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CHAPTER 1: SEQUENCES AND SERIES

1.0

Sequence

1.1

Definition

A sequence can be thought of as a list of number written in a definite order:

a1 , a2 , a3 , a4 ,

, an ,

The numbers in a sequence are called the terms of the sequences.


Notation:

The sequence a1 , a2 , a3 ,

is also denoted by:

an or an n1 .

Sequence can be classified into 2 groups:


a) Finite sequence a sequence that contains finite number of terms.

an n1

nk

For examples:

a1 , a2 , a3 ,

ak

2n4n1 2 ,4, 6, 8

b) Infinite sequence a sequence that contains infinite number of terms.

an n1

a1 , a2 , a3 ,

For example: 2nn1 2 ,4, 6,........

1.2

2
n1

1 2 3
n
12 , 2 2 , 3 2 ,.....
, , ,......... ..
n 1n1 2 3 4

Limit of the sequence

Let an n1 be a sequence. Limit of a sequence is the limit of an as n becomes larger

and larger. i.e n approaching to infinity.


lim an

limit of a sequence may or may not exists

Definition : A sequence an n 1

lim a n

is said to converge to limit L iff lim a n L (limit exist) . If


n

(limit does not exist) , then the sequence an n 1

is said to diverge.

Theorem: Suppose that the sequence an and bn converge to L and M respectively,


and c is a constant, then
ii.
i.

lim k k

lim k an k L

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iii.
iv.

lim an bn lim an lim bn L M

v.

lim an bn lim an lim bn L M

lim a
an n n
L

if M 0
lim

lim bn M
n b n
n

Example 1: Determine whether the following sequence converge or diverge.


n
b)

n 1

n 2
a)

n 1

Solution:
n
n
lim
lim lim 1 1
n n 1 n n
n

Solution:
n2
n2
lim
lim
lim n
n n 1 n n
n
n 2
Therefore
is diverge.
n 1
2
c)
n

n
Therefore
is converge.
n 1
d)

2n 1
Solution:
lim 2n 1

Solution:
2
lim 0
n
n

Therefore 2n 1is diverge.

2
Therefore is converge.
n

Theorem : Let r n be a sequence


a) lim r n 0 if r 1

b) lim r n if r 1

Example 2: Determine whether the following sequence converge or diverge.

2 n
a)
5
Solution:

b)

1.07
n

Solution:
n

2
2
r 1 lim 0
n 5
5
2 n
converges to 0
5

r 1.07 1 lim 1.07


n

1.07

diverges

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1 n
c)
4
n

Solution:

1
1
r 1 lim 0
n 4
4

1 n
converges to 0
4

1.3

7 n
d)
3
Solution:
n

7
7
1 lim
n

3
3
n
7
diverges
3
r

Monotonic Sequence

Definition:

A sequence an is called :
Increasing if an an1 a1 a2 a3 .....an an1 ...
Non increasing if a1 a2 a3 .....an an1 ...
Decreasing if an an1 a1 a2 a3 .....an an1 ...
Non decreasing if a1 a2 a3 .....an an1 ...

A sequence that is either non decreasing or non increasing is called monotone. A


sequence that is increasing or decreasing is called strictly monotone.
For example:
1 2 3
n
, , ,......... .,
,......... .. increasing
2 3 4
n 1
1 1 1
1
1, , , ,......... ., ,......... .. decreasing
2 3 4
n

non increasing
1,1, 2, 2, 3, 3,.......... .....
1 1 1 1
1,1, , , , ,.......... .... non decreasing
2 2 3 3

2n
Example 3: Show that
is an increasing sequence
3n 1
Solution:
2 n 1
2n 2
2n
an1

3 n 1 1 3n 4
3n 1
Take the ratio,
an1 2n 2 3n 1 6n2 8n 2

an
3n 4 2n
6n2 8n

an

an1
1
an

an1 an

We can also take the difference


2
2n 2 2n
an1 an
0

3n 4 3n 1 3n 4 3n 1
an1 an 0 increa sin g

increa sin g

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Example 4: Determine whether the following sequence is increasing or decreasing


2
a)
n

Solution:
2
2
an1
an
n 1
n
Take the ratio,
an1 2 n
2n

1

an
n 1 2 2n 2

10 n
b)

2n!
Solution:
10 n1
10 n
an1
an
2n 2!
2n!
Take the ratio,
an1 10 n1 2n
10

1
n

an
2n 2 ! 10 2n 2 2n 1

an1
1
an

an1
1
an

an1 an

decrea sin g

an1 an

increa sin g

EXERCISES 1
1. Determine whether each of the following sequence is increasing or decreasing.
2
n
n 1
n 2
a)
b)
d)

c) 3
n
2n 1
3n 1
n 1
3n
1
n 2
5 n
e)
f)

g)
h)


5n
2n 1
2n 1
n !

2. Determine whether each of the following sequence is converging or diverging.


3 5n2
a)

n n2

n2
n2

e)

2n 1 2n 1

1.4

n
b)

1 n

f)

2n 1

c)

n 1 n
d)

2n 2 1
g)

n 2 n1

3n 1
h)

2 n1

SERIES

A series is a sum of sequence.


Definition: An infinite series is a summation of terms in an infinite sequence, i.e

a
k 1

a1 a2 a3

ak

4|Page

where a1 , a2 , a3 ,

are the terms of the series.

S n is a summation of n terms (partial sum of series) and Sn is the sequence of partial


sum of the series, then:

S1 a1
S2 a1 a2
S3 a1 a2 a3
n

Sn ak a1 a2 a3
k 1

an

The sequence S1, S2 , S3 ,...., Sn ,.... is called sequence of partial sum. It can be denoted by

Sn n1.

Definition: Given a series


sequence

Sn n1

n1

n1

an and let Sn denote its n th partial sum; an Sn . If the

is convergent and lim Sn S exists as a real number, then the series


n

an is called convergent and we write as

an S . The value S is called the sum of


n1

n1

the series or the convergent value. If lim Sn does not exist, then
n

an is divergent. A
n1

divergent series has no sum.


Past year question
Let

a n be the infinite series whose nth partial sum is given by S n

n 1

whether

converges or diverges. If

n 1

3 e n 2
en

. Determine

converges, find its sum. (ans: Conv,

n 1

Sum=3)

1.5

Geometric Series

A geometric series

ar

n 1

a ar ar 2 ar 3

ar k 1 ... where a 0

n 1

a) Converges if r 1 , that is lim S n lim


n

ar

n 1

n 1

a
n 1 - r

lim

b) Diverges if r 1

5|Page

Note: Have common ratio, r


Example 5: Determine whether the following series converges or diverges.
a)

n
n 1 10

b)

2n

n 1 6

3
c)
k 1 5

4
d)
k 1 3

k 1

Past year questions


Determine whether the following series is converges or diverges.

1.

k 1

2.

n 1

1.6

3 k 1

(ans: div)

2k

n 8n

ans: div

5n

Harmonic Series

A harmonic series :

1 1

k 1 2 3 4

is a diverge series.

k 1

1.7

P-Series

P-Series is also known as Hyperharmonic series which is an infinite series of the form:
P-Series:

k
k 1

1
1 1
p p
p
2
3 4

kp

where p>0.

a) Converges if p 1
b) Diverges if 0 p 1

Example 6: Determine whether the following series converges or diverges.


a)

b)

k 1

k
k 1

c)

k 1

1
3
k

d)

k 1

1
5

k6

Past year question


For the following two values of p, determine whether the series

( 1)n
p
n 1 n
converges

absolutely, converges conditionally or diverges?


i. p 5
ii. p

2
3
6|Page

1.8

Telescoping Series

A summation of terms that can becomes shorter when some terms in between are
eliminated.
1.

n 13 n3 2 3 13 3 3 2 3 4 3 3 3 ...n3 n 13 n 13 n3 n 13 1

n1

2.

k k 1
k 1

1
A
B

k k 1 k k 1

1 A(k 1) Bk
(A B)k A
A 1 B 1
n

k 1

k k 1

1 1

1 1

1 1

k k 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 .... n 1 n n n 1
k 1

1
n 1

Note: The telescoping series often occur when we want to find Sn .


Example 7: Determine whether the series converges or diverges. If it converges, find its
sum.
a)

Solution:
n
1

k 1 k k 1

k k 1
k 1
n

1
1
k k 1
k 1

n
1
1
1
Sn
1
k 1
n 1
k 1 k
1
lim Sn lim 1
1
n
n
n 1

Since lim Sn exists, therefore


n

k k 1
k 1

is convergent. It sum is 1.

7|Page

n 1 n 2
n1

b)

Solution:

Since lim Sn exists, therefore


n

A
B

n 1 n 2 n 1 n 2
1 A(n 2) Bn 1

when n 1 1 A(1 2) A 1
when n 2 1 B(2 1) B 1
n

n 1 n 2
n1

is convergent. It sum is

1
.
2

n 1 n 2 n 1 n 2
n1
k 1
Sn

n 1 n 2
k 1

1 1
1
1 1 1 1
1
....

2 3 3 4
n n 1 n 1 n 2
1
1

2 n2
1
1
1
lim Sn lim

n
n 2
n2 2

Example 8: Determine whether each following series converges or diverges. If its


converges, find its sum.
a)
c)

n2 1

n2
n

b)

n 1n 2

d)

n2

1.9

n 3n 4

n2
n

n2 4

n2

Algebraic Properties of Infinite Series

Theorem: If

an and
n 1

c is a constant),

n 1

a)

ca
n 1

bn are convergent series, then so are the series


n 1

bn and

a
n 1

ca
n 1

(where

bn , and

c an
n 1

b)

a
n 1

n 1

n 1

bn an bn

Note:
a) Converges Converges Converges

b) Converges Diverges Diverges

c) Diverges Converges Diverges

d) Diverges Diverges No conclusion


8|Page

Example 9: Determine whether the following series converges or diverges.


a)

k 1 k

b)

n 1

1
n3

c)

3
k 1

k 1

d)

3 k
2

k
k 1
2

n
1
1
e) n 1 2
3
n 1
5

Theorem: If lim an does not exist or if lim an 0 Series


n

lim an 0 Series
n

a
n 1

a
n 1

divergences. If

might converges or diverge. No conclusion and try

another test.
Note: If the series

a
n 1

convergent, then lim an 0 . Contra positive to the


n

theorem above is called The Divergence Test.


Example 10: Use the divergence test to show that the following series diverge.
a)

n 1

n 1 n 2

b)

ek

k 1 k

c)

k 1 ln k 1

d)

n2 1

2
n 1 n 3

Past year questions


Use the Divergence Test to determine if the following series is convergent or
divergent.

1.

k 1

2.

k
k 2

(ans: div)

3.

k
(ans: div)
k 1 ln(k 1)

2k(k 1)
(ans: div by DT)
4
k

1
k 1

4.

23
k 1

e2

(ans: div)

9|Page

1.10

Convergence Test

There are 4 convergence tests:


1.
2.
3.
4.

The Integral Test


The Comparison Test
The Limit Comparison Test
The Ratio Test

The Integral Test


Let

an be a series with positive terms, and let f(x) be the function that results when n is
n1

replaced by x in the formula for an . If f(x) is decreasing and continuous on the interval

[a, ], then

an and

n1

where

f(x)dx both converge or both diverge.

f x dx lim f x dx , converge if limit exist


t

Note: It is not necessary to start n 1 . For example:

n4

n 3

we use

x 3
4

dx

Example 11: Use the integral test to determine the convergence of


a)
d)

n 1 n 2

n 1 ln n 1
n 1

2
n 1 n 1

ln n
e)
n 1 n
b)

c)

k 1

2
k 1

Past year questions


Use the integral test to determine whether the following series is converges or diverges.
1.
2.

k 1

k 1

2 ek
e

4.
(ans: div)

k 1

1
1
k (ans: conv)
3.
k2
k 1

(ans: div)

k
3/2
k 1 ( 2k 1)

ans: conv
5.

n 1

n
2

ans: Conv

The Comparison Test


Let
i) If
ii) If

an and
n 1

n 1

be series with non-negatives terms.

bn converges and an bn for all n

also converges

also diverges

n 1

n 1

diverges and an bn for all n

n 1

n 1

Example 12: Use the comparison test to determine whether the following series
converges or not.
a)

2n 3

b)

7k3
n1

n1

Solution:
a) Take

2n

bn

n1

as a comparison series.

n1

2 3

1
2

2n is a convergent
n1

geometric series since r


1

1
1.
2

for all n. Since the bigger series

2n

converges, then the

n1

smaller series

2n 3

also converges.

n1

b) Take

n1

n1

bn k

divergent.

3
7

k3

the bigger series

as a comparison series.

is harmonic series,

n1

3
3
for all k. Since the smaller series
diverges, then
k
k
n1

7k3

also diverges.

n1

Past year questions


Use the Comparison Test to determine if the following series is convergent or
divergent.
1.

k
k 1 k 1

(ans: conv)

1
2.
(ans: con)
k
k 1 k(3 )

3.

k2

k 3 1 (ans: conv )

K 1

The Limit Comparison Test


Theorem: Let

ak and
k 1

b
k 1

lim

where

be series with positive terms such that:

ak
bk

ak is the series to be studied and


k 1

b
k 1

is the series chosen for

comparison.
If 0 , then both series converges or both diverges.

Example 13: Use the limit comparison test to determine whether the following
series converges or not.
a)

K 1

1
k 1

k
d) 2
k 1 k 1

b)

e)

2
k 1 2k k

n 1

c)

3n3 2n 2 4

7
3
n 1 n n 2

2n 2 3n
5 n5

Past year questions


Use the Limit Comparison Test to determine if the following series is
convergent or divergent.

1.

3k k
k
k 1 2 2k

2k 1
2. 2
K 1 3k 2

(ans: div)

3.

K 1

1 2k
1 k 2 k 5

(ans: conv

)
(ans: div)
4.

5k 2 k

3k 4 k
k 1

ans : Div

The Ratio Test


Theorem: Let

a
k 1

be a series with positive terms such that

lim

ak 1
ak

i) If 1 , the series converges


ii) If 1 or then the series diverges
iii) If 1 , no conclusion can be made. (Try another test)
Note: The test is used when ak involves factorials or kth power.

Example 14: Use the ratio test to determine whether the following series converges or
diverges.

4 k 1 !

1
2k

6k (k 1)
a)
b)
d)
c) k

k3
2k
k 1 2k !
k 1
k 3
7 k 1

e)

2 ln k

k
k 1 e

f)

k 1

2k !
k

g)

k3

k 1

Past year questions


Use the Ratio Test to determine if the following series is convergent or divergent.

1.

2.

(2k )!
k
k 1 2

(ans: div)

(k 3)!

3! k ! 3
k 1

(ans: Conv)

10k
5.
(ans: con)
k 1 (3k 2)!
6.

3.

(k 1)!
(ans: div)
2
k
k 1

4.

k ! 2 2k (ans: conv)

(2k 1)!
k 1

5k (k! )2
(ans: div)

k 1 ( 2k )!

7.

ek
(ans: con)

k 1 ( 2k 1)!

8.

(k 1)!
(ans: div)
k 2
k 1 2 k

9.

2k 1

3 (k 1) (ans: conv)
k 0

12.

k!
10.
(ans: conv)
k 1 ( 2 k 1)!
11.

(k 2)!

k! 4 k

13.

3 9
3n
...
2 8
n! 2n

k 1

5 2 k 3 k !

ans: Conv
ans : Conv

(ans: conv)

k 1

1.11

Alternating Series Test (A.S.T)

Alternating series are series that contain alternately positive and negative terms.
Examples of such series are given below:
a)

k 1

k2

b)

n 1

n 1

1

n!

Theorem: The series of the form


a)

1
k 1

Converges if:
i) a1 a2 a3

ak

b)

1
k 1

i.e. ak ak 1

k 1

ak

ii) lim ak 0 ,otherwise the series is diverges.


k

Example 15: Determine whether the following series converges or diverges.


a)

n 1

n 1

d)

n 1

3
2n

1
n!

b)

n 1

1 n
n 1

e)

n 1

3n

4n 1

c)

1
k 1

k 3
k2

( 1)k
2
f) k 1 (k 1)(k 3)

(ans: con)

1.12

Absolute Convergence or Conditional Convergence

STEPS TO DETERMINE ABSOLUTE OR CONDITIONAL CONVERGENCE

k 1

k 1

ak

ak

converge

k 1

ak

Converge Absolutely
diverge
converge

Alternating Series Test

k 1

ak

Converge Conditionally
diverge

1
k 1

ak

Diverge

Example 16: Determine whether the following series converge absolutely, converge
conditionally or diverges.
a)

n 1

d)

1
n

n 1

1
k 1

b)

n 1

k 1

k
2
2k 1

e)

n 1

1k
k 1

c)

2k 2

1
k 1

2
k 1
2

Past year questions


Determine whether the following series is absolutely convergent, conditionally
convergent, or divergent.

1.

( 1)k 1

( 1)k

k 1

2.

k 1

3.

k(k 1)
k 1

( 1)

k 1

4.

(ans: cond con)

k2
(ans: cond con)
k3 1

1k 2k 1 (ans: div)
k

k 1

5.

2k
(ans: abs con)
k!

k 1

( 1)k

ek
k2

(ans: div)

6.

( 1)k 1
(ans: cond con)
(k 2)

( 1)k 1 k
( ans: cond con)
(k 5)

k 1

7.

k 1

8.

k 1

1k k
k 2 4

Ans: Conv Abs

Reference: Calculus 6th Edition, James Stewart, 2009 Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning

1.13

Convergence or Divergence of Power Series

A power series is of the form

a x
n 1

The interval of convergence (convergence interval) of a power series is the value of


x which the power series converges.
For example

nx

n 1

x 1

x2
x 3
The convergence interval can be obtained by first using the ratio test for absolute
convergence and supplemented by other test for the end point of the convergence
interval.

Theorem : (Ratio test for absolute convergence)

Let

a
k 1

lim

be a series with non-negative terms and suppose that

ak 1
ak

i) If 1

a
k 1

converge absolutely, therefore convergence

ii) If 1 or

k 1

diverges

iii) If 1 No conclusion

Radius of convergence:
There is a positive number R such that the series converges if x a R and
diverges if x a R .
The number R is called the radius of convergence.
Example 17: Find the radius of convergence and the interval of convergence of
the power series.
a)

xn

n
n 1

d)

3n x n

n
n 1 n 4

b)

n 1

e)

n 0

x 3

x 4
c) 1
2
k 0
k 1
n
n x2

xn

f)

n 1

n 0

3n 1

Past year questions


Determine the interval of convergence for the following power series.

( x 1)2k
1. ( 1)
(ans: -3<x<1)
4k 1
k 1

( 2)k (2x 1)k


3.
(ans: -3/4 x -1/4)
k2
k 1

( x 4)k
2. ( 1)
(ans: 3x5)
(k 1)2
k 0

4.

( 1)k ( x 1)k
(ans: -2 < x 4 )
k 3k
k 1

5.

( 4 2 x )k

( 2)k ( x 2)k

k 1

6.

k2

k 1

7.

(ans: 3/2x5/2)

(ans: 3/2<x<5/2)

(3) k 1(x 1)
k

(ans: 2/3<x<4/3)

k 1

8.

n 1

9.

( 2)n
n

( x 3)n

(2)k 1

ans: -7/2<x-5/2

4k (k 1 )( x 1 )k

Ans: -1<x 3

k 1

10. Show that the power series

( 1)k x 2k
2k 2 converges for all values of x.
k 1 2 (k! )