001/PHY1002
29
EEE1001/PHY1002
30
i1
i2
EEE1001/PHY1002
31
coil
north
Diaphragm
needs to be
light and
stiff e.g.
cardboard
south
force = B magnet il
i=
Vaudio
2
R 2 + (L )
sin(t + )
EEE1001/PHY1002
32
Should it be an
electric or magnetic
field?
Fields, Materials & Devices
EEE1001/PHY1002
33
EEE1001/PHY1002
34
Magnetic case
Iron
l
Iron
Coil arrangement
separated from another
piece of iron by an airgap
Magnetic flux flows across
gap and exerts a force of
attraction
Fields, Materials & Devices
EEE1001/PHY1002
35
Magnetic case
Iron
Area, A
Iron
B2
0 H dB = 0 dB = 2
B
B2Al
E=
2
Fields, Materials & Devices
EEE1001/PHY1002
36
Magnetic case
Iron
Area, A
Iron
B2Al
E=
2
Let us now suppose the
gap is reduced by an
amount l.
The energy stored is
reduced by
B2Al
E =
EEE1001/PHY1002
37
Magnetic case
Iron
Area, A
Iron
F=
B2
F=
2
Fields, Materials & Devices
EEE1001/PHY1002
38
Magnetic case
Iron
Area, A
Iron
B2
F=
2
For iron, the magnetic flux
density saturates around
B=1T
What force density does
this correspond to?
EEE1001/PHY1002
0,
00
0
Nm
2
Nm
2
33%
40
0.
04
m
2
33%
40
1. 0.04 Nm2
2. 40 Nm2
3. 400,000 Nm2
:10
EEE1001/PHY1002
40
F =d
1 Li 2 = 1 i 2 dL
dx 2
2 dx
EEE1001/PHY1002
41
Electric case
In direct analogy with the magnetic case, the
energy stored per unit volume is
D
E dB =
0
D 2 E 2
dD =
=
2
2
EEE1001/PHY1002
42
Electric case
The force per unit area is then
F = E2 = DE
The maximum value of electric field strength is
dictated by the breakdown field.
If this is around 3x106 V/m for air, what is the
maximum force per unit area?
EEE1001/PHY1002
0,
00
0
Nm
2
Nm
2
33%
40
0.
04
m
2
33%
40
1. 0.04 Nm2
2. 40 Nm2
3. 400,000 Nm2
:10
EEE1001/PHY1002
44
EEE1001/PHY1002
45
EEE1001/PHY1002
46
Force of alignment
The basic mechanism
behind motors is that
the fields are
arranged so as to
bring parts into
alignment.
force
flux lines
airgap
magnetically
permeable
material
force
EEE1001/PHY1002
47
Force of alignment
We now have the iron
offset in the xdirection.
The stored energy is
reduced if the
components are
brought closer to
vertical alignment.
There is a force of
alignment
Fields, Materials & Devices
EEE1001/PHY1002
48
Force of alignment
The force is given by
the rate of change of
stored energy with
movement
Fx=i 2(dL/dx)
Fy=i 2(dL/dy)
EEE1001/PHY1002
49
Continuous motion
B
+
backiron
stator tooth
+
+
rotor
B
+
winding
Continuous motion
is achieved by
careful design of the
coils and rotating
components.
Here coils are
energised in
sequence to
generate rotation.
EEE1001/PHY1002
50
Continuous motion
EEE1001/PHY1002
51
Example application
EEE1001/PHY1002
52
EEE1001/PHY1002
53
EEE1001/PHY1002
54
Application of F=BiL
We can look at the
field generated by
one coil, and
calculate the force on
the second using
F=BiL
This may be
performed on either
set of current carrying
coils.
Fields, Materials & Devices
EEE1001/PHY1002
55
Application of F=BiL
The BiL force
induces motion in the
direction of the force,
which therefore has
an associated amount
of work.
For a small
displacement in the xdirection, the work
done is
W.d. = BiLx
Fields, Materials & Devices
EEE1001/PHY1002
56
Application of F=BiL
The conductor of
length L moving at a
speed ux orthogonal
to a magnetic field of
flux density B also
induces a voltage:
V=BLux
V=BL (x/t)
EEE1001/PHY1002
57
Application of F=BiL
To maintain the current
against the induced,
opposing voltage,
electrical power must
be supplied:
P = Vi
P = BLi (x/t)
Rearraning yields:
P t = BLi x
or the energy
supplied electrically
balances the work
done.
Fields, Materials & Devices