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# Engineering Electromagnetics

and Capacitance

## Instructor: Sir Tim

Summer Term
ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

## ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

## Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Current
The term current refers to the rate at which
positive charges flow.

## ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

## Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Current Density
However for field theory, the amount of
current per unit area, referred to as the
current density is much more useful.

## ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

## Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Drift Velocity
Refers to the flow velocity the charge
experience due to applied electric field.

## ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

## Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

J and E Relationship
Drift velocity is a quantity influenced by the
strength of the electric field intensity, i.e.

## Hence, the current density can be obtained

by:

=
ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

## Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Resistance
Consider a conductor with uniform surface,
the current is
=

## ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

## Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Resistance
Getting the ratio of these two quantities, we
have:

=
=

## ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

## Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Problem 1
Given the vector current density
J = 102za - 4cos2a mA/m2
a) Find the current density at P(3, 30o, 2)
b) Determine the current flowing outward
through a circular band = 3, 0< < 2,
2< z < 2.8.

## ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

## Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Problem 2
A wire of diameter 1 mm and conductivity 5
x 107 S/m has 1029 free electrons/m3 when
an electric field 10 mV/m is applied.
Determine:
a) The charge density of free electrons
b) The current density
c) The current in the wire
d) The drift velocity

## ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

## Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Problem 3
An AWG #12 copper conductor has an 80.8
mil diameter. A 50-foot length carries a
current of 20 A. Find the electric field
intensity E, drift velocity U, the voltage
drop, and the resistance for the 50 foot
length. (Cu = 5.8 x 107 S/m, Cu = 0.0032
m2/V-s)

## ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

## ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

## Current Continuity Equation

The time rate of decrease of charge within a
given volume must be equal to the net
outward current flow through a closed
surface of the volume

= =

## ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

## Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Problem 1
Current density is given in cylindrical
coordinates as J = 106z1.5az A/m2 in the
region 0 20 m; for 20m, J = 0.
a) Find the total current crossing the
surface z = 0.1 m in the az direction.
b) If the charge velocity is 2 106 m/s at z
= 0.1 m, find v there.
c) If the volume charge density at z = 0.15
m is 2000 C/m3, find the charge
velocity there.
ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

CONDUCTORS

## ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

## Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Conductors
A conductor is a material that has an
abundance of charge carriers (free electrons)

## ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

## ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

## Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Problem 1
Given the potential,
= 100(2 2)
and a point P(2,1, 3) that is stipulated to
lie on a conductor-to-free-space boundary,
find V, E, D, and S at P.

## ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

Method of Images

## ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

## Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Problem 2
Find the surface charge density at P(2, 5, 0)
on the conducting plane z = 0 if there is a
line charge of 30 nC/m located at x = 0, z =
3

## ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

CAPACITANCE

## ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

## Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Capacitance
Capacitance measures
the capability of energy
storage in electrical
devices

## ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

## ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

## Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Problem 1
Calculate the capacitance of a parallel-plate
capacitor having a mica dielectric, r = 6, a
plate area of 10 in.2, and a separation of 0.01
in.

## ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

## Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Problem 2
Find the relative permittivity of the
dielectric material present in a parallel-plate
capacitor if:
a) S = 0.12 m2, d = 80 m, V0 = 12 V, and
the capacitor contains 1 J of energy
b) the stored energy density is 100 J/m3,
V0 = 200 V, and d = 45 m
c) E = 200 kV/m and S = 20 C/m2

## ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

## Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Problem 3
Two concentric spherical conducting shells are
separated by vacuum. The inner shell has total
charge +Q and outer radius ra and the outer shell
has charge Q and inner radius rb. Find the
capacitance of this spherical capacitor.

## ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

## Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Problem 4
Show that for a coaxial cable transmission line
with length L, the distributed capacitance
(capacitance per unit length) is given by:
2
/ =

ln

## where : rb and ra are the outer and inner radius

of the coaxial cable respectively
ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

## ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

## Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Capacitors in Series
QT Q1 Q2 Q3 ...
VT V1 V2 V3 ...
CT C C C ...
1
1

## ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

1
2

1
3

## Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Capacitors in Parallel
VT V1 V2 V3 ...
QT Q1 Q2 Q3 ...
CT C1 C2 C3 ...

## ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

## Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Problem 1
For the combination of capacitances shown,
assume C1 = 12.0 F, C2 = 5.30 F, and C3
= 4.50 F. If V = 12.5 V, What is the
charge on C1?

## ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

## Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Problem 2
Derive an expression for the capacitance of a
parallel plate capacitor containing two
dielectrics.

## ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

SEATWORK

## ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

## Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Thank you.
Lecture 4: Current Density, Conductors and Capacitance
Engineering Electromagnetics