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International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET), ISSN 2278 0882

Volume 4, Issue 3, March 2015

XBEE Based Transformer Protection and Oil Testing


1

1, 2, 3, 4

Kalyani More, 2Ashwini Khaire, 3Sudhir Khalkar, 4P.G Salunke


Department of electronics and Telecommunication, SITRC, Nashik, Pune University

ABSTRACT
X- bee based transformer protection involves protecting
of multiple transformer from a single remote control
centre. In this project we have monitor and control four
Para-meters of transformer namely Voltage, Power
Load, Temperature and Oil Level. The project can be expandable in future for various other parameters like
Surveillance camera, Smoke detector, etc,. Here we have
used X-bee Technology for sending and receiving data.
That is two way communications. The basic aim of our
project is to protect the transformer against internal
Faults and ensuring security of the protection scheme for
external faults. System conditions that indirectly affect
transformers often receive less emphasis when
transformer protection is specified. Overloading power
transformers beyond the nameplate rating can cause a
rise in temperature of both transformer oil and windings.
If the winding temperature rise exceeds the transformer
limits, the insulation will deteriorate and may fail
prematurely. If there is a fault in the transformer, by our
project we can detect the fault in the transformer and
there will be notification to the control room regarding
the fault

1. INTRODUCTION
Transformer is the key equipment in power system, to
ensure its safe and stable operation is important.
Transformers either raise a voltage to decrease losses, or
decreases voltage to a safe level. Monitoring is defined
as on- line collection of data. It is very difficult and
expensive to construct the communication wires to
monitor and control each distribution transformer
station. Here X-Bee is used for communicating the
temperature rise, low oil levels, over load, poor quality
of LT cables, or improper installation and maintenance.
Out of these factors temperature rise, low oil levels and
over load, need continuous monitoring to save
transformer life .This Project increases the reliability of
distribution network, by monitoring critical information
such as oil temperature, and oil level of transformer.
Data are collected continuously. Monitoring the
transformers for problems before they occur can prevent
faults that are costly to fix and result in a loss of service
life. At the same time multiple transformers can be
monitored and controlled from a single remote location.

Analog signals of all above parameters are converted to


equivalent digital electrical signal by ADC which is
inbuilt in ATMEG8 microcontroller. Controlling is done
by SCADA system which is powered by VB 6.0.
Communication between plant and control room is done
by XBEE transmitter and receiver module working at
2.4 GHz and we have use 200m range module. Modules
are available for 1000 km.

2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Enormous work has been done on protection of power
transformers such as: overload voltages, over current and
external short-circuit etc. Some of those researches
Which had been conducted, their setbacks, ambiguities
and merits are as discussed in the subsequent
paragraphs. In 2003 Ali Reza Fereidunian proposed a
design which was based on a digital differential relays
for transformer protection using Walsh series and least
square Estimators. The Two estimators were been
developed using the Walsh series and least square
algorithms. The transformer internal fault (short circuit)
protection function was the functionality of the
differential relay. The performance of the proposed relay
was tested for internal, external faults and inrush current
of the transformer. In their project the digital differential
Relaying scheme comprised of filter, pre-process, data
acquisition system and a decision maker. The protective
relay performs the duty of making decision about the
faulted or non-faulted situations. In 2010 V.Thiyagarajan
and T.G. Palanivel proposed an innovative design to
develop a system based on microcontroller that was used
for monitoring the current of a distribution transformer
in a substation and to protect the system from the rise in
current due to overloading. The protection of the
distribution transformer was accomplished by shutting
down the entire unit with the aid of radio frequency
communication. It was concluded that the PLCs gave the
protection circuits more flexibility and makes their
integration with other protection and control circuits
easier. And also found that the differential protection
using PLCs provided high sensitivity for internal faults
and high stability for external faults and magnetizing
inrush currents. From the above review, it is finally
concluded that researches done on the trans-former
protection have some weaknesses; therefore by using the

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International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET), ISSN 2278 0882
Volume 4, Issue 3, March 2015

proposed method, which is by using Microcontroller


based approach the protection will be enhanced to a
better protection because the application of
microcontroller in protecting transformer against over
current and over voltage is speedily growing.
3. BLOCK DIAGRAM
3.1. Transmitter section:

Fig.1
IR sensor is used for testing the level of oil in
transformer.LM35 is used for testing the temperature of
transformer. The main control of the project is on the
hand of microcontroller which is ATMEGA 8
microcontroller. Transmission media between controller
and desktop PC is x bee module. This is the advanced
version of zigbee.

4. WORKING
A step down transformer and bridge rectifier are used for
obtaining a DC supply which is regulated to 5V using a
7805 voltage regulator IC. The sensors are used to
monitor continuously changes in parameters. The
transducers viz. RTD, techno generator, fluid level
sensor and MQ6 respond to any change in parameters
with a change in voltage level. This data is fed to the
ADC 0808 which converts this analog data into digital
domain. Our system uses an 89S51 microcontroller
which is an 8 bit controller. This controller takes the
input from ADC. The ADC is connected to the port 2 of
microcontroller where the digital data comes. The XBEE
transmitter and ULN 2803 relay driver is connected on
port3. A pull up resistor network is required for port 0
and port 1. The sensors continuously send their output to
the ADC. The ADC sends those to the microcontroller.
Also with the help of XBEE transmitter module this
performance data is sent to the computer on which we
can continuously monitor all the data. The controller
updates the data on LCD. On receiver side there is a
XBEE module connected with USB to the computer
system which have the VB6 software installed on it.
We can set all the performance parameter before starting
the system and can be viewed on the computer screen. If
we want to change any parameters max limit then it can
be changed on computer screen. This change will be
done in the system. If any change is occurred and the
transducer output exceeds maximum set value then the
controller forces the relay line to NC position. This is
visible on the computer screen and any controlling
action can be initiated.

3.2. Receiver section

5. RESULT
A result for the system operation is included here. The
graph pattern and various parameters buttons are shown
on the computer screen in the VB software.fig.3 shows
the graphical representation of all readings. The value in
left column shows the current values of parameters while
the rightmost column shows the maximum allowable
values. The left column which shows the red color
indicates the parameter crossing the maximum allowable
limit. Beyond this maximum limit if the parameter goes,
then the circuit trips and a Buzzer Alarm is activated.
We can Change the Maximum limit instantaneously
from the Control room itself. Also after required action
taken power can be RESET.

Fig.2
Fig.2 shows the receiver section. In that XBEE CC2500
is module used for transmitting data from controller to
desktop PC.

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International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET), ISSN 2278 0882
Volume 4, Issue 3, March 2015

Fig.3

6. EQUESTIONS
When current is scene from current sensor then power is
calculated by formula,
P=I*I*R

7. SOFTWARE
We use Visual Basic 6.which is quite easier than other
programming languages such as C++, C#, java etc. This
is because visual basic enables you to work in a
graphical user interface where you can just drag and
drop controls that you want to work with. It allows
database integration with wide variety of applications.
Additional internet capability is also there.

8. CONCLUSION
As the graph shows that BLUE line represents the
variation in temperature. YELLOW line is showing the
variation in fuel level. RED line represents the Voltage
level and GREEN line represents the power level. At a
particular instant when any parameter level has crossed
their maximum limits. System took the action
immediately and closed the system. To optimize and
secure the operation of these assets, we can add extended
functionality to perform leak detection, leak location,
vibration, Smoke detector, Spy Camera.etc.

REFRANCES
1. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia,visual basic
research
2. Protection of MV transformers at utility and
industrial facilities by chuck mozina.
3. Rakesh
Kumar
Pandey,
DilipKumar,
Distributed Transformer Monitoring System
Based On Zigbee Technology, IJETT,
Volume4 Issue5- May 2013

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