Sie sind auf Seite 1von 3


According to Charles Whitaker (1998)

Establish a positive atmosphere for writing, reading, learning. Admittedly, this
best practice is very general, and, understandably, teachers face constraints in
arranging their classrooms. Nevertheless, it is important in teaching writing for
teachers to create a positive environment for writing, an atmosphere of mutual
respect, positive regard, safety. Students should feel they are a part of a community
of people supporting each other in developing as writers, readers, and thinkers. In
An inviting classroom
Teachers often draw on our professions understanding that, especially with young
adolescents, engaging students senses and emotions, for example, through a
colorful room, artwork, and music, is a way to hold students attention and make
them feel comfortable. Encouraging students to talk with each other and allowing
them to move occasionally from their seats to participate in an appropriate task or
project can help, especially with middle school students.
Respect for and among students
Essential for a positive environment is respect for students, their ideas, emotions,
cultural backgrounds, interests, concerns, etc. This respect is modeled by the
teacher in a variety of ways and is expected in the interactions of students
Teacher as writer
Ideally, writing teachers are practicing writers. By sharing their writing
particularly when its in draft formteachers model respect for themselves, for their
students, and for the act of writing itself. They communicate that they are part of
the writing community in the classroom and in the world at large and that they feel
safe sharing this part of themselves.
A meaningful approach to writing
A way of organizing is through selecting a meaningful approach to writing. Teachers
draw on their experience, on their understanding of their students, and on
professional literature to select an approach that will be effective. Teachers might,
for example, decide to use a multigenre approach or an approach based on
immersion in literature.

Penny Ur, A course in Lnguage in Teaching Practice

Individuals vary. Different writers may produce equally good results through widely
different process. This means that there is probably no one right system of writing
that we should recommend; rather, we should suggest and make available possible
strstegies, encouraging individuals and experiment and search for one that is

writing is potentially satisfying. If you are writing on a topic about which you fee;
can have somthinig worthwhile or interesting to say, the process of writing can be
absorbing and enjoyable; and if it is worked through to a final product, most people
feel pride in their work and want it to be read. It is therefore worth investing thought
in the selection of topics and tasks that motivate learners to write; extremely
important to provide an appreciative reader audience, whether teacher or colearners.
you learn to write through writing. As teachers, our job is to get our learners to
write a lot, thinking as they do so and learning from their own experience.

Byrne (1988, p. 4) provides three reasons to explain why writing is difficult: First,
writing itself is a solitary activity without interaction or the feedback but depends
solely on the writer himself; Second, during the process of producing, writer himself
needs to make the effort to bridge the gap and to realize the possibility in
communication; Third, writers have to present themselves to the unknown readers
by effective instruction.
Byrne, D. (1988). Teaching writing skills. (New ed.). Longman.
However, all these difficulties are particularly tough for the second language (L2)
learners. Like Tribble (1996, p. 14) says when someone learns how to write, they
are getting involved in an activity in which questions of social role, power, and the
appropriate use of language cannot be avoided.
Tribble, C. (1996). Writing. Oxford University Press.
research suggest that second language writing skills vannot be acquired succesfull
by practice in wiiting along but also need to be supported wuth extensive reading
(krashen, 1993). Whether assigned or voluntaru, reading has been show to be
positive influence in composing skills at varous stages of proficiency. This is because
both process incolve individual in constructing meaning though the application of
The teachers role is to guide students through the writing process, avoiding an
emphasis on for to help them develop strategies for generating, drafting, and
refining ideas. This is achieved through pre-writing activities to generate ideas
about content and sturture, encouraging, brainstorming an outlining, requiring
multiple drafts, giving feedback, seeking text evel revisions, facilitating peer
responses, and delaying surface corrections until the final editing (Raimes, 1992)
Raimes, A. (1992). Exploring through writing: A process approach to ESL composition. N.Y:
St. Martin's Press.

In the writing classroom, the teacher following genre orientation draw on

the work of Russian psychologist Vygotsky (1978) and its interpretation
by Brunner (1986). This stress the vies that learning occurs best when
learners engage in tasks that are within their one of proximal

Development (ZPD), the area between what they can do independently

and what they can do in assistance. Learning evolves from verbal
interaction and task negotiation with a more knowledgeable person, and
the teacher has a central role in scaffolding this development.
Ken Hyland
Cambridge University Press, 27 Oct 2003 - Foreign Language Study

The teacher is able to work with students intensively, on a one-to-one basis

or in small groups, and the teacher gets to know the students better on a
personal level. Students have more informal atmosphere in which to ske
questions without embarrassment, and are able to receive more immediare
and more elaborate feedback tha they would thorugh exclusively written
comments. Students and teachers can worl carefully and thoroughly through
important strategies for improving student performance at all stages of the
writing process and students are better motivated by the personal attention
received. The teacher can help the students to establish clear and efficient
goals for writing assignments an for overall riting improvement. The major
disadvantages for the teacher are the much greater demns on time and the
need to become skilled as an interactive negotiator.
Theory and Practice of Writing: An Applied Linguistic Perspective
By William Grabe, Robert B. Kaplan

feedback is widely seen in education as crucial for both encouraging and consolidating learning
(Anderson, 1982: Brophy, 1981; Vygotsky, 1978)
Focus on language structure
Learning to write in a foreign or second language mainly involves linguistics knowledge and the
vocabulary choices, syntatctic patters, and cohesive devices that comprises the essential
building blocks of texts.
Writing is a way of sharing personal meanings and writing courses emphasize the power of the
individual to construct his or her own views on a topic. Teachers see their role as simply to
provide students with the space to make their own meanings within a positive an cooperative