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Index:
Chapter 1:
1) Introduction _____________________________________________P.G (4)
1.2) abstract ________________________________________________P.G (4)
1.3) project statement _________________________________________P.G (5)
1.4) Objectives ______________________________________________P.G (6)
2) Methodology ______________________________________________P.G (7)
Chapter 2:
3) Historical back ground ________________________________P.G (9)_(12)
4) 3.1) Development of JEDDAH city and growth ___________P.G (13)_(14)
Chapter 3:
3) 3 Case studies _______________________________________P.G (16)_(45)
4.1) Clarke quay redevelopment project ____________________P.G (16)_(24)
4.2) Islamic Cairo redevelopment project __________________P.G (25) _ (39)
4.3) Newtown Wellesley hospital _________________________P.G (40) _ (43)
4.4) A local inspiration building __________________________P.G (44) _ (45)
Chapter4:
4) Site analysis ________________________________________P.G (47)_(67)
5.1) Explanation analysis _______________________________P.G (68) _ (73)

5.2) Materials in buildings _______________________________P.G (74)_(78)


5.3) Things recognised in the site ______________________________P.G (77)
Chapter5:
5) Site detail __________________________________________P.G (79)_(85)
Chapter6:
7) Program and zoning of the project _______________________P.G (87) _ (104)
Chapter7:
Survey questions __________________________________P.G (106)_(108)
Survey results _____________________________________P.G (109)_(110)
Conclusion _____________________________________________P.G (111)
References _____________________________________________P.G (112)
Chapter 8:
The final result of the project

1) Introduction:

Project name:

Al _ Mazloum heritage project in ALBALAD Conservation and buildings reuse

1.1) Abstract:

Each country has its own history and its own heritage. Saudi Arabia has many cities.
One of the important cities is JEDDAH. It is the main port of KSA.

JEDDAH has a very famous and unique architectural heritage. It has been there for
2500 years. Jeddah now is developed as a city and modernised. The old area has been
neglected from the people who used to live in. it became an area for poor people and
not taking care of it as an important area part of this important city .

This research project is focussing on the old Jeddah part (ALBALAD). For that
considering it as a problem that has to be solved and studied .so studying the history
of ALBALAD, the urban pattern and the architectural buildings was a must.
Therefore the aim is to choose an area in ALBALAD. Renovate its old buildings and
reuse them for different activities that people can visit and not forgetting their history.
And to make that developed area a focal point for JEDDAH citizen.

1.2) Project statement:


The project is a project of heritage. The heritage of the Hejaz area .this has its own
specific architectural language. The aim of the project is to renovate and add a new
building that has a different architectural language.
This project studies in depth the Hejaz architectural language. It would therefore
illuminate its elements. Thus highlighting the urban general designs in particular, the
pedestrian and vehicular movement, also the relationship and distribution of the
Districts zones and the buildings including its facilities, special features of the
building design. This will include material used and the insulation wither sonic or
solar, the water drinking system and sewage system, ventilation, night lighting. The
special general designs of these buildings also define the social interns and
relationship between the inhabitants.
The project has two parts:

To renovate few chosen buildings:


In renovation the aim would be to keep the general special features of the
Hejaz architectural language, at the same time may advance the function of the
building to be viable for a different functional use.

The second part of the project is to develop and design a new cultural
centre:
This would be of a varied architectural language. A monumental design to
express the labour of a new architectural new born. In the cultural centre the
following would be considered at most: sustainable architecture, alternative
sources of energy such as solar energy, ventilation and air conditioning, social
activities such as: theatres for cinemas, art exhibitions, music concerts,
(wedding and funeral halls), conference theatres, library, computer
information centre and legal aid facilities.

1.3) Project objectives:

In the midst of finding the architect oneself one has to learn his own culture
and heritage before learning that of others, this long learning process is never
ending from ones to ones death.

To get familiarised with the Hejaz architectural language. This is the


architecture language of my own town. We have a saying that "the inhabitants
of Makah should know best the pedestrian ways of Makah"

The project would be a place for those who want to learn about the Hejaz
architectural language.

The renovation would include residential building to accommodate overseas


visitors to.

The project would be a focal meeting point of Jeddah resident.

The renovation and the cultural centre would be preservation of the local civil
culture.

It is a local educational focal point to the schools in the area and in whole
Jeddah.

The heritage has a practical purpose to it. It serves its surrounding community.

The first cultural centre of its kind in Saudi Arabia, there for it would be a
model for other parts in the Kingdome to imitate.

The goal is start fixing and healing what is old and other people will complete
the rest development of the old area of Jeddah.

To make the old residents and the new generation never forgets the old days
and history.

2) methodology:
To do this research following a method was a must, to get all the information that is
needed. There are several types of methods that were followed:

Searching in books, academic articles and websites

survey:

Doing a survey was important in this research for many reasons:


1.

To know if people have knowledge about their own culture and city.

2. What are their vision about their own old city (to know if they are attached to
it or not).
3. What are the things that will attract them to go there (to know kind of
activities that will give them knowledge, entertain them and to make it as a
focal point for them to visit)

Target: Jeddah citizens.


Gender/Age: (M/F), +20.
Number of distribution: 100

3) Historical background and architectural heritage background:

One of the best-kept secrets of Saudi Arabia lies entangled between an active
port, a busy road system, modern shopping malls and a residential area: the
Old Town of Jeddah.

What began around 2,500 years ago as a small fishing settlement, gained
major importance as the port for the two holy cities of Makkah and Madinah.
Originally fortified with a high wall to fight off attackers, the 1.5 km area
constitutes today the largest historically grown urban fabric of the entire
Arabian Peninsula.

Jeddahs city plan: the old town

A 16th Century view of Jeddah; showing Portuguese Fleet of Lopo Soares de


Albergaria before city.

View of Jeddah in 1838


"It was indeed a remarkable town. The streets were alleys, wood roofed in the main
bazaar, but elsewhere open to the sky in the little gap between the tops of the lofty
white-walled houses." T.E. Lawrence

In 1947 Jeddah was still a medieval walled port, covering no more than 1.5 sq
km. as its mentioned Inside its walls lay the mosques, souks and series typical
of a small Muslim town, but what distinguished it were the tower houses, built
of coral blocks, with elaborate wooden balconies. It is a place of great
antiquity, an important town on the pre-Islamic trade routes between India and
the Mediterranean. By the tenth century, it was described as fortified and well
populated. The people are traders and are wealthy. The town is Mecca's
treasury and Yemen's and Egypt's emporium.

With the coming of oil money in the'70s, the merchants from the coral houses
began moving out to new western-style houses along the sea front and into the
surrounding desert. By 1993 Jeddah covered 560 sq km. and is still expanding
rapidly today. It now has the longest Cornish (water front) in the world, and
probably the grandest. The city walls
were demolished in the late 1940s, and
used as landfill.

These white-walled houses were built


four or five stories high, of coral rag tied

with square beams and decorated by wide bowwindows running from ground to roof in grey
wooden panels. There was no glass in Jidda,
but a profusion of good lattices, and some very
delicate shallow chiseling on the panels of
window casings. The doors were heavy two
leaved slabs of teak-wood, deeply carved,
often with wickets in them and they had rich
hinges and ring-knockers of hammered iron.

There was much molded or cut plastering, and


on the older houses fine stone heads and jambs
to the windows looking on the inner courts.
For much of its existence the city consisted
of the one square kilometer area within the
city walls, the area known as the historic
quarter or Al-Balad today.

Al-Balad is divided into four main


neighborhoods:

1. Harat Alsham (The Sham Neighborhood), facing north.


2. Harat Al-Yaman (The Yemeni Neighborhood), facing south.
3. Harat Mazloum (The Aggrieved Neighborhood), facing east.
4. Harat Al-Bahr (The Sea Neighborhood).

HARAT AL SHAM
HARAT AL MAZLOUM
HARAT AL YAMAN
HARAT AL BAHAR

The name of 'Harat Mazloum' comes from a man who was sent to his death
in 1131H (1719) without having been proven guilty of the crime he was
accused of. The story says that after the execution, the man's blood formed the
words, 'Not Guilty' in the sand. The incident became the feature of the
neighborhood and the name stuck.

"harat alsham" is called that because its located at the northern part and
(alsham)which is (Syria, Lebanon and Jordan is at the north).
"harat alyaman" is called that because it is located at the southern part and
(alyaman ) is located in the south.
"harat al bahar" is called that because of its location at the sea side.

Al-BALAD area is a warren of alleys


with names that reflect their function
such as The Alley of Perfumers, where
traditional attars and perfumes were
sold. One of the alleys that is
unfortunately no longer there is Hug
Me Alley. This passage was snake
shaped and so narrow that only one
person at a time could pass through it.
If two people were to walk through,
they would have to move so close as if
they were holding each other. The
architecture of the historic quarter is
characterized by the merchants' houses of the 19th century. The traditional tall
buildings of old Jeddah are tall and graceful, constructed of coral, limestone
and decorated intricately with beautiful Indian or Javan teak facades which
ventilate the houses as well as shade the narrow streets.
An extensive renovation program, run by the Historical Area Preservation
Department, was set up in 1990 and aims to protect the city's architecture and
heritage. The department now employs a staff of over fifty people and
organizes digs, tours and local research.

3.1) Development of JEDDAH city and growth:

Jeddah plan (1971_1976)

Jeddah master plan (1976_1981)

Jeddah master plan (1981_1991)

4) Case studies:
There are three case studies in this chapter that is analysed and
explained in a way that shows examples around the world about
heritage complex and buildings renovated and retreated:
4.1) first case study:
1_Clarke quay (Singapore)
Introduction and historical background:
Clarke Quay is a historical riverside quay
in Singapore, located within the Singapore
River Planning Area. The quay is situated
upstream from the mouth of the Singapore
River and Boat Quay. Clarke Quay was
named after Sir Andrew Clarke,
Singapore's second Governor and
Governor of the Straits Settlements from
1873 to 1875, who played a key role in
positioning Singapore as the main port for
the Malay states of Perak, Selangor and
Sungei Ujong. Clarke Quay is also the name
of a road along the quay, part of which has
since been converted into a pedestrian mall.
Clarke Street, located next to Clarke Quay,
was officially named in 1896, and was
originally two streets known simply as East
Street and West Street in north Kampong
Malacca. Similar to Clarke Quay, Clarke Street has since been converted into a
pedestrian mall.

The Singapore River has been the centre of


trade since modern Singapore was founded
in 1819. During the colonial era, Boat Quay
was the commercial centre where barge
lighters would transport goods upstream to
warehouses at Clarke Quay. At the height of
its prosperity, dozens of bumboats jostled for
mooring space beside Clarke Quay. This
continued well into the latter half of the
twentieth century. By this time, the Singapore River had also become much polluted.
The government decided to relocate cargo services to a new modern facility in Pasir
Panjang. The bumboats and Lorries departed to their new home and Clarke Quay fell
silent. The government then cleaned up the
Singapore River and its environment from
1977 to 1987. Plans were made to revamp
the area and turn it into a flourishing
commercial, residential and entertainment
precinct. These plans took into serious
consideration the historical value of Clarke
Quay, making it mandatory that new
buildings complement the historical character
of the area and those certain old buildings be
restored . Clarke Quay Festival Village, the biggest conservation project for the
Singapore River, was developed and officially opened on 10 December 1993 In later
years,

Clarke Quay was managed and owned by CapitaLand.Ten years later, works were
commenced to revamp the Clarke Quay area in order to give the place a better tenant
mix. The development also saw major changes to the exterior and riverside areas. A
number of establishments vacated Clarke Quay to make way for new tenants. The
upgraded Clarke Quay features the Ministry of Sound, The Clinic, Forbidden City by
the Indochine Group and the whole development was completed in October 2006.
Presently, five blocks of restored warehouses house various restaurants and
nightclubs. There are also moored Chinese junks that have been refurbished into
floating pubs and restaurants.
Clarcke quay redevelopment and concept:
the first major project in Asia, done bye
Alsop a dramatic redevelopment of the river
front district of Clarke Quay in Singapore,
is succeeding in drawing tourists and locals
back to the historic waterfront ,the powerful
regenerative impact in economic social and
cultural terms that typifies Clarke Quay.
Developed by Capitaland, (approx. 30.6m)
mixed-use scheme, designed to increase
commercial and leisure activities, gives the
riverfront area a new identity and re-positions
Clarke Quay as a vibrant and attractive
destination. Crucial to the success of the project
has been the architect/engineers ingenious

manipulation of the site micro climate through


the design of a distinctive and sophisticated
shading/cooling system that provides the
Quayside with tremendous visual interest and
environmental benefit. the challenge was to
provide a new lease of life not just by developing

an attractive re-design of the streetscape and waterfront but also to address the
perennial climate problem and to find ways to mitigate against the Singapore
ambient temperature and heavy rainfall without resorting to the traditional scenario of
creating an internal air conditioned mall.

The first phase of the waterfront revival, which was completed in March 2006,
has effected a total transformation of the area ambience, activity and
appearance through the redevelopment of three main areas; the riverfront, the
streets and River Valley Road.

The roof stratergy:

is the addition of a single roof acting as a visual icon has succeeded in


attracting people back to Clarke Quay as an essential leisure and pleasure area
of Singapore.

In addition to the visual impact, the canopy makes an enormous difference to


the ambience at Clarke Quay it cools the streets, it keeps the rain off.Its two
main walkways are fitted with the climate-control system of silent blowers and
double-layer ETFE canopies designed to create the feel of a Summer day.

Structure explenation:

Formerly the hot, humid or wet domain of tacky shopping outlets and hawkers
stalls, the streetscape has been ingeniously transformed by the design team
into a pleasant climate-moderated environment of landscaped arcades.

Elegant canopies, providing environmentally friendly shading and cooling,


which protect visitors against the extremes of the Singaporean climate and
maintain the temperature at 28 deg Celsius, cover the four internal streets and
central courtyard. Known as the Angels, the willowy umbrella-like structures
comprise ETFE (Ethyl Tetra Fluro Ethylene) cushioned canopies, supported
on steel fames. Cantilevering over the roofs of adjacent shop houses.

the angels provide solar shading and rain protection. The frames of the Angels
support large Whale tail slow speed fans that provide a low level artificial
breeze in the streets.

Tree planting in the streets provides further shading and solar absorbance and
the installation of a feature fountain in the centre of the restaurant-lined
courtyard affords further visual and cooled environmental benefit. In addition
animation is added at street level by increasing window display area through
the introduction of new all glass window vitrines to the facades of the street
shop houses.

The detail of the sustainable roof ...

The Riverfront

The Riverfront Characterised by a series of colonnaded shop houses used as


poor quality restaurants and trinket shops fronting onto crowded pavements
packed with persistent hawkers, the potentially attractive riverfront site had
lost its appeal to tourist and locals.

The redevelopment scheme exploits the riverfronts traditional formal linear


arrangement of terraced shop houses facing the Singapore river but removes
the poor quality restaurants, street stalls and cluttered walkways, and turns the
space between the shop houses and the waterfront into a clear zone dedicated
to pleasant strolling and observation.

A revival of the riverfront itself has been achieved through the creation of an
elevated dining area that projects out over the river wall to maximise the
waterfront experience, and create a level of separation and privacy for diners.

Benefit from this case study :


What was interesting the way they grabbed peoples attention to the historic
area when the developed it. By the structure that they did . that means that
there are many ways in making the people get back and visit a historic place
The structure that they did is not only for visual interest but also
environmental benefit.

4.2) second case study:


2_ Islamic Cairo project
Introduction and historical back ground:

Within the city of Cairo stand numerous buildings


of great significance for the history of Islamic
architecture specially the zone which called
Historical Cairo or Fatimid.

Cairo.Al-Muizz Street in Islamic Cairo, Egypt is


one of the oldest streets in Cairo,
approximately one kilometer long. A United
Nations study found it to have the greatest
concentration of medieval architectural
treasures in the Islamic world. The street
is named for Al-Muizz li-Deen Illah, the
fourth caliph of the Fatimid dynasty.

It stretches from Bab Al-Futuh in the


north to Bab Zuweila in the south.
Starting in 1997, the national government
carried out extensive renovations to the
historical buildings, modern buildings,
paving, and sewerage to turn the street into an
"open air museum", with work scheduled to be
completed in October 2008. On April 24, 2008,
Al-Muizz Street was rededicated as a pedestrian
only zone between 8:00 am and 11:00 pm; cargo
traffic will be allowed outside of these hours.

Aim of the Rehabilitation project

One of the aims of the renovations is to


approximate the original appearance of the street.
Buildings higher than the level of monuments have
been brought down in height and painted an

appropriate color, while the street has been repaved in the original style.

On the other hand, the nighttime appearance of the street has been modernized
by the installation of state of the art refined exterior lighting on buildings. To
prevent the accumulation of subterranean water, the principal threat to Islamic
Cairo a state of the art drainage system has been installed.

There are many buildings were renovated in this big redevelopment project, two
examples analyzed and explained in away to show how the Islamic architecture can
be reused and redeveloped:
1. Bait al Sihemi:
Introduction and historical back ground:

Before the nineteenth century the


traditional architecture of Cairo was
known for its ingenious architectural
concept slimming from local artistic and
craft tradition that had been passed down
from one generation to the other.

Bait al suhaymi constitutes a complete


example of the traditional palaces of the
17th and 18th centuries. it has all the
components of the house of the period.
The Bayt Al-Suhaymi is an excellent
example of a private, though wealthy,
Egyptian home ,and shows most of the
features which made living in Cairo's
arid climate tolerable in prior ages.

Suhaimi house was built in the Ottoman


period, and consists of two parts: the
first (southern) And established by Sheikh
Abdul Wahab Tablawi year 1058 - in 168 ,and
the second (North (,And established by the Haj
bin Ismail Shalabi, 1211 in 1796, and made the
sections . it was called by that name because
of the last person was living in it his last name
was al sihaimi .After the death of Sheikh
Suhaimi Egyptian government bought the
house at )$ 6000 (pounds.

The area of House Suhaimi about 2000


square meters, and contains all the elements of
the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The
House was set up within the walls of Fatimid
Cairo, and is based in a manner bearing walls,
and foundations is a continuation of the walls of
the house, but offers increased gradually until it
reaches a maximum width at the level of
incorporation.

Not that the Bayt Al-Suhaymi is unique, but this house does provide an
interesting perspective of history in general, a concept which might be brought
out here more easily than in other places. The concept is twofold. First, ancient
arts and wisdom are lost due to modern invention and progressions, and
second, that the ancient world, because of this, was a much more pleasant
place to live than many believe (at least for those with some wealth). Bayt AlSuhaymi is a case in point. The house was purchased in 1796 by Sheikh
Ahmed as-Suhaymi, who extended it by integrating several of the adjacent
houses.

Detail explanation of the house:

Mashrabeya windows can be seen from outside the house. Once entering the
house.

Inside there is a sahn . The sahn is an interior open space in the middle of the
house, a courtyard. It is usually a rectangular or square shape. It is used to gain
fresh air in the house, and in the morning some simple activities once took
place in the sahn. In the middle of this open hall, there is a small and very
healthy garden full of small trees and palms. The house was built around this
area and many brown mashrabeya windows can be seen all around it on the
upper floors. At the end of this hall, there is a place for sitting beside some
windows where residents of the house would relax in the summer.

There is doorway that leads to many small rooms


with huge wooden doors. They were used for
servants to stay in and cook or do anything needed
in the house. At the end of this corridor full of
small rooms, there is the first guest room or
salamlek. It was used by El Suhaymi to welcome
his male guests. It is a small hall there is a sitting
area with a big Mashrabeya screen. This hall is a
good example of the salamlek, or public place,
as opposed to the haremlek, the private place.
Most of the Salamlek area is on the ground floor,
while the haremlek is on the upper floor. This
was because in the Islamic culture, house were
"Sakan" a word deprived from "Sekoon" which
means quietness and privacy. This notion was
well respected during the archaic Islamic period.

The next hall is the summer salamlek guest


room. It was built at the end of the corridor and
overlooks the street in order to benefit from the
cool air during the summer. Most of the spaces
within the house are not designed around
functionality, as houses are today, but around
climatic considerations.

the second floor, where there is a balcony that is


used in hot days. During the heat of the day, courtyards, balconies and roofs
became the living areas, while in the cool of the night, the family would move
indoors. Many people even today continue to live like this, particularly in
more rural areas. This balcony
overlooks the sahn and the whole
house around it. One significant
aspect of this balcony is the Islamic
decorations on the walls. There are
many Qur'an verses around the
balcony written in a gold color with a
brown background. The balcony is
also a wonderful place to view the
mashrabeya windows of the house
from outside, and view the open air hall.

there is something called maq'ad of the


house, which is a rectangular or square
room where the owner of the house
would sit with his family, sons and
daughters, and very close friends. This
more private space, a part of the
haremlek, is like any other section of the
house, full of brown cupboards and

another mashrabeya screen, The Suhaymi


House is famous for it's many halls, especially
the haremlek. The interesting thing in this hall is
it's high ceiling which allowed the warmer air to
rise and then to be swept away by the north
facing maq'ad (wind scoops) in the upper walls,
which caught the prevailing breezes and
circulated the cool air throughout the house.
There is also the wooden carved dome of
the hall. The ceilings of these houses are
usually very interesting. It makes the
ceilings we live in these days seem
boring and depressing. The ceilings in
the past were works of art.

Another hall of the haremlek area with a


mashrabeya screens. The pieces of wood
in these screens are designed to be very
close to each other, making it impossible for anyone from outside to see
through it while enabling the women of the house to look at the street and the
sahn. This room was used for women to welcome their guests and friends.
Most of the room is decorated with brown and dark red colors, which seemed
very feminine and suited the women's section.

there is another haremlek section where the women would rest. It is a smaller
hall with less light. The whole atmosphere in the room is relaxing.

The bathroom section is divided into


three sections:

The first section is the cold water


section. It is a very small room with a
wooden cupboard inside where they
used to keep the cold water in a huge
container. This room has no ceiling so
that the cold wind could come and cool
down the water in the cupboard.

The second section of the bathroom is


the massage section. It is also a very
small room with only a big wooden bed
to the right, and at the top there is a
dome that is designed in a way that
makes the person relaxed when he is
massaging.

The third section of the bathroom is the


hot water section. In the middle, there is
a water tap, and there is a big container
that was used for keeping hot water...

The third floor is all bed rooms, the main bed room of shike al suhime and his
wife was at this floor and they call it the blue room. the decoration in this floor
is different they used blue and brown in the rooms for decoration ,and another
part of this floor is an open roof for the family

There is a big garden around the house .The rooms around the garden were
mainly used by servants for sleeping and for cooking meals for the family. In
the garden, there is a summer dome that was used for shadeThere is also the
old waterwheel of the house known as a "Sakia". A donkey would have been
tied to this waterwheel to enable the circulation of the water.

2. Wekalat al Ghori:
Introduction and historical background:

Historical buildings have a lure of


their own. Islamic monuments, in
particular, have a very special air
of their own a very strong sense of
history pervades them and fills
visitors with such feeling. One of
these monuments is Wakalat El
Ghouri it was called wekalat al naklah
(palm agency)

Wekalat AL_ Ghouri Is an agency or


a hotel built in the era of Qansouh
Ghouri Year (909 AH - in 1504)
currently located in a street-Azhar.

The wekalaht consist of an open air


rectangular courtyard , that is surrounded by halls and it is five floors , late
during the reign of Mamelukes,
Wakalat El-Ghouri was originally
designed as an inn for
accommodating traders coming
from all parts of the globe as well
as a marketplace for trading goods
and a venue for making trade deals,
the ground floor and the first they
used to use it storages for
merchants , and all of the visitors
in the old days were merchants.

It has been for 500-year it is an


architectural masterpiece. This is a
Mameluke-style building, which is
remarkably rich with Fatimide and
Mameluke monuments.

Building explanation:

The external stone facade is impressive,


with its uniformity of windows. There are
a few small windows on the first floor, but
the upper stories of the building have three
rows of groupings of three windows of
varying design. The last row is covered by
mashrabiya panels, each panel being three
windows wide. The building is very regular,
with the exception of the first floor, which has wide arcades intersected by a
gallery.

The building is made up of five floors, each comprising 28 rooms with domed
ceilings, overlooking the rectangular-shaped courtyard with a mosaic fountain
in the middle. As such, Wakalat El-Ghouri still stands out as one of the loftiest
and most time-enduring Islamic monuments remaining. It rightly reflects an
apex of harmony and symmetry in terms of both Islamic architecture and
practical functionality.

The Present Mission:

While Wakalat El-Ghouri has earned its name as a historical monument, its
prestigious standing has been complemented and reinforced by its current
status and mission as a (distinguished arts and cultural institution).

The cultural role of Wakalat El-Ghouri started in 1959, with the initiation of
the Egyptian Ministry of Culture. It was then selected as the seat for reviving
conventional handicrafts as well as housing ateliers of contemporary artists.

Concept and objective:

The objective was to effect an interaction of both originality and modernity.


The antique building at present comprises ten handicraft departments, side by
side with fifty ateliers for plastic artists and six non-governmental
organizations head-offices for artist's critics, museum lovers and arts and
heritage sponsors. Wakalat El-Ghouri, thus provides an unprecedented
example that epitomizes a happy cultural marriage of the old and modern and
governmental and non-governmental. Wakalat El-Ghouri was taken as the seat
of the Directorate of Arts Centers since its creation in 1992.

The objective is to enrich the cultural scene with a variety of arts and cultural
feeders. This will ensure that, while enhancing national identity and
allegiance, we will remain open to modernity.

Wakalat El Ghouri already contains a permanent exhibition, where the


products of its crafts schools, including pottery, inlaid glass, wrought
copper, Arabesque-style woodwork, hand-made fabrics, costumes and
printed items are on display. All these products bear the mark of highquality art and invaluable heritage.

Benefit of the two buildings:


1) BAIT AL_SIHIMI:
The way they renovated the house. That they healed all of the wounds
of the house without demolishing it.
Making it an architectural museum. , That will make people learn their
culture bye visualizing it and sensing it too.
2) WKALAHT AL_GHURI:
How they reused the building and taking care of all the building
elements.

4.3) Cases study three...


3_ Newtown Wellesley hospital:
Institutional and commercial organizations treasure their historic buildings for many
reasons:

The buildings educate people


about history.

Help organizations create an


image in their communities.

And, most often feature beautiful


architecture.

Aesthetic Appeal
Perhaps the biggest challenge is
maintaining the integrity of
historic buildings while
incorporating energy-saving
measures and meeting
accessibility and fire-code
compliance requirements.
Before renovating such a facility,
the renovation team must identify
building characteristics that it wants to preserve or restore.
Finishes might be restored to what they were when the building was built,
architects try to find the same type
of finishes and paint colors that
were in vogue at the time, or the
same type of wall coverings that
they see in the older photographs
of the building and restore them to
that state.

One objective is not to reconfigure anything, not take down any walls or build
any new ones, because preserving the buildings interior is a top priority, if
the building needed adjustment alternative measures is taken to meet occupant
needs. Planners addressed some of those needs by renovating the basement
level into conference rooms.
In many cases, managers also must ensure the finished project meets building
codes regarding accessibility and fire safety while maintaining the structures
aesthetics.
Expect the Unexpected
Unlike most new-construction projects, historical renovations often hold surprises.

Architects might open up a wall and see that there is no real structure. They after that
have to think on how you are going to deal with these situations, whereas they dont
have those problems in new construction.

Another problem that might face architects is when they decide in adding airconditioning to the facility of an historical building; where the building isnt built to
be air conditioned, as a result, condensation is formed in walls.
Hazardous Materials
Hazardous-material abatement can raise renovation costs considerably, so it is critical
that managers identify all such materials early in the planning stages during the
demolition part.

Architects must know what hazardous are within the building, whether it is a jar of
chemicals, lead paint on the walls of a building, or asbestos in a machine room or
spackle, so when they begin the project, they start with their database, and know
ahead of time where they can expect problems, and do some more detailed survey for
the areas that are going to be impacted by the project and put together the necessary
construction documents and have those areas remediated the proper way. Despite
extensive efforts to uncover hazardous materials before renovation work begins,
unexpected issues arise when workers begin their work; they might open a wall that

they didnt think has any hazardous materials and be very surprised to discover that
they do.
Transplanting History
Some organizations go to extremes to preserve their historic buildings. Take NewtonWellesley Hospital in Newton, Mass. Rather than demolish a 100-year-old building to
make room for a new emergency department, the hospital moved the structure, Ellison
Hall, about 220 feet. It now is closer to the three other buildings in the Newton
Cottage Hospital Historic District listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
The big move of Ellison Hall took place in September 2005. A contractor lifted the
890-ton building using 28 hydraulic jacks. The hospital decided to renovate the
buildings interior. From the early planning stages, the hospitals facilities and
engineering department has been involved in ensuring the projects success.
The actual move of the building went much faster than expected, says Bill Sullivan,
the hospitals director of facilities and engineering, adding that the move started at 6
a.m. and was scheduled to take several hours.
By lunch time, the building was pretty much in place, he says. When the building
reopens, it will house much-need administrative space.
Raising the building gave use of the basement, which is a big plus, the hospital can
renovate the buildings new basement, which is currently empty space, to make it
more useable for occupants.

before

after

Benefit of the case study:


Renovating the 100 years old hospital. Leaving the same function of it,
but changing its interior space and modernising it, thus leaving the
enclosure of it.

4.4)

A local inspiration building...

This is a house located in JEDDAH. The designer is the owner of the house. His
name is (SAMI ANGAWI). It is a typical Hejazi house but it was built in 1995. It
is 3 stories height and has all of the Hejazi architectural elements interior and
exterior. The house is very private but also open to the world .Below are pictures
of the house...

Exterior views:

Interior views:

5.1) Site analysis:

Old Jeddah

This map shows the old Jeddah and how small it


was

The chosen site: Total site area= (9751.38):

The site that will be renovated is shown in the following picture. it is in front
of a famous round about in Jeddah (al bayah) roundabout every EID they do
festivals and activities in it for the kids

The yellow site is the parking. It will be fixed and there will be rules added for
the vehicles. It will be for people who will visit the (THE PROJECT) to park
their cars and enter the project.

THE CHOSINE SITE (Total site area (6151.382m2)


THE PARKING AREA (Area (3600)

Reason for choosing the site :

Harat al almazlom is the elite district of old Jeddah .there for it has larger
and more beautiful buildings as well as less crowded and a quite area.

It also has an easy accessibility, (Medina road as an incoming and


outgoing access and also the roads to the old air port as an outgoing
access).

It is also near one of Jeddah old gates (bab jaded), and near one of the
oldest schools in Jeddah it was the first school opened that time (alfalah
school)

The area has many old and historical buildings that worth to work on and
we should as one of the residents and architects to save it from vanishing
and work on redeveloping it to stay forever.

Choosing it on the edge of albalad for people easy to access and less
pollution.

Access to the site :( vehicle paths)


Main and secondary roads:
The site is on the boundaries of the old are not deep inside. All the main streets that
the people use leads to the site:

Main roads:
Al Andalusia road
Medina road
Malik Abdul-Aziz road
Secondary streets:

Pedestrian paths in the site:


Pedestrian paths are alleys very narrow streets (1.5m_2m) ... but it created a pattern
of urban that the used to follow. And the call it (ZOGAG)

The pedestrian paths

Views to the pedestrian paths in and beside the site:

Climatic condition of the site:


This picture will show the good and bad braes of the weather and how is the sun
acting on the project site:

POLLUTION:

Focal point:
There are several focal points that lead people to the site some of which are:

Focal points beside the site:

1. Baya"ah round about.


2. The "kahrjeyah " ministry.
3. Alflah skhol(first school in Jeddah)
4. Souk(Makah+ abaddo)
5. The new marrkrts
6. Zainal Company.

5.2) Explanation analysis:


Climate (Wind and rain):
Jeddah is on the cost it has a humid climate and solar heat
(summer) in the old town all of the buildings are solved in a
sustainable way to reduce the heat and the humidity in
(winter) it becomes cold like 20 to 18 degrees they also
have a system to save the cool air and reduce it in summer,
the architectural sustainable features shows on the building.
The good weather (North West), and the bad weather is
(south east)
Solar Conditions:
Passive solar heating is best applied to buildings where
heating demand is high relative to cooling demand.
(albalad) old Jeddah town they use to use passive solar
heating in their buildings, to reduce the heat but in cretin
orientation of the building they solve this problem, in the
east side and west particularly because of the direction of
the sun, they use thick walls, small windows with the
(Roshan) and cross ventilation system to reduce the solar heat.

Natural lighting and shade and shadow:

Narrow the streets

Old Jeddah town urban design has narrow streets and high buildings. each building
through its shade on the other which creates a shadow and an amazing feeling when u
pass through these streets especially for pedestrian paths, you can see the reflection of
the (Roshan) on the buildings and the natural light passing through the narrow streets
between the buildings .

Noise and environmental pollution:


Choosing the site in harat al sham (sham distract) was one of the reasons for getting
away from the noise and environmental pollution, this district is far from the (souq)
area where all of the noise and environmental issues are there, also as I mentioned
before it used to be for the wealthy people and very quiet, Visiting it gave me a
chance to sense that.

Existing built and natural structure:

5.3) Materials in buildings


Most of the buildings are residential; the architectural elements are shown on
their elevations:

1) Windows and openings.

Rawashin are the main element that they use for covering the openings for three
reasons:
Privacy (visible for the inside only).
Shade and shadow.
Ventilation.
Some openings are not covered with the Roshan.
Roshan is made from many kinds of wood, it's not plain wood it's carved...

Kinds of carving:

2)The enclosure of the buildings:

Thick walls from coral stone taken from the shore,


using thick walls for reducing the heat and as a
structure for the building (wall bearing system).

3)The edges of the roof:

4)Doors :

5) Interaction between natural and human and urban factors:

Old Jeddah town urban design has narrow streets and


all buildings are beside each other, which made the
bond between the people stronger, now days with the
new urban development the bond between people is
very weak. Further more narrow streets direct the wind
and ventilate the buildings in a right way. In
conclusion people interaction with the urban and
surroundings was much better.

5.4) Things I recognised in the site:


1. Lack of greenery
2. Lack of healthy air
3. Not take care of the place they live in (dirty space).

One of the design criteria in this project is to make the place more healthier
and sustainable in adding the following :
1. Planting greenery
2. Raising the awareness of health and caring about the place they live in.

6) Site detail:
This chapter shows and explains in details each site and each old building. What are
their classifications? And more details...

Components of the whole site:


1) One empty site.
2) 6 old buildings.
3) One old garden.
4) Parking.

Old renovated buildings details:


This map shows the classification of the old buildings of the project.

Class one
Class two
Class three

3d view of the buildings

Old buildings schedule:

Building
Number

Area

Building
situation

Age of the
building

Building
function

No. Floors

Total Area

466.76 m2

Class 1

145

palace

1867.04

355.26 m2

Class 1

150

palace

1776.3

186.76 m2

Class 2

250

Residential

1120.56

242.36 m2

Class 2

250

Residential

969.44

237.98 m2

Class 2

250

Residential

951.92

128.6 m2

Class3

350

Residential

643

Total =

7328.26

7) Program and zoning of the project:

Buildings :
1. Culture center
2. Hotel
3. Art and crafts center (people can go in and draw )
4. an open architectural building museum
5. Plus Shops, Restaurants and Cafes.
6. Landscaping
7. parking

Bubble diagram :

Hotel
Open
courtyard

ART
Center

parking
Open
museum

Culture
center

zoning on the site :

Hotel.
Culture center.
Architectural museum
Art and craft center.
Landscaping

Design criteria:

Consider in designing the empty site the heritage building sounded.

Take care in renovation that each building has its own value.

Plugging old buildings together but taking care not to demolish the elevation
of the building. Treating the old buildings in a very sensitive way and healing
its old wounds.

1. Hotel :

The hotel will take place in old buildings they are four buildings that will
be plugged together in way to be connected to each other. Putting in mind
that it has a special treatment. Calculating the building (area number of
floors) will give me the total area of the four buildings . on that process I
will calculate how many people and how many rooms will be required for
this hotel.

Building# (1) area: 11.6x16.1= 168.76 m2 (6stories)

Building# (2) are: 14.6 x 16.6 = 242.36 m2 (4 stories)

Building# (3) area; 14.6x 16.3 = 237.98 (4 stories)

Building# (4) area: 16 x 8= 127.6 (5 stories)

Total area is =

2885.22 m2

Hotel facilities and program:


Lobby zone : ( reception _ employs offices _lounge)
Services zone: (kitchen _ laundry)
Entertainment zone: ( gym _ shops _ restaurants + cafes )
Rooms: (single bed room _ double _ suits)

Hotel program:

No. of

Functions

function

No. of

No. of unit

Unit area

person

rooms

130

Total area

Notes

(m2)

77

45_35

2485.22

Single
Double
suite

Lobby

-------------

200

200

reception

30

30

Offices

30

150

kitchen

150

150

underground

underground

Laundry

100

100

gym

100

100

shops

50

100

Restaurant

100

100

and lounge

Hotel zoning:

Rooms
Servicess

Employs
officess

Kitchen and loundry

And
emergancy
stairs

Lobby hall and


reception

Gym

Resturant
And
lounge

Core

shops

2. Culture center :
The culture center two parts: part of it will be on an empty site,
Designing a new layer on the hejazy architecture language and the
second part will take place in an old heritage building plugged and
connected with the new building.
Sites calculation:
Empty site area: 28.46 x 22 = 626.12 m2
Old building area: 19.1 x 18.6 = 355.26 (5stories) =

Building components and program:


Library
Culture hall
Conference rooms
Cinema
Legal advice office
Social gathering area
Tourists guide office

1776.3 m2

Empty site components program:

No. of

Functions

function

No. of

No. of unit

Unit area

person

Multi

Total area
(m2)

60

300

300

25

100

200

12

24

propose
hall

Conference
rooms

Services:
kitchenette

Storage

20

40

cinema

100

250

250

Reception

15

15

Notes

No. of

Functions

function

No. of

No. of unit

Unit area

person

Bath

Total area
(m2)

______

72

rooms

10

Bar

40

40

11

Lounge

______

70

70

12

Control

30

30

45

135

______

40

40

_______

40

40

room

13

Legal
advice
office

14

Men
lounge

15

Woman
lounge

Notes

No. of

Functions

function

No. of

No. of unit

Unit area

person

Total area
(m2)

16

Bath rooms

______

36

17

Services

12/20

32

40

40

20

20

_______

50

50

room+
kitchenette

18

Meeting
room

19

Archie
room

20

Social
gathering
area

21

Family
lounging

Notes

No. of

Functions

No. of

No. of unit

Unit area

person

function

Total area

Notes

(m2)

22

Caf

______

50

50

23

Restaurant

100

100

24

Bathe

_______

72

rooms

25

Total area

829 m2

Components of old building:

No. of

Functions

function

Library

Multipurpose

No. of

No. of

Unit area

Total

person

unit

50

100

300

area (m2)

room

reception

30

30

Research

6 in each

_______

36

area

multipurpose

60

60

15

15

Tourist
guide office

Research
center

Reception

Notes

No. of

Functions

function

No. of unit

Unit area

person

Offices

No. of

Total area

Notes

(m2)

30

60

________

60

60

guide

Lounge for

tourists

10

Kitchenette

20

20

11

Bathrooms

________

36

12

Total area

TOTAL ARE FOR TWO BUILDINGS :

617 m2
1446 m2/ 15 % for surculation

Culture center zoning:

Cinema

Social
gathering
area

Library
The culture
hall
The plug

Tourist
guide area

Conference
rooms

Legal advice
offices

3. Open heritage museum:


This building is a museum and an explanation of the Hejaz architecture.
The idea is to get through all the old building rooms with an explanation on
each architectural element in the building, what is it? And why they build it?

Building area: 16.65 x 28 = 466.76 m2 (4 stories) = 1867.04


Number of people per day: 200

4. Art center:
This is one of the old buildings that is connected to the hotel. It is over viewing
the old city and the open court in the middle. The concept is to create a place
where tourists and the people who are obsess by drawing to go in to this building
and take a corner in one of the halls and draw or use clay to do whatever they
sense in old Jeddah from buildings or elements.

Site calculation:
Old building area: 16 x 8 = 128 m2 (5 stories) = 640 m2

Building component program:


Art halls.
Stationeries
Art references
Cafe

Lounge

Art and craft center program:

No. of

Functions

function

No. of

No. of unit

Unit area

person

Total area

Notes

(m2)
Each kind of

Art halls

15

70

210

art will be in
its suitable
floor

Reception

15

15

Lounge

_______

_______

30

30
From the 15%

Bathrooms

________

_________ _________ _________ with the core


In each floor

Stationary

25

75

will be a
stationary that is
suitable for each
kind of art

No. of

Functions

function

No. of

No. of unit

Unit area

person

Total area

Notes

(m2)
Accountant

Offices
admission

15

45

Manger
Secretary

The space can


7

Cafe

38

38

be more when
its opened to
the street and
integrated with
the landscape

Total area

413 m2

15% is for circulation

Note:
All buildings require green terraces, roofs and 15% of it is circulation.

7) Survey analysis:
7.1) survey questions:
Name:
Age:
Gender: M/F
Hello. It will be kind of you if you fill up this survey .it will take 5 mints thank
you
1. Did you visit old Jeddah (balad) before?
o Yes
o no
o If yes: what garbed your attention when you visited it?
__________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
o if no : why didnt you visit it before
__________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________

2. What is the first picture that comes to your head when you hear anything
about old Jeddah (al balad)?
_____________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
3. Do you know anything about the hijaz culture?
o Yes
o no

4. Do yu think that there is anything left from the hejazi culture or from the
old Jeddah?
o Yes
o no
o If yes give example pleas?

5. Do you agree or disagree: that old Jeddah part should be demolished and
that they should build new modern buildings goes with technology?
o Yes
o no
6. Mark the words that you know the meaning of it?
o Roshan
o Al manjor
o Dehliz
o Haramlak
o Slamlak
o Bait al maa
o Aldakah
o Alsaffah
o Altaklelah

7. Do you know what kind of material do they used to use in building their
buildings?
o mud
o cement
o beach sand
o stone

8. Do you know what was the purpose of adding the" roshan" as a main
element in their buildings?
o Decoration at that period of time.
o Adding it on the building was a tradition and a custom
o Ventilation , lighting and to cover the women from showing to the street
o It gives a fancy feeling and that the owner is rich.

9. Jeddah climate is very hot and humid: what was their way in ventilating
and cooling their buildings?
o Washing the floors with water continually
o Building the houses with open roofs (without a roof)
o Natural ventilation with Curtin elements in the building

10. If your family or some of your friends requested at the weekend to go and
spend some time in al balad would you go?
o Yes
o No

If yes: where would you go?

If no why?

And what are the things that can be there to let you go?

11. If you heard that they are renovating and redeveloping the old Jeddah
part "albalad" what would you recommend to be there and would be
interesting for you to go?

7.2) Survey results:


1. 90% of the people have been to Al-Balad. The things that attracted them
there; old houses like bait Nassif and other buildings, the food for ex: Kebdah
(liver), AlSouk AlRakhaees (low priced souks), events and holy celebrations
during Ramadan, and Eid. 10% dont go to Al-Balad for two reasons; for the
dirtiness of the streets and for being full with so many poor non-Saudis.
2. Most of the people answered: Bait Nassif , Rawasheen, narrow streets, old
living rooms, karawetah, traditional clothes, old buildings, Kebdah, Shesha
places, old fun fairs made of wood, Malik Abdul Aziz St., Bab Makkah
3. 80% knows and 20% dont know
4. 50% said yes. They said Bait Nassif, Al Rawasheen, Al Kebdah, traditional
clothes. And the other 50% said no there isnt anything left.
5. 20% believe that Al Balad should be modernized and removed. 80% should
keep Al Balad and not be removed.
6. 70% knew the meaning of Roshan, 10% knew the meaning of Al Manjour,
70% knew the meaning of Al Dehleez, 30% knew the meaning of Haramlak,
10% knew the word Salamlak, 40% knew the meaning of Al Mishkah, 50%
knew the meaning of Bait Al Maa, 70% knew the meaning of Al Dakkah,
30% knew the meaning of Al Saffah and 20% knew the meaning of Al
Takleelah.
7. 40% said from mud, 10% said cement, 5% said from corals and sand, and
50% said from stone.
8. 20% said for Decorations made at that time, 70% said it was made for
ventilation, lighting and not exposing members of the house to the outside
and 10% said it gave luxury and showed how rich and happy the family was.
9.

20% said washing and cleaning the floors from the inside continuously, 40%
said when building roofs there should be openings for ventilation and for air
to enter, and 40% said natural ventilation made thru the building made for air
to enter while building.

10. 50% said yes they would go to Bait Nassif, Souk Gabil, Harat Al Mathloum,
Souk AlBalad, AlMahmal. And 50% said no they wouldnt go because of the
thieves, a lot of foreigners, the dirtiness and too crowded.

What will make them want to go there is to make them feel as if they are actually
in old Balad filled with Saudi people instead of foreigners, Making parking lots,
finding it clean, maps to come and go flexibly, nice and clean cafes and
restaurants using the same old cultural tradition, more cultural events using our
Hijazi traditions and museums about Hijaz showing famous people of how they
grew and lived there.
11. To Get there quickly and fast without getting stuck in the crowd, cleanness all
around, places to sit and rest, tourist guides, placed maps for the whole Balad
and signs to show where exactly are you, more events for different things and
interests, festivals, museums, galleries, traditional food, greenery,
opportunities for younger Saudis to open small shops, fix the roads, parking
lots, more attractions, and to keep the same old traditional cultural
atmosphere.

7.3) conclusion:
Keeping and taking care of the old city and buildings in any country is important.
Renovating and redeveloping the heritage in countries is for keeping the identity of
the people who live and used to live in that country. It makes people know who they
are and how they came. Putting in mind that we dont demolish what is there even if a
new layer came on top of the old one. Taking in consideration all of the generations.

At the end of this research there is a full understanding of all the Hejaz architectural
language, urban pattern, what is the culture of the old JEDDAH area, how they used
to live, and the sustainability of the area from buildings to paths and patterns.

Therefore all of the analysis and solutions in this research according to the project will
be applied

References:

Books

Urban Design: A typology of Procedures and Products. Illustrated with over


50 Case Studies: by Jon Lang Check.
Traditional domestic architecture of the Arab region .by: Fridrich Ragette.
The Hejaz architecture by/ (sami angawi)
Arts of the City Victorious: Islamic Art and Architecture in Fatimid North Africa
and Egypt

An article: (Justified graph or j-graph (using JASS software).

Websites:

http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/baytsuhaymi.htm
http://www.shobiklobik.com/forum/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=121263
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V9H44CVTVC5&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C
000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=df72feff122
d1e1aa59eb1f6b1fd565c
http://www.rudi.net
http://books.google.com/books?id=6EyF3AISgPUC&pg=PA87&dq=Cla
rke+Quay,+Singapore+Project&safe=active#v=onepage&q=Clarke%20
Quay%2C%20Singapore%20Project&f=false
http://www.rudi.net/search/node/historic+districts+upgrading
http://www.thefreelibrary.com/The+coral+city+of+old+Jeddaha017763046
http://www.sea1917.org/heritage/UIA-WPAHR-V/PapersPDF/Dr.%20Asaad%20Nadim.pdf
http://jis.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/pdf_extract/20/1/114
http://www.touregypt.net/suhaymi.htm
http://jis.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/pdf_extract/20/1/114
http://www.arabfund.org/suhaymi/renovat2.htm
www.muslimheritage.com
http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/middle_east/jan-june02/saudi_2-19.html

3D.view shoots for the final development:

Related Interests