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HM211 Pakistan Studies

Course Instructor:
Mahboobul Rahman Khan

Congress Rule in the Provinces

(July 1937-November 1939)

The Federal part of the 1935 Act could not be implemented for
the following reasons:
(a) Unwillingness of native states to accede to the Federation
(b) Congress-Muslim League opposition to the Federal scheme on
the plea that 1935 Act did not provide responsible government
in the centre.
The British government decided to implement the provincial
part of the Act giving provincial autonomy and responsible
government in the provinces.
Provincial elections were held in early 1937.
Congress achieved big victory and managed to get clear
majority in five provinces and managed coalition government
in there.

The Muslim League managed to win a few seats

in Muslim minority provinces but failed in the
Muslim majority areas.
The main cause of the Muslim Leagues poor
showing Jinnah who had returned from his 2
years self imposed exile in 1936 could not get
enough time to reorganize the Muslim League
which had grown weak during his absence.
Congress formed governments in 8 provinces
The Muslim League hoped that the
would accommodate Muslims in the provincial
The Congress adopted a haughty attitude over
the issue and was unwilling share power

In U.P the Congress laid down degrading conditions for

the Muslim League to be included in the ministry.
Maulana Azad, a member of the Congress high
command communicated to Ch. Khaliquz Zaman the
following terms on which the Congress was prepared
to let Muslim League enter the Provincial government.
1. The Muslim League group in the U.P legislative
assembly should be dissolved.
2. The Muslim members should join the Congress and
would come under the party discipline.
3. The Muslim members shall carry out the
instructions issued by the Congress party leaders.
4. The Muslim League parliamentary board shall be

With the Congress rule established, the

Hindus came out to impose Hindu
The Congress governments imposed ban on
cow slaughter. Hindi was imposed on
Muslims in congress provinces. Instances
were reported of pushing pigs into
mosques, instances of disturbing azan and
prayers were reported. Hindu festivals were
officially celebrated. Hindu Muslim rights
took place and miscreants were neither
caught by the police nor punished. The
Muslims were freely molested.

Bande Matram taken from an anti Muslim

novel Ananda Math was adopted as national
anthem and Muslim students in school were
forced sing it with folded hands in front of
portrait of Gandhi.
Educational schemes like Wardha scheme
based on Gandhis phitospply were prepared.
Accounts of Muslim culture were excluded
from the syllabi.
Widdia Mandir (temples of education) scheme
was introduced in C.P. much to the chagrin of

Muslim Mass Contact Campaign: Congress started an

aggressive Muslim mass contact campaign to damage
the popularity of Muslim League.
All protests of the Muslim League and Muslim Leaders
were ignored.
The Pirpur Committee appointed by the Muslim
League recorded in its report many instances of the
highhanded and unjust conduct of congress
The Congress said the Pirpur committee had written a
highly exaggerated account.
However, even if half of the report is correct, it is
enough to prove the highhanded anti Muslim conduct
of the congress ministries.

The Congress ministries resigned from office

in November 1939 in protest against the
second world war policies of the British
Jinnah appealed to the people to observe the
Day of Deliverance on 22 December 1939.
The Congress rule in the provinces was a dark
period for the Muslims.
It convinced the Muslims that the congress
was a party to safeguard Hindu interest only.
It paved the way for the Muslim demand of a
separate homeland by dividing India.