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FACULTY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY MARA


SHAH ALAM, SELANGOR
MEC532 MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DESIGN 2
FINAL REPORT

PROJECT TITLE:
DESIGN & FABRICATE A SINGLE SEATER VEHICLE
(CHASSIS)

TEAM LEADER
SIGNATURE:

: AHMAD HASSAN B MUHD MUHAYYIDIN


(20133411786)

TEAM MEMBER
SIGNATURE:

: MOHAMAD HAZIM FAHMI BIN MOHD YAMIN

TEAM MEMBER
SIGNATURE:

: MOHAMAD ZAID BIN MOHAMAD ZAILANI


(2012241394)

TEAM MEMBER
SIGNATURE:

: MUHAMAD SHAFIQ BIN SAUFI


(2012876726)

TEAM MEMBER
SIGNATURE:

: MOHAMAD FARIZ AIZAT BIN ABDAIN


(2012223106)

TEAM MEMBER
SIGNATURE:

: KU SITI FATIMAH AZZAHRA BT KU MOKHTAR

(2012226818)

(2012540029)

PROJECT ADVISORS: EN HAKIM ABDULLAH

ABSTRACT
This design project is the requirement for Part 6 students of Faculty of Mechanical
Engineering. Each class were required to build a single seated vehicle which comprises 7
departments from each class which are chassis department, safety department, bodywork
department, braking department, steering department, powertrain department and suspension
department.
We are from chassis department were required to build a strong and light chassis for
our single seated vehicle. Aspects of ergonomics, safety, ease of manufacture and reliability
are incorporated into the design specifications. Analysis are conducted on all major
components to optimized strength and rigidity, improve vehicle components and to reduce
complexity and manufacturing costs.
3D models have been made for analysis purpose by using CATIA software and
analysis has been made.3D assembly models of the single seated vehicle are designed for
understanding purpose. The design of chassis starts with the reviewing and drawbacks of
design 1 chassis structure and concludes with the changes made for this design 2.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Apart from the effort of us, this design project was done successfully because of the
encouragement and guidelines from many others. We would like to take this valuable
opportunity to express our gratitude to the people who have been a big help to us during
completion of this project.
First and foremost, We would like to thank our supervisor, En Abdul Hakim Abdullah
who has supported us throughout this project with his patience and knowledge. Guidance by
him physically and mentally is very valuable. He inspired us greatly to work in this project.
His willingness to motivate us contributed tremendously to our project. All these are the vital
factors which drive us till the end.
Secondly, we would like to offer our sincerest gratitude to members from other
department who provide us useful opinions and suggestions along the implementation of this
project. Their support made us able to complete this project. They are always by our side
without tired and fail when they are needed. Beneficial advices are obtained from them.
On the other hand, we would like to take this opportunity to thank our family members
for supporting and encouraging us during the completion of this project. Our deepest gratitude
from the bottom of our heart for the support, encouragement and inspirations we obtained
during this project.
Last but not least, we would like to thank everybody who was important to the
successful realization of this design project as well as expressing our apology that we could
not mention personally one by one.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
i. ABSTRACT
ii. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
iii. TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. INRODUCTION
a. Background
b. Objectives
c. Scope of Project
d. Project Planning
i. Organization & Management Team
ii. Project Schedule
2. DESIGN REVIEW
(Reevaluation, reselection & refinement of product & blue print)
a. Design Background
b. Product Modification
c. Engineering Analysis
d. Final Blue Print
3. MANUFACTURING PROCESS
a. Fabrication
b. Assembly
4. COSTING & MARKETING
a. Budget & Actual
i. Manpower
ii. Materials
iii. Machining
5. DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION

REFERENCES & CITATIONS


APPENDIX
a. Approved Blue Print
b. Minute of Meeting

INTRODUCTION
Chassis is the most important part of fabricating of single seated vehicle. Its department
plays a very important role because it is very related to other components of the vehicle. The
change in dimension and design of chassis will affect the designation of other component of
the vehicle. Chassis consists of an internal framework that supports a man-made object in its
construction and use.
Chassis serves as an aero device, both by directing air but also by supporting the
deflection of other aero components. The chassis also act as the driver's center of confidence.
If the driver does not feel safe, either due to weak impact zones or flexy suspension feedback,
he will not go fast. Arguably more importantly, he may be injured by an unsafe chassis.
Finally, the driver must be entirely comfortable.
A good chassis must have following characteristics :
Be structurally sound in every way over the expected life of the vehicle and beyond.
This means nothing will ever break under normal conditions.
Maintain the suspension mounting locations so that handling is safe and consistent
under high cornering and bump loads.
Support the body panels and other passenger components so that everything feels
solid and has a long, reliable life.
Protect the driver from external injuries.
For this project, we are going to build a single seated vehicle based on SAE car
formula. All specification will be based on SAE car formula.

OBJECTIVES
While striving to achieve the major aims, this project design work will focus on
number of basic objectives which are :
1. To perform design and analysis of a single seated vehicle with all working
components.
2. To organize a race competition among the students.
3. To perform an aesthetic design on the vehicle consistent with the time now.
This chassis department having several objectives that would like to be accomplished:
a) Flaws present in design 1 must be removed or improved.
b) Designing a chassis that will be easily adaptable and adjustable.

c) Students will be able to learn to use CAD software such as CATIA and Solidworks.

SCOPE OF WORK

There are several structural requirement that need to be followed in fabrication of chassis :
1. Only structural space frame chassis type are allowed ( no monocoque type ).
2. The chassis must be made from structural steel or structural steel alloy tubing meeting
the ISO 4948 classifications and the ISO 4949 designations. Alloy steel having at least
one alloy element the mass content of which > 5% are forbidden.
3. The vehicle chassis must be equipped with an effective roll bar that extends 5cm
around the driver's helmet and also extends in width beyond the driver's shoulders
when seated in normal driving position.
4.

A roll cage is an optional for the team to attach as a frame member of the chassis.

5. Any roll bar must be capable of withstanding a static load of 700 N (approximately
70kg ).
6. Driver visibility: The driver must have adequate visibility to the front and sides of the
car. With the driver seated in a normal driving position he/she must have a minimum
field of vision of 200 degrees (a minimum 100 degrees to either side of the driver).
The required visibility may be obtained by the driver turning his/head and/or use of
mirrors.

PROJECT PLANNING

TEAM MANAGEMENT

TEAM MEMBERS

JOB DESCRIPTION

AHMAD HASSAN

MUHAMMAD HAZIM

MOHAMAD FARIZ AIZAT

MOHAMAD ZAID

MUHAMMAD SYAFIQ

KU SITI FATIMAH AZZAHRA

Supervising team working


process.
Planning the schedule of design
and fabrication.
Communicating with others
department for further changes.
Fabrication task: Metal cutting
and welding.
Identifying material and
equipment used and availability.
Fabrication task: Measuring steel
bar and welding.
Surveying and buying metal bar
and bracket.
Fabrication task: Measuring and
metal cutting.
Drafting the final design for
endorsement.
Communicate with other
department for installing subsystem.
Fabrication task: Metal cutting
and welding.
Redrawing the design plan using
CATIA, update the latest changes
in chassis and other department.
Fabrication task: Measuring and
metal cutting.
Managing fund for chassis
department.
Handling minutes of meeting and
drafting.
Fabrication task: Metal cutting
and welding.

DESIGN REVIEW
DESIGN BACKGROUND

DESIGN 1

From the figure above, all the modification in design 1 has been done. However, on
the front roll bar the height need to be increase to provide space for steering department to
place their steering, and the shaft needed for the system. As the front roll bar is increase the
back roll bar must also increase in order to fulfill requirement by faculty that the effective roll
bar must extend 50mm around the driver helmet.

DESIGN 2

The figure above shows the final improvement that we made. Two long beams is
added on the base of the chassis to support the power engine at the rear. Front chassis will
support the steering, braking and suspension system. On the front side, few vertical beams is
added to enable shaft placement of suspension and the same time avoid force deformation
acting from vertical. Supports are also added at the rear to help in supporting the back roll bar
and the engine cage.

Figure: Final design


PRODUCT MODIFICATION

ENGINEERING ANALYSIS

(i)

(i)

(ii)
Back crash test Von Mises Stress (ii) Translational displacement

(i)

(i)

(ii)
Front crash test Von Mises Stress (ii) Translational displacement

(i)

(ii)
(i)Front roll bar test Von Mises Stress (ii) Translational displacement

(i)

(ii)
(i)Roll bar test Von Mises Stress (ii) Translational displacement

(i)

(i)

(ii)
Side crash test Von Mises Stress (ii) Translational displacement

(i)

(ii)
(ii)

Torsion test Von Mises Stress (ii) Translational displacement

FINAL BLUE PRINT

MANUFACTURING PROCCESS
MATERIAL SELECTION

Width : 2.5 cm
Length: 2.5 cm
Thickness:1.5 mm

FABRICATION AND ASSEMBLY

Conventional metal
cutting machine is used
to cutting the beam into
desired length.

Tolerance must be
counted

Gas Metal Arc Welding(GMAW) equipment is


used for joining of the beam. The shielding gas used is carbon dioxide gas

Chassis frame

COSTING

The budget that is given for our department is RM100.00.


To be noted that all the parts are provided by the faculty. Some of the parts need to be
bought at outside of the faculty due to fulfill the design of the chassis. The equipment that we
used also provided by faculty plus we used our own man power thus no cost is required.All
major parts which is the base of the chassis and the upper support are ready available at the
faculty. Some of the overhead cost must be considered to meet the requirement of the design.
Here is the cost involves in ordered to complete chassis space frame:
No
01
02

03
04
05
06
07

08

09

10
11
12

13

Compone
nt
Base
length side
bar 2090
Base
length
center bar
2040
Base width
side bar
130
Base width
center bar
150
Front roll
bar 1080

Quantity

Sources

Material
Steel

Price per
unit (RM)
10.40

Total
price
20.80

Buy

Buy

Steel

10.10

20.20

12

Buy

Steel

0.70

8.40

Buy

Steel

Buy

Steel

Back roll
bar
2500
Back roll
bar
support
1000
Back roll
bar engine
support
805
Front roll
bar
support
666
Upper
front
Side 682
Upper
back side
662
Front &
back
central
460
Vertical
short bar
270

Buy

steel

12.40

12.40

Buy

Steel

5.00

10.00

Buy

Steel

4.00

8.00

Available

Steel

Available

Steel

Available

Steel

Available

Steel

12

Available

Steel

14

Mounting
bracket
upper
Paint

15

16

Fabricate

Buy

Steel

10.40

10.40

TOTAL RM 90

DISCUSSION
From our progress in fabricating the chassis, we have certain limitation in developing
the chassis frame. In designing we use CATIA software but it is still new for us. We are
having hard time to study about this CATIA software with ourselves without further guide
from expert. We have to explore functional of all methods in software that works with
experiment samples and that take long time to master the CATIA software skill. Besides, we
also lack of handcraft skill, specifically in welding so we have to develop the chassis frame
based on our ability. We lack of workshop practice which result in lacking in the knowledge to
develop and built the chassis. However, we are successfully build the chassis
We also consider the cost because we have limited budget which we cannot afford to
exceed the budget and have to create our chassis which our very own skills and the tools that
are provided by the faculty. Even though, we lack of skill, we cannot afford to hire someone
to craft our chassis. Therefore we have to be a quick learner and craft our very own chassis.
Since we are limiting the cost, we cannot afford to buy fine material such as titanium. Hence,
we have to use the alternative ways by using the materials provided that is hollow rectangular
mild steel.
Next is limitation due to technical specification, we are only limited to structural space
frame chassis type only. Therefore we cannot create monocoque type chassis. From the
technical specification, we are not allowed to use any alloy steel having at least one alloy
element the mass contain of more or equal to 5%. Due to safety regulation, our chassis must
also equipped with an effective roll bar that extend 50mm around the drives helmet and must
be capable of withstanding a static load of 700N which applied in a vertical, horizontal or
perpendicular direction without deforming and also extend in width beyond the drives
shoulders when seated in normal driving position. The technical specification also limiting us
from exceeding the minimum wheel base of 1000mm and 1500mm maximum. Our vehicle
also limited by length and width of 2500mm and 1400mm respectively. Hence, because of

this specification, our department must also provide space for other department to install their
component without The design on chassis that been used are

For all part in chassis, we are using mild steel that meet the ISO standards which
available at Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM. The distance between helmet and roll
bar is 7cm. The width of chassis is 400.8 cm which is met the requirement. An analysis for
impact when load applying on roll bar had been conducted with static load 700N. our action
taken in design 2 of our chassis had been improved from design 1 which the viewing angle is
too low. Side mirror also had been attached for side viewing for driver's safety

CONCLUSION
The objectives of this project had been successfully obtained. All
design and analysis for chassis component had been conducted properly.
The designated chassis also has followed the requirement and also SAE
formula car. The modification that had been made from design before is
successful and had been proved on race competition at Mechanical Design
Day. This project also all students have increased soft skills such as
leadership, teamwork and spirit during accomplishment

REFERENCES
1. American Welding Society (2004). Welding Handbook, Welding Processes,
Part 1. Miami: American Welding Society.
2. Anders, A. (2003). "Tracking down the origin of arc plasma science-II. Early
continuous discharges". IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
3. Craig, Ed (1991). Gas Metal Arc & Flux Cored Welding Parameters. Chicago:
Weldtrain.
4. Cary, Howard B.; Helzer, Scott C. (2005). Modern Welding Technology. Upper
Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education.
5. Kalpakjian, Serope; Schmid, Steven R. (2001). Manufacturing Engineering
and Technology. Prentice Hall.
6. Lincoln Electric (1994). The Procedure Handbook of Arc Welding. Cleveland:
Lincoln Electric.
7. Minnick, William H. (2007). Gas Metal Arc Welding Handbook Textbook.
Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox.
8. http://www.mechanicalengineeringblog.com/tag/conventional-frame/
9. http://bieap.gov.in/Pdf/automobilechasis.pdf
10. http://www.colorado.edu/MCEN/MCEN4173/chap_01.pdf
11. http://www.learnengineering.org/2012/12/what-is-von-mises-stress.html
12. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Finite_element_method

APPENDIX