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KHS* ISLAMIYAT NOTES SERIES

HAZRAT UTHMAN

Radi Allahu Anhu

Name:
Abu Amr
Born:
573 A.D.
Belonged to:
Banu Umayyad clan of Quraysh
Early Life:
He was born in 573 A.D. in a tribe of Quraysh named Banu Umayyad which was the second to Banu
Hashim in Political importance.
His father Affan was one of the rich Ranked businessmen of the Tribe.
He was an educated and generous person who never indulges himself in any indecent activity.
Acceptance:
He accepted Islam at the hands of Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A.) and was named as Uthman.
He married the two daughters of Holy Prophet (SAWS), thus titled as Zun-Noorain (Possessor of two
lights).
He set most of his wealth for the cause of development of Islam.
Services:
He undertook 2 migrations for the cause of Islam; one to Abyssinia and another to Medina.
He spent 20,000 Dirhams on digging the well on the desire of Prophet Muhammad (SAWS).
He further spent to purchase an adjoining piece of land for the extension of Masjid-e-Nabwi on the
desire of Holy Prophet (SAWS).
He freed a large number of Muslim slaves and helped the poor & needy people.
Uthman (R.A.) contributed 1,000 Dirhams & 300 camels for Tabuk expedition for the cause of Islam.
He participated in all battles fought during the lifetime of Holy Prophet (SAWS) except the Battle of Badr
in which his wife fell unwell.
He acted as a representative of the Muslims to convey the message of Prophet (SAWS) to Mecca at the
event of Hudaybiya.
He rendered the great service to Islam by standardizing the Copies script of Holy Quran.
Caliphate:
During his Caliphate (644 A.D. 656 A.D.), the whole of North Africa was conquered including Libya,
Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco.
His kingdom was stretched from Kabul to Morocco.
The Island of Cyprus was also captured during his Caliphate.
He confronted severe charges during his Caliphate on the following issues:
Appointment of Governors
Utilization of wealth from the public treasury
Burning of the copy of Quran
None supervision of the activities of Governors
He constructed new Mosques wherever required.
He made arrangements to supply water to travelers by having wells dug near the roads.
Martyrdom:
Hazrat Uthman (R.A.) was cruelly martyred by the Insurgents in 656 A.D. when he was reciting the Holy
Quran in his house.
MAIN EVENTS

Conquests in the East and the West.

Charges by the conflictors.

Opposition of the insurgents.

Compilation of the standardized Holy Quran.

Martyrdom of Hazrat Uthman (R.A.)


CHARACTER & PERSONALITY
A Chaste, modest and a gentle person with a refined character.
He ensured that his actions did not offend anyone.
He had simple manners and did not indulge in luxury, though the wealth of the entire state lay at his
disposal.
He was known for his generosity and did not abstain from helping the needy and poor, from his
earnings.

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ADMINISTRATION, EXPANSION AND VICTORIES


In year 24 AH, Hazrat Uthman RA signed the first appointment of Hazrat Saad Bin Abi Waqas RA in
replacement of Hazrat Mugheera Bin Shaaba at KUFA as Governor. In this year a few more events took
place such as the event of apostasy movement against Kharaj was recorded by the rebellions at Aazar
Baijan, Armenia and Syria. He sent Hazrat Salman Bin Rabbaya RA with 6000 soldiers to crush the apostasy
and to help Hazrat Ameer Muawiya RA to restore the Kharaj. The mission was successful.
In 25 AH, he appointed Hazrat Umro Bin Al Aas RA to crush the apostasy for non-payment of Kharaj started
by Iskandaria at Egypt. Hazrat Umro Bin Al Aas RA accomplished his target in 5 days wisely. In the same
year Tarabulus Apostasy movement was also tackled by him very wisely and the dangerous clouds of war
were vanished.
In 26 AH, Hazrat Uthman RA deposed of Hazrat Saad Bin Abi Waqas RA from the Governorship of Kufa due
to the complaint of the In charge of Bait tul Maal who pleaded that the governor was defaulted the
repayment of the installment of loan. In the same year, he posted Hazrat Abdullah Bin Zubayr RA to control
the Law n Order situation and to remove anarchy condition at Al Jazayar and Morocco, the mission was held
successful.
On receipt of many complaints against Hazrat Umro- the Governor of Egypt regarding the persistent
decline in the revenue budget of Kharaj, Hazrat Uthman RA, in 27 AH, deposed him and Hazrat Abdullah
Bin Sarrah RA was sent in his replacement that raised the Revenue Budget of Kharaj from 20 lacs dinar to
40 lacs dinar. Hazrat Abdullah Bin Sarrah RA was also assigned to conquer Tarabulus with the help of Hazrat
Umro RA, Hazrat Abdullah Bin Zubayr RA and Hazrat Abdul Rehman Bin Abi Waqas RA. They conquered
Tarabulus in 27 AH. Hazrat Uthman RA gave a signal to Muslim Army to crush anarchy in Spain in the
command of Hazrat Abdullah bin Nafay bin Qais and Hazrat Abdullah bin Nafay bin Hasseyn. In 27 AH,
these assigned figures accomplished their target very smoothly.
In 28 AH, he permitted Hazrat Ameer Muawiya RA to advance towards Cyprus (Qabrus). He was able to
convince the people of Cyprus to sign the contract of peace treaty with Muslims but in 33 AH, they violated
the terms and Hazrat Ameer Muawiya RA conquered the Cyprus finally.
In 30 AH, Hazrat Saeed Bin Aas RA, Hazrat Imam Hassan RA, Hazrat Imam Hussain RA, Hazrat Abdullah bin
Abbas, Hazrat Abdullah bin Umro and Hazrat Abdullah bin Zubayr RAA were posted to conquer the sub
parts of Tabristan and Khurasan who were very successful in their respective mission.
FEATURES OF THE CALIPHATE PERIOD (644 AD - 656 AD)
1- Victories
2- System of Caliphate New appointments, Continuous check & administrative replacements etc.
3- Establishment of Shura Council of Scholars for religious matters.
4- Division of States/Provinces
5- Division of Authorities
6- Systematic Public access of Public Treasury
7- Discipline Control through Territorial Constitution
8- Effective functioning of Bait tul Maal aimed:
o Increase in Revenue Budget
o Stipend for the needy
o Free Meal for Masakeen
9- Constructions: Road, Dams, Bridges, Mosques and Guest Houses for the Travelers
10- Establishment of Muslim Army Training Centers for the Defence purpose.
11- Compilation of Quran, its dialect and Standardization.
HISTORY SAYS ABOUT HIM!
Uthman bin Affan (Radi Allah Anhu) was born in Makkah 47 years before the HIJRAH (emigration to
Madinah). He was one of the early Muslims who was well known for his noble lineage, wealth and beauty.
He was given the title DHUN NURAYN (possessor of the two lights) because he married the two daughters of
Our Beloved Prophet (SAWS), namely Hazrat Ruqaya and Umm Kulthum (RA). Amongst his greatest works
was helped the Muslims prepare for the expedition to Tabuk donating 300 camels and 3000 dinars to the
Muslim army after which the Holy Prophet (SAWS) testified his status for him. He became the third KHALIF
(leader of the Muslims) after the martyrdom of Hazrat Umar AL-Faruq (RA) and during his time the lands
Armenia, Caucasia (extreme south-eastern Europe), Khurasan (north-eastern Iran), Kirman (south-eastern
Iran), Sijistan (border district between Afghanistan and Iran), Cyprus and much of North Africa came under
Muslim rule. He completed the task of collecting the QURAAN together in book form which was started
during the time of Hadhrat Abu Bakr As-Siddiq (RA) and then distributed prints of the QURAAN around the
Muslim World which became the standardized text of the QURAAN of which has been in use and in our
hands up to the present day. During the last years of his rule some people cause civil strife and division
amongst the Muslims to cause enmity against the KHALIF, which lead to the unjust murder of Hazrat

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Uthman (RA) in 35 A.H during the morning of ID AL-ADHA (Festival ending the month of RAMADAN). He
remained in leadership for 12 years. He attained his martyrdom whilst reading the QURAN and the
bloodstains fell on the blessed pages of the Holy Book. The Holy Prophet (SAWS) said of him: Every
prophet has a companion, and my companion (i.e. in Paradise) will be Uthman (Radi Allah Anhu)." {AlTirmidhi
Hadith
6061}

ELECTION & CALIPHATE

Hazrat Umar on his death-bed nominated six notables of Madinah namely Hazrat Ali ibn-abi-Talib ,
Hazrat Usman ibn- Affan , Hazrat Zubayr ibn-al-Awam , Talhah ibn-Abdullah , Saad ibn-abi-Waqqas
and Abd-al-Rahman ibn-Awf to form an electoral college and advised to elect any one of them with
general consensus. After long discussions and consultation, they elected Sayyiduna 'Uthman bin Affan as
the third Caliph of Islam.
REIGN AS CALIPH
During his caliphate the large Muslim empire was further extended and large territories in the north East
Asia and north Africa were subdued which included Armenia and Azerbaijan, Turkistan, Khurasan and
Afghanistan.
In Africa, Egypt and al- Maghrib had already been conquered by the Muslims during the caliphate of Hazrat
Umar but he had not permitted to annex Ifriqiyah, the large tract of land from the eastern confines of alMaghrib to the western border of Egypt.
During the reign of Hazrat Usman (RA) the Governor of Egypt and al-Maghrib, Abdullah ibn- Saad ibn-abiSarh invaded the territory and concluded a treaty. However, no Wali was appointed there then.
With the installation of Hazrat Usman as caliph, a new chapter was added in the Muslim history. Now
Muslims are seen establishing their navy both in Syria and Egypt and undertaking naval expeditions. It was
during his caliphate that the island of Cyprus in the Mediterranean - the first Muslim overseas land - was
won in 28 A.H. (649 A.D.).
Another island, Sicily, was also attacked. The administrative set-up was almost the same as initiated during
the caliphate of Hazrat Abu-Bakr and fully developed in the reign of Hazrat Umar .
The Council of Consultation (Majlis-e-Shura) was the supreme body to take decisions on all important and
policy matters concerning the state. The whole empire was divided into provinces each headed by a Wali
(Governor).
The Walis and other important state functionaries appointed during the caliphate of Hazrat Umar were
retained on their posts. However, in Syria the provinces of Damascus, Jordan and Palestine were
consolidated under the Governorship of Amir Muawiyah.
During the first half of his reign the administrative machinery remained unchanged, and peace prevailed
throughout the state but in the second half of his caliphate, certain changes had become inevitable
particularly in Kufah and Basrah, either to redress the grievances of the people or to meet the demand of
the situation.
On Fridays in the Mosque of the Holy Prophet every one had a free access to him where on one hand he
received the latest information concerning the state affairs and on the other listened to the complaints
against the state functionaries which were dealt with promptly. In case of grievances received against any
government dignitary posted in any of the provinces, he deputed some trusted persons for investigation on
the recommendation of the Majlis-e-Shura.
The weal of the people had always been his main concern. For the convenience of the people, roads,
bridges, caravan-serai, posts and mosques were built and wells were sunk. An embankment was also
constructed to check inundation of the Mosque of the Holy Prophet . For the military requirements vast
pastures were developed and maintained for horses and camels.
It was during his period that Muslim navy was also developed and shipyards were established to repair and
manufacture warships. When Hazrat Usman came to know of divergent mode of reciting the Holy Quran
in the different parts of the Muslim Empire, he after obtaining the Holy Quran which was compiled during
the caliphate of Hazrat Abu-Bakr (RA) and was kept in the custody of Umm-al-Momineen Hazrat Hafsa (RA),
daughter of Hazrat Umar (RA), assigned the job of transcribing its copies to Zayd- ibn-Thabit and the copies
prepared were sent to the provinces. Thus he earned another title of 'Jame-al-Quran'.
CONQUESTS
During the Khilaafat of Sayyiduna 'Uthman , the rebellion in Azerbhaijaan and Armenia was silenced.
Sayyiduna Mu'awiyah , with the help of Sayyiduna Abi Sarah , captured Cyprus by naval attack and
brought it under Islamic rule. Vast areas of North Africa including Tripoli, Tunisia and Morocco were also
brought under the Islamic rule. The Romans, although defeated several times by the Muslims in the past,
made another attempt, during the Khilaafat of Sayyiduna 'Uthman , to recapture the lands they had
already lost. Constantine, the Emperor of Rome, made great preparations and attacked Alexandria with a
naval fleet five to six thousand strong. But, the Romans were defeated by the Muslim naval forces under
the command of Sayyiduna Abi Sarah and Sayyiduna Mu'awiyah.

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REBELLIONS REACTIONS
The Governors of the provinces, appointed by Sayyiduna Umar , were removed and replaced by members
of the new Caliph's clan. The majority of the new governors were inspired by worldly means rather than by
piety and interests of their subjects and mostly known as REBELLIONS. People started to demand the
removal of these Governors, but the Caliph did not respond to their appeals. Delegates mainly from Iraq
and Egypt, submitted their demands to the Caliph. The situation, however got out of control.
ASSASSINATION
In the turmoil, Sayyiduna 'Uthman himself was made Shaheed by rebels while he was reading the Holy
Quran inside his house. This happened on Friday, the 17th of Zil-Hajj in 35 A.H. He was 84 years old.
SERVICES AS THE THIRD CALIPH OF ISLAM

The Greatest Service Rendered: (STANDARIZATION OF THE HOLY QURAN):


A major achievement of Sayyiduna 'Uthman was the duplication of the Holy Quran from the records
kept by Sayyiduna Abu Bakr , who handed it to Sayyiduna Umar , who then handed it to his
daughter, Sayyadah Hafsa , the wife of Sayyiduna Rasulullah . Sayyiduna 'Uthman made
copies of the Holy Quran from the original and sent it to capitals such as Kufa, Damascus, Makkah-tulMukarramah and Basrah, each accompanied by a Sahabi for the guidance of the readers.
The third caliph of Islam Hazrat Usman (RA), a very close and trustworthy companion of Prophet
Muhammad , occupies an outstanding position in the history of Islam. His unprecedented generosity
for the cause of Islam and the welfare of the Muslims earned him the honorific epithet of 'Ghani' which
became an integral part of his name. He was a man of fidelity, probity and austerity; and
abstemiousness, righteousness and astuteness constituted the traits of his noble character. A scion of
Banu Umayyah, a branch of the Quraysh; he was born in Makkah. Attaining maturity he took trade as
his means of subsistence. By virtue of his honesty and integrity the business flourished and he
prospered as a business magnate. Soon he ranked high among the big traders of Makkah. Hazrat
Usman at the persuasion of Hazrat Abu-Bakr accepted Islam. No sooner than he embraced the
new Faith, his family members including his own uncle turned hostile and let loose all sorts of
animosities and persecution. The unabated hostilities left no option but to seek asylum somewhere,
so he with the permission of the Holy Prophet first migrated to Abyssinia. His wife Ruqayyah who
was the daughter of the Holy Prophet accompanied him. On his return he migrated to Madina. At
that time in Madina there was a great scarcity of drinking water.
The main source was a well, Bi'r Rooma, owned by a Jew who sold water to the Muslims on
exorbitant charges which caused great hardship to the Muslims. The Holy Prophet desired that it
may be purchased by some Muslim. Hazrat Usman readily purchased it for 20,000 dirham and
relieved the Muslims of the predicament. With safe arrival of the Holy Prophet in Madina, the
enraged pagans of Makkah, in vengeance to exterminate him, left no stone unturned. In consequence,
a series of encounters took place, the battle of Badr being the most significant one. But Hazrat Usman
could not participate in it because his wife Ruqayyah was on deathbed. Here it would not be out of
place to mention that after the death of Ruqayyah, he married with Umm-e-Kulthum , another
daughter of the Holy Prophet and earned the appellation of Zun-Noorain.
In 6 A.H., the Holy Prophet left Madina for Makkah to perform Umrah with 1400 or 1500 Muslims.
Reaching the suburb of Makkah when he came to know of hostile threats of the pagans of Makkah, he
decided to camp at a place called Hudaybiya & deputed Hazrat Usman to proceed to Makkah as his
envoy to apprise the pagans of Makkah of the purpose of the visit.
The stay of Hazrat Usman was unexpectedly prolonged and in the mean time it was rumored that
Hazrat Usman has been assassinated. Being extremely perturbed, the Holy Prophet declared
that to seek reparation of his death is binding on all of us. Thereupon, he took oath of fealty from the
accompanying companions while sitting under a tree, hence better known as Bait-e-Rizwan. On this
occasion the Holy Prophet placing one of his hands on his other hand took a similar pledge on
behalf of Hazrat Usman which vividly manifests the esteemed position he enjoyed in the eyes of
the Holy Prophet (SAWS).
It is also worth mentioning that during the negotiating visit to Makkah he was offered to perform
Umrah but he rejected it outright with the remarks: 'How can I perform Umrah without the Holy
Prophet ', which displays his faith. On the eve of the preparation of an expedition to Tabuk, when
reportedly Heraclius, the Byzantine Emperor had collected overwhelming force to invade the nascent
Muslim state of Madina, the contribution of Hazrat Usman was unparalleled. It was a hard time.
The intensity of heat, long marches and encounter with an inveterate enemy had caused a sort of
consternation among them. But the devoted and sincere Muslims undaunted by the crisis came
forward, enlisted themselves and contributed towards sinews of war whatsoever they could.

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The contribution of Hazrat Usman surpassed them all. He met all the expenses of one third of the
army - about 10,000 infantry. Over and above that he also provided 1000 camels and 70 horses and
1000 dinar. This expedition was led by the Holy Prophet himself. With increase in population of the
Muslims in Madina, the accommodation already available in the Masjid-e-Nabavi became small. The
Holy Prophet desired to get the mosque extended. Hazrat Usman instantly purchased the
adjoining land for 25,000 dirham for the purpose.
The mosque was rebuilt by him during his caliphate and all the expenses were met by him.
Likewise, he purchased land in Baqi' for graveyard. He did not take even a single dirham from the
Bait-ul-Mal for his personal use. He always helped the orphans, widows, the destitute and the needy.
He used to enfranchise a slave on every Friday.
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