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Trace the pathway taken by the oocyte from its release to its implantation

Oocyte once released in the ovary goes to a tiny finger like projections called fimbriae. The
fimbriae catch the egg and guide it to the fallopian tubes. Once inside the fallopian tube the
oocyte treks down the fallopian tube and wait for it to be fertilized. If the oocyte is not
fertilized it withers away and menstruation occurs. If the oocyte is fertilized by the sperm
cell it will travel to the uterus and implant itself along the uterine wall.
How is the turbidity of urine related to its specific gravity?
The turbidity of urine cause by protein or excess cellular material can affect the
concentration or specific gravity of the urine. The more excess material on the urine the
heavier it is.
Discuss how a nephron performs its function?
Its main functions include regulating the concentration of sodium salts and water by filtering
the kidneys blood, excreting any excess in the urine and reabsorbing the necessary
amounts. It also regulates blood pressure and volume, controls the levels of metabolites and
electrolytes and helps eliminate waste from the body.
How does mechanical digestion affect chemical digestion?
Mechanical digestion which cuts, smash, and grind food increases the surface area of the
food to be digested, increasing exposure to digestive juices, thus making further digestion
more efficient and beneficial.
Why is it impossible for the student to hold his/her breath indefinitely?
It is impossible to hold your breath because breathing is automatic and overriding process
that you cant control, the more you hold your breath the more urge you to breath. The
partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide in blood changes as you hold your breath.
Oxygen is used up by metabolic processes, reducing its partial pressure, and carbon dioxide
is produced, raising its partial pressure. One might think that there are mechanisms to
detect these concentrations, and give rise to the impulse to breathe if oxygen gets too low
and/or carbon dioxide gets too high.
What will happen if the student hyperventilates for a long period of time?
When you hyperventilate, you blow off too much CO2 causing you to feel weak and dizzy...
sometimes leading you to pass out. It is the body's natural response, to do that it allows for
your CO2 to build back up
Compute for the minute volume given the following information.
Minute volume (VE) is the volume air inhaled or exhaled per minute.
Respiratory rate = 15bpm
Tidal volume = 400ml
VE = tidal volume x respiratory rate
VE = 400 x 15
VE = 6000
Compute for the mean arterial pressure if the blood pressure is 120/70mmHg.
MAP= 140+120/3
MAP= 260/3
MAP= 83.33mmHg
What is the length of one cardiac cycle if the heart rate is 70bpm? Show the
Cardiac cycle = 60/70

Cardiac cycle = .86 sec

Discuss why the length of diastolic changes with exercise. What is its implication?
During vigorous exercise, your systolic blood pressure rises because your heart must work
harder to pump more blood with each contraction to keep your muscles supplied with
oxygen. The more strenuous the exercise, the greater the rise in systolic pressure. During a
very vigorous workout, systolic blood pressure in a healthy athlete may rise to as high as
200 mm Hg. Normally, however, diastolic blood pressure changes very little, if at all. In a
young, healthy person, diastolic blood pressure typically rises by no more than a few mm
Hg, even during a strenuous workout. That's because the blood vessels in your working
muscles widen, decreasing peripheral resistance.
In which of the conditions in the experiment were you able to get the lowest pulse
rate? The highest pulse rate? What are the reasons behind these findings?
Internal body changes
Environmental stress
Fitness level
Protection from the degenerative process of heart disease
There are two different factors involved in heart rate management: intrinsic and extrinsic
controls. Intrinsic regulation of heart rate is the result of the unique nature of cardiac tissue it is self-regulating and maintains it's own rhythm without direction. Extrinsic controls are
those that come from both hormonal responses as well as the commands from the nervous
system: the central nervous system and the autonomic nervous system. Extrinsic regulation
can cause the heart rate to change rapidly because of chemicals that circular in the blood or
by direct action of nerves that go to the heart.
Trace the circulatory pathway. Assume that the blood is about to leave the right
Right ventricle pulmonary artery lungs pulmonary vein left atrium left ventricle
aorta upper and lower body superior/inferior vena cava
Enumerate the conditions characterized by fragile capillaries.

injury or trauma
adverse effects of medicaments like cortisone and aspirin

poor blood circulation

remaining in a standing position for prolonged periods

Allergic or inflammatory conditions

After differentiating active from passive hyperemia, what type of hyperemia is
produced by 70% isopropyl alcohol? Explain.
70% Isopropyl alcohol can cause active hyperemia because it is generally believed that they
cause membrane damage and rapid denaturation of proteins, with subsequent interference with
metabolism and cell breakdown.

Can there be prolonged bleeding time with normal clotting time or vice versa?
Explain your answer.
Yes, bleeding time is a specific medical test of platelet function where a patient is given a
small cut and the time till it stops bleeding are measured.
Clotting time is not a standard term but you probably mean testing the ability of the blood's
clotting factors (proteins for the most part). This can be tested in 2 main ways prothrombin

time (PT) or partial thromboplastin time (pTT) and each test assesses a different part of the
clotting cascade.
Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of using the earlobe as puncture
site for determining bleeding time.
less painful(few nerve endings)
free flow of blood (thinner skin)
less tissue contaminationof bloodsearching
Abnormal cells (histiocytes in bacterialendocarditis)

Less amount of blood can be collected
Additional and repeated test cannot be done
It hemolyses easily
What causes the absence of intravascular clotting?

Sepsis (an infection in the bloodstream)

Surgery and trauma


Serious complications of pregnancy and childbirth

What is the importance of determining clotting time?

Determining clotting timehas been used to diagnose diseases like hemophilia,
thrombophilla, and liver disorder. It is also helps monitoring the anticoagulant therapy.
Discuss the mechanism of hemostasis.
Hemostasis occurs when blood is present outside of the body or blood vessels. It is the
instinctive response for the body to stop bleeding and loss of blood. During hemostasis three
steps occur in a rapid sequence. Vascular spasm is the first response as the blood vessels
constrict to allow less blood to be lost. In the second step, platelet plug
formation, plateletsstick together to form a temporary seal to cover the break in the vessel
wall. The third and last step is called coagulation or blood clotting. Coagulation reinforces
the platelet plug with fibrin threads that act as a molecular glue. [1] Platelets are a large
factor in the hemostatic process. They allow for the creation of the platelet plug that forms
almost directly after a blood vessel has been ruptured. Within seconds of a blood vessels
epithelial wall being disrupted platelets begin to adhere to the sub-endothelium surface. It
takes approximately sixty seconds until the first fibrin strands begin to intersperse among
the wound. After several minutes the platelet plug is completely formed by fibrin.
Hemostasis is maintained in the body via three mechanisms:
1. Vascular spasm - Damaged blood vessels constrict. Vascular spasm is the blood vessels'
first response to injury. The damaged vessels will constrict (vasoconstrict) which reduces the
amount of blood flow through the area and limits the amount of blood loss. This response is
triggered by factors such as a direct injury to vascular smooth muscle, chemicals released
by endothelial cells and platelets, and reflexes initiated by local pain receptors. The spasm
response becomes more effective as the amount of damage is increased. Vascular spasm is
much more effective in smaller blood vessels.[1]
2. Platelet plug formation - Platelets adhere to damaged endothelium to form a platelet
plug (primary hemostasis) and then degranulate. This process is regulated
throughthromboregulation. Plug formation is activated by a glycoproteincalled Von
Willebrand factor (vWF), which is found in plasma. Platelets play one of the biggest roles in
the hemostatic process. As they adhere to the collagen fibers of a wound, platelets become
spiked and much stickier. They then release chemical messengers such as adenosine

diphosphate (ADP),serotonin and thromboxane A2, causing more platelets to stick to the
area, release their contents, and enhance vascular spasms. As more chemicals are released
more platelets stick and release their chemicals; creating a platelet plug and continuing the
process in a positive feedback loop. Platelets alone are responsible for stopping the bleeding
of unnoticed wear and tear of our skin on a daily basis. This is referred to as primary
There are a dozen proteins that travel along the blood plasma in an inactive state and are
known as clotting factors. Once the platelet plug has been formed by the platelets,
the clotting factors begin creating the clot. When this occurs the clotting factors begin to
form a collagen fiber called fibrin. Fibrin mesh is then produced all around the platelet plug,
which helps hold the plug in place. Once this begins, red and white blood cells become
caught up in the fibrin mesh which causes the clot to become even stronger. This step of
coagulation is referred to as secondary hemostasis. [3]
3. Blood coagulation - Clots form upon the conversion offibrinogen to fibrin, and its
addition to the platelet plug (secondary hemostasis). Coagulation: The third and final step in
this rapid response reinforces the platelet plug. Coagulation or blood clotting uses fibrin
threads that act as a glue for the sticky platelets. As the fibrin mesh begins to form the blood
is also transformed from a liquid to a gel like substance through involvement of clotting
factors and pro-coagulants. The coagulation process is useful in closing up and maintaining
the platelet plug on larger wounds. The release of prothrombin also plays an essential part in
the coagulation process because it allows for the formation of a thrombus, or clot, to form.
This final step forces blood cells and platelets to stay trapped in the wounded area. Though
this is often a good step for wound healing, it has the ability to cause severe health
problems if the thrombus becomes detached from the vessel wall and travels through the
circulatory system; If it reaches the brain, heart or lungs it could lead to stroke, heart attack,
or pulmonary embolism respectively. However, without this process the healing of a wound
would not be possible.[1]