100%(1)100% fanden dieses Dokument nützlich (1 Abstimmung)

298 Ansichten49 SeitenAS
UNIT
1

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT oder online auf Scribd lesen

AS
UNIT
1

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

100%(1)100% fanden dieses Dokument nützlich (1 Abstimmung)

298 Ansichten49 SeitenAS
UNIT
1

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 49

Unit 1- Mechanics

Module 1- Motion

Below are the SI Units used across the world:

Quantity

Unit

Abbreviation

Mass

Kilogram

kg

Length

Metre

Time

Second

Temperature

Kelvin

Electrical Current

Ampere

Amount of Substance

mole

mol

Module 1- Motion

Below are the Unit prefixes:

Prefix

Name

Abbreviation

10-12

pico

10-9

nano

10-6

micro

10-3

milli

10-2

centi

103

kilo

106

mega

109

giga

1012

tera

Module 1- Motion

A scalar quantity is one that has magnitude (size) but not a direction.

A vector quantity is one that has magnitude (size) and direction.

Scalar

Vector

Density

Displacement

Temperature

Velocity

Pressure

Acceleration

Potential Difference

Force

Frequency

Impulse

Wavelength

Momentum

Power

Electric Current

Magnetic Field

Electric Field

Module 1- Motion

Here is a triangle which trigonometry can be used to find unknowns:

Fcos

Fsin

Module 1- Motion

-Definitions in kinematics

Speed is distance per unit time.

Displacement is distance

moved in a stated direction.

Acceleration is the rate of

change of velocity.

travelled per unit time- it is

a scalar

Velocity is the displacement

per unit time- it is a vector

Average speed =

Average acceleration =

Instantaneous speed is the speed at a given instant of time (it is the gradient

of the graph of displacement against the against time at that instant)

Module 1- Motion

-Graphs of Motion

Displacement/ Time graphs:

A straight line indicates constant velocity

The gradient of a straight line gives the velocity

The gradient at any point is the velocity, and this is called

instantaneous velocity

Velocity/ Time graphs:

The gradient represents acceleration

The area beneath a velocity/ time graph represents the

displacement

Module 1- Motion

-Equations of Motion

Symbol

Quantity

Alternative Quantity

SI Unit

Distance Moved

Displacement

Metre

Second

m s-2

Acceleration

m s-1

Time interval

m s-1

acceleration:

v = u + at

v2= u2 + 2as

s=(

:

)

2

s = ut + at2

s = vt - at2

Term not included: v

Term not included: u

Module 1- Motion

-Free Fall

An object undergoing free fall on the Earth has an acceleration of g =

9.81 m s-2. Acceleration is a vector quantity- and g acts vertically

downward.

Remember, when answering questions on free fall, make sure you deal

with the horizontal and vertical components separately, and watch out for

negative values.

Module 1- Motion

-Measurement of g

Below is a diagram on the trap door and electromagnet method for

determining g.

There will be a degree of uncertainty

in this experiment because:

1. If the electromagnets current is too

strong there will be a delay in

releasing the ball after the current is

switched off and the clock is

triggered.

2. If the distance of fall is too large, or

the ball is too small, air resistance

might have a noticeable effect on its

speed.

3. You need you make sure you

measure from the bottom of the ball

when it is held by the electromagnet.

-Types of Force

Generally, a force is push or pull, but can be others such as drag, tension, friction,

weight and thrust. Thrust, for example, is the term used for the driving force

provided by a jet engine.

Outside the nucleus of an atom, there is just three types of force, which are:

Gravitational force between two objects with mass. (Only one I will need is

between the object and the Earth: The weight).

Magnetic force between two magnetic objects. At an atomic level this is a force

between moving charges, and will only concern you in examples using

magnetised forces.

Electrical force between charged objects, which is responsible for all

interactions between objects. When two atoms collide, they exert an electrical

force on one another, and may chemically bond as a result of the electrical

attraction between them.

This list of the three basic forces outside a nucleus can be reduced to two by

treating the electrical and magnetic forces as a single electromagnetic force. This

is because the theory of electromagnetism establishes the connection between

electrical and magnetic effects.

The link between these three terms was first established by Newton, when he

discovered that when an object has no resultant force on it, the object wont

accelerate; it will stay at a constant velocity. Once Newton established this, he

found that:

Acceleration is proportional to force, if the mass is constant

Acceleration is inversely proportional to mass, if the force is constant.

Putting this algebraically:

1

a F and a , so F=ma

acceleration.

Zero resultant force implies a constant

velocity, which may also be zero (it will

be in equilibrium).

acceleration, and not the

other way round!

One Newton is the force that causes a mass of one kilogram to have an

acceleration of one metre per second every second.

Weight:

Weight is a force, so is measured in newton's.

The mass of an object is measured in kg.

To work out mass or weight, we can use the

equation W=mg

force on a body

When an object travels through a fluid (liquid or gas), it experiences a resistive force,

known as drag, which depends on several factors, such as velocity, roughness of

surface, cross-sectional area and shape (how it is streamlined)

Terminal Velocity:

This is when the drag (upwards) becomes equal to the weight of the object

(downwards) so the resultant force is zero, so it is travelling at a constant velocity.

This is called terminal velocity.

-Equilibrium

The triangle of forces:

Here are some examples of triangular forces:

zero resultant force acting on

an object.

3N

2.8N

4N

R= 5.7N

4N

R=5N

4N

B

A+B=C

C+D=E

A+B+D=E A

4N

5N

5N

R=1.4N

D

E resultant A+B+D

Resultant

(almost)

zero

-Centre of Gravity

Whenever mass is used, the position of the weight of the object has to be

considered. For all objects there is a point where the entire weight of the object

can be considered to act as a single force, and this is called the centre of gravity

of an object. Although the weight of an object does not act through just the centre

of gravity, it does simply calculations.

through a small hole.

Hang a string with a small weight at the bottom.

Repeat the procedure with a different hole, and

the centre of gravity is where the lines meet.

-Turning Forces

This is needed when doing things like designing building, to make sure it

can support itself and will not collapse.

Loading forces are usually vertically downwards, and need to be

balanced by vertically upward support forces. We need to establish

equilibrium when working with forces that are parallel.

-Turning Forces

Terms associated with Turning Forces:

Couple- A couple occurs when two forces are equal and

opposite to each other, but are not in a straight line. No

linear acceleration can be produced, as the upward and

downward forces cancel. The resultant of theses forces is

zero, however they can produce rotation.

Torque- This can be applied to a couple and describes a

turning effect of the couple. The formula for torque is:

So torque is measured in newton metres, and

produces rotation rather than linear motion, so

the term is used in drills etc.

and parallel but opposite

forces, which tends to

produce rotation only.

-Turning Forces

Moment of force = Fx

X

Moment of a force:

The moment of a force is the turning effect of a single

force shown to the right. Moments are also measured

in Newton metres. The principle of moments states

that: For a body in rotational equilibrium, the sum of the

clockwise moments equals the sum of the

anticlockwise moments. (CW=ACW).

F

F

P

X

The moment of a force is

the force multiplied by the

perpendicular distance

from the stated point.

A large object may have many forces acting on it.

These forces may provide a resultant force, which will

cause acceleration, and a resultant moment, which will

cause rotation. For a large object to be in equilibrium,

both the resultant force and the resultant moment

must be zero.

-Density

1m3 = (100 cm)3 = 1 000 000 cm3.

The volume of water has a mass of 1000kg, so the density is 1000 kg m3.

Material

Density

Material

Density

Density is defined as

kg m-3

kg m-3

mass per unit volume.

Hydrogen 0.0899

Silicon

2300

Helium

0.176

Concrete

2400

Oxygen

1.33

Iron

7870

Air

1.29

Copper

8930

Ethanol

789

Silver

10500

Olive oil

920

Gold

19300

Water

1000

Platinum

21500

Mercury

13600

Osmium

22500

Aluminium

2710

-Pressure

Pressure =

, and the SI unit for pressure is the Pascal (Pa). 1 pascal represents

unit of pressure.

Pressure in a liquid is given by hpg, where

h is height, p is density and g is 9.81m s-2.

Pressure is defined as

force per unit area.

Eg) An oil tanker has a total mass of 400 000 tonnes (ship + oil). It has a width of

40m and a length of 500m.

Force upward = Weight downward = mg = 400 000 000 kg x 9.81m s-2= 3.92 x 109N.

Upward force due to water = pressure x area of base of ship, so

3.92 x 109 = hpg x 40 x 500

p = density of sea water = 1030 kg m-3.

h= distance from the bottom of the ship to the surface, so

h=

3.92109

1030 9.81 40 500

= 19.4m

Force x distance gives the work done by a vehicle against its braking force. This

quantity is called the kinetic energy of a vehicle. The table below shows a car

(which including passengers and luggage is 1200kg) and its breaking distance.

Braking force/ N

Braking Distance/m at

15m/s (k.e. = 135000J)

Braking Distance/m at

30m/s (k.e. = 540000J)

100

1350

5400

1000

135

540

10 000

13.5

54.0

100 000

1.35

5.4

1 000 000

0.135

0.54

If you double the speed, the kinetic energy quadruples. So, for every given braking

force, the braking distance is always four times larger when the car is travelling at

twice the speed.

Reaction time is increased by tiredness, alcohol/ other drug use, illness, and

distractions such as children and phones.

Braking distance depends on the braking force, friction between the tyres

and the road, the mass and the speed.

Braking force is reduced by reduced friction between the brakes and the

wheels (worn or badly adjusted brakes)

Friction between the tyres and the road is reduced by wet or icy roads,

leaves or dirt on the road, worn out tyre treads, etc

Mass is affected by the size of the car and what you put in it.

Stopping distance = thinking distance + braking distance

Thinking distance = Time taken to see the need to stop and apply the brakes

Braking distance = The time taken from hitting the brakes to coming to a stop

Eg) A car of mass 1000kg has brakes that are 75% efficient. It is travelling at 40ms-1

and its daylight and the road is dry. The driver takes 0.25 seconds to respond to an

incident that requires an emergency stop. Whats the shortest possible distance for

stopping?

75

9.8 = 7.35 ;2

100

2

2

Since, for braking: v = u + 2as

02 = 402 + 2 x (-7.35)s

1600

s=

= 109

109m + 10m = 119m

14.7

-Car Safety

You can stop a moving vehicle with less braking force if you increase the braking

distance, because kinetic energy = braking force x breaking distance. This becomes

more relative when thinking of someone involved in a car crash. In a crash, you want

to reduce the force, and you can do this by increasing the crash time, or the distance

your body moves in a crash. A good car does this with crumple zones, seat belts and

airbags.

Crumple zones: These are meant to collapse during a

collision (usually the front end). The crumple zones slightly

decrease collision speed, which increases the collision

time, so the average force you endure is less.

increased by wearing a seatbelt, as it stretches during an

incident. However, the main advantage of a seatbelt is to

keep you kept in the car, as without one your body would

be most likely stopped by the windscreen or another rigid

part of the car.

-Car Safety

Airbags: These work well with seatbelts, as they should

be fully inflated when you hit them, which they most likely

wont be without the aid of seatbelts. Airbags are

designed to inflate in 0.05 s, and deflate in 0.3s, which is

sufficient to slow you down. An airbag consists of three

parts:

A flexible nylon bag that is folded into the steering

wheel or dashboard

A sensor know as an accelerometer. When the front

end of the spring is suddenly stopped, the mass on

the end of the spring continues to move forward and

makes contact with a switch, starting a chemical

reaction. This occurs when the acceleration is

around -10g, an acceleration that only occurs during

an incident.

An inflation system in which a spark ignites a violent

chemical reaction in which nitrogen gas is produced (it

may sometimes be air, but usually Nitrogen gas)

-Car Safety

Global Positioning System (GPS): A GPS in cars enable you to know

where you are on the worlds surface within a distance of about 1m,

using satellites orbiting Earth at the height of about 20 000km. At any

one point, there will always be at least four satellites available for any

GPS receiver. The system relies on accurately measuring time

differences between the arrival of signals sent simultaneously from

several satellites, and on the precise position of these satellites. The

satellites clocks are synchronised with clocks on the ground and are

accurate to one second in 100 million years.

-Car Safety

Global Positioning System (GPS): The method used for determining the position

of the GPS receiver in a car is called trilateration. If satellite A sends out a signal

and it arrives after a known time ay the GPS receiver then, given the speed of travel

of electromagnetic radiation, the distance of the receiver from the satellite can be

found. We now repeat this for the other satellites, which gives your current location;

where all the spheres meet! The in-car computer then plots this position on its map,

and can guide the car along a suitable route to the requested destination. Although

trilateration only needs 3 satellites, GPS systems actually use at least four

satellites.

You are

here

Work, is defined by the equation:

work = force x distance moved in the direction of the force

Since the definition has a direction for the force, you would think it is a vector but in

fact it is a scalar. It defies the general rule of Vector x Scalar = Vector.

The SI Unit for work is the joule, and 1 joule = 1 newton metre.

Eg) Picking up a pen = 0.2N x 0.1m = 0.02Nm = 0.02J

of 1 newton moves its point of

application 1 metre in the direction of

the force.

Force at an angle to the direction of movement:

Eg) A barrel of weight 200N is raised by a vertical distance of 1.8m by being moved

along the ramp. The work done against gravity will be 200N x 1.8m = 360J

If the ramp is at an angle of 25o to the horizontal, then the force required will be less

but the total work done must, if the friction is negligible, be the same, so:

1.8

Distance moved along the ramp =

= 4.26

360

4.26

25

Force required =

= 84.5N

A simpler way is to use the vertical component of the distance moved along the

slope:

Work done = 200N x 4.26m x cos65o

= 360J

o

65 is the angle between the force and the distance moved. In other words:

Work done = force x distance moved in the direction of the force

= F d cos

Where d is the distance travelled and is the angle between the force and the

direction of travel.

The picture that was used in the example previously:

1.8m

25o

200N

Note that if the force and direction of travel are at right angles to one

another, then no work is done as cos 90o is zero. This may seem rather

irrelevant, as at first sight a force at right angles to the direction of travel

seems impossible, however the force of gravity on the Moon as it orbits

Earth is at right angles to the Moons direction of travel. So, despite the

large gravitational force the Earth is exerting on the Moon, the Earth is not

doing any work on the Moon, and so the Moon moves at a constant speed

for a very long time.

Energy is the stored ability to do work.

Energy can be transferred from one form to another but the total amount of

energy in a closed system will not change.

Kinetic Energy: where movement is taking place

Potential Energy: Regions where electric, magnetic, gravitational and nuclear forces

exist. Regions such as these are called fields.

Below are different forms of energy together with some details of how the energy is

stored:

Chemical Energy: energy can be released when the arrangement of atoms is altered

Electrical potential energy: Eg) A positive charge is pushed close to another positive

charge. This will often be called electrical energy.

Electromagnetic energy: includes all the waves that travel at the speed of light in a

vacuum (gamma rays, X-rays, ultraviolet, light, infrared, microwaves, radio waves).

These waves hold their energy in electric and magnetic fields.

Gravitational potential energy: where an object is at a high level in the Earths

gravitational field.

Internal energy: the molecules in all objects have random movement and have

some potential energy when they are close to one another.

Kinetic energy: when an object has speed.

Nuclear energy: energy can be released by reorganising the protons and neutrons

in an atoms nucleus. This form of energy is also known as atomic energy.

Sound energy: in the movement of atoms

situation in any closed system, where

energy may ne converted from one from

into another, but cannot be created or

destroyed.

Gravitational potential energy (GPE): this is the energy stored in an object (the work

an object can do) by virtue of its position in a gravitational field. The formulae is:

GPE = mgh

Kinetic energy (KE): this is the work an object can do by virtue of its speed. The

1

formulae is: kinetic energy (k.e.) = 2 . Also, the kinetic energy of a moving body

2

equals the work it can do as a result of its motion.

Falling objects: An object of mass m, falling from rest, loses gravitational potential

energy. From the principle of conservation of energy, it gains an exactly equivilant

amount of kinetic energy as a result of the work being done on it by gravity, so:

1

Mgh = 2 , where v is its speed and h is the distance fell, m cancels to give:

2

2gh = v2 or v= 2

To power a 100 watt light bulb, an

electric current must be flowing

through the filament of the bulb. It

supplies energy at the rate of 100

joules per second, so to power it

for one hour it would be:

Power =

One watt (W) is equal to one joule per

second.

1kW = 1000 W

1MW = 1000kW = 1 000 000 W

100J s-1 x 3600s = 360 000 J. Electrical energy is sold to domestic users in units

called kilowatt- hours (kWh), which is equivalent to the use of 1000 W of power for

an hour.

Eg) 1kWh could be supplied to a 100W lamp over 10 hours.

1kWh = 1000J s-1 x 3600s = 3 600 000 J. Today one kWh of energy costs about

15p.

You need to be careful when distinguishing between rates and totals. For example, you

cannot buy a kW of power; you pay for energy. You can pay 1 kW used for 6 hours6kWh. Below is a table showing the relationship between rates and totals for several

units.

Rate

Example of rate

Time

Total

Example of total

Speed

80 km h-1

4h

Distance

320km

Power

3 kW

200s

Energy

600kJ

Current

25 mA

1000s

Charge

25C

176W is a high rate of work that only a fit person could sustain for any length of

time. Most people would find it difficult to work continuously at a rate of 70W.

Horse power is still used to express some power ratings. 1 horse power is

equal to 746W- though this isnt really what horses achieve.

Efficiency

Efficiency is expressed as:

Efficiency =

100%

heat, you just need resistance.

Device

Energy Input

Energy Output

Typical

Efficiency (%)

Electrical motor

Electrical

Kinetic/ Potential

85

Solar cell

Light

Electrical

10

Rechargeable battery

Electrical

Electrical

30

Electric radiator

Electrical

Internal

100

Power station

Nuclear

Electrical

40

Car (petrol)

Chemical

Kinetic/ Potential

45

Car (diesel)

Chemical

Kinetic/ Potential

55

Steam engine

Chemical

Kinetic/ Potential

Sankey Diagrams

Useful output

energy

Input energy

relate to how much is wasteddont use fat arrows for things

with small loss!

(Do it to scale)

split into different types

Deformation of materials

The word elastic can be applied to a collision. In an elastic collision no kinetic energy

is lost. This can only happen when there is no permanent distortion of the objects

colliding, because if there is permanent distortion some energy must have been used

to create the distortion. Collisions which are not elastic collisions are not usually called

plastic collisions but inelastic collisions.

A stretch can be Elastic or Plastic

Elastic

If a deformation is elastic, the material returns to

its original shape once the forces are removed.

1) When the material is put under tension, the

atoms of the materials are pulled apart from

one another.

2) Atoms can move small distances relative to

their equilibrium positions, without actually

changing position in the material.

3) Once the load is removed, the atoms return

to their equilibrium distance apart.

For a metal, elastic deformation happens as long

as Hookes law is obeyed.

Plastic

If a deformation is plastic, the

material is permanently

stretched.

1) Some atoms in the material

move position relative to one

another.

2) When the load it removed, the

atoms dont return to their

original position.

limit shows plastic deformation.

Deformation of materials

Tensile and compressive forces

Forces that stretch objects like wires, springs and rubber bands are called tensile

forces, because they cause tension in the object. Therefore, for there to be tension in

a fixed stretched wire, there must be equal and opposite forces on it at either end.

With a spring, it is possible to reduce its length by squeezing it, and in this instance

the forces applied are called compressive forces. Unless the spring is accelerating,

equal and opposite forces must be applied.

Once the elastic limit has been passed,

the stretch becomes permanent.

return to its original shape when the

deforming force is removed, it becomes

permanently distorted.

Hookes Law

Hookes Law- the extension of

an elastic body is proportional

to the force that causes it.

The equation is F= kx,

where F is the force causing extension x, and k is known as the force constant

(stiffness constant). The force constant is expressed in newton's per metre. k tells us

how much force is required per unit of extension.

Eg) A k of 6N mm-1 means it takes 6N to cause an extension of 1mm. Note that the

force constant can only be used when the material is undergoing elastic deformation.

When deformation become plastic, the force per unit extension is no longer constant.

Graphs- When extension is plotted on the x-axis, the area beneath the line is equal to

the work required to stretch the wire.

Work done = area of triangle = Fx

And since F=kx

1

Work done = 2

2

In the case of elastic deformations, the elastic potential energy E equals the work

done, giving:

1

1

E = = 2 .

2

Hookes Law

Energy stored in plastic deformation:

The graph shown below could be produced by stretching a copper wire beyond its

elastic limit. The work done stretching the wire is given by the area A + B. If the tension

is then reduced to zero, the wire behaves elastically, contracting to a permanent

extension x. As the tension is reduced, energy equivalent to area B is released from

the wire. The net result of the wire having work A + B done on it, but only releasing

energy B, is that the wire becomes hot to the touch.

Youngs modulus

Stress and Strain:

Stress is force per unit cross-section area, therefore is

Stress is force per unit

expressed in the SI Unit newton per square metre. N m-2. cross-sectional area.

This unit is called pascal (Pa), which is also used to

quantify pressure.

Strain is extension per

unit length.

Strain is extension per unit length. As a result, strain

does not have a unit, since it is length divided by length;

sometimes it is quoted as a percentage. A strain of 2% is

the same as a strain of 0.02 and implies that a material

has extended 2cm for each metre of its original length.

Youngs modulus

Stress on a material causes strain. How much strain is caused depends on how

stiff it is. A stiff material, such as cast iron, will not alter its shape much when a

stress is applied to it, but a relatively small stress will cause a substantial strain in

a soft material, such as clay.

Young's Modulus is the ratio between stress and strain, measured in pascals

(Pa). The formulae is as follows:

stress

Young Modulus (E) =

strain

force

area

extension

length

force length

area extension

e = extension in m

Categories of materials

Material variety:

There are many materials now, all with different strengths and weaknesses.

Some of the properties materials may have are: Ductility, brittleness, stiffness,

density, elasticity, plasticity, toughness, fatigue resistance, conductivity, and fire

resistance.

The properties of individual material types can be illustrated clearly by sketching

graphs of stress against strain.

Ductile- materials that have a large plastic region (therefore they can be drawn

into a wire); for example, copper. The strain on a ductile material may be around

50%

Brittle- A material that distorts very little even when subject to a large stress and

does not exhibit any plastic deformation; for example, concrete.

Polymeric material- A material made of many smaller molecules bonded

together, often making tangled long chains. These materials often exhibit very

large strains (e.g. 300%) for example rubber.

Stress-Strain graphs for Ductile materials curve

Stress (Nm-2)

Yield point

The material suddenly starts to stretch

without any extra load. The yield point is

the stress at which a large amount of

plastic deformation takes place with a

constant or reduced load.

Limit of Proportionality

Stops obeying Hookes

Law but would still return

to original shape

Strain

Elastic Limit

Starts behaving plastically, and would no

longer return to original shape once the stress

was removed.

Stress-Strain graphs for Brittle materials dont curve

Stress (Nm-2)

Material

fractures

Strain

Law.

When the stress reaches a certain

point, the material snaps (it does

not deform plastically).

When stress is applied to a brittle

material any tiny cracks get bigger

and bugger until the material breaks

completely. This is called brittle

fracture.

Rubber and Polythene are Polymeric Materials

Polythene

Rubber

Unloading

Strain

Rubber returns to its original length

when the load is removed- it behaves

elastically.

Stress (Nm-2)

Stress (Nm-2)

Loading

Loading

Unloading

Strain

Polythene behaves plastically- it has

been stretched to a new shape. It is a

ductile material.

DEFINITIONS

Acceleration (a)- the rate of change of velocity, measured in metres per second

squared (m s-2); a vector quantity

Sample- definition