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Name: Mangulabnan, Christle G.

Section: NU 101

Date: 11/19/2015
Protein Webquest

Part 1
Answer the following questions:

What is a protein?

Proteins play many important roles in the body, It is also one of the most amazing
group of molecules in the body. Your body uses it to build and repair tissue. You
need it to make enzymes, hormones, and other body chemicals. It is an important
building block of bones, muscles, cartilage, skin, and blood.


Describe four functions proteins serve in your body.

Some examples of the functions of proteins serve in the body is first, one of
the most important thing to a person's body is the blood. The hemoglobin
protein carries oxygen to every part of the body. Second, Antibodies. The
antibodies are also proteins that will help our bodies fight against infectious
agents such as bacteria and other viruses. Third, the enzymes in the saliva,
stomach and the intestine are proteins that gives way or helps the body
digest food. Fourth, the muscle proteins that enables muscular movements
like breathing and others.


What do we learn from studying the structures of proteins?

By studying structures of proteins very well we will be able to understand how it

functions and works in the body and how it can affect our everyday process or how
proteins with abnormal shapes can cause a disease. In this case, it can pave way for
us to be able to determine how a disease came to be and how to be able to cure a
said illness.


Describe the protein folding problem.

The term that I can use to describe the protein folding problem is onerous
and/or back-breaking. It would be a really tough job or it would really take

up much effort to solve such problem to why they failed to crack the code
that governs the folding. But, I would like to hope that if we could
decipher the structures of proteins from their sequences, we could better
understand how the proteins function and malfunction. Then we could use
that knowledge to improve the treatment of diseases.


Are proteins polymers? If yes, what are their building blocks?

I believe that proteins are polymers. The building blocks of proteins are the
amino acids. When many amino acids strung together interact with each
other to form a properly folded molecule, we call that molecule a protein.

Go to:
Describe each level of protein structure
Primary protein structure is the order in which amino acids are linked
together in a protein. It also involves the order of attachment of the amino
acids to each through peptide bonds. Today, primary structures are known
for many thousands of proteins and the sequencing procedures involved
automated methods that require relatively short periods of time (days). The
primary structure of a specific protein is the same regardless of where the
protein is found within the organism.

This structure is the arrangement in space adopted by the backbone portion
of a protein. There are two most common types of secondary structure,
(a)alpha helix and the (b) beta pleated sheet.

This structure is the overall three-dimensional shape of a protein. This will
result from the collision or interactions between amino acid side chains or
also known as the R Groups that are really widely separated from each other
within a peptide chain.

Quaternary (each color represents a different protein):

This is the structure with the highest level of protein organization. This is also
found in the multimeric proteins. This structure involves two or more peptide

chains that are independent of each other. Not only that, this is the
organization among the various peptide chains in a multimeric protein.

What types of bonds hold the amino acids together?
The types of bonds that hold the amino acids together are the strong
covalent bonds. This includes the (1) covalent disulfide bonds (2)
electrostatic attractions (3) hydrogen bonds amd (4) hydrophobic attractions.

What types of bonds hold the 3d shape of a protein together?

This includes the (1) covalent disulfide bonds (2) electrostatic attractions (3)
hydrogen bonds and (4) hydrophobic attractions. Because all of the above
mentioned bonds are stabilizing influences that contribute to the tertiary
structure of a protein.

Can these stabilizing bonds withstand heat?

Yes, because the bonds linking the amino acids in chains are strong covalent

What happens to a protein when it gets heated?

Even though the bonds linking the said amino acid in chains are strong
covalent bonds, most of the bonds that stabilize the three-dimensional
structure of the protein are weak bonds like hydrogen bonds, which break
and makes proteins to unravel. When protein - containing foods such as egg
is cooked, protein denauturation occurs.

Name 3 other sources for protein, other than meats:

Protein Power: 23 g per 8 oz. serving
Made by straining away the liquid, deliciously thick Greek-style yogurts
contain about twice as much protein as regular versions. You'll also reap the
rewards of gut-friendly probiotic bacteria and bone-building calcium. Plain
Greek yogurt can contain up to three times less sugar than flavored types.
Protein Power: 14 g per 1/2 cup serving
This cheese product is laced with casein proteina slow-digesting protein
that supplies your growing muscles with a steady supply of vital amino acids.
Protein Power: 21 g per 3 oz. serving
Not only are oft-overlooked canned sardines plush in protein, they also
deliver plenty of omega-3 fats and vitamin D. Research suggests that higher
intakes of vitamin D can bolster testosterone production.

Part 2: Proteins and Enzymes
a. Explain how heat affects the rate of reaction.
Basically to understand how heat affects the rate of reaction one must be
able to know the Collision Theory. Or in other words, when two chemicals
react, their molecules have to collide with each other with sufficient energy
and the correct orientation for the reaction to take place. Increasing the
temperature increases reaction rates because of the disproportionately large
increase in the number of high energy collisions. It is only these collisions
(possessing at least the activation energy) which result in a reaction.
b. Explain how surface area affects the rate of reaction.

You are only going to get a reaction if the particles in the gas or
liquid collide with the particles in the solid, increasing the surface
area of the solid increases the chances of collision taking place.
c. Explain how concentration affects the rate of reaction.
In order for any reaction to happen, those particles must first collide. This is true
whether both particles are in solution, or whether one is in solution and the other a solid.
If the concentration is higher, the chances of collision are greater.
Sources used:
H. Stephen Stoker's BIOCHEMISTRY 2
and other links provided