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Engineering Electromagnetics

LECTURE 4: Current Density, Conductors


and Capacitance

Instructor: Sir Tim


Summer Term
ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Current Density, Conductors and Capacitance

CURRENT AND CURRENT DENSITY

ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Current
The term current refers to the rate at which
positive charges flow.

ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Current Density
However for field theory, the amount of
current per unit area, referred to as the
current density is much more useful.

ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Drift Velocity
Refers to the flow velocity the charge
experience due to applied electric field.

ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

J and E Relationship
Drift velocity is a quantity influenced by the
strength of the electric field intensity, i.e.

Hence, the current density can be obtained


by:

=
ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Resistance
Consider a conductor with uniform surface,
the current is
=

And electric potential

ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Resistance
Getting the ratio of these two quantities, we
have:

=
=

ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Problem 1
Given the vector current density
J = 102za - 4cos2a mA/m2
a) Find the current density at P(3, 30o, 2)
b) Determine the current flowing outward
through a circular band = 3, 0< < 2,
2< z < 2.8.

ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Problem 2
A wire of diameter 1 mm and conductivity 5
x 107 S/m has 1029 free electrons/m3 when
an electric field 10 mV/m is applied.
Determine:
a) The charge density of free electrons
b) The current density
c) The current in the wire
d) The drift velocity

ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Problem 3
An AWG #12 copper conductor has an 80.8
mil diameter. A 50-foot length carries a
current of 20 A. Find the electric field
intensity E, drift velocity U, the voltage
drop, and the resistance for the 50 foot
length. (Cu = 5.8 x 107 S/m, Cu = 0.0032
m2/V-s)

ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Current Density, Conductors and Capacitance

CURRENT CONTINUITY EQUATION

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Engineering Electromagnetics

Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Current Continuity Equation


The time rate of decrease of charge within a
given volume must be equal to the net
outward current flow through a closed
surface of the volume

= =

ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Problem 1
Current density is given in cylindrical
coordinates as J = 106z1.5az A/m2 in the
region 0 20 m; for 20m, J = 0.
a) Find the total current crossing the
surface z = 0.1 m in the az direction.
b) If the charge velocity is 2 106 m/s at z
= 0.1 m, find v there.
c) If the volume charge density at z = 0.15
m is 2000 C/m3, find the charge
velocity there.
ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Current Density, Conductors and Capacitance

CONDUCTORS

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Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Conductors
A conductor is a material that has an
abundance of charge carriers (free electrons)

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Engineering Electromagnetics

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Conductor Boundary Conditions

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Engineering Electromagnetics

Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Problem 1
Given the potential,
= 100(2 2)
and a point P(2,1, 3) that is stipulated to
lie on a conductor-to-free-space boundary,
find V, E, D, and S at P.

ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Method of Images

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Engineering Electromagnetics

Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Problem 2
Find the surface charge density at P(2, 5, 0)
on the conducting plane z = 0 if there is a
line charge of 30 nC/m located at x = 0, z =
3

ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Current Density, Conductors and Capacitance

CAPACITANCE

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Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Capacitance
Capacitance measures
the capability of energy
storage in electrical
devices

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Engineering Electromagnetics

Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Parallel Plate Capacitor

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Engineering Electromagnetics

Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Problem 1
Calculate the capacitance of a parallel-plate
capacitor having a mica dielectric, r = 6, a
plate area of 10 in.2, and a separation of 0.01
in.

ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Problem 2
Find the relative permittivity of the
dielectric material present in a parallel-plate
capacitor if:
a) S = 0.12 m2, d = 80 m, V0 = 12 V, and
the capacitor contains 1 J of energy
b) the stored energy density is 100 J/m3,
V0 = 200 V, and d = 45 m
c) E = 200 kV/m and S = 20 C/m2

ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Problem 3
Two concentric spherical conducting shells are
separated by vacuum. The inner shell has total
charge +Q and outer radius ra and the outer shell
has charge Q and inner radius rb. Find the
capacitance of this spherical capacitor.

ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Problem 4
Show that for a coaxial cable transmission line
with length L, the distributed capacitance
(capacitance per unit length) is given by:
2
/ =

ln

where : rb and ra are the outer and inner radius


of the coaxial cable respectively
ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Current Density, Conductors and Capacitance

CAPACITORS IN SERIES AND PARALLEL

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Engineering Electromagnetics

Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Capacitors in Series
QT Q1 Q2 Q3 ...
VT V1 V2 V3 ...
CT C C C ...
1
1

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Engineering Electromagnetics

1
2

1
3

Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Capacitors in Parallel
VT V1 V2 V3 ...
QT Q1 Q2 Q3 ...
CT C1 C2 C3 ...

ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Problem 1
For the combination of capacitances shown,
assume C1 = 12.0 F, C2 = 5.30 F, and C3
= 4.50 F. If V = 12.5 V, What is the
charge on C1?

ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Problem 2
Derive an expression for the capacitance of a
parallel plate capacitor containing two
dielectrics.

ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Current Density, Conductors and Capacitance

SEATWORK

ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Thank you.
Lecture 4: Current Density, Conductors and Capacitance
Engineering Electromagnetics

Timothy M. Amado
Faculty, Electronics Engineering Department
Technological University of the Philippines Manila

tim.amado08@gmail.com
ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer