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You are on page 1of 34

and Capacitance

Summer Term

ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

Engineering Electromagnetics

Current

The term current refers to the rate at which

positive charges flow.

Engineering Electromagnetics

Current Density

However for field theory, the amount of

current per unit area, referred to as the

current density is much more useful.

Engineering Electromagnetics

Drift Velocity

Refers to the flow velocity the charge

experience due to applied electric field.

Engineering Electromagnetics

J and E Relationship

Drift velocity is a quantity influenced by the

strength of the electric field intensity, i.e.

by:

=

ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

Resistance

Consider a conductor with uniform surface,

the current is

=

Engineering Electromagnetics

Resistance

Getting the ratio of these two quantities, we

have:

=

=

Engineering Electromagnetics

Problem 1

Given the vector current density

J = 102za - 4cos2a mA/m2

a) Find the current density at P(3, 30o, 2)

b) Determine the current flowing outward

through a circular band = 3, 0< < 2,

2< z < 2.8.

Engineering Electromagnetics

Problem 2

A wire of diameter 1 mm and conductivity 5

x 107 S/m has 1029 free electrons/m3 when

an electric field 10 mV/m is applied.

Determine:

a) The charge density of free electrons

b) The current density

c) The current in the wire

d) The drift velocity

Engineering Electromagnetics

Problem 3

An AWG #12 copper conductor has an 80.8

mil diameter. A 50-foot length carries a

current of 20 A. Find the electric field

intensity E, drift velocity U, the voltage

drop, and the resistance for the 50 foot

length. (Cu = 5.8 x 107 S/m, Cu = 0.0032

m2/V-s)

Engineering Electromagnetics

Engineering Electromagnetics

The time rate of decrease of charge within a

given volume must be equal to the net

outward current flow through a closed

surface of the volume

= =

Engineering Electromagnetics

Problem 1

Current density is given in cylindrical

coordinates as J = 106z1.5az A/m2 in the

region 0 20 m; for 20m, J = 0.

a) Find the total current crossing the

surface z = 0.1 m in the az direction.

b) If the charge velocity is 2 106 m/s at z

= 0.1 m, find v there.

c) If the volume charge density at z = 0.15

m is 2000 C/m3, find the charge

velocity there.

ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

CONDUCTORS

Engineering Electromagnetics

Conductors

A conductor is a material that has an

abundance of charge carriers (free electrons)

Engineering Electromagnetics

Engineering Electromagnetics

Problem 1

Given the potential,

= 100(2 2)

and a point P(2,1, 3) that is stipulated to

lie on a conductor-to-free-space boundary,

find V, E, D, and S at P.

Engineering Electromagnetics

Method of Images

Engineering Electromagnetics

Problem 2

Find the surface charge density at P(2, 5, 0)

on the conducting plane z = 0 if there is a

line charge of 30 nC/m located at x = 0, z =

3

Engineering Electromagnetics

CAPACITANCE

Engineering Electromagnetics

Capacitance

Capacitance measures

the capability of energy

storage in electrical

devices

Engineering Electromagnetics

Engineering Electromagnetics

Problem 1

Calculate the capacitance of a parallel-plate

capacitor having a mica dielectric, r = 6, a

plate area of 10 in.2, and a separation of 0.01

in.

Engineering Electromagnetics

Problem 2

Find the relative permittivity of the

dielectric material present in a parallel-plate

capacitor if:

a) S = 0.12 m2, d = 80 m, V0 = 12 V, and

the capacitor contains 1 J of energy

b) the stored energy density is 100 J/m3,

V0 = 200 V, and d = 45 m

c) E = 200 kV/m and S = 20 C/m2

Engineering Electromagnetics

Problem 3

Two concentric spherical conducting shells are

separated by vacuum. The inner shell has total

charge +Q and outer radius ra and the outer shell

has charge Q and inner radius rb. Find the

capacitance of this spherical capacitor.

Engineering Electromagnetics

Problem 4

Show that for a coaxial cable transmission line

with length L, the distributed capacitance

(capacitance per unit length) is given by:

2

/ =

ln

of the coaxial cable respectively

ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

Engineering Electromagnetics

Capacitors in Series

QT Q1 Q2 Q3 ...

VT V1 V2 V3 ...

CT C C C ...

1

1

Engineering Electromagnetics

1

2

1

3

Capacitors in Parallel

VT V1 V2 V3 ...

QT Q1 Q2 Q3 ...

CT C1 C2 C3 ...

Engineering Electromagnetics

Problem 1

For the combination of capacitances shown,

assume C1 = 12.0 F, C2 = 5.30 F, and C3

= 4.50 F. If V = 12.5 V, What is the

charge on C1?

Engineering Electromagnetics

Problem 2

Derive an expression for the capacitance of a

parallel plate capacitor containing two

dielectrics.

Engineering Electromagnetics

SEATWORK

Engineering Electromagnetics

Thank you.

Lecture 4: Current Density, Conductors and Capacitance

Engineering Electromagnetics

Timothy M. Amado

Faculty, Electronics Engineering Department

Technological University of the Philippines Manila

tim.amado08@gmail.com

ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

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