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# Suggested Solutions for Question 2

## Solution for (a)

iThe electron motion equation

dv
m -ev B .
dt

Let c eB / m we have

dv
c v .
dt

(1)0.2point

(2)

dv x
dt c vy

dv y
c vx

dt
dv z
dt 0

(3)

## The general solutions of Equation (3) are

vx v cos(c t y )

vy v cos(c t y ) ,

vz vz (t 0)

(4)0.2point

where x , y are the initial phases. Due to v z (t 0) 0 , it is indicated that the motion of an
electron remains to be perpendicular to the magnetic field. By further solving Equation (4), we
obtain the motion trajectory of the electron,

x rc sin ct

y rc cos ct ,

z0

(5)0.2point

or

x 2 y 2 rc 2
,

z 0
where rc

0.4point

mv
eB

e ec
e2B

T 2 2 m

0.5point

## Based on the definition of the magnetic moment, we have

e2B
e 2 B m 2 v 2
mv 2
2
IA
B
rc
2 2
eB
2 m
2 m
2B2

0.5point

iiiIn the case, we have vz v cos , v v sin . Since the velocity of the electron in z is
not zero, the solution (5) in (i) becomes

x rc sin ct
x 2 y 2 rc 2

r
cos

t
,
or
.

c
c

z
vt
cos

z vt cos

(6)0.4point

The orbit equation (6) indicates that the electron has a spiral trajectory. The screw pitch is

h vzT v cos

mv
cos .
eB

0.6point

## Solution for (b):

(i) Since the magnetic field and the plasma are uniform z, the orbits of ions and electrons can
project into in the x-y plane. From the results of (a), we know that an ion has a left-hand circular
motion and an electron has a right-hand circular motion. Due to the linear increase of the plasma
density in x, the number of ions with upward motion is less than that with downward motion at a
given x position, which leads a net upward ion flow. Similarly, electrons have a net downward
flow. Combining the ion and election flows, we have a net upward electric current as illustrated
below in schematic drawing.

2.0points

(ii) Based on

mv 2
B from Problem (a)the total magnetic moments per unit volume
2B2

## (i.e., the magnetization) for ions and electrons are

M i ,e f i ,e ( x, v ) i ,e d 3v

n( x )(

mi ,e 3/2 mi ,e ( v2 v2 )/2 kT mi ,e v 2
) e
2 v dv dv
2 kT
2B

m
m
m v 2 /2 kT
m v 2 /2 kT mi , e v
n( x ) i , e e i , e
2 v dv dv ( i ,e )1/2 e i ,e dv
2 kT
2B
2 kT
0

kT
n( x )
B
1.5point

## The total magnetization for a plasma

M Mi Me

2kT
p ( x)
n( x)
B
B

Therefore, we have

2 .

0.5point

## Solution for (c)

Using the equation for the magnetization field Bmx o M and the x component of the Earth's
dipole magnetic field at (x=10REy=0, z=1RE), we have

0e0.25 P0
p( z )
Bmx / Bd 0 2
1.0 .
|z R
Bd (10 RE , 0, z ) E 28.5 108 B02

1.0point

## Solution for (d)

iUnder the cylindrical coordinate system, the motion of an electron can project into the

## r and planethe Lorentz force is Fz ev Br .

By taking a gyro average, the averaged Lorentz force becomes

1
dB
dB
=
.
ev rc
dz
ds
2
dB dB
Since
, we have

dz ds
dB
.
F|| Fz
ds
Fz

1.0point

The acceleration of the guiding center of the electron can be obtained by the Newton's law, i.e.,

dv / /
dB
,

ds
dt

(7) 0.5point

## where v// ds / dt . Equation (7) can be written to be

d 1
dB
.
( mv//2 )
dt 2
dt

(8)

d 1
1
( mv//2 mv2 ) 0 ,
dt 2
2

0.5point

dB
d 1
d 1
d
dB
d

( mv//2 ) ( mv2 ) ( B)
B
dt
dt 2
dt 2
dt
dt
dt

(9) 1.0point

we can obtain

## Combining Equations (8) and (9), we get

d
0.
dt

(10)

iiFrom the motion constant of the magnetic moment of an electron, the perpendicular velocity
increases with increase of the magnetic field, which means the parallel velocity decreases due to
the conservation of the total kinetic energy. When the electron arrives at the point "P3", its parallel
velocity decreases to zero, then the electron will not escape from the magnetic mirror field. Thus,
the initial velocityshould be

v2 0 v 2

.
B0 Bm

0.5point

## Since v 0 v sin we obtain

B0
Bm

cr arcsin

0.5point

i.e., this is the condition for the electron confined in the magnetic mirror field.

## Solution for (e)

Since the guiding center of the electron motion is always confined in the y=0 plane, the Earth's

## dipole magnetic field B

B0 RE3
( 3 xz x ( x 2 2 z 2 ) z ) . At the initial position 6 RE , 0, 0 of
r5

B0 RE3 2
B
Bi 5 ( x ) 0 .
216
r

0.2point

## BL ( Bx2 Bz2 )1/2

L 60 , thus

13
B0 .
2

0.2point

With the same argument in (d) (ii), the condition for the electron to arrive in below the altitude
H=200km with the latitude

L 60 is

0.05 2.8 .

0.6point

## Solution for (f)

(i)

Based on the balance between the gravitational force and the force from the difference of the
atmospheric pressure, we obtain

A[ p ( r dr ) p ( r )] Adp

r2

or

dp

GM ( dr )
.
r2

11

NkT NmkT kT
.

V
Vm
m

12

0.5point

p0

13 0.5point

0GMdr
p0

14

## By integrating Equation (14), we obtain

0 e

0GM 1
P0

1
( )
r RE

0 e

0 gRE
P0

(1

RE
)
r

0 e

0 gH
P0

15 0.5point

Thus, the ration of the atmospheric density at the altitudes H=160km and H=220km is

( H1 160km )
e
( H 2 220km)

0 g ( H 2 H1 )
P0

2.44 103 .

16 0.5point

## iiAt the altitude H=160kmthe collision frequency of atmosphericmolecules is

0 0e
0

0 gH
P0

0.93 / s .

17 0.5point

Since the lifetime of the oxygen atom in the first excited state lasts about 110s, the oxygen atom
will collide with other molecules over one hundred times. Thus, the high-frequent collision
between particles can de-excite oxygen atoms before they have a chance to radiate. But, the
oxygen atoms in the second excited state will emit photons since their lifetime is so short. Thus,
aurora at H=160km is resulted from emission of the oxygen atoms in the second excited state. The
wavelength is

## hc (6.626 1034 J s)(2.998 108 m / s)

562nm .
eV
(1.6 1019 J / eV )(2.21eV )

0.8point

## The color for this wavelength is green.

At the altitude H=220kmthe collision frequency of atmosphericmolecules is

0 0e
0

0.2point

0 gH
P0

3.8 10 4 / s .

18 0.5point

All oxygen atoms in the first and second excited states have a chance to radiate since the collision
frequency is so low. Because the number of the oxygen atoms in the first excited state is much
larger than in the second excited state, we observe the aurora color is from the emission of the
oxygen atoms in the first excited state. The wavelength is

## hc (6.626 1034 J s)(2.998 108 m / s)

633nm .
eV
(1.6 1019 J / eV )(1.96eV )

0.8point

0.2point

## Solution for (g)

At the geosynchronous orbit, we have

mM
v2

m(h RE ) 2 .
m
(h RE )2
h RE

or

(h RE )3
Using

GM

gRE2

g
RE3 .
RE
2

## 2 / (24 3600s) , we have

h 5.6 RE .

0.5point

Using w F x Ek , we have

1
( f m f s )sx mvs2 .
2
or

1 2 Bs2
B2
vs
m .
2
2 0 2 0

19 1.0point

where is the mass density. At the position x RE h 6.6 RE , y z 0 , the Earth's dipole
magnetic field strength is

Bd

B0
~ 100nT
290

## From Equation (19),

v 330km / s .

we obtain

0.5point
With this speed of the solar wind, the position of the dayside magetopause is 6.6RE at the
geosynchronous orbit. Thus, a geosynchronous satellite could be damaged by the solar wind.