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APES Water Test

ASSIGNMENT: Complete the following test by Tuesday, April 2nd. In addition to filling in the
correct answers on the scantron, you must elaborate on each answer explaining either more
detail, or describing the why. This must be done on a separate sheet of paper. Descriptions
can be anywhere from a sentence to a paragraph each.
Questions 1-4 refer to the following quantities of water samples.
(A) Acidity
(B) Turbidity
(C) Hardness
(D) D.O.
(E) Salinity
1.
2.
3.
4.

Measured on the pH scale


Caused by suspended particles
Decreased by the breakdown of organic waste
Measured by the amount of Ca+ and Mg+

5. Of the following, which constitutes the greatest percentage of domestic use of water in the United
States?
a. Flushing toilets
b. Drinking
c. Cooking
d. Washing dishes
e. Washing clothes
6. The presence of high levels of fecal coliform bacteria in a water source indicates that the water
a. Is safe to drink
b. Is safe to swim in
c. Contains too little oxygen to support fish life
d. Has been recently chlorinated at a sewage treatment plant
e. Has been contaminated by untreated human or animal waste
7. Of the
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

following, which is the best example of a point source of water pollution?


Factory effluent
Storm water
Acid precipitation
Agricultural runof
Residential pesticide runof

8. The amount
upstream of
I.
II.
III.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

of sediment deposited at the mouth of a river is likely to be increased by the presence


which of the following?
Artificial levees and embankments
Dams
Extensive natural wetlands

I only
II only
III only
I and II only
II and III only

9. In the removal of a pollutant from wastewater, which of the following is true of the cost per unit of
pollutant removed?
a. It decreases as the toxicity of the pollutant increases
b. It decreases as the time passed before remediation increases
c. It increases as the concentration of the pollutant decreases
d. It increases as the volume of the wastewater decreases
e. It does not change over time or with concentration of pollutant

10. The goal of the second state of a septic treatment plant is to


a. Remove the large solid material
b. Aerate the water
c. Make muddy water clean
d. Remove chemicals such as DDT or PCBs
e. Lower the amount of organic materials in the water
11. Which of the following organisms is the first to be adversely afected by thermal pollution in a
stream?
a. Trees along the bank
b. Insect larvae in the water
c. Large fish migrating upstream
d. Birds drinking the water
e. Bacteria in the water

12. Which
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

of the values below best represent the Ld50 in this experiment?


3.0
3.5
3.7
4.0
5.0

13. At what pH value do the fewest fish hatch?


a. 7.0
b. 4.0
c. 3.7
d. 3.5
e. 3.0
14. Which
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

of the following best describes the goal of the above experiment?


To test the hypothesis that the bigger the fish, the smaller the pH tolerance range
To observe how many fish would hatch at diferent pH levels
To find out how many fish live in streams with diferent pH levels
To find out how many acid rain afects life in streams
To see what chemical is best at changing the pH of water

15. The pH value is a measure of the

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Amount of heavy metals in the water


BOD of the water
Concentration of oxygen in the water
Concentration of hydrogen ions in the water
Depth the scientist can see under the water

16. Oxygen-depleted zones of the ocean, such as the one at the mouth of the Mississippi River, are
most likely caused by
a. large numbers of fish that are using up all the oxygen in the water
b. a reduction in the plant life of rivers that empty into the ocean near the dead zone
c. excessive fertilizers carried into the ocean, which cause algal bloom that lowers the oxygen
level
d. thermal pollution in the ocean
e. acid precipitation falling on the ocean
17. The highest priority of the Clean Water Act is to provide
a. Funds to increase recycling participation
b. Guidance to refer to toxic chemicals
c. Funds to reclaim old strip mines
d. Policies to lessen the amount of oil spills in the ocean
e. Policies to attain fishable and swimmable waters in the United States
18. A certain chemical has a concentration of 10 ppm in water. Which statement most accurately
describes its concentration?
a. There are 10 molecules of the chemical in one million molecules of water
b. There are 10 million molecules of the chemical in the sample
c. There are 10 million molecules of the chemical in a 1-liter beaker
d. There are 10 molecules of water in one million molecules of the chemical
e. There are 10 molecules of the chemical in 10 million molecules of water
19. Salt intrusion into freshwater aquifers, beach aquifers, and the disruption of coastal fisheries are all
possibly results of which of the following?
a. Rising ocean levels as a result of global warming
b. More solar ultraviolet radiation on the earth
c. More chlorofluorocarbons in the atmosphere
d. Reduced rates of photosynthesis
e. Use of the oceans as waste disposal areas
20. Which
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

of the sources below would produce non-point source pollution?


The smoke stack of a factory
A volcano
A pipe leading into a river from a sewage treatment plant
A cars exhaust pipe
A large area of farmland near a river

21. The shrinking of the Aral Sea and the ecological disaster that followed was mainly caused by
a. The diversion of the seas two feeder rivers for agricultural use
b. Withdrawing groundwater from the area
c. The major earthquake that hits the region
d. The loss of swamplands in the area
e. The massive use of pesticides
22. The release of chemicals from underground storage tanks is most likely to pollute which of the
following?
a. A landfill
b. The atmosphere
c. The ecotone
d. Aquifers
e. The hydrosphere

23. All of the following are useful methods for reducing domestic water use EXCEPT
a. Using low-flow shower heads
b. Using low-flush volume toilets
c. Turning of water while brushing your teeth
d. Fixing leaks as soon as they start
e. Lowering the temperature of the water heater
24. Which of the following pairs correctly matches the source of gray water with its most frequency use
in the home?
a. Dishwater and sink water used to flush toilets
b. Flushed toilet water used to irrigate garden plants
c. Dishwater and sink water used to irrigate garden plants
d. Water collected from rainfall used to flush toilets
e. Water from showers used for dish washing
25. Which
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

of the following is a non-point source of water pollution?


Drainpipes
Ditches
Sewer outfall
Atmospheric deposition
Leaking gasoline tank

26. Which
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

of the following is a source of thermal pollution?


Magmatic activity
Geothermal springs
Agriculture
Increased organic activity
Power plant cooling systems

27. What impact could an influx of agricultural waste or manure have on an aquatic ecosystem?
a. Increase in dissolved oxygen
b. Excessive growth of algae
c. Reduction in photosynthesis
d. Lower BOD
e. Thermal shock
28. What impact does the introduction of thermal pollution have on an aquatic ecosystem?
a. Reduces the ability of the water to hold dissolved carbon dioxide
b. Increases the ability of the water to hold dissolved carbon dioxide
c. Reduces the ability of the water to hold dissolved oxygen
d. Increases the ability of water to hold dissolved oxygen
e. No impact on dissolved carbon dioxide or dissolved oxygen
29. Worldwide, most of the available freshwater is used for which of the following?
a. Oil and gas production
b. Power plant cooling
c. Industrial processing
d. Public drinking water
e. Agriculture
30. What consequences of overusing groundwater would afect areas that are distant from the point of
use?
a. Groundwater contamination
b. Salt water intrusion
c. Subsidence
d. Depletion of stream flow
e. Aquifer replenishment
31. Distillation and reverse osmosis are methods for which of the following processes?

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Tapping groundwater
Transferring watersheds
Desalination
Curbing water waste
Minimizing water losses from irrigation

32. High levels of which nutrient can lead to eutrophication?


a. Carbon
b. Phosphorus
c. Oxygen
d. Carbon dioxide
e. Water
33. A body of water is considered to be safe for swimming if there are no more than 200 colonies of
coliform bacteria per 100
a. Liters of water
b. Microliters of water
c. Milliliters of water
d. Ppm of water
e. Gallons of water
34. At which of the following ranges in pH will the ecology of a lake environment begin to be
significantly impacted?
a. 3.0-5.0
b. 4.5-5.0
c. 5.0-6.0
d. 6.5-9.0
e. 9.0-9.5
35. The majority of ocean pollution comes from which of the following sources?
a. Runof from pesticides, fertilizers, and sewer discharges
b. Acid rain
c. Marine sources such as oil spills
d. Ocean dumping
e. Oil exploration and production
36. Damming the Colorado River in the United States had which of the following efects?
a. No efects on the carrying capacity for humans of the Southwestern United States and
Mexico
b. Increases the carrying capacity for humans of the Southwestern United States and Mexico
c. Decreases the carrying capacity for humans of the Southwestern United States but
decreases the carrying capacity for humans in Mexico
d. Increases the carrying capacity for humans for the Southwestern United States, but
decreases the carrying capacity for humans in Mexico
e. Decreases the carrying capacity for humans of the Southwestern United States, but
increases the carrying capacity for humans in Mexico
37. Which
a.
b.
c.

of the following is NOT a provision of the Law of the Sea?


Established an Exclusive Economic Zone of 12 miles for coastal nations
Covers rights to fishing, marine life, and mining
Establishes general guidelines for safeguarding marine life and protecting the freedom of
scientific research on the high seas
d. Creates a legal mechanism for controlling mineral resource exploitation in international
waters
e. Created the International Seabed Authority

38. Aquifers provide almost ____ of the worlds water.


a. 1/6
b. 1/4
c. 1/3
d. 1/2

e.

2/3

39. Currently, groundwater in the U.S. is being withdrawn at ______ its replacement rate.
a. At one-half
b. Equal to
c. Two times
d. Four times
e. Five times
40. It is most economically and environmentally sound to focus water resource management on
a. Increasing the water supply
b. Controlling the mining of groundwater
c. Increasing the efficiency of the way we use water
d. Developing desalination plants
e. Cloud seeding and towing icebergs to arid regions
41. World Resource Institute estimates that ____ of the water people use throughout the world is
wasted by evaporation, leaks, and other losses.
a. 25-30%
b. 45-50%
c. 65-70%
d. 75-80%
e. 78-90%
42. The main human activity that increases flooding is
a. Constructing dams
b. Directing stream flow
c. Destroying vegetation
d. Irrigation
e. Urbanization
43. Nitrates and phosphates are examples of
a. Disease-causing agents
b. Oxygen-demanding wastes
c. Inorganic plant nutrients
d. Organic chemicals
e. Sediment
44. Over half of the total mass of pollutants entering stream sand lakes comes from
a. Point pollution from sewage treatment plants
b. Point pollution from industrial plants
c. Non point pollution from roadside runof
d. Non point pollution from agriculture
e. Non point pollution from construction
45. Oxygen sag curves can occur
a. May occur during spring floods
b. Occur when oxygen-demanding wastes are added to the water
c. Develop in fast-flowing rivers
d. May occur upstream from a sewage treatment plant
e. All of these answers
46. The majority of the oil pollution in the ocean floor comes from
a. Blowouts (rupture of a borehole in an oil rig in the ocean)
b. Tanker accidents
c. Environmental terrorism
d. Runof from land
e. Normal operations of of shore wells
47. Of the following, the most ecologically responsible way to dispose of sewage sludge is
a. Incineration
b. Dumping into the deep trenches of the ocean

c. Conventional landfills
d. Treating with heat to kill harmful bacteria, removal of toxic chemicals, and using as fertilizer
e. None of these answers
48. Which of the following substances are removed to the greatest extent by combined primary and
secondary waste treatment?
a. Organic pesticides
b. Organic oxygen-demanding wastes
c. Toxic metals and synthetic chemicals
d. Radioactive isotopes
e. All of these answers
49. According to the EPA, about _____% of the countrys lakes and 40% of the countrys streams are too
polluted for swimming or fishing.
a. 10
b. 25
c. 40
d. 55
e. 80
50. A change in the U.S. Drinking Water Act that is least likely to be recommended by an
environmentalist is
a. Banning all lead in plumbing pipes, faucets, and fixtures
b. Increased reliance on voluntary compliance to drinking water standards
c. Strengthening public notification on requirements of drinking water violations
d. Reducing testing and administrative costs and improving treatment by combing smaller
water systems into larger ones
e. Combing small water treatment facilities with larger ones nearby