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# BEAM ANALYSIS

## SHEAR FORCE (SF) AND BENDING MOMENT (BM).

Effects of internal forces and moments to externally applied loads
When a beam is subjected to an applied load, it will bend and internal stresses will
develop. These stresses are SHEAR and BENDING, their values are needed for the
analysis and design of members in bending.

If a beam is loaded with two external loads P1 and P2 as shown above, the beams fibres
above the PN (neutral axis) experience COMPRESSION, (i.e the fibres will shorten from
original length, i.e CD > CD) and fibres below NA are subjected to TENSION (i.e the
fibres will be longer than the original length, i.e EF < EF). At NA, the length of the fibre
does not change, this fibre is layer WITHOUT STRESS.
Due to the shortening, fibres above the neutral axis, e.g CD will be subjected to
COMPRESSIVE STRESS and fibres below the neutral axis, e.g EF will be subjected to
TENSILE STRESS.
Besides these bending stresses, the beam will also be subjected to SHEAR STRESS, this
stress is acting simultaneously with the bending stresses.
Procedures for the determination of SF and BM require equilibrium condition of the beam:
1. Initially the support reactions need to be determined. This will provide the beam to be
in equilibrium externally.
If the beam is in equilibrium, then each segment or small element of the beam is also
in equilibrium
2. Take small sections of the beam to obtain the internal forces.
e.g If the beam is cut at section 1-1, equilibrium condition will provide the values of
the SF and BM at the surface of the beam.
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## For the element AXYZ, for equilibrium,

V = 0, H = 0 and M = 0 . Equilibrium equations
From the free body diagram above, there must be internal forces V and M to provide
equilibrium,
Where V = Shear Force (SF) at the considered section
and M = Bending moment at the considered section
3. Depending on the loading and types of supports, the values of the SF and BM VARY
throughout the beam. As an engineer, we need to know the variation of these functions
(i.e SF and BM) and it is important that we know the MAGNITUDE and POSITION
where these functions occur.
Example 1 Simply supported beam with central concentrated load

## 1. Calculate the beam reactions,

Due to symmetry, RA = RB = P/2
2. Determine the SF and BM equations
(a) Span AC, At section 1-1

SF
Fy = 0, P/2 V = 0, VAc = + P/2 Equation for SF on span AC
SF for AC is constant, its value is P/2 up to point C.
Just to the right of section C,
Fy = 0, P/2 P - V = 0, VC = - P/2
BM
Taking moments about section 1-1, M = 0
M P/2 x = 0, MAC = P/2 x ---------Equation for BM for span AC
BM varies linearly from A to C,
M= 0 at support A (x = 0) and M = P/2 . L/2 = PL/4 at mid-span when x = L/2
(b) SF and BM equations for span CB

SF
Fy = 0, P/2 P- V = 0, VCB = - P/2 Equation for SF on span BC
SF for span BC is constant, its value is -P/2 from x = L/2 to x = L
At B, Fy = 0, P/2 P- V + P/2 = 0, VB = 0
BM
Taking moments about section 2-2, M = 0
M P/2 x + P (x-L/2) = 0, MCB = P (L/2 x/2) ---------Equation for BM for span CB
BM reduces from PL/4 (when x = L/2) to 0 when x =L at B.

SIGN CONVENTION

SF
Shear Force is +ve if the left end is displaced upwards relative to the right end, likewise it
is ve if the right end is displaced upwards relative to the left end

BM

## Bending moment is considered +ve if the beam is displaced downwards (sagging),

likewise it is considered ve if it is displaced upwards (hogging).
+ve BM occurs when the beam is in compression at the top and tension at the bottom.

## SIGN CONVENTION OF DRAWING BM DIAGRAM

1. Drawn on the TENSION side of beam.
2. Shape of BM diagram is similar to the shape of the deflected shape of beam.

DEFINITION
1.

## AXIAL FORCE (AF)

Algebraic sum of all the forces parallel to the axis of the member, taken to the right
or left of a section.
Sign convention:

2.

Compression -ve
Tensile +ve

## SHEAR FORCE (SF)

Algebraic sum of all the forces perpendicular (ar) to the axis of the member, taken
to the right or left of a section.

3.

## BENDING MOMENT (BM)

Algebraic sum of all the moments about a point or section, to the right or left of the
section.

## Example: - Axial Force

Axial load of 10 kN acts axially at section C of beam.

1.

## Calculate Beam Support Reactions

VA = VB = 0 (No external vertical loads)

2.

## Axial Force Equation

Span AC, AF = +10 kN (to the right of left of section 1-1)
Span CB, AF = 0 (to the right of left of section 2-2)

## Axial Force Diagram

Standard Beam Case 2: Simply supported beam with uniformly distributed load

1.

## Calculate Beam Support Reactions

Due to symmetrical loading, RA = RB =

2.

wL
2

SF Equations
At section 1-1, to the left of section,
VAB

= RA wx
=

wl
2

- wx (Linear equation)

When x = 0, VA =

wl
2

x = L/2, VL/2 = 0
x = L, VB = 2.

wl
2

BM Equations
At section 1-1, to the left of section,
MAB = RA. x w. x.
=

w
2

x
2

. x (L x) - Parabolic equation

When x = 0, MA = 0
x = L/2, Mmax =

w
2

=+

L
2

L
2

wL2
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## (Maximum BM at mid-span, also when V=0 gives Mmax)

x = L, MB = 0
(BM at the supports A and B for simply supported beam = 0)

CANTILEVER BEAMS
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## Case 1: Concentrated load at free end

From equilibrium of force systems, there exist vertical reaction and moment at the
fixed end (built-in)
V = 0, VA = P
M = 0, MA = PL
SF Equations
Right of section 1-1, +ve

## VAB = +P (constant throughout)

BM Equations
Right of section 1-1 , anti-clockwise mt +ve

## MAB = - P.x (Varying linearly)

= 0 at free end B
= -PL at fixed end (built-in) at A

## Case 2: Uniformly distributed load (udl) throughout span

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Reactions at A
V = 0, VA = wL
M = 0, MA = - w . L .

L
2

=-w

L2
2

SF Equations
Right of section 1-1, +ve

## VAB = wx (varying linearly)

= 0 at B and wL at A
BM Equations
Right of section 1-1 , anti-clockwise mt +ve

## MAB = - w.x. 2x (Parabolic equation)

= 0 at free end B and w

L2
2

at fixed end at A

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