Sie sind auf Seite 1von 63

Sustainable management of

construction waste
for Hong Kong
Professor C.S. Poon

Dept of Civil and Structural Engineering


The Hong Kong Polytechnic University

Construction Waste
15 Million tonnes
in 2009
Batching plants
Excavation

Road Work

Demolition

C&D Waste

Construction

Refurbishment
Renovation

C&D Waste Generation


Inert C&D materials (mainly
sand, bricks and concrete) both
suitable for land reclamation
and land formation works, are
disposed of at public filling
areas.
Non inert portion (bamboo,
plastics, glass, wood, paper,
vegetation and other organic
materials) ends up at municipal
solid waste landfills.

15

C&D Waste Management in Hong Kong


Salvageable Scraps
Reuse/Recycling

C&D Waste

Inert Portion Public fills

Non-inert Portion Landfills

Mixed waste Sorting facility

Construction Waste (source EPD)


(2008)
Sorting Facilities
2,080 tpd

Landfills
1,020 tpd

10%

5%

86%

Public Fill
Reception Facilities
18,680 tpd
3

Total: 21,780 tpd


Figures may not add up to total due to rounding-off

Construction Waste
(Approx. 15.4 M tonnes in Year 2009) (source CEDD)
93%

7%

Inert

Non-inert

68%

25%

Soft

Hard
20%

Recyclable

5%

Non-recyclable

C&D Materials Management Facilities


Locations

The Problem
Hong Kong will soon be running out of both
landfill space and public filling areas.

According to Government sources :


Landfills will be filled up soon.
Limited reclamation projects. Temporary fill banks will be
full soon.
30

11

Delivery of Reclamation Material to Mainland

12

Designated Reclamation Site in Mainland

20km
13

Construction Waste Disposal


Charging Scheme
Implemented on 1 Dec 2005
Government waste disposal
facilities
Public fill reception facilities

14

Type of construction waste accepted


Consisting entirely of
inert construction waste

Charge per
tonne
$27

Sorting facilities

Containing more than 50% by


weight of inert construction
waste

$100

Landfills

Containing not more than 50% by


weight of inert construction
waste

$125

Outlying Islands Transfer


Facilities

Containing any percentage of


inert construction waste

$125

Waste Management Hierarchy


1. Avoid waste generation

2. Minimize waste generation

MINIMISE

3. Reuse/Recycle the material

REUSE/RECYCLE

4. Proper disposal of waste

AVOID

DISPOSAL

CWDCS presentation by CS Poon

15

Nature of C&D waste Mixture of inert &


non-inert materials
Soft inert
materials
Hard inert
materials
Non-inert
materials
CWDCS presentation by CS Poon

FILLS

FILLS/
RECYCL
E
LANDFIL
LS
16

Ranking of Major Waste Producing Processes


on Building Sites

Form work

Finish work

Concrete
work

Masonry
work

Material
handling

Scaffolding
work

Source : HK PolyU
24

Hoarding

Figure 6 Major Causes of Waste for Brick/Block


(Source: Hong Kong PolyU [ 6 ] )
Over Order
15%

Damaged during
storage
11%

Damaged during
transportation
16%
Damaged during
laying
19%

25

Cutting Waste
39%

Figure 8 Major Causes of Waste for Tiles


(Source: Hong Kong PolyU [ 6 ] )
Over order
11%

Others
7%

Change of design
13%

Cutting waste
40%

Damaged during
storage
29%
Source : HK PolyU
26

Dimensional Coordination and


Standardization

35

Minimizing Temporary Works


In Hong Kong, most of the
waste arising from
temporary works is due to
the use of timber
formworks

36

Minimizing Temporary Works


Alternatives to be considered:
system formworks (metal or aluminum
formworks) that can be reused and/or
recycled
Prefabricated elements (facades, slabs,
staircases, etc)

37

Minimizing Temporary Works


Other reusable alternatives to be considered:
Metal temporary work
Metal platform work
Reusable safety system
Metal scaffolding or mixed
bamboo and metal scaffolding
Metal hoarding

38

on cost
on time

1.31
1.33

Construction Method Selection


Figure 8: Factors that determined a construction method selection
(Question 25)

1.33

Construction time

1.31

Factors

Construction cost
1.11

Familiarity with the construction tecnology


Developers requirement

0.76
0.56

Labor dependence
0.21

Waste reduction
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Index

39

1.2

1.4

On-site Low Waste Building Technologies

43

Formworks:
Large panel formwork.
Steel, aluminum and plastic
forms.
Composite steel decking.
Pecaform.

Off-site: Precast and Prefabrication

45

Construction Waste Disposal


Charging Scheme Implemented in Dec 2005

Government waste
disposal facilities

Type of construction waste


accepted

Public fill reception


facilities

Consisting entirely of
inert construction waste

Charge
per
tonne
$27

Sorting facilities

Containing more than 50% by


weight of inert construction
waste

$100

Landfills

Containing not more than 50%


by weight of inert
construction waste

$125

Outlying Islands Transfer


Facilities

Containing any percentage of


inert construction waste

$125

Aim of Study
How much construction waste has been
reduced?
What changes has taken place among
building professionals ?
What are the impact of CWDCS on major work
trades on construction sites ?
What are the barriers for changes ?
CWDCS presentation by CS Poon

28

Research Methodology
Questionnaire
Totally 319 nos. of questionnaires w; 109 nos. of
questionnaires returned
Structured interviews
One to one structured interviews with difference
construction professionals

Case Studies
Three detailed case studies
CWDCS presentation by CS Poon

29

After the WCS has been implemented, what is the extent of changes
(% increase in waste disposal cost) you allowed in bidding new
projects?
19.8%

21.0%
17.3%

9.9%
7.4%

7.4%

6.2%

2.5%

1.1%
0

7.4%

No < 0.05% 0.05% < 0.1% < 0.3% <


change
0.1% 0.3%
1%

1% <
1.5%

CWDCS presentation by CS Poon

1.5% < over 2% no


2%
answer
30

Research Findings
Level of Waste Generation (After
CWDCS)
40.0%
28.8%

11.3%
5.0%

10.0%
3.8%

-15% < -10%-10% < -5% -5% < 0% No change 0% < 1%


CWDCS presentation by CS Poon

1.1%
over 3% No answer
31

Research Findings
Barriers of On-site Waste Sorting
All respondents

Building Engineer Project Manager Quantity Surveyor

Mean

Rank

Mean

Rank

Mean

Rank

Mean

Rank

Narrow site access

5.21

4.42

5.38

5.32

Limited waste storage area on site

3.70

2.58

4.35

3.44

No sorting area on site

3.86

4.17

3.85

3.76

Intensive labor cost in sorting wastes

4.19

5.75

3.21

4.62

High supervisory to subcontractor's

4.16

5.75

4.29

3.47

Low waste sortability

4.86

5.17

4.24

5.38

Interference with normal site activities

4.55

4.42

4.76

4.38

CWDCS
by
CS Poon2
Impractical in using too many waste chutes
5.46presentation
8
3.75

5.91

5.62

32 8

behaviors

Research Findings
Changes after CWDCS implemented
All
Building
Project
Quantity
respondents Engineer
Manager
Surveyor
Mean Rank Mean Rank Mean Rank Mean Rank
Reduction of site wastage level

3.30

2.95

3.10

3.71

More efficiency in waste sorting on site

4.15

4.86

4.38

3.56

Improvement in materials estimation


before ordering
Improvement in inventory monitoring

3.82

4.14

3.57

4.00

3.87

3.86

4.16

3.48

Increase environmental awareness

2.84

2.55

2.82

2.98

Increase materials recycling awareness

3.02

2.64

2.96

3.27

CWDCS presentation by CS Poon

33

Conclusions
less than 5% waste reduction has been achieved since
the CWDCS
Charge is not high enough to raise the awareness of
waste management at construction sites.
Wet-finishing & dry-finishing trades have
undergone little changes
CWDCS has NOT motivated subcontractor to change their
methods of construction
CWDCS presentation by CS Poon

34

On-site waste sorting is more possible at


large construction sites
Need to have other measures, such as
inclusion of waste reduction requirements
in contractual clauses and government
regulations, to effect the waste reduction

CWDCS presentation by CS Poon

35

Eco-friendly
Construction
Materials

Professor Chi-Sun Poon


www.eco-block.hk

Construction Waste
(Approx. 15.4 M tonnes in Year 2009) (source CEDD)
93%

7%

Inert

Non-inert

68%

25%

Soft

Hard
20%

Recyclable

5%

Non-recyclable

Recycling Plant
Incoming C&D Materials

Sorting Plant

Inert C&D Materials


suitable for Recycling

Crusher

Source :CEDD

Sieving

Recycled
Aggregates

C & D Waste

>250 mm

150-250 mm

Sorting Facility

150-50 mm

<50 mm

Recycled Aggregates Derived from Sorting Facility

Extension of SENT Landfill


To handle :

Wastes that cannot be incinerated, e.g. construction


waste

Possible C&D waste recycling


facility ???

Properties of Recycled Aggregates

40 mm

20 mm

10 mm

5 mm down

Requirements in
WBTC No.
12/2002

2350 - 2550

2450 - 2600

2450 - 2600

2450 - 2600

2000

3.1 - 4.9

1.0 - 4.9

1.4 - 2.6

N/A

10

Max. content of wood and other material


less dense than water (%)

0.5

Max. content of other foreign materials (%)

0 - 0.3
0-1
N/A
17 - 26
N/A
Pass

0.1 - 0.7
0.5 - 2.0
<0.1
13 - 20
110 - 140
Pass

1.0 - 3.0
2.7 - 4.0
<0.1
21 - 32
N/A
Pass

N/A
N/A
<0.1
N/A
N/A
N/A

4
5
1
40
100
BS 882:1992

N/A

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

0.05

Typical Test Results of Recycled Aggregates

Min. dry particle density (kg/cu.m.)


Max. water absorption (%)

Max. content of fine (%)


Max. content of sand (<4mm)(%m/m)
Max. content of sulphate (%m/m)
Flakiness Index (%)
10% fine value (kN)
Grading
Max. content of chloride (by mass of
chloride ion) (%)

Source : CEDD

Source: CEDD

Use of Recycled Aggregates in


Concrete in Hong Kong Wetland Park

15,000 m3 RAC used in


pile caps, ground slabs,
external works, mass
concrete etc

Recycled Aggregates for Concrete : Limitations


High water absorption (in particular, the recycled fines)
presence of contaminants and other foreign materials
Compressive

strength, tensile strength and bond


strength of concrete would be reduced
Drying

shrinkage is higher and the creep of concrete


may increase.
Acceptance

for structural concrete application is low

Recycled aggregates

Impurities

Eco-blocks
Alternative casting : Pre-cast bricks and
blocks (dry mixed)
Use with waste glass to enhance
aesthetics and water absorption
properties
Use with photo-catalyst for valued
added properties

Experiment conducted at PolyU

The ingredients were


mixed in the mixer

Steel moulds for


fabrication of blocks

Hand compaction of the


wet mixed materials

Manufacturing process in industry

After hand compaction, the


compression was carried out
using a compression machine
at a rate of 600 kN/min twice

The mixer
Block manufactured

Waste Glass

Hong Kong : in 2009


About 300 tonnes per day;
about 1% recycled
99% landfilled

Factory made blocks

Air Pollutant Removal Paving Blocks


Eco-blocks - 3rd Generation
Sunlight

Surface layer
Cement +Recycled Glass +
Recycled Aggregate + Photo-catalyst
Base layer
Cement + Recycled Aggregate +
Recycled Glass

Air Pollutants (NOx)

Precipitation

TiO2

NO3

Eco-Blocks

Recycled Aggregate
Recycled Aggregate + Recycled Glass

Recycled Glass + Recycled


Aggregate + Photo-catalyst

Examples of field applications

What can we do with the problems?


Recommendations
1. Avoid waste generation
2. Minimize waste Generation

AVOID
MINIMISE

Better design and construction methods


Change of work practices etc

3. Reuse/Recycle the material

REUSE/RECYCLE
DISPOSAL

Extension of SENT Landfill


To handle :

Wastes that cannot be


incinerated, e.g. construction
waste
Possible C&D waste recycling
facility ???

BEAM Plus
Materials Aspects
Prof. C.S. Poon
(BEAM Faculty / MA panel Chair)

BEAM Plus
Materials Aspects
Materials Aspects

NB

EB

No. of Prerequisites

No. of Credits

22

11

No. of Bonus

Credit Summary for NB:


Ma P1
Timber Used for Temporary Works
Ma P2
Use of Non-CFC Based Refrigerants
Ma P3
Construction / Demolition Waste
Management Plan
Ma P4
Waste Recycle Facilities
Ma 1
Building Reuse
Ma 2
Modular and Standardized Design
Ma 3
Prefabrication
Ma 4
Adaptability and Deconstruction
Ma 5
Rapidly Renewable Materials
Ma 6
Sustainable Forest Products
Ma 7
Recycled Materials
Ma 8
Ozone Depleting Substances
Ma 9
Regionally Manufactured Materials
Ma 10
Demolition Waste Reduction
Ma 11
Construction Waste Reduction

Credit Summary for EB:


Ma P1
Use of Non-CFC Based Refrigerants
Ma P2
Waste Recycling Facilities
Ma 1
Building Reuse
Ma 2
Modular and Standardized Design
Ma 3
Adaptability and Deconstruction
Ma 4
Rapidly Renewable Materials
Ma 5
Sustainable Forest Products
Ma 6
Ozone Depleting Substances
Ma 7
Waste Management

BEAM Plus
NB Ma P3
Ma P3 Construction and Demolition Waste Management Plan Prerequisite

Objective:
Encourage best practices in the management of construction and demolition wastes, including
sorting, recycling and disposal of construction waste.

Requirement:
It is required to implement with proof of documentation a waste management system providing
for the sorting, recycling and proper disposal of inert and non-inert construction / demolition
materials.

BEAM Plus
NB Ma 10
NB Ma 10 Demolition Waste Reduction 2 credits

Exclusion:
Project where demolition is not required or is not under the Clients control.
Objective:
Encourage best practices in the management of waste, including sorting, recycling and disposal of
demolition waste.
Requirement:
1 credit for demonstrating that at least 30% of demolition waste is recycled.
2 credits for demonstrating that at least 60%.

Remark:
Disposal of inert waste to public fill will NOT be considered.

BEAM Plus
NB Ma 7
NB Ma 7 Recycled Materials 3 credits
Exclusions:
None.
Objective:
Promote use of recycled materials in order to reduce the consumption of virgin resources.
Requirement:
1 credit for use of recycled materials contributing to at least 10% of all materials used in site
exterior surfacing work, structures and features.

1 credit where at least 10% of all building materials used for faade and structural components are
recycled materials.
1 credit where at least 10% of all building materials used for interior non-structural components are
recycled materials.
Remark:
The unit shall be mass/volume/dollar value.

Thank You
Prof. C.S. Poon
Dept of Civil and Structural Engineering
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
Tel : (852) 2766-6024
Email : cecspoon@polyu.edu.hk