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UTRAN UR11.

1 Basic Feature
Description

UTRAN UR11.1 Basic Feature Description

UTRAN UR11.1 Basic Feature Description


Version
V1.30

Date
2011/12/27

Author
ZTE

Reviewer

Notes
Not open to the third party

2011 ZTE Corporation. All rights reserved.


ZTE CONFIDENTIAL: This document contains proprietary information of ZTE and is not to be disclosed or used
without the prior written permission of ZTE.
Due to update and improvement of ZTE products and technologies, information in this document is subjected to
change without notice.

ZTE Confidential Proprietary

UTRAN UR11.1 Basic Feature Description

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
1.10

System and Standards ...................................................................................... 6


ZWF21-00-001 System Improvements for 3GPP UTRAN R99............................. 6
ZWF21-00-002 System Improvements for 3GPP UTRAN R4............................... 6
ZWF21-00-003 System Improvements for 3GPP UTRAN R5............................... 7
ZWF21-00-004 System Improvements for 3GPP UTRAN R6............................... 8
ZWF21-00-005 System Improvements for 3GPP UTRAN R7............................... 8
ZWF21-00-006 System Improvements for 3GPP UTRAN R8............................... 9
ZWF21-00-007 System Improvements for 3GPP UTRAN R9............................. 10
ZWF21-00-021 Radio Channels......................................................................... 11
ZWF21-00-022 UTRAN Interfaces ..................................................................... 15
ZWF21-00-023 Multi-band Support .................................................................... 16

2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8

Services and Radio Access Bearers .............................................................. 18


ZWF21-02-001 CS Conversational RAB for AMR Speech ................................. 18
ZWF21-02-002 CS Conversational RAB for Data Service .................................. 19
ZWF21-02-003 CS Streaming RAB for Data Service ......................................... 20
ZWF21-02-004 PS Interactive/Background RAB ................................................ 20
ZWF21-02-005 PS Streaming RAB .................................................................... 21
ZWF21-02-006 RAB Combination for AMR speech and Packet Data Service .... 22
ZWF21-02-007 RAB Combination for Multiple Packet Data Services ................. 23
ZWF21-02-008 RAB Combination for CS Data and Packet Data Service .......... 24

3
3.1
3.1.1
3.1.2
3.1.3
3.1.4
3.1.5
3.1.6
3.1.7
3.1.8
3.1.9
3.1.10
3.1.11
3.1.12
3.2
3.2.1
3.2.2

Radio Network Functionality .......................................................................... 25


Connection Management ................................................................................... 25
ZWF21-01-001 System Information Broadcasting .............................................. 25
ZWF21-01-002 Connection Setup and Release ................................................. 26
ZWF21-01-003 Paging ....................................................................................... 27
ZWF21-01-004 NAS Message Transfer ............................................................. 29
ZWF21-01-005 Ciphering................................................................................... 30
ZWF21-01-006 Integrity Protection .................................................................... 31
ZWF21-01-007 Radio Connection Monitor ......................................................... 32
ZWF21-01-008 Radio Connection Re-establishment ......................................... 34
ZWF21-01-010 Iu Interface Interruption Protection ............................................ 34
ZWF21-01-021 RRC Connection Redirect ......................................................... 36
ZWF21-01-024 RL Fast Reconfiguration ............................................................ 37
ZWF21-01-027 Fast Dormancy .......................................................................... 39
Mobility Management ......................................................................................... 40
ZWF21-03-001 Soft/Softer Handover ................................................................. 40
ZWF21-03-002 Intra-Frequency Hard Handover ................................................ 41

ZTE Confidential Proprietary

UTRAN UR11.1 Basic Feature Description

3.2.3
3.2.4
3.2.5
3.2.6
3.2.7
3.2.8
3.2.9
3.2.10
3.2.11
3.2.12
3.3
3.3.1
3.3.2
3.3.3
3.3.4
3.3.5
3.3.6
3.3.7
3.3.8
3.3.9
3.3.10
3.4
3.4.1
3.4.2
3.4.3
3.4.4
3.4.5
3.4.6
3.5
3.5.1
3.5.2
3.5.3
3.5.4
3.6
3.6.1
3.6.2
3.6.3
3.6.4
3.6.5
3.6.6
3.6.7
3.6.8

ZWF21-03-003 Inter-Frequency Hard Handover ................................................ 42


ZWF21-03-004 Inter-RAT Mobility ..................................................................... 43
ZWF21-03-005 Cell Selection & Re-Selection.................................................... 44
ZWF21-03-006 Inter-RNC Handover with Iur Support ........................................ 45
ZWF21-03-008 Directed Signaling Connection Re-establishment ...................... 46
ZWF21-03-009 Coverage Based Handover ....................................................... 47
ZWF21-03-010 Compressed Mode .................................................................... 48
ZWF21-03-011 Neighboring Cells Priorities ....................................................... 50
ZWF21-03-020 SRNS Relocation ...................................................................... 51
ZWF21-03-100 Cell reselection with LTE ........................................................... 53
Radio Resource Management............................................................................ 54
ZWF21-04-001 Admission Control ..................................................................... 54
ZWF21-04-002 Overload Control ....................................................................... 55
ZWF21-04-004 Dynamic Radio Bearer Control .................................................. 57
ZWF21-04-006 Code Resource Allocation ......................................................... 60
ZWF21-04-008 Downlink Power Balancing ........................................................ 62
ZWF21-04-009 Power Control ........................................................................... 63
ZWF21-04-010 Congestion Control ................................................................... 66
ZWF21-04-011 Load Balancing ......................................................................... 67
ZWF21-04-012 Noise Automatic Measurement ................................................. 69
ZWF21-04-022 Frequency Priority ..................................................................... 70
QoS Guarantee .................................................................................................. 71
ZWF21-05-001 Emergency Call ......................................................................... 71
ZWF21-05-002 RAB QoS Parameters Mapping ................................................. 71
ZWF21-05-003 Differentiated Service ................................................................ 74
ZWF21-05-005 Service Pre-emption .................................................................. 76
ZWF21-05-021 Directed Retry to GSM .............................................................. 77
ZWF21-05-023 RAB Queuing ............................................................................ 78
User Plane Process ........................................................................................... 80
ZWF21-06-001 Silent FP Mode.......................................................................... 80
ZWF21-06-002 TrFO ......................................................................................... 81
ZWF26-01-002 Improved DL L2 Support ........................................................... 82
ZWF26-02-002 Improved UL L2 support ............................................................ 83
RAN Management ............................................................................................. 85
ZWF21-20-001 NCP/CCP Management ............................................................ 85
ZWF21-20-002 Node B Resource Management ................................................ 86
ZWF21-20-003 Cell Management ...................................................................... 87
ZWF21-20-004 Common Channel Management ................................................ 88
ZWF21-20-005 Common Measurement Controlling ........................................... 89
ZWF21-20-008 Node B Operations & Maintenance Channel ............................. 90
ZWF21-20-010 Equipment Redundancy ............................................................ 91
ZWF21-20-011 System Data Acquisition ........................................................... 93

ZTE Confidential Proprietary

UTRAN UR11.1 Basic Feature Description

3.6.9
3.6.10
3.6.11
3.6.12
3.6.13
3.6.14
3.7
3.7.1
3.8
3.8.1
3.8.2
3.8.3
3.8.4
3.8.5
3.8.6
3.8.7

ZWF21-20-020 RNC Dynamic Load Energy Saving........................................... 95


ZWF21-20-021 RNC Resource Sharing ............................................................. 95
ZWF21-20-030 Radio DOS Detection ................................................................ 96
ZWF21-20-031 Node B Energy Saving Mode .................................................... 97
ZWF21-20-101 Time Synchronization via SNTP for RNC .................................. 98
ZWF21-20-102 Time Synchronization via SNTP for Node B .............................. 99
Enhanced RAN Functionality ........................................................................... 100
ZWF21-30-031Direct Tunnel ............................................................................ 100
Radio Part ........................................................................................................ 101
ZWF21-40-001 Active Tx Gain Calibration ....................................................... 101
ZWF21-40-002 Joint Channel Estimation ......................................................... 103
ZWF21-40-003 Two Antenna Receive Diversity ............................................... 103
ZWF21-40-009 OCNS ..................................................................................... 105
ZWF21-40-018 smoothly Cell in/out of Service ................................................ 106
ZWF21-42-002 VSWR Alarm Resume ............................................................. 107
ZWF21-42-003 RTWP Unbalanced Alarm ....................................................... 107

4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4

Transport Network Functionality .................................................................. 108


ZWF22-01-001 IP Switching Platform .............................................................. 108
ZWF22-01-002 RAN Topologies ...................................................................... 109
ZWF22-01-005 Transport CAC ........................................................................ 110
ZWF22-01-006 Overbooking on Iub/Iur ............................................................ 112

Abbreviation .................................................................................................. 114

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UTRAN UR11.1 Basic Feature Description

FIGURES
Figure 3-1 Signaling flow for fast reconfiguration of radio link ............................................38
Figure 3-2 RRC of UE State Transition ..............................................................................59
Figure 3-3 Spreading and Scrambling ................................................................................60
Figure 3-4 OVSF Code Tree ..............................................................................................61
Figure 3-5 Definition of 3GPP QoS Architecture ................................................................72
Figure 3-6 QoS Mapping Scheme ......................................................................................75
Figure 3-7 Signaling Flow for Directed Retry to GSM .........................................................78
Figure 3-8 Structure of the HS-DSCH without MAC-c/sh ...................................................83
Figure 3-9 New E-DCH Protocol Structure .........................................................................84
Figure 3-10 Connection of Two-Antenna Receiving Diversity ...........................................104
Figure 4-1 Architecture of RNC IP Switching Platform .....................................................108
Figure 4-2 IP Switching of Node B ...................................................................................109
Figure 4-3 Overbooking Benefit .......................................................................................114

TABLES
Table 1-1 Logical Channel List Supported by ZTE .............................................................11
Table 1-2 Transport Channel List Supported by ZTE .........................................................12
Table 1-3 Physical Channel List Supported by ZTE ...........................................................13
Table 1-4 UTRAN Interface List Supported by ZTE ...........................................................16
Table 1-5 Definition of 3GPP Frequency Band...................................................................17

ZTE Confidential Proprietary

UTRAN UR11.1 Basic Feature Description

System and Standards

1.1

ZWF21-00-001 System Improvements for 3GPP


UTRAN R99
Benefits
This feature describes 3GPP R99 FDD basic functions of UTRAN.
Description
3GPP R99 is the first release and covers specifications for a complete mobile system. It
was frozen in December 1999.
Features implemented by ZTE RNC comply with related standards of radio access
network in 3GPP R99 protocol. Specific features are described in ZXWR RAN Basic
Features Description and ZXWR RAN Advanced Features Description respectively.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
Features defined in R99 version may be improved and enhanced in different versions of
ZTE RAN equipment. For details, please refer to related feature description.

1.2

ZWF21-00-002 System Improvements for 3GPP


UTRAN R4
Benefits
This feature describes 3GPP R4 FDD enhanced functions of UTRAN.
Description

ZTE Confidential Proprietary

UTRAN UR11.1 Basic Feature Description

3GPP R4, frozen in March 2001, is the further enhancement of 3GPP R99.
Features implemented by ZTE RNC comply with related standards of radio access
network in 3GPP R4 protocol. Specific features are described in ZXWR RAN Basic
Features Description and ZXWR RAN Advanced Features Description respectively.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
Features defined in R4 version may be improved and enhanced in different versions of
ZTE RAN equipment. For details, please refer to related feature description.

1.3

ZWF21-00-003 System Improvements for 3GPP


UTRAN R5
Benefits
This feature describes 3GPP R5 FDD enhanced functions of UTRAN.
Description
3GPP R5 is the further enhancement of the previous releases, and high speed downlink
packet access (HSDPA) technology is introduced in RAN. Some functions of 3GPP R5
were frozen in March 2002 and the remaining parts were frozen in June 2002.
Features implemented by ZTE RNC comply with related standards of radio access
network in 3GPP R5 protocol. Specific features are described in ZXWR RAN Basic
Features Description and ZXWR RAN Advanced Features Description respectively.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement

ZTE Confidential Proprietary

UTRAN UR11.1 Basic Feature Description

Features defined in R5 version may be improved and enhanced in different versions of


ZTE RAN equipment. For details, please refer to related feature description.

1.4

ZWF21-00-004 System Improvements for 3GPP


UTRAN R6
Benefits
This feature describes 3GPP R6 FDD enhanced functions of UTRAN.
Description
3GPP R6 is the further enhancement of the previous releases, and high speed uplink
packet access (HSUPA) technology is introduced in RAN, also MBMS services are
defined. Some functions of 3GPP R6 were frozen in December 2004 and the remaining
parts were frozen in March 2005.
Features implemented by ZTE RNC comply with related standards of radio access
network in 3GPP R6 protocol. Specific features are described in ZXWR RAN Basic
Features Description and ZXWR RAN Advanced Features Description respectively.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
Features defined in R6 version may be improved and enhanced in different versions of
ZTE RAN equipment. For details, please refer to related feature description.

1.5

ZWF21-00-005 System Improvements for 3GPP


UTRAN R7
Benefits

ZTE Confidential Proprietary

UTRAN UR11.1 Basic Feature Description

This feature describes the 3GPP R7 FDD enhanced functions of UTRAN.


Description
New technologies are introduced to improve the performance of HSPA in R7 (that is
HSPA evolution), such as.64QAM high modulation in downlink, 16QAM high modulation,
MIMO, CPC and enhanced Cell FACH. After 3GPP R7 is introduced, peak rate can
achieve 21.6Mbps (64QAM) or 28.8Mbps (MIMO) in downlink, peak rate can reach
11.5Mbps (16QAM) in uplink. CPC technology can be utilized to support more online
users, and the technology of Enhanced Cell FACH can improve the switching rate
among DCH, FACH and PCH for UE. New technologies can be deployed to enhance
data-processing capability in UTRAN network.
Functions of R7 version were frozen in September 2007.
Features implemented by ZTE RNC comply with related standards of radio access
network in 3GPP R7 protocol. Specific features are described in ZXWR RAN Basic
Features Description and ZXWR RAN Advanced Features Description respectively.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
Features defined in R7 version may be improved and enhanced in different versions of
ZTE RAN equipment. For details, please refer to related feature description.

1.6

ZWF21-00-006 System Improvements for 3GPP


UTRAN R8
Benefits
It describes the 3GPP R8 FDD enhanced functions of UTRAN.
Description

ZTE Confidential Proprietary

UTRAN UR11.1 Basic Feature Description

Based on 3GPP R7, more new technologies will be utilized to improve the performance
of HSPA in 3GPP R8, including dual-carrier HSDPA, enhanced uplink Cell FACH and
concurrent activation of 64QAM and MIMO. When 3GPP R8 is introduced, downlink
peak rate can reach 43.2Mbps in the configuration of 64QAM and MIMO in single carrier
or 64QAM only in dual-carrier mode. In addition, 3GPP R8 allows CS voice service to be
borne by HSPA channels to increase voice capacity in radio network.
Functions of R8 version were frozen in Dec 2008.
Features implemented by ZTE RNC comply with related standards of radio access part
in 3GPP R8 protocol; specific features are included in ZXWR RAN Basic Features
Description and ZXWR RAN Advanced Features Description respectively.
Introduced Version
U9.2
Enhancement
Features defined in R8 version may be improved and enhanced in different versions of
ZTE RAN equipment. For more details, please see related descriptions.

1.7

ZWF21-00-007 System Improvements for 3GPP


UTRAN R9
Benefits
It describes the 3GPP R9 FDD protocols and enhanced functions of UTRAN.
Description
Based on 3GPP R8, more new technologies will be utilized to improve the performance
of HSPA in 3GPP R9, including dual-carrier HSUPA, Dual-cell HSDPA operation in
different frequency band, concurrent activation of DC-HSDPA and MIMO. When 3GPP
R9 is introduced, user downlink peak rate can reach 86Mbps in 10MHz frequency
bandwidth.

10

ZTE Confidential Proprietary

UTRAN UR11.1 Basic Feature Description

Functions of R9 version were frozen in Dec 2009.


Features implemented by ZTE RNC comply with related standards of radio access part
in 3GPP R9 protocol; specific features are included in ZXWR RAN Basic Features
Description and ZXWR RAN Advanced Features Description respectively.
Introduced Version
UR11.1
Enhancement
No.

1.8

ZWF21-00-021 Radio Channels


Benefits
This feature describes the bearer capability for services of WCDMA/HSPA.
Description
Multiple logical channels, transport channels and physical channels are defined in 3GPP
protocols. All the channels supported by ZTE RNC are described in this chapter.
Logical channel
Logical channel is defined by what type of information is transferred. For the specific
definition, please refer to 3GPP TS 25.321. Logical channels supported by ZTE are as
follows:

Table 1-1

Logical Channel List Supported by ZTE

Abbreviation

BCCH

Name

Description

Broadcast

Bearer of cell broadcast

Control

information

Introduced
Version
U9.1&Before

Channel

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11

UTRAN UR11.1 Basic Feature Description

PCCH

Paging Control

Bearer of paging information

U9.1&Before

Dedicated

Bearer of RRC signaling RB1,

U9.1&Before

Control

RB2, RB3 and RB4.

Channel
DCCH

Channel
CCCH

Common

Bearer of RRC signaling RB0

U9.1&Before

Bearer of service RB.

U9.1&Before

MBMS

Bearer of control information

U9.1&Before

point-to-multip

in MBMS service

Control
Channel
DTCH

Dedicated
Traffic Channel

MCCH

oint Control
Channel
MSCH

MBMS

Bearer of control information

point-to-multip

in MBMS service

U9.1&Before

oint Scheduling
Channel
MTCH

MBMS

Bearer of data in MBMS

point-to-multip

service

U9.1&Before

oint Traffic
Channel
Transport channel
Transport channel is defined by how and with what characteristics data is transferred
over the air interface. For the specific definition, please refer to 3GPP TS 25.211.
Transport channels supported by ZTE are as follows:

Table 1-2

Transport Channel List Supported by ZTE

Abbreviation
DCH

BCH

RACH

12

Name

Introduced

Description

Version

Dedicated

Bearer of user data and RRC

Channel

signaling in R99 service

Broadcast

Bearer of cell broadcast

Channel

information

Random

Bearer of user data and RRC

U9.1&Before

U9.1&Before

U9.1&Before

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UTRAN UR11.1 Basic Feature Description

Access

signaling in uplink

Channel
FACH

Forward

Bearer of user data and RRC

Access

signaling in downlink

U9.1&Before

Channel
PCH

Paging

Bearer of paging information

U9.1&Before

High Speed

Bearer of user data and RRC

U9.1&Before

Downlink

signaling in HSDPA service

Channel
HS-DSCH

Shared
Channel
E-DCH

Enhanced

Bearer of user data and RRC

Dedicated

signaling in HSUPA service

U9.1&Before

Channel
Physical channel
Physical channel is defined by a specific carrier frequency, scrambling code,
channelization code (advanced), time start & stop (giving a duration) and, on the uplink,

Physical channels supported by ZTE are as follows:

Table 1-3

Physical Channel List Supported by ZTE

Abbreviation
PRACH

Name

Description

Physical

Bearer of RACH transport

Random Access

channel

Introduced
Version
U9.1&Before

Channel
P-CPICH

Primary

Used for pilot measurement

Common Pilot

reference of UE in cell

U9.1&Before

Channel
S-CPICH

Secondary

Used for pilot measurement

Common Pilot

reference of

U9.2

UE in cell

Channel
P-CCPCH

Primary

Bearer of BCH transport

Common

channel

U9.1&Before

Control Physical

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13

UTRAN UR11.1 Basic Feature Description

Channel
S-CCPCH

Secondary

Bearer of FACH and PCH

Common

transport channel

U9.1&Before

Control Physical
Channel
SCH

AICH

Synchronization

Downlink synchronous signal

Channel

used for cell search

Acquisition

Used to carry Acquisition

Indicator

Indicators

U9.1&Before

U9.1&Before

Channel
PICH

DPDCH

Paging Indicator

Used to carry the paging

Channel

indicators

Dedicated

Bearer of DCH transport

Physical Data

channel

U9.1&Before

U9.1&Before

Channel
DPCCH

Dedicated

Bearer of control information in

Physical Control

DPDCH

U9.1&Before

Channel
HS-PDSCH

High Speed

Bearer of the High Speed

U9.1&Before

Physical

Downlink Shared Channel

Downlink

(HS-DSCH).

Shared Channel
HS-SCCH

HS-DPCCH

HS-DSCH-relat

Used to carry downlink

U9.1&Before

ed Shared

signaling related to HS-DSCH

Control Channel

transmission

Dedicated

Carrying uplink feedback

Physical Control

signaling related to downlink

Channel (uplink)

HS-DSCH transmission.

U9.1&Before

for HS-DSCH
E-DPDCH

E-DCH

Bearer of the E-DCH transport

Dedicated

channel.

U9.1&Before

Physical Data
Channel
E-DPCCH

E-DCH

Bearer of control information

Dedicated

associated with the E-DCH

U9.1&Before

Physical Control
Channel
E-AGCH

14

E-DCH

Carrying the uplink E-DCH

U9.1&Before

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UTRAN UR11.1 Basic Feature Description

Absolute Grant

absolute grant.

Channel
E-RGCH

E-HICH

MICH

E-DCH Relative

Carrying the uplink E-DCH

Grant Channel

relative grants

E-DCH Hybrid

Carrying the uplink E-DCH

ARQ Indicator

hybrid ARQ acknowledgement

Channel

indicator.

MBMS

Used to carry the MBMS

Notification

notification indicators

U9.1&Before

U9.1&Before

U9.1&Before

Indicator
Channel
F-DPCH

Fractional

Bearer of TPC command

U9.1&Before

Dedicated
Physical
Channel
The setting of channels which are really implemented in the network depends on the
deployment of optional features.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before, transport channel and physical channel related to HSDPA including
F-DPCH, HSUPA and MBMS are introduced.
Enhancement
S-CPICH channel is introduced in U9.2 version.

1.9

ZWF21-00-022 UTRAN Interfaces


Benefits
This feature describes the connection between network elements in UTRAN.
Description
Standard interface and protocol in application layer between UTRAN NEs defined in
3GPP and supported by ZTE RAN equipment are listed in the following table.

ZTE Confidential Proprietary

15

UTRAN UR11.1 Basic Feature Description

Table 1-4

UTRAN Interface List Supported by ZTE


3GPP Protocol to Comply with

Introduced

Interface

Related NEs

Iu CS

RNC-MSCS

25.410, 25.411, 25.412, 25.413

U9.1&Before

Iu CS

RNC-MGW

25.410, 25.411, 25.412, 25.414,

U9.1&Before

Version

25.415
Iu PS

RNC-SGSN

25.410, 25.411, 25.412, 25.413,

U9.1&Before

25.414, 25.415, 29.060


Iur

RNC-RNC

25.421, 25.422, 25.423, 25.426,

U9.1&Before

25.427
Iub

RNC-Node B

25.426, 25.427, 25.430, 25.431,

U9.1&Before

25.432, 25.433, 25.434, 25.435


Uu

UTRAN-UE

25.211, 25.212, 25.213, 25.214,

U9.1&Before

25.215, 25.301, 25.302, 25.303,


25.304, 25.305, 25.321, 25.322,
25.323, 25.331
Iuant

OMC-electric

25.460, 25.461, 25.462, 25.463

U9.1&Before

25.414, 25.415, 29.060

U9.1&Before

al tilt antenna
Iu PS

RNC-GGSN

IU PS interface between RNC and GGSN is valid only by using direct tunnel. For more
details, please refer to the feature ZWF26-03-021 direct tunnel.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
No.

1.10

ZWF21-00-023 Multi-band Support


Benefits
This feature supports other frequency bands besides UMTS basic frequency band of
2.1G.

16

ZTE Confidential Proprietary

UTRAN UR11.1 Basic Feature Description

Description
3GPP defines 14 types of frequency band as described in Table 1-5:

Table 1-5

Definition of 3GPP Frequency Band

Operating

UL Frequencies

DL frequencies

TX-RX

Band

UE transmit, Node B

UE receive, Node B

frequency

receive

transmit

separation

1920 - 1980 MHz

2110 - 2170 MHz

190 MHz

II

1850 - 1910 MHz

1930 - 1990 MHz

80 MHz

III

1710 - 1785 MHz

1805 - 1880 MHz

95 MHz

IV

1710 - 1755 MHz

2110 - 2155 MHz

400 MHz

824 - 849 MHz

869 - 894 MHz

45 MHz

VI

830 - 840 MHz

875 - 885 MHz

45 MHz

VII

2500 - 2570 MHz

2620 - 2690 MHz

120 MHz

VIII

880 - 915 MHz

925 - 960 MHz

45 MHz

IX

1749.9 - 1784.9 MHz

1844.9 - 1879.9 MHz

95 MHz

1710 - 1770 MHz

2110 - 2170 MHz

400 MHz

XI

1427.9 - 1452.9 MHz

1475.9 - 1500.9 MHz

48 MHz

XII

698 - 716 MHz

728 - 746 MHz

30 MHz

XIII

777 - 787 MHz

746 - 756 MHz

31 MHz

XIV

788 - 798 MHz

758 - 768 MHz

30 MHz

Besides UMTS 2100MHz (Band I), ZTE also supports UMTS 850MHz (Band V), UMTS
900MHz (Band VIII), AWS (Band IV), UMTS 1800MHz (Band III) and UMTS 1900MHz
(Band II) frequency band. In addition, it can support customized frequency bands to
satisfy customer requirements. Node B supports other frequency bands through
replacing the RF unit of the corresponding frequency band, and RNC supports other
frequency bands through changing the corresponding radio parameter configuration. For
example, to broadcast AWS frequency information, SIB5bis is used in system
information to take the place of SIB5.
Introduced Version
In U9.1&Before ZTE supports UMTS 900MHz in addition to UMTS 2100MHz.

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17

UTRAN UR11.1 Basic Feature Description

Enhancement
In U9.2 ZTE supports UMTS 850MHz and AWS frequency band.
In U9.3, ZTE supports UMTS 1800MHz and UMTS 1900MHz frequency band.

Services and Radio Access Bearers

2.1

ZWF21-02-001 CS Conversational RAB for AMR


Speech
Benefits
This feature supports the traditional voice call service.
Description
UMTS voice coding employs the Adaptive MultiRate (AMR) technology. The multirate
vocoder is a single complete vocoder and its source rate may be eight values, ranging
from 12.2K to 4.75K.
This feature provides CS AMR voice services at eight rates: 12.2Kbps, 10.2Kbps,
7.95Kbps, 7.4Kbps, 6.7Kbps, 5.9Kbps, 5.15Kbps, and 4.75Kbps, together with the mute
rate 1.8 Kbps.
RAB radio parameters of CS AMR voice conversation services follow the definition in the
3GPP TS 34.108.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
U9.3 supports to use the SF256 channelizing code for AMR-NB 5.9kbps and below.

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2.2

ZWF21-02-002 CS Conversational RAB for Data


Service
Benefits
This feature supports CS conversation or data service such as video telephony, and etc.
Description
This feature provides CS data services at three rates: 64 Kbps, 32 Kbps, and 28.8 Kbps.
Based on these services, ZTE UMTS supports the following CS transparent data
services defined in the 3GPP TR 23.910:

64 Kbps, in case Information Transfer Capability = UDI;

32 Kbps, in case Information Transfer Capability = UDI;

28.8 Kbps, in case Information Transfer Capability = 3.1 kHz audio.

If the fixed network user rate is 56 Kbps, the Guaranteed Bit Rate (GBR) of the
corresponding RAB will be set as 64 Kbps by the CN;
When CS RAB is used to bear CS multimedia call services, the following services will be
included:

64, 32 and 28.8 kbps for Mobile to Mobile call;

64 kbps for Mobile to/from N-ISDN call;

28.8 kbps for Mobile to/from PSTN call;

32 kbps for Mobile to/from PHS call.

As defined by the 3GPP, CS multimedia call services conform to the H.324M subset.
RAB radio parameters of CS data conversation services follow the definition in the 3GPP
TS 34.108.
Introduced Version

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UTRAN UR11.1 Basic Feature Description

U9.1&Before
Enhancement
No

2.3

ZWF21-02-003 CS Streaming RAB for Data Service


Benefits
This feature supports CS streaming service, such as fax.
Description
This feature provides CS streaming RAB for data services (including fax service) at four
bit rates: 64Kbps, 57.6 Kbps, 28.8 Kbps, and 14.4 Kbps.
64Kbps RAB is used for transparent CS data services. 57.6Kbps RAB, 28.8K RAB, and
14.4Kbps RAB are used for non-transparent CS data services. If the bit rate of air
interface is less than or equal to 14.4 Kbps, the Maximum Bit Rate (MBR) and GBR of
RAB will be set as 14.4 Kbps by the CN.
RAB radio parameters of CS data streaming services follow the definition in the 3GPP
TS 34.108.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
No

2.4

ZWF21-02-004 PS Interactive/Background RAB


Benefits
This feature supports interactive/background data services, such as Internet surfing,

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downloading, e-mail, and etc.


Description
Interactive RAB and background RAB are both data services with sudden burst. The
feature of interactive services is as follows: it uses request-response mode initiated by
terminal and has higher requirement on round-trip delay. Data packets must be
transparently transmitted. There should be a low bit error ratio. Interactive services
include webpage browse, online game and database retrieval. The features of
background services are as follows: Within a certain period of time, the destination does
not expect data to arrive. Background services are not quite sensitive to delay. Data
packets do not need to be transparently transmitted. They should be received error-free.
Background services include e-mail, SMS, and database download..
This feature provides PS interactive/background data services (uplink and downlink),
which include: 8Kbps, 16Kbps, 32Kbps, 64Kbps, 128Kbps, 144Kbps, 256Kbps, and
384Kbps. Once RAB is established, the CN will allocate a corresponding MBR. When a
small amount of data is transmitted, the system will automatically select a smaller data
transmission format for the sake of low-rate transmission.
RAB radio parameters of PS interactive/background data services follow the definition in
the 3GPP TS 34.108.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
No

2.5

ZWF21-02-005 PS Streaming RAB


Benefits
This feature supports streaming packet data services with a guaranteed Quality of
Service such as Video-On-Demand, and etc.

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UTRAN UR11.1 Basic Feature Description

Description
Streaming services are a unidirectional data communication service. They include audio
streaming and video streaming. Certain real time and service rate are required. They can
maintain a relative time relationship between packets and conform to the characteristics
of human perceptions. The features of streaming services are as follows: the size of data
packets is basically invariable and there is no burst; streaming services require a high bit
error ratio but a low packet loss ratio; there are high requirements for delay and jitter.
This feature provides PS streaming data services (uplink and downlink), which include:
16Kbps, 32Kbps, 64Kbps, 128Kbps, 144Kbps, 256Kbps, and 384Kbps. Once RAB is
established, the CN will allocate a corresponding MBR. When a small amount of data is
transmitted, the system will automatically select a smaller data transmission format for
the sake of low-rate transmission. The lowest rate is the GBR assigned by the CN.
RAB radio parameters of PS streaming data services follow the definition in the 3GPP
TS 34.108.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
No

2.6

ZWF21-02-006 RAB Combination for AMR speech


and Packet Data Service
Benefits
This feature supports simultaneous multiple speech service in CS domain and packet
data service in PS domain.
Description
This feature provides the combination of CS AMR voice services and PS data services.

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Concurrent PS data services may be interactive/background services or streaming


services. A CS AMR voice service can be accompanied by up to three PS RABs.
In order to fully guarantee the QoS of CS AMR voice services, the rate of PS services will
be reduced when a concurrent service is established. In the concurrent period, if there
are sufficient radio resources, the rate of PS data services can be gradually increased by
means of the ZTE DRBC algorithm. The total upper limit rate of all PS
interactive/background services is configurable by operator in OMC, but the maximum
value is 384kbps. And the limit rate of streaming services is its MBR assigned by the CN.
The RAB radio parameters of this feature are fully compliant to the definition in the 3GPP
TS 34.108.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
No

2.7

ZWF21-02-007 RAB Combination for Multiple


Packet Data Services
Benefits
This feature supports simultaneous multiple packet data services, such as receiving
MMS while downloading file.
Description
This feature provides up to three concurrent PS RAB data services. They may be
interactive/background RAB or streaming RAB. Their data rate may be any rate of the
above-mentioned interactive/background services or streaming services, but the total
rate of all PS services GBR must not exceed 384kps.
The RAB radio parameters of this feature are compliant to the definition in the 3GPP TS

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UTRAN UR11.1 Basic Feature Description

34.108.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
No

2.8

ZWF21-02-008 RAB Combination for CS Data and


Packet Data Service
Benefits
This feature supports the combination of CS and PS data services like video phone
during downloading file.
Description
This feature provides concurrent CS data services and PS data services, such as the
concurrency of CS video phone and PS I/B/S services or streaming services. In order to
fully guarantee the QoS of CS services, the rate of PS services will be reduced when a
concurrent service is established. In the concurrent period, if there are sufficient radio
resources, the rate of PS data services can be gradually increased by means of the ZTE
DRBC algorithm. The DRBC algorithm defines the total upper limit rate of all PS I/B/S
services of UE in the concurrent period. The total upper limit rate is related to the rate of
CS services. If the rate of CS services does not exceed 32Kbps, the total upper limit rate
is 128Kbps; otherwise, the total upper limit rate is 64Kbps, and the limit rate of streaming
services is its MBR assigned by CN.
The RAB radio parameters of this feature are compliant to the definition in the 3GPP TS
34.108.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before

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Enhancement
No

Radio Network Functionality

3.1

Connection Management

3.1.1

ZWF21-01-001 System Information Broadcasting


Benefits
This feature supports cell system broadcasting, and supplies necessary system
parameter information to UE for cell selection and reselection, PLMN selection, and RRC
connection.
Description
This function allows an entity to broadcast system information periodically with the cell as
the basic unit and update the system information. The system information broadcasted
over the BCH channel mainly includes the following contents:

Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) ID, location area (LA), route area (RA)

Information on the timers and counters related to Radio Resource Control


(RRC) connections

Configuration information of UTRAN registration area (URA)

Cell selection and reselection parameters

Parameters for configuring the common channels, such as FACH, PCH, and
RACH

Information of the uplink interference related to the auxiliary power control

UE measurement control message over the idle or common channel

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UTRAN UR11.1 Basic Feature Description

Parameters of the adjacent cell

AGPS location information

The system information is included in the system information block (SIBs). The SIB
supported by ZTE RAN includes SIB1, SIB2, SIB3, SIB4, SIB5, SIB6, SIB7, SIB11,
SIB12, SIB15, and SIB18. All SIBs are controlled and encoded by RNC except SIB7
(including the uplink interference information) that can be measured and sent by Node B.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before.
Enhancement
no

3.1.2

ZWF21-01-002 Connection Setup and Release


Benefits
This feature is used to manage the signal connections between the UTRAN and the UE
to offer signal channels for the UE and the UTRAN.
Description
This function is used to manage the setup and release of RRC connections between the
UTRAN and the UE so that the signaling bearer can be established between UE and
UMTS Terrestrial Radio access network (UTRAN).
When a UE needs to establish a connection with the network, it involves several
scenarios, such as LA or RA update, service request, and paging response. When UE
initiates the RRC connection setup requests according to the system broadcast
parameters, UTRAN allocates resources to set up the Signaling Radio Bearer (SRB) for
UE and finishes RRC connection setup process.
After the completion of RRC connection setup, the UE establishes the Iu connection with
the core network (CN) to complete the LA/RA update or service request procedures. The
SRB also provides signaling channel between the UE and the CN. For more details on

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the Iu connection setup, refer to ZWF21-01-004 NAS Message Transfer.


After the completion of the RRC connection setup, the UTRAN monitors the Iu
connection and radio link of the UE. If all Iu connections are released or the radio link to
the UE is interrupted (refer to ZWF21-01-007Radio Connection Monitor), UTRAN
releases the RRC connection and all resources allocated to UE.
This feature provides three kinds of SRB bandwidth: 3.4Kbps, 6.8kbps and 13.6Kbps.
Which one to be used at the RRC establishment stage is configurable in OMC. When
only the SRB is on DCH, it occupies SF256 in downlink both for 3.4kbps and 6.8kbps.
Moreover 6.8kbps SRB costs the same Channel Element (CE) resource with 3.4kbps
SRB. Comparing to 3.4kbps, the delay is shorten at the rate of 6.8 kbps. Therefore, if
only SRB is carried on the DCH, the SRB is transmitted at 6.8 kbps. Otherwise, 3.4kbps
is used for SRB.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
In release UR11.1, 6.8kbps SRB is supported.

3.1.3

ZWF21-01-003 Paging
Benefits
This feature supplies paging function.
Description
When there are service demands in CN, the system will trigger the UE to set up the
connection between the UE and the CN through its paging function. For example, the UE
needs to receive the Short Message Service (SMS) or Multimedia Message Service
(MMS), or other user calls the UE. The CN sends paging message through the Iu
interface to the RNC. The RNC selects an area according to the RRC connections status
of the UE and sends paging message to the UE.

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UTRAN UR11.1 Basic Feature Description

When UE is in IDLE status


RNC cannot obtain information in the specific location of UE. Therefore, RNC
sends paging message within the LA or RA according to the LA/RA
information carried in the paging message of CN.

When UE is in PCH status


ZTE RAN supports the URA PCH status. And RAN knows the location
information of UE in the URA and sends paging messages within the whole
URA.

When UE is in FACH or DCH status


RNC knows the location information of UE in the cell level and sends paging
messages to the cell.

ZTE RAN allows RNC to initiate paging on the following special occasions:

When there are data packets in the downlink buffer, RNC sends paging
message to trigger the UE status change from URA_PCH to CELL_FACH and
set up the service bearer for the downlink data transmission.

After the system information changes, RNC sends the paging message to
notify all UEs in Idle or PCH status of a cell.

When it is necessary to suspend the RRC connection of a UE in the PCH


status, RNC sends a paging message to release the RRC connection of UE.

ZTE RAN supports two paging modes: PAGING TYPE 1 and PAGING TYPE 2:

For the UE in the IDLE, URA_PCH, or CELL_PCH status, paging message of


PAGING TYPE 1 is sent.

For the UE in the CELL_FACH, or the CELL_DCH status, paging message of


PAGING TYPE 2 is sent.

Common transport channel PCH is used to transmit PAGING TYPE 1 messages. For
avoiding block of voice calls during congestion of PCH caused by huge PAGING TYPE 1

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messages, ZTE RAN supports prior transmission of CS paging message than that of PS
paging message.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
No.

3.1.4

ZWF21-01-004 NAS Message Transfer


Benefits
This feature supports the transparent transfer of NAS layer signaling which includes
SMS service data between the UE and the MSC, the SGSN in the CN by UTRAN.
Description
Signaling in the Non-Access Stratum (NAS) layer between the UE and the CN must pass
the UTRAN. The signaling in the NAS layer is used to control the UE location updating,
authentication, call setup, call release, and SMS data transfer. UTRAN device does not
have to resolve and process the NAS signaling and SMS data exchanged between the
UE and the CN. UTRAN transparently transmits the NAS signaling and SMS data as the
parameters in the DIRECT TRANSFER messages defined by RANAP and RRC
protocols between the CN and the UE.
ZTE RAN supports three types of direct forward messages:

INITIAL DIRECT TRANSFER message


Once UTRAN receives the INITIAL DIRECT TRANSFER message from the
UE, the RNC immediately sets up the SCCP connection with the Iu interface of
MSC or SGSN according to CN (PS or CS) domain label in the message, adds
the NAS message to INITIAL UE MESSAGE, and sends it to the MSC or
SGSN. Meanwhile, the RNC records the binding relation between the SCCP
connection and the UE RRC connection, and sets up a channel for NAS
messages between the UE and the CN.

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UPLINK DIRECT TRANSFER message


When receiving the UPLINK DIRECT TRANSFER message from the UE,
UTRAN adds the NAS message to the DIRECT TRANSFER message
according to the label of the CN domain in the message, and forwards the
message to the MSC or SGSN.

DOWNLINK DIRECT TRANSFER message


When receiving the DIRECT TRANSFER message from the CN, the UTRAN
adds the NAS message to DOWNLINK DIRECT TRANSFER message
according to the relation between SCCP connection and the RRC connection
and forwards the message to the destination UE.

When the RNC receives a message for releasing Iu connection from the CN, it releases
the Iu connection of CN and dismantles the binding relation between SCCP and RRC.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
No

3.1.5

ZWF21-01-005 Ciphering
Benefits
This feature supports the protection on data transmission by encryption between the
RNC and the UE.
Description
When the Uu interface broadcasts data, this feature can be used to encrypt the service
data and the signaling data of user and protect the security of communication between
the RNC and the UE. ZTE RAN supports the encryption algorithms UEA0 and UEA1:
UEA0 means that the data from Uu interface is not encrypted; UEA1 is based on the
encryption algorithm f8 of KASUMI algorithm and supports the encryption (downlink) and

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the decryption (uplink).


Whether the encryption protection function should be enabled and which encryption
algorithm is to be applied can be configured in CN. Through the command process of
RAN Application Part (RANAP) in security mode, a message with key of the encryption
algorithm is sent to RNC, requesting RNC to enable the encryption. RNC selects an
encryption algorithm according to its encryption configuration, encryption capability of UE,
and priority of encryption algorithms available to the UE, and then starts the encryption
process through the command process of the RRC in security mode.
When encryption function is enabled, RNC or UE encrypts the data to be transmitted in
compliance with f8 algorithm, with the encryption key and variables varying with the data
volume. The receiver decrypts the data using the same algorithm. Encryption is
implemented in RLC layer (AM or UM mode) or MAC layer (TM mode).
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
No

3.1.6

ZWF21-01-006 Integrity Protection


Benefits
This feature supports protection on the Uu interface signaling transmission by integrity
protection between the RNC and the UE to prevent the UE and other equipments which
are disguised by the third party from attacking the RRC information.
Description
To prevent malicious attack against Uu interface signaling from the air interface, this
function provides a signaling check mechanism. ZTE RAN supports the unique integrity
protection algorithm UIA1 defined by 3GPP. The integrity protection algorithm f9 is based
on KASUMI algorithm and implements the integrity protection.
Whether the integrity protection should be enabled is configured in CN. The notice of

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starting integrity protection is sent to RNC through the command process of the RANAP
in security mode. The message carries the key of integrity protection algorithm. RNC
starts integrity protection mode through RRC command process in security mode.
If the integrity protection is enabled, when RNC or UE sends the RRC message, it first
calculates the integrity protection authentication code (MAC-1) through f9 algorithm, and
then adds MAC-1 to the message to be sent. The receiving end must adopt an algorithm
and a key that are the same as those of the transmitting end, calculate the XMAC-I (the
integrity protection authentication code of the received message), and compare XMAC-I
with the received MAC-I. If they are the same, the received message is considered to be
correct. Otherwise, it discards the received message.
Not all Uu interface signaling can be protected. The RRC message from ZTE RAN for
integrity protection complies with the 3GPP TS25.331 protocol.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
No

3.1.7

ZWF21-01-007 Radio Connection Monitor


Benefits
This feature facilitates releasing wireless resource occupied by the invalid RRC
connection as soon as possible to reduce the system resource waste.
Description
This function monitors the radio link status of the UE whose RRC is established. If the
RNC judges that the connection between the UE and the network has been interrupted
because of poor wireless quality or other causes, RNC immediately releases the
resources allocated to the UE (including RB resources with services) and releases the
RRC connection.
ZTE RAN monitors the radio link in the following modes:

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Node B monitors the RL connection status


This mode is available for the UE which is in DCH status. Once Node B
detects the uplink is in asynchronous status or RL is unavailable resulting from
other reasons, it will report failure information to RNC. If RL failure is caused
by an irrecoverable reason, or the RL failure is recoverable but couldnt be
restored in a certain time, RNC will judge the radio link of the UE has been
disconnected.

User plane monitors the RLC connection status


This mode is available for the services which apply RLC in AM mode. Since
ZTE RAN applies AM mode into SRB, it is reasonable to consider that this
mode is available for UEs which are in any kind of status. User plane RLC
entity monitors the status of data transmission; if RLC data loss occurs several
times and there is no response to re-transmission request, RNC will judge the
radio link has been disconnected.

Control plane monitors the cell update message of UE


This mode is available for UEs which are in any kind of status. When RNC
receives the information about the occurrence of an irrecoverable error which
is indicated by UE cell update information, it will judge the radio link has been
disconnected.

Control plane monitors the UE keep-alive timer


This mode is available for the UE which is in FACH or PCH status. If control
plane has no information or data exchanging with UE in a period which is
defined by the timer, RNC will judge the radio link has been disconnected.

When RNC detects a disconnected radio connection of a UE, it will release the wireless
resources and send an Iu release request message through Iu interface to CN to release
the related RAB resources.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before

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UTRAN UR11.1 Basic Feature Description

Enhancement
No

3.1.8

ZWF21-01-008 Radio Connection Re-establishment


Benefits
This feature supports radio link recovery between the UE and the UTRAN after a short
period of radio link interruption to improve the user experience and reduce the network
call drop rate.
Description
A UE in the DCH status may suffer from temporary radio link interruption and cannot
continue the services due to burst interference or abrupt changes of the wireless
environment. Before the UTRAN detects the radio link interruption, UE recovers the
services. At the moment, UE sends the cell update message with Radio link failure or
RLC irrecoverable error (for the service RB only) as the cause and attempts to
reestablish network connections.
In this scenario, ZTE RAN supports radio link reestablishment between the UE and the
UTRAN and the communication recovery without releasing the original RRC connection
and Iu connection. The transient service interruption brought about by the radio link
re-establishment will not cause a call drop.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
No

3.1.9

ZWF21-01-010 Iu Interface Interruption Protection


Benefits
1. In case of Iu connect is broken down for both core network domains, this feature

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force users to access to other network. Operators revenues is protected.


2. When Iu connection of one of core network domain is lost, it helps reduce signal load
to RAN.
Description
When both Iu-CS connection and Iu-PS connection are broken down, it is impossible for
users to continue to enjoy service. During this case, the UMTS cells are barred by
system information SIB3. It triggers the users in these cells re-selecting cells of an
overlaid other network. So operator will not receive users complaints for service
incapability. And operator can continue to generate service revenues. To avoid
simultaneous registration of all terminals moving to other networks, cell barring will be
made in sequence. The number of cells to be barred one time is configurable by
operator.
If only one of core domain losses its connection with RAN, RAN initials domain specific
access restriction via Domain Specific Access Restriction Parameters in SIB3. It means
the domain is not allowed to be used for access classes 0~9 and UE with these access
classes is not going to request the service for the domain, It avoids much UE connection
request signaling for connection rejection from network. So the signaling load to RAN is
reduced.
When cell is barred and domain specific access restriction is initialized, Corresponding
alarm message and system log will be created.
When the Iu connection which broke down recovers, RAN cancels cell baring or domain
specific access restriction for all of cells in one step.
If Iu Flex is deployed, only when connections from RAN to all network elements in MSC
pool or SGSN pool are lost, the Iu connection broken down is recognized.
Iu interruption protection for dedicated carrier RAN sharing is same as non RAN sharing
scenario, For shared carrier RAN sharing, only when all the operators sharing the RAN
lost their Iu connections to the RAN, all of cells under the RAN are barred. If one of
domains belonging to operators interrupts, RAN indicates domain specific access
restriction for this operator, and it is no influence to other operators.

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Introduced Version
UR11.1
Enhancement
No

3.1.10

ZWF21-01-021 RRC Connection Redirect


Benefits
This feature is used to indicate a UE to set up connection in other UTRAN network or
Inter-RAT network including GSM system and E-UTRAN system when system is in
overload or congestion status. So it facilitates load balancing between different UTRAN
networks or between different radio access networks, and therefore the success rate of
user service access is enhanced.
Description
During the RRC connection procedure, when the UTRAN receives the RRC Connection
Request message from the UE, admission control is performed. If the processor of the
RNC is in high load state or all carriers of the sector where the UE stays are congested,
the UE will not be able to get service from the UTRAN network. And if there is other
UTRAN network coverage, or GSM coverage, or E-UTRAN coverage, RNC transmits
RRC Connection Reject message with Redirect info IE to inform the UE about frequency
information of adjacent cells of other UTRAN network, or GSM network, or E-UTRAN
network.
If the RNC knows by RANAP message that the CN is in overload state, this feature is
also used to redirect user to other UTRAN network or GSM network, or E-UTRAN
network.
When resource congestion happens in a cell, RAN is allowed to s drop call of some user
to relieve the cell from congestion. In the cases, RAN will indicate Redirect info IE in
RRC Release message to make UE get service via other UTRAN network or GSM
network, or E-UTRAN network.

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Introduced Version
U9.2
Enhancement
In release UR11.1, redirection to E-UTRAN system, redirection in RRC release and
redirection when congestion in RRC setup stage are supported.

3.1.11

ZWF21-01-024 RL Fast Reconfiguration


Benefits
This feature supports RL Fast Reconfiguration. When detecting uplink Scrambling Codes
changes, NodeB hands over to new Radio Link configuration to fast complete UE
reconfiguration and enhance user experience.
Description
Before Release 7, during the procedure of radio link synchronization reconfiguration,
RNC sends an activation time of new configuration to both NodeB and UE. The time is
used to indicate when the new configuration should be activated. Normally in order to
guarantee NodeB and UE process new configuration, a long period of time is preserved
before the new RL configuration is active. But it also results in long time delay during RL
reconfiguration procedure.
To avoid unnecessary wait caused by a synchronized reconfiguration for radio links, a
fast reconfiguration mechanism for radio links is introduced by R7. See its signaling flow
in the figure below.

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UTRAN UR11.1 Basic Feature Description

Figure 3-1

Signaling flow for fast reconfiguration of radio link

SRNC

DRNC

NodeB

RNSAPRadio Link Reconfiguration


Prepare Mode =
Fast Reconfiguration

Fast

NBAPRadio Link Reconfiguration Prepare

Fast Reconfiguration Mode =


Fast

NBAPRadio Link Reconfiguration Ready

Fast Reconfiguration Permission= Allowed


RNSAPRadio Link Reconfiguration Ready

Fast Reconfiguration Permission= Allowed


RNSAPRadio Link Reconfiguration
Commit Mode =
Fast Reconfiguration

Fast

NBAPRadio Link Reconfiguration Commit

Fast Reconfiguration Mode =


Fast
NBAPRadio Link Restore

RNSAPRadio Link Restore

In fast reconfiguration, RNC commands Node B to adopt a new uplink scrambling codes
in a radio link with new configuration. Node B starts to monitor the uplink radio signal
from a given time set by CFN, which is enough for receiving new parameter settings by
UE but without time margin of data retransmission. As long as the physical channel
achieves synchronization, the radio link with new attribution is activated.
It is no special requirements for UE in radio link fast reconfiguration. In fact, UE even
does not aware whether it is a fast reconfiguration. In an ordinary reconfiguration,
activation time that RNC sends to UE through radio reconfiguration in air interface is the
time when UE switches to the new configuration. While in fast reconfiguration, RNC does
not send activation time to UE, and UE considers the new configuration is effective just
when the reconfiguration is received.
Theoretically, this feature reduces the reconfiguration duration by 496ms or 406ms.
Introduced Version
U9.3
Enhancement
No

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3.1.12

ZWF21-01-027 Fast Dormancy


Benefits
Pre-R7 Fast Dormancy Restraint:
This feature greatly decreases the signaling traffic caused by smart phones on the
control plane, as well as assures the subscribers experience.
R8 Fast Dormancy:
Extend UE battery usage and enhance user experience.
Description
Pre-R7 Fast Dormancy Restraint:
Most of the smart phones equip the large screen and the high frequency CPU processes,
which consume more power and decrease the battery life. Hence some smart phones
adopt Pre-R7 Fast Dormancy feature in order to lower the power consumption.
Pre-R7 Fast Dormancy function means that UE sends Signaling Connection Release
Indication (SCRI) message soon after it has no PS data traffic on DL/UL. According to
the specification, RAN must transfer the UE from CELL_DCH state to idle state when it
receives the SCRI message. Some of the smart phone uses this strategy to reduce the
power consumption. When the UE requires data transmission again, it will repeat the
procedure of RRC connection, RAB establishment, encryption, authentication, etc. If this
procedure occurs frequently with a great amount of UEs, it will bring heavy load for
control plane of RAN, or even make RAN congest.
ZTE's RAN monitors all on-line PS services. If UE has no UL/DL data transmission in
specified period, RAN will send Heartbeat data to UE on user plan which keeps the user
plane transmission alive, so that UE will not send SCRI message. By disabling frequent
network disconnection and connection from the smart phone, the control plane resource
will be saved greatly. RAN only sends Heartbeat data to 3GPP R7 or earlier handsets,
not including the 3GPP R8 UE and data card.
Meanwhile, ZTE's DRBC algorithm is still available for the smart phones. If it is
necessary, the smart phones are transferred to CELL_FACH, URA_PCH or Idle state by

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RAN. The heartbeat data will not affect the DRBC strategy. And the traffic statistics will
not include the heartbeat data for the PS service.
R8 Fast Dormancy:
This feature introduces a simple UE signaling to indicate the state of UE for the network.
A new UE "Signaling Connection Release Indication Cause" indicates that the UE has
decided to stop an activated PS data transmission. On receiving the IE, UTRAN can
decide to trigger an RRC state handover to URA_PCH or IDLE to save battery
consumption. The network can control the using of this function by configuring and
sending a timer in SIB1 which regulates that this function is forbidden within a period of
52 to 120s.
This feature is defined in 3GPP R8 TS25.331 V850.
Introduced Version
U9.3

Enhanced Function

No

3.2

Mobility Management

3.2.1

ZWF21-03-001 Soft/Softer Handover


Benefits
Soft/Softer handover is applied to maintain continuous communication and guarantee
users' communication quality when UE is moving from one cell to another at the same
carrier frequency.
Description
In a soft handover, a UE concurrently maintains several radio links with different Node Bs.
And while in a softer handover, a UE concurrently maintains radio link with several cells
in one Node B. The soft/softer handover only occurs in intra-frequency cells. Compared

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with hard handover, the advantages of soft/softer handover are as follows:

Soft and softer handovers are seamless handovers and service will not be
interrupted during the handover process. The soft and softer handover have
higher success rate and lower call drop rate.

Macro diversity gain: When a UE maintains radio links with several cells, the
receiving side may enhance the accuracy of data receiving by combining the
signal receiving of several links, which helps to improve communication quality
as well.

The best cell where the UE is located may establish a radio connection with
UE in time. Hence, it will reduce the transmitting power of UE, and eliminate
the near-far effect and reduce power consumption of UE.

ZTE RAN equipment supports signaling process of the soft/softer handover that comply
with 3GPP protocol, macro diversity convergence (soft handover mode) in the RNCs FP
layer and the Rake convergence (softer handover mode) in the Node Bs physical layer.
ZTE RAN equipment supports the implementation of 'RL addition'
implementation of RRC message Active Set update

and the

simultaneously at the soft hander

over procedure to improve the efficiency. And this procedure will be available when the
hander over is intra-RNC and inter-NodeB handover.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
No

3.2.2

ZWF21-03-002 Intra-Frequency Hard Handover


Benefits
This feature is the supplement of soft handover. When soft handover cannot be realized
in adjacent cells of intra-frequency for some reasons, intra-frequency hard handover can
guarantee the service continuity.

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Description
Hard handover is a typical handover mechanism in which a UE has to disconnect the link
with the original cell (that is, new and original links do not co-exist in UE) before setting
up a link (synchronization) with the new cell. The scenarios of intra-frequency hard
handover are described below:

UE is using the transmitting diversity in the active set cell in the case of
intra-frequency handover, but the target cell does not support transmitting
diversity.

Intra-frequency measurement report excludes the OFF and TM of the target


cell.

The lur interface between RNCs is unavailable in the case of intra-frequency handover.

UE is using multi-user detection in the active set cell, but the target cell does
not support multi-user detection.

The types of target and original cells are different, for example, UE hands over
from a DCH-capable cell to an HSPA-capable cell.

Soft/softer handover has more advantages than hard handover. Hence, soft/softer
handover has the higher priority than the hard handover in the intra-frequency. The hard
handover will not be chosen unless the soft/softer handover doesnt work
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
No

3.2.3

ZWF21-03-003 Inter-Frequency Hard Handover


Benefits
This feature supports the handover of UE in inter-frequency cells. It is applied to maintain

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the communication continuity when moving in inter-frequency cells and properly allocate
the load in different frequency layers for the UTRAN.
Description
The inter-frequency hard handover means a UE in dedicated connecting state is handed
over from a cell on one frequency point of UTRAN to another cell on another frequency
point. The factors triggering inter-frequency hard handover include radio quality, load,
and moving speed of the UE.
ZTE RAN equipment supports the signaling procedures of the inter-frequency hard
handover that comply with 3GPP protocol. Handover may occur in inter-frequency cells
of the same Node B and also in inter-frequency cells of different Node Bs.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
No

3.2.4

ZWF21-03-004 Inter-RAT Mobility


Benefits
This feature supports inter-RAT handover of a UE in the Cell_DCH state. And it is
applied to maintain communication continuity when moving in inter-RAT cells and
properly allocate load between 3G and 2G for UTRAN.
Description
Inter-RAT handover means a UE in Cell_DCH state changes the current access mode
and continues service in another RAN because of moving or load balance (networks
here only refer to WCDMA and GSM). This function requires UE to support both
WCDMA and GSM, and moreover, the GSM also needs to offer related functions to
support the inter-RAT handover.
The inter-RAT handover, supported by ZTE RAN equipments, works as follows:

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Support inter-RAT handover of CS voice service from RAN to GSM

Support inter-RAT handover of CS voice service from GSM to RAN

Support cell change of PS data service from RAN to GSM

Support re-access of PS data service from GSM to RAN

The inter-RAT handover in connected mode accompanies the inter-RAT relocation. In


the case of the handover of concurrent CS voice and PS data service from WCDMA to
GSM, it firstly hands over the CS service to GSM, and the RNC releases the lu interface
connection in PS domain upon receiving the context request message from the CN.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
No

3.2.5

ZWF21-03-005 Cell Selection & Re-Selection


Benefits
This feature supports the change of the serving cell by a UE in Idle, Cell FACH or URA
PCH state in the case of moving among intra-frequency, inter-frequency or inter-RAT
cells.
Description
ZTE RAN equipment supports parameter configuration of the cell selection & re-selection
in the system broadcast message. These parameters affect the principle deciding when
the UE in Idle, Cell FACH or URA PCH state selects intra-frequency, inter-frequency or
inter-RAT cells. In this way, the coverage range of different cells is adjusted and system
load in cells is allocated.
For a UE in Cell_FACH state, cell selection will trigger the Cell Update process. ZTE
RAN equipments support this process to provide service for a UE in a new cell. For a UE

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in URA PCH state, if a re-selected cell belongs to a different UTRAN registration area
(URA), it will trigger the URA Update process and ZTE RAN equipments support the
process to record the URA where UE located. And RAN can page this UE if necessary.
If a UE in Cell_FACH or URA_PCH state is re-selected to an inter-RAT cell, it will access
to an inter-RAT system.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
No

3.2.6

ZWF21-03-006 Inter-RNC Handover with Iur Support


Benefits
This feature supports maintaining communication continuity in the case of a UE in
Cell_DCH state moving among inter-RNC cells.
Description
ZTE RAN equipment supports 3GPP standard Iur interface and can configure Iur
interface between different RNCs to support that a UE maintains the original connection
of the Iu interface with the CN when handing over in the coverage areas of different
RNCs. And there is no need to trigger the SRNS relocation to build new Iu connection, so
as to reduce the effects of SRNS relocation on service quality.
ZTE RAN equipment supports the soft handover and the hard handover of cross-Iur
interface. The Soft handover of cross-Iur interface is beneficial to realize the seamless
handover in the cross area of RNC coverage, and utilize macro diversity gain to provide
better communication quality. The cross-Iur interface hard handover is beneficial to
reduce sudden interruption of service caused by Iu connection changing during the
SRNS relocation. After the success of the handover, if the UE is totally in the coverage of
the DRNC and no other radio link is in the SRNC, SRNC will trigger relocation process
after the delay time related to the service is configured in background.

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Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
No.

3.2.7

ZWF21-03-008 Directed Signaling Connection Re-establishment


Benefits
This feature supports communication continuity maintaining in the case of a UE in
Cell_FACH or URA_PCH state moving among inter-RNC cells.
Description
Directed Signaling Connection Re-establishment (DSCR) means when receiving the Cell
Update or URA Update request from the UE, the DRNC/SRNC will release the UE's RRC
connection directly due to Directed Signaling Connection Re-establishment (DSCR).
According to 3GPP protocol, when receiving the message of RRC connection release
with the reason of Directed Signaling Connection Re-establishment, UE will redo the
connection setup with SGSN immediately while going back to Idle status to recover data
service rapidly.
In the case of a UE moving among different RNCs, for the Cell_FACH or the URA_PCH
state, 3GPP protocol defines DSCR, SRNS relocation and inter-Iur interface, and among
them, the process of DSCR is the simplest and it doesnt affect user experience. When
different vendors configure Iur interface, DSCR is beneficial to avoid interconnection
problems.
ZTE RAN equipment also supports that the DSCR procedure initiated by UE in
Cell_DCH state and with ongoing service to support the interoperation with the
RNC which cannot support SRNS relocation procedure.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before

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Enhancement
No.

3.2.8

ZWF21-03-009 Coverage Based Handover


Benefits
This feature supports utilizing the measurement report to judge the quality of radio link
and thus to perform the handover to guarantee the service quality of the user in the case
of changing network coverage condition.
Description
When a UE moves or the coverage condition changes, it is necessary to pay more
attention to the triggering time of the handover. And too early or too late handover will
cause the call drop and even service interruption. ZTE RAN equipment supports
controlling the UE to perform the intra-frequency, the inter-frequency and the inter-RAT
measurement. 3GPP protocol defines and judges the radio link quality of the UE
according to the measurement result of the UE periodical or event triggered report to
trigger various handovers which are as follows:

ZWF21-03-001 Soft/Softer Handover


According to the adjacent cell list of intra-frequency configured in background,
the RNC initiates intra-frequency measurement control for the UE and decides
whether to set up connection in new cells with high radio quality or deletes
connection in cells with low radio quality according to the intra-frequency
measurement result reported by the UE.
The RNC also can control the UE so that UE can actively detect and report the
radio quality of intra-frequency cells besides intra-frequency cells configured
by the RNC, and initiates the handover when handover conditions are
satisfied.

ZWF21-03-002 Intra-Frequency Hard Handover


When soft and softer handover cannot be initiated, the RNC can initiate an

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UTRAN UR11.1 Basic Feature Description

intra-frequency hard handover according to the intra-frequency measurement


result reported by the UE.

ZWF21-03-003 Inter-Frequency Hard Handover


According to the adjacent cell list of inter-frequency configured in background,
the RNC initiates the inter-frequency measurement control for the UE and
decides whether to handover the UE to cells with high radio quality according
to the inter-frequency measurement result reported by the UE.

ZWF21-03-004 Inter-RAT Handover


According to the adjacent cell list of inter-RAT configured in background, the
RNC initiates the inter-RAT measurement control for the UE and decides
whether to handover the UE to other system with high radio quality according
to the measurement result reported by the UE.

ZTE RAN equipment supports configuring different handover parameters for CS and PS
service. Inter-system and inter-frequency handover based on coverage is allowed to be
disabled separately for traffic such as AMR service, R99 RT service, R99 NRT service,
service over HSDPA, and service over HSUPA.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
U9.3 introduces RNC level switch of different traffic to turn on/off inter-system and
inter-frequency handover based on coverage.

3.2.9

ZWF21-03-010 Compressed Mode


Benefits
This feature supports that non-double-receiver WCDMA terminals can initiate the
inter-frequency or the inter-RAT measurement in the process of service, hence triggering
inter-frequency or inter-RAT handover is supported.

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Description
For non-double-receiver WCDMA terminals, it is impossible to receive radio signals of
different frequencies at the same time. So it is necessary for the inter-frequency and the
inter-RAT measurement to adopt compressed mode. In the process of sending and
receiving, part of timeslots are used not for the data transmission but for the quality
measurement of other UMTS or GSM frequency signals.
Two types of compressed mode policies supported by ZTE RAN equipment are as
follows:

Halving of Spreading Factor


By halving the SF, the air interface bandwidth can be increased so that some
timeslots

in

one

radio

frame

can

be

specially

assigned

for

the

inter-frequency/inter-RAT measurement and others for the data transmission.


This transmission strategy is generally used in services which raise high
requirements for the delay and the guarantee of the minimum data rate.

Higher Layer Scheduling


The higher layer adjusts and controls the data transmission rate. Some
timeslots

in

radio

frame

can

be

specially

assigned

for

the

inter-frequency/inter-RAT measurement and others for the data transmission


while the air interface bandwidth remains unchanged. This strategy is
generally used for non-realtime services with low requirements for delay, for
example, I/B-type PS data services.
The above rules only apply to DCH/DCH. For HS-DSCH and E-DCH, only the higher
layer schedule is supported, as specified in the protocol.
When the RRM handover algorithm decides that it is necessary to initiate the
inter-frequency or the inter-RAT measurement, ZTE RAN equipment will decide whether
to initiate compressed mode according to the UE ability and configure different
parameters of the compressed mode according to the inter-frequency or the inter-RAT
measurement.
Because some UEs do not support the compress mode activation in case of HSUPA

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services exist, then ZTE RNC can automatically detect UEs which do not support
compressed mode combining with HSUPA. If RNC received failed response for
measurement control which is supposed to activate compressed mode of UEs using
HSUPA channels, As a result, RNC will initiate a reconfiguration to DCH and activate
compressed mode in DCH. Besides, RNC will store the information about the UE
capability and not activate compressed mode in HSUPA at a later time.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
In UR11.1, RNC is capable of automatically detecting UEs which do not support
compressed mode combining with HSUPA service.

3.2.10

ZWF21-03-011 Neighboring Cells Priorities


Benefits
This feature can support configuring different priorities for different cells in adjacent cell
list according to the network coverage condition or operators requirements. It makes a
UE hand over to an adjacent cell of high priority at a higher success rate to improve the
handover performance of the system.
Description
ZTE RAN equipment offers two types of cell priority policies.
Firstly, adjacent cells can be configured based on UE state. So the adjacent cell list used
for reselection in the non-dedicated state and that used for handover in the dedicated
state can be separately configured. A UE in the non-dedicated state only receives the
adjacent cell information of one cell, while a UE in the dedicated state receives the union
of adjacent cell list of multiple cells in macro diversity. But a UE can only receive a
maximum of 32 intra-frequency adjacent cells, 32 inter-frequency adjacent cells and 32
inter-RAT adjacent cells respectively.
Secondly, adjacent cells are set with different priorities in the RNC to facilitate the RNC

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to adjust the adjacent cell list when the number of adjacent cells in active set exceeds 32.
The priority of each cell in the adjacent cell list is determined on the basis of network
planning and optimization. The priority helps the RNC to select better monitored set for
UE to facilitate the improvement of measurement and the handover performance of the
UE.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
No

3.2.11

ZWF21-03-020 SRNS Relocation


Benefits
This feature supports that a UE in the Cell_DCH state transfers service to a new RNC
when moving among adjacent RNC cells:

An RNC without Iur interface: maintain continuous service through SRNS


relocation

An RNC with Iur interface: after the handover of inter-Iur interface, timely
trigger the SRNS relocation to reduce the transmission resource consumption
at the Iur interface

Description
The SRNS relocation transfers the Iu connection for a UE from one RNC to another. ZTE
RAN equipment supports the SRNS relocation with UE involved or not involved:

SRNS Relocation with UE involved


In the process of the SRNS relocation, the handover in air interface is a hard
handover and the target RNC at the same time needs to set up a new radio
link. This relocation does not need Iur interface.

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SRNS Relocation with UE not involved


There must be Iur interface in RNCs. Firstly a UE is handed over to DRNC
through the Iur interface, and builds a new radio link in the DRNC. SRNC,
DRNC and CN exchange information and achieve the Iu connection migration
with UE not involved. Therefore the connection continuity of the air interface is
maintained so as to reduce the service interruption during the handover and
make the user experience better.

According to the service types established by the UE, the SRNC relocation can occur in
the CS domain, the PS domain or in both domains. Relocation with UE involved
generally accompanies hard handover, and the triggering condition is controlled by the
RRM handover algorithm. A deferred relocation with UE not involved occurs under the
condition that the inter-Iur handover is completed and there's no radio connection
between the SRNC and the UE. ZTE RAN equipment supports configuring different time
delay for the CS and PS service:

For CS services, the delay can be configured longer in order to reduce the
sudden call interruption caused by the Iu connection migration during the
SRNS relocation, which provides better service quality.

For PS services, the delay can be configured shorter to initiate the relocation
as soon as possible, avoiding the Iur bandwidth consumption.

For the relocation of the PS domain, ZTE RAN equipment supports two types of
relocation to provide better service quality, which are as follows:

Lossless Relocation
When relocation is initiated, the SRNC will terminate sending data to a UE and
buffer the unsent data. After relocation, cached data will be transferred
through reverse process of the SRNC context to the target RNC and then sent
to the UE. Lossless relocation can ensure the data in PS domain will not be
lost during the relocation, but transient service interruption could occur during
the relocation. So it is suitable for I/B data service, which requires high
reliability and low time delay.

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Seamless Relocation

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SRNC keeps sending and receiving data with the UE before the role of SRNC
changes to reduce the data interruption time during the relocation. The data
loss and repetition could occur during the relocation, but the demand for the
QoS could be better satisfied when the handover of PS real-time service
occurs.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
No.

3.2.12

ZWF21-03-100 Cell reselection with LTE


Benefits
This feature supports the selection/reselection of a UE between UMTS and LTE cells.
And it enables UE to choose proper Radio Access System according to network quality.
Description
As the LTE is developing, some trial networks are deployed. LTE can provide high speed
data service, so LTE should be deployed in hot spots in an initial stage, and the
large-scale wide-coverage voice service and other data service should still be provided
by 2/3G network. As a result, there may be a scenario that UMTS and LTE co-exist or
cover the same area, and in this case, network system and UE should support free
selection/reselection between two networks according to network quality.
This function is mainly realized in UE side. The realization of network is as follows: SIB 6
should be supported in LTE network to configure information about related UMTS
neighbouring cell, frequency, quality measurement threshold and etc. SIB19 should be
supported in UMTS network to configure information about LTE neighbouring cell,
frequency, priority, quality measurement threshold and etc. The networks broadcast this
information, and while UE receives them, UE could initiate cell reselection according to
the information and quality measurement result.

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Introduced Version
U9.3
Enhancement
No.

3.3

Radio Resource Management

3.3.1

ZWF21-04-001 Admission Control


Benefits
This feature implements radio access control for incoming requests. Admission control
avoids overload of the air interface and prevents the radio resources from depletion.
Admission control allocates system resources respectively to users and services without
degrading the system stability.
Description
When a service requests new cell resources, the admission control algorithm decides
whether to accept the new service request according to the available resources. The
purpose of this algorithm is to avoid overload after the admission of the new service,
maintain system stability, fully utilize the system resources, and ensure the QoS of the
users. The scenarios where the service requires new system resources include RRC
connection, RAB setup, RAB modification, SRNC relocation, lur handover, intra-RNC
handover, and dynamic channel allocation.
When the service requires new system resources, the RNC needs to consider the
resources utilized as follows:

54

Uplink interference

Downlink power

Downlink channelization code resource

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CE resource in base band board

Number of subscribers

The RNC also needs to evaluate the system resources in advance. This can avoid the
occurrence of insufficient resources when the service is connected to the system or the
occurrence of the system overload after the service is connected to the system.
During the judgment of uplink interference and downlink power, admission control
measures uplink capacity and downlink capacity respectively by RTWP and the TCP.
The RNC requests the Node B to report real-time RTWP and TCP periodically.
ZTE RAN system differentiates users and services of different priorities (Please refer to
the feature ZWF21-05-003 Differentiated Service), enabling high-priority users and
services to occupy more system resources and access to services of higher QoS level.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
No.

3.3.2

ZWF21-04-002 Overload Control


Benefits
This feature stabilizes the overloaded system by activating load downgrade process.
System resources will be reallocated to users and services according to their priorities.
Description
The load control is to control the load on individual cell, aiming at stabilizing the system in
the case of overload by recovering normal load as soon as possible through appropriate
measures.
There are two types of overload: serious overload and common overload. Serious
overload means that the overload approaches the limit of the system capacity. At the

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moment, the system must adjust the overload to a normal level. Therefore, the system
can forcedly drop calls to reduce the overload of a cell until the overload decreases to a
value below the threshold of the common overload. The system may take the following
measures to reduce the system overload to a normal level:
Decrease the service rate of R99 users;

Forcedly delete the UE soft handover radio link in the overloaded cell (the link
is for downlink connection and is not the best cell).

Forcedly hand over subscribers to an inter-frequency cell or an inter-RAT cell


(the target cell has the same coverage as the overloaded cell or contains the
overloaded cell)

Forcedly transfer

the interactive

or

background subscribers

to the

CELL_FACH status

Forcedly drop calls

Forced deletion of a radio link in an active set, handover to an inter-frequency or


handover to an inter-system sector also triggers the soft handover, the inter-frequency
hard handover or the inter-system handover respectively. Theyre also called load-based
handover. This kind of handover is not triggered by the UE measurement report to
prevent the system load downgrade from being slowed down. Inter-frequency and
inter-system measurement will trigger the compressed mode and increase the load of
the system as well.
ZTE RAN system differentiates users and services of different priorities (Please refer to
the feature ZWF21-05-003 Differentiated Service). Load of low-priority users and
services will be degraded first; therefore high-priority users and services may occupy
more system resources and access to services of higher QoS level.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
No

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3.3.3

ZWF21-04-004 Dynamic Radio Bearer Control


Benefits
The dynamic radio bearer control (DRBC) is to allocate resources properly during the
system operation according to subscriber requirements, UE type and available system
resources. Therefore the bandwidth is fully made use of.
Description
DRBC dynamically adjusts the bearer channel and real-time rate of PS services. It
ensures full utilization of radio resources, system stability, and service QoS.
During channel setup, the DRBC allocates radio channel and initial rate to the
service according to service requirements and system status.

DCH can be used by Signaling, CS Service, and PS Conversation Service.


The DCH channel parameters are set according to Maximum Bit Rate (MBR)
in Qos parameters from core network.

During a PS Streaming Service establishment stage, the Guarantee Bit Rate


(GBR) in Qos parameters, the settings of DCH initial rate per RNC and allowed
DCH maximum bit rate in a cell, together to determine the DCH

channel

parameters.

PS Interactive Service and PS Background Service may use FACH/RACH or


DCH.

For DCH, the channel parameters are set according to the settings of

DCH initial rate per RNC and allowed DCH maximum bit rate in a cell.
DCH rate can be dynamically adjusted to efficiently utilize system resource such as
channelization code, Iub interface traffic, Node B baseband capacity and air
interface load. DCH downlink bit rate and uplink rate can be individually adjusted in
the range of Guaranteed Bit Rate (GBR) to Maximum Bit Rate (MBR).

DCH rate configuration should be consistent with actual traffic rate. When
actual traffic drops, DCH rate should be decreased accordingly. Released
resource can be used by other users. DCH rate can be restored when actual
traffic gets high so as to avoid service downgrade. The traffic is evaluated in

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uplink and downlink separately. That is, uplink traffic decides uplink DCH
bandwidth while downlink bandwidth depends on downlink traffic. In reality, it
is common that the DCH bandwidth should be adjusted simultaneously in
uplink and downlink. In this case, ZTE RAN adjusts the DCH bandwidth in
uplink and downlink via a single signaling procedure so that the signaling
message on Uu is reduced.

DCH rate downgrade is an alternative method to offload the system when


overload or congestion occurs.
If the transmission power exceeds the preset high threshold, the network and
UE will decrease the data rate till the transmission power is lower than the
preset low threshold. By this method, PS service subscribers obtain relatively
high data rate when Node B is close, and obtain lower data rate when the
Node B is remote. Thus, the coverage of PS services is expanded. The call
drop rate of high-rate services during handovers is also decreased.

When UE performs a hard handover from one R99 cell to another due to
mobility, if the subscriber downlink admission at the current rate fails in the
target cell, the system will downgrade its DCH rate before retrying handover.

ZTE RAN supports different DRBC strategy based on the UE type.

ZTE RAN can recognize the UE type by Device type (3GPP R6) IE in UE
radio access capability in order to optimize DRBC Strategy. To those UEs
which are not sensitive to battery power consumption, transition to dormant
state could be stricter to improve experience of PS service by avoiding
frequent data interruption during transport channel switching procedure.

The system supports three RRC states: Cell FACH, URA PCH and Cell DCH. Each
state can transit to another as following:

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Figure 3-2

RRC of UE State Transition

Connected Mode
CELL_DCH

DL DCH/ UL DCH -> DL DCH/UL DCH


UL/DL Decrease or Increase Rate

DL HS-DSCH/ UL DCH <-> DL DCH/UL DCH


DL HS-DSCH/ UL E-DCH <-> DL DCH/ UL
DCH

Idle Mode
DL FACH/ UL RACH
DL HS-DSCH / UL E-DCH

CELL_FACH

PCH

URA_PCH

If the practical rate of PS Interactive Service or PS Background Service below


the threshold or if overload occurs in the cell, RAB can switch to FACH/RACH
from DCH and UE then enters the CELL FACH state.

If the practical rate exceeds the threshold of FACH/RACH, RAB will switch to
DCH and UE then enter the CELL DCH state.

If the practical rate is zero, radio resource can be released temporarily. UE of


Cell FACH state or Cell DCH state can be switched to URA PCH state to save
UEs battery power. If its configured not to use PCH state, RRC can be
released immediately.

If a UE of URA PCH state requests to transmit uplink or downlink data, UE will


be transited to CELL DCH state via cell update procedure.

If a UE has resided in URA PCH state for period, the RRC will be released.

ZTE RAN system supports DRBC feature combined with other RRM policy including
Admission Control, Overload Control and Congestion Control. Priorities of users and
services are considered to implement dynamic optimization configuration of radio
bandwidth.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before

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Enhancement
In release U9.2, dynamical adjustment of DCH bandwidth is optimized as adjustment in
uplink and downlink via a single signaling procedure.
UR11.1 supports different DRBC strategy based on the UE type.

3.3.4

ZWF21-04-006 Code Resource Allocation


Benefits
This feature allocates scrambling codes (SC) and channelization codes (CC) to
uplink/downlink physical channel so as to ensure the orthogonality between channels.
Especially, an optimal dynamic allocation of downlink CC resource effectively improves
system capacity.
Description
As a spread spectrum communication system based on CDMA technique, Wideband
Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) differentiates user equipments (UEs) by using
scrambling codes (SC) in the uplink direction, and spreads the spectrum by using the
channelization codes (CC) of the Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor (OVSF). In the
downlink direction, WCDMA differentiates cells by using the primary scrambling codes
(PSC), and spreads the spectrum by using CCs of the OVSF. Downlink CC is also used
to differentiate downlink channels in a cell. Figure 3-3 shows the spreading and
scrambling process of WCDMA.

Figure 3-3

Spreading and Scrambling


Channelisation
Code

Scrambling
Code

Spreading

Scrambling

Data

ZTE RAN system supports code resource management as followed:

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Downlink SC
Downlink SC is used to differentiate signals from different cells. There are total
512 primary scrambling codes (PSC). Downlink PSCs of adjacent cells must
be different and set as static during network planning.

Uplink SC
Uplink SC is used to differentiate signals from different UEs. SC of PRACH is
generated according to PSC of the cell. SC of DPCCH and DPDCH can be
selected from 2

24

long SCs and 2

24

short SCs to ensure each SC of UEs is

different.

Downlink CC
Downlink CC is used to diifferentiate downlink channels of a cell. Each
downlink channel of a cell uses different CC from one OVSF tree as shown in
Figure 3. Different spread factors (SF) support different rates. Smaller SF
means higher rate. The codes of the same SF in the OVSF code tree are
mutually orthogonal, the codes with different SFs in different code tree
branches are also mutually orthogonal, and the codes with different SFs in the
same code tree branches are not mutually orthogonal. Downlink channels are
required to be mutually orthogonal. Once a code is assigned, the lower-layer
low-rate code nodes and upper-layer high-speed code nodes in the
corresponding code tree can no longer be assigned, that is, they are blocked.

Figure 3-4

OVSF Code Tree

c4,1 = (1,1,1,1)
c2,1 = (1,1)
c4,2 = (1,1,-1,-1)
c1,1 = (1)
c4,3 = (1,-1,1,-1)
c2,2 = (1,-1)
c4,4 = (1,-1,-1,1)
SF = 1

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SF = 2

SF = 4

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Due to these features, the downlink CCs become limited resources. Improper
allocation of CCs reduces system capacity. ZTE RAN system with DRBC
feature can dynamically adjust SF allocated to UE according to realtime traffic.
It prevents code resource from being occupied excessively by UE. During CC
allocation, the system minimizes the block rate and maximizes the utilization of
code tree.

Uplink CC
Uplink CC is to differentiate uplink channels of a UE. Each UE can use all CCs
of a code tree in its uplink channels. ZTE RAN system with DRBC feature, can
dynamically adjust the shortest SF available to a UE, preventing CE resources
of Node B from depletion.

Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
No

3.3.5

ZWF21-04-008 Downlink Power Balancing


Benefits
This feature eliminates downlink power drifting during soft handover, and improves
macro diversity quality and gain of soft handover.
Description
In the macro diversity status of a soft handover, a UE can communicate with all cells in
the active set. In this situation, UE sends the same TPC command to the cells in the
active set. While each link is available with a different transmission path, error codes will
be produced in the TPC command and some Node Bs will receive wrong TPC command.
As a result, some Node Bs increase their transmitting power and some Node Bs
decrease, hence the power drifts. If the receiving power from various links differs a lot,
receiving combination of UE becomes worse and gain of soft handover decreases.

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ZTE RAN system applies Downlink Power Balance to eliminate power drifting. RNC
allocates a power benchmark of reference or common reference for each radio link in the
active set. Node B calculates the power of each link adjusted as a result of power
balancing and adds the value into the power value used for downlink inner loop power
control. In this way, the power drifting is solved on the radio link.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
No

3.3.6

ZWF21-04-009 Power Control


Benefits
Power Control reduces WCDMA multiple access interference, eliminates near-far effect,
overcomes fast fading distortion of radio link and helps to save battery consumption of
UE.
Description
Power control comprises uplink power control and downlink power control. Uplink power
control is used to eliminate near-far effect to ensure system capacity and user QoS.
Downlink power control is used to improve system capacity on condition that the user
QoS is guaranteed. ZTE RAN system supports power control on both downlink and
uplink connections.

Open Loop Power Control


Open loop power control sets the initial transmit power of the physical channel.

Outer Loop Power Control


Outer loop power control (OLPC) is used to maintain the quality of
communication at the level of bearer service quality requirement, while using
power as low as possible. For uplink outer loop power control, RNC estimates

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the uplink quality; when the receiving quality is poor, SIRtarget is adjusted
upward;

when the receiving quality is better,

SIR target

is adjusted

downward.The downlink outer loop power control is realized by UE. The


quality of downlink data receiving is converged in the downlink BLER target set
by the network (RNC) in downlink.
ZTE RAN performs uplink outer loop power control based on both BLER and
BER. When only BLER is considered, after channel condition gets better
suddenly, a long time is taken for adjusting SIRtarget to a proper value.
Moreover, at the start of each transmission, SIRtarget is usually set to a high
value in order to ensure a secure communication. So it also takes long to
make SIRtarget approach to an idle value at the initial convergence. Long
SIRtarget convergence duration brings more uplink interference which
decreases the cell capacity. In order to make BER evaluate and react to radio
condition more quickly and accurately, BER and BLER are both taken into
account in uplink outer loop power control. Additionally, the step of
downgrading SIRtarget is adaptable, which contributes to speeding up SIR target
convergence when the radio condition gets better suddenly.
Another problem in uplink outer loop power control is windup. Sometimes the
channel conditions suddenly become worse, which results in that the NodeB
does not receive the power control bits sent by UE, or because the transmitter
has reached the maximum power, the received SIR may always be lower than
the SIRtarget. Usually, OLPC dedicates to increasing SIR target. It leads to a
result that SIR is unable to follow SIRtarget. Such case is named OLPC windup.
When windup occurs, if the radio conditions get improved or the power
limitation disappears, the received SIR will finally reach the SIR target, which will
then have a higher value than the required service quality. It increases the
uplink interference and reduces cell capacity. To avoid windup, ZTE RAN
traces the deviation between the received SIR and SIR target. If the deviation
arrives at an abnormal state, SIRtarget upgradation is stopped. It takes a short
time for adjusting SIRtarget to a proper value when radio condition gets better.
And uplink interference is reduced.
ZTE RAN supports the adaptive OLPC optimization based on the cell load for
R99 voice service in order to improve service experience. When the UL cell

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load is low, ZTE RAN decreases the R99 voice services BLER to improve the
voice quality. It increases the SIRtarget and makes cell load rise. When the UL
cell load is high, RAN increases the R99 voice services BLER to the normal
value. It reduces the SIRtarget and makes the cell load down. The DL OLPC is
controlled by UE. Hence, ZTE RAN will adaptively adjust the voice DL BLER
by the same rule and send it to UE.

Inner Loop Power Control


Inner loop power control is usually applied to the dedicated physical channel. It
increases SIR or makes the signaling-receiving power reach a target value so
that the problem of channel fading is solved. The principle of uplink inner loop
power control is: Node B compares the received uplink SIR with the target SIR
(SIRtarget) and then sends the power control command to UE to adjust the
transmission power, so that the SIR value changes quickly to approach the
target SIR value. If the measured SIR is lower (higher) than the target SIR,
Node B uses the power control command to notify UE to increase (decrease)
its transmission power. The downlink power control is the same as uplink
power control, except that the power control command is sent by UE and
executed in Node B. Inner loop power control has a higher precision than open
loop power control and is the most fundamental power control.

Both outer loop power control and inner loop power control are closed loop power
control.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
U9.3 introduces anti-windup and uplink outer loop power controlling based both on BLER
and BER. Moreover, dynamic adjusting BLER target of CS voice call sue to cell load is
also introduced in U9.3.

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3.3.7

ZWF21-04-010 Congestion Control


Benefits
Congestion control is intended to reallocate radio resources in the case of system
congestion and to relieve the congestion by a series of control measures according to
service types and priorities. It improves the success rate of access and enables proper
utilization of system resources.
Description
Congestion occurs when uplink or downlink load reaches or exceeds the admission
threshold and new service requests cannot access to the system due to insufficient
resources. In this case, congestion control is activated. During congestion, the system
should not directly reject the service requests, but decrease system load according to the
requirement of service delay and priority to release some resources and improve the
success rate of access. So the capacity of system is making the utmost utilization.
In the event of system congestion, resource preemption can be triggered to reflect
superiority of subscribers with higher priorities and improve access success rate. Its
main policies consist of two aspects as follows:

Forced release: The services capable of preemption with higher priorities are
allowed to release those services with lower priorities forcedly.

Rate decrease: This policy is used to improve success rate of access by


decreasing the rate of data services for online subscribers.

In the event of system congestion, ZTE RAN system will push service request to
congestion queue if possible. After load is decreased, the system schedules services in
the congestion queue according to its priority, ensuring high-priority users and service is
prior to occupy system resources.
ZTE RAN system with Congestion Control can trigger Congestion Control of target cell if
handover fails, improving success rate of handover operation.
ZTE RAN system supports Congestion Control process on Iur interface. SRNC is able to
process congestion control message, which is defined in 3GPP RNSAP, from DRNC.

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Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
No

3.3.8

ZWF21-04-011 Load Balancing


Benefits
Load balancing enables WCDMA system to deploy traffic to multiple carriers or GSM
system, making best use of radio resources and improving the quality of network.
Description
This feature includes load balance among multiple carriers belonging to WCDMA band
and inter-system load balance. Traffics can be distributed among multiple carriers or
WCDMA and GSM systems. They should cover the same area.
Load balance among multiple carriers is to select an optimal cell for carrying a call. The
cell, with lightest load among different cells which cover the same area, is selected to
establish the call. This process occurs in the following stages:

RRC connection establishment

RAB assignment

Handover

Relocation from other systems or other RNCs

Call re-establishment triggered by CELL UPDATE

State transition from non-CELL_DCH to CELL_DCH

If the carriers belong to different frequency bands defined by 3GPP, UEs capability for
the band should be considered during load balancing.

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Resource limitation may vary: some are restricted by downlink power and some by
channelization code. The cell load is evaluated based on the following factors:

Uplink interference (RTWP)

Downlink power (TCP)

Downlink channelization code

The criterion of load balance can be different from R99 CS, R99 PS, service over
HSDPA and service over HSUPA. It means, for each factor, different thresholds of load
balance are allowed.
The inter-system load balance is that if the cell UE camping now is overloaded during
RAB assignment stage, the UEs call can be relocated to GSM system.
When multi-carrier are co-located to each other, UE is requested to handover to another
carrier in blind handover, which means no inter-frequency measurement with
compressed mode is required to UE.
However there are some scenarios that coverage of multi-carriers are not same. For
example, the multi spectrum bands are not co-site, or the RF attribute is different even
multi spectrum band is co-site. In these cases, RAN allows UE performing
inter-frequency measurement to choose a good quality cell for load balancing. This is to
improve the successfulness of load balancing. So during call setup stage, if the cell UE
camping is in high load and the load of its inter-frequency neighbor cell is light, after the
call is established in current cell, RAN requests UE to perform inter-frequency
measurement with compressed mode. When a neighboring cell satisfies inter-frequency
handover trigger, the UE is indicated to handover to this neighboring cell.
Without decreasing service quality, load balance moves traffic from heavy load cell to
light load cell. In this way, load is balanced among cells. Network capacity is increased
and block probability for a call is decreased.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement

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U9.2 introduces enhancement of differentiation criterion of load balance according to


service type. And new RNC level switch is provided to turn on/off inter-system and
inter-frequency load balance.
U9.3 introduces load sharing based on inter-frequency measurement.

3.3.9

ZWF21-04-012 Noise Automatic Measurement


Benefits
This feature measures background noise used in uplink load evaluation for RRM
features including Admission Control, Overload Control, etc. Compared with static
configuration of background noise, the dynamic measurement method tracks the change
of background noise and evaluates uplink load more accurately.
Description
Background noise represents the total noise power of an idle cell. When users establish
air link in the cell, the increment of receiving power can be regarded as a way to measure
the uplink load. ZTE RAN system automatically measures RTWP as its background
noise when a cell is free from traffic. If the environment changes, Automatic
Measurement of Noise floor is able to track the background noise changes of the cell,
providing a more accurate measurement of unlink load during RRM operation such as
Admission Control, Overload Control, etc.
ZTE RAN system regards a cell as an idle cell as long as the following conditions are
satisfied:

The evaluated cell is almost idle: the load factor is below the threshold of idle
cell.

The adjacent cells are considered as light load: the load factors of adjacent
cells are below the threshold of light-load cell.

In order to avoid unexpected interference, ZTE RAN system performs filtering for the
received RTWP.
Introduced Version

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U9.1&Before
Enhancement
No

3.3.10

ZWF21-04-022 Frequency Priority


Benefits
This feature diverts the HSPA service or non-HSPA service, or PS service and CS
service to cells of different frequencies so that the operator with multiple carrier
frequencies can optimize the network and plan the capacity flexibly.
Description
The ZTE RAN defines whether a cell supports the HSDPA or HSUPA service and
whether a cell gives priority to voice service, data service, or all services (for example,
the cell using the UMTS900 serves all services).
The ZTE RAN supports best serving cell selection during RRC connection setup, RAB
assignment, cell handover, cell re-selection, and channel migration. In other words, the
RNC selects the target cell according to the service category and capabilities of the UE
during the service admission and handover. When the UE with the HSDPA capability
initiates the RRC connection setup or the RAB assignment for the PS data service, the
RAN assigns the wireless resources to the cells that are in multiple carriers and support
HSDPA and PS service.
The frequency priority policy comprehensively considers the current load of each cell and
avoids congestion resulted by the heavy traffic in a cell.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
No

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3.4

QoS Guarantee

3.4.1

ZWF21-05-001 Emergency Call


Benefits
This feature supports the identification for emergency call, and supplies the highest
priority service in order to guarantee the QoS of emergency call.
Description
In general, emergency call is identified by UE. When user is calling emergency number,
UE identifies the calling reason as Emergency Call in the process of setting up RRC
connection or initializing UE information.
When user who is in the roaming state calls local emergency service number, it is
possible that UE can not identify the number so that it cant be labeled as Emergency
Call. In this situation, CN needs to actively monitor the called number. And it is also
available to configure a specific priority level for RAB in the process of service
establishment. The ZTE RAN supports the configuration for priority mapping, so the
specific priority can be mapped on the highest priority level to acquire the QoS of
emergency call service.
The ZTE RAN supplies the highest priority level to emergency call in order to guarantee
the service can be allocated with enough resource to access, congestion, and
overloaded scenarios.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
No

3.4.2

ZWF21-05-002 RAB QoS Parameters Mapping


Benefits

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This feature is used to convert QoS parameters in NAS layer to radio parameters which
can be disposed within UTRAN, and keep the balance among coverage range, system
capacity, and QoS by proper RRM algorithm.
Description
Illustrated in Figure 3-6 (refer to 3GPP TS23.107), WCDMA system clearly defines
end-to-end QoS architecture and many QoS parameters so that the technical
advantages of WCDMA system are displayed, and users satisfaction is improved. QoS
parameters defined in NAS layer are transmitted from CN to RNC by RANAP, then RNC
converts these parameters to the configuration of radio resource, so QoS is guaranteed
in AS layer.

Figure 3-5

Definition of 3GPP QoS Architecture

UMTS
TE

MT

RAN

CN
Gateway

CN
EDGE
NODE

TE

End-to-End Service

TE/MT Local
Bearer Service

External Bearer
Service

UMTS Bearer Service

Radio Access Bearer Service

Radio Bearer
Service

Physical Radio
Bearer Service

RAN Access
Bearer Service

CN Bearer
Service

Backbone
Bearer Service

Physical
Bearer Service

ZTE RAN employs sub-service architecture to organize some QoS configuration


parameters satisfying some certain service level. Resorting to QoS mapping mechanism,
different RAB parameters map services to different sub-services, and these parameters
are assigned by CN. Configuration parameters based on sub-service dynamically or
statically generate radio parameters which are configured to RNC internal module, Node
B and UE. Sub-service parameters can be modified at the background to meet operators
different QoS definitions. As a DRNC, ZTE RAN also supports sub-services matching by

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establishing request information through Iur interface radio link to guarantee QoS.
The ZTE RAN can keep the balance among coverage range, system capacity, and QoS
by RRM algorithm. For example, when a new subscriber wants to access network,
admission control mechanism is employed to guarantee that system resource can meet
users QoS requirement while service requirements from other subscribers cant be
influenced seriously. Handover control is applied to ensure stable QoS quality as UE is
moving. Once system resource is inadequate, congestion control can be used to
properly reduce QoS level to ensure the network stability. If system resource is abundant,
QoS level also can be increased to improve the user experience by DRBC algorithm or
AMR dynamic modification algorithm.
Normally, CN provides the maximum bit rate (MBR) in QoS parameter to RNC, to limit
the service bit rate. When HSPA/HSPA+ is introduced, large value of MBR is required. It
may be required to upgrade CN in case of the version of CN is old. In order to deploy
HSPA/HSPA+ without upgrading CN for larger MBR, ZTE RAN supports MBR controlling
by RNC. It means a parameter in OMCR is provided for operator to choose MBR mode.
There four MBR modes:

Max bit rate in QoS parameter from CN. It is named as CnMBR.

A bit rate is configured by operator in OMCR. It is named as RANCtrlMBR.

The larger one between CnMBR and RANCtrlMBR.

The little one between CnMBR and RANCtrlMBR.

MBR mode selection and the value of RANCtrlMBR are configured for uplink direction
and downlink direction separately per cell. Actually, the maximum bit rate of a service
provided by 3G RAN, is decided by MBR selected among four MBR modes, UE
capability such HSDPA/HSUAP capability, and the capability of cell such as whether the
cell supports HSDPA 64QAM. Because of the maximum of MBR in 3GPP before R7 is
16Mbps,

as a result, it brings another problem due to the bit rate increasing caused by

introduction of HSPA+: for those Pre-R7 UES in HSPA+ network, if their subscribed
services MBR/GBR is over 16Mbps, then these services will not be successfully
established because their MBR/GBR are beyond ASN.1 processing range of these
specified UEs. To deal with this case, ZTE RAN will consider the bit rate R6-ASN.1 top

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limit in 3GPP when it performs RAB Qos negotiation with CN to select service MBR/GBR
for Pre-R7 UEs, even though their subscribed MBR/GBR are over 16Mbps,

as a result,

the selected MBR/GBR after RAB negotiation will not exceed 16Mbps in case of RAB
SETUP/Relocation procedure, therefore the RAB setup failures caused by this factor can
be avoided.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
MBR controlling by RNC is introduced in U9.3.

3.4.3

ZWF21-05-003 Differentiated Service


Benefits
This feature supports differentiated allocation of radio resource according to different
services and user priorities, and supplies differentiated services for users of different
levels. As the high-level subscribers are provided with preferential services, their loyalty
will be enhanced.
Description
In the processing of setting up RAB assignment information, CN configures Traffic Class
(TC), Allocation/Retention Priority (ARP) and Traffic Handling Priority (THP, fitting for
interactive class service) parameters according to users signing information, and these
parameters reflect the priority of services and users. ZTE RAN supports the flexible
mapping relation from RAN assignment parameters to UTRAN priority levels. Take the
channel types and real time rate of bearing services into consideration, the ZTE RAN
allocates radio resource properly and supplies differentiated services. The QoS mapping
scheme is illustrated in Figure 3-6.

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Figure 3-6

QoS Mapping Scheme

Traffic Class
Traffic Handling
priority(THP)
(Service Type)

MAC logical channel priority


SRB > C > S > I > B

Allocation/Retention
Priority(ARP)
(User Type)

Iub/Iur
Allocation/Retention Priority

Iub/Iur
Frame Handling Priority
Scheduling Priority Indicator
Common Transport Channel Priority Indicator

Basic Priority

DCH/HSPA/MBMS
(Bearer Type)

Scheduling Priority

Data Rate

Application Priortiy

Differentiating the user level guarantees the high-priority user can acquire better QoS
than low-priority user. Differentiating the service level guarantees the high realtime
service which has a higher priority can be processed. ZTE RAN supports the following
priority types:

Logical channel priority


Logical channel priority is regarded as the judgment factor for scheduling
different logical channels when RNC and UE are processing users data.

Basic priority
Basic priority, which is applied in admission control, is used for configuring SP
(scheduling priority) and AP (application priority); the higher the priority level,
the higher the access threshold.

Scheduling priority
The scheduling priority, which is obtained based on the mapping from basic
priority and bearer type, indicates the system resource acquiring capability of
connected services and users. When system is in congestion and resource
pre-emption occurs, scheduling priority is used to select users who are to be
pre-empted or in the queue. These selected users will be applied in next

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scheduling process to guarantee the high-priority users and services can


acquire more network resources and better service.

Service priority
Service priority, which is obtained based on the mapping from basic priority,
rate of real-time, and bearer type, includes congestion control priority and load
control priority which are respectively applied to choose target user when
congestion control and load control are carried out. Under this technology,
high-priority services and users are less likely to be selected. So once network
resource is inadequate, the influence will be less.

ZTE RAN fully considers differentiated processing according to different priorities when
configuring radio parameters and allocating service radio resource. Aiming at different
service features and users requirements, it can supply different service resources and
QoS to fulfill the different user experience. Every priority mapping principle can be
flexibly configured in OMC to satisfy the different requirements of different operators for
defining priority.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
No

3.4.4

ZWF21-05-005 Service Pre-emption


Benefits
When the system resource is inadequate, the feature supports that the high-priority
service can pre-empt the resource which is occupied by low-priority services to
guarantee high-priority services QoS.
Description
Service pre-emption means that under the situation that system resource is inadequate,
when the services with high priority level are trying to access network; some low-priority

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level services are released so that high-level priority services can be accessed. The CN
shall be used to determine whether pre-emption should occur, and report to RNC by
RAB assignment request message. In general, the RT service may pre-empt the NRT
service, and the higher-priority service may pre-empt the lower-priority service.
ZTE RAN equipment supports the identification of RAB service related parameters
assigned by CN, and supports the resource rescheduling among services of different
priorities in system congestion condition. Therefore high-priority users and services may
occupy more system resources and access services of higher QoS level.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
No

3.4.5

ZWF21-05-021 Directed Retry to GSM


Benefits
This feature supports switching some subscribers to GSM system if the load of UTRAN
is heavy to realize resource sharing and load sharing between GSM and WCDMA
systems.
Description
When WCDMA radio access network is overloaded or is in congestion, if a new voice call
is trying to access WCDMA system, ZTE RAN can switch this service to GSM network by
Direct Retry method. The signaling flow is shown in Figure 3-7.

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Figure 3-7

Signaling Flow for Directed Retry to GSM

UE

NODEB

RNC

CN

RRC connection setup and CS service request

RANAP:RAB Assignment Request


RANAP:RAB Assignment Response
(RAB setup fail with cause of directed retry)

RANAP: Relocation Required


RANAP: Relocation Command
RRC: Handover from UTRAN Command

RRC: Handover from UTRAN failure


RANAP: IU Release Command

Release old resources in RNC, NODEB, Transmission

To ensure high success ratio of the directed retry handover from WCDMA to GSM, it is
necessary to request WCDMA cell and GSM cell have similar coverage.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
No.

3.4.6

ZWF21-05-023 RAB Queuing


Benefits
This feature provides the possibility of RAB establishment in the case of system
congestion and reduces the rate of call congestion to enable as many users as possible

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to access services.
Description
When a new service (RAB) is established, if system load is too heavy with inadequate
resource, and the service is allowed to be queued up according to QoS parameter, this
feature allows the RAB placed in queue to temporarily wait. If there is some idle resource
in system within a certain period of time, the resource will be allocated to the RAB for
processing the service in time. If system doesnt have enough resource during the
permission period of service queuing, service establishment will fail.
Because this feature can make partial services request queue in the case of high system
load, timely retry to establish service rather than deny service request. It can increase
the access rate of service. Meanwhile, service queuing will increase delay of service
establishment and is beneficial to relieve the impact on system load when user is trying
to access repeatedly and fast in the case of high system load.
ZTE RAN equipment supports service queuing in the process of RAB establishment and
incoming relocation; whether specific service will queue up depends on QoS parameter
configured by CN for the service and users as well as system load situation when the
service is accessing.
If there are several services in the queue, ZTE RAN equipment supports providing
service preferentially for users with high priority. Please refer to ZWF21-04-010
Congestion Control for more details.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
No

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3.5

User Plane Process

3.5.1

ZWF21-06-001 Silent FP Mode


Benefits
This feature facilitates the reduction of uplink and downlink data traffic.
Description
Two UL FP modes are defined in 3GPP protocol:

Silent Mode
When a Node B has received a TFI indicating "number of TB equal to 0" for the
transmission channel during a TTI, the Node B shall not send any UL DATA
FRAME.

Normal Mode
A Node B shall always send UL data frame to the RNC regardless of the
number of Transmission Blocks of the DCHs.

The mode is selected by SRNC, and SRNC selects the silent mode because this mode
can decrease the uplink data traffic in Iub interface. Once the network system supports
E-DCH channel, silent mode is always needed.
For downlink, ZTE RNC always uses silent mode, which means not to send FP frame
when the number of TB equals zero.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
No

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3.5.2

ZWF21-06-002 TrFO
Benefits
This feature can realize the transparent transfer of voice stream among mobile
subscribers, prevent voice quality from being reduced as a result of voice decoding for
several times, and save network transmission resource.
Description
WCDMA employs AMR compressed voice encoding. The maximum encoding rate is
12.2kbit/s. At the R99 stage, TDM bearer is used between CS core network devices, and
voice must employ 64kbit/s PCM encoding. One of the important functions of the R99
MSC is the voice Transcoder (TC), which converts the AMR voice stream of a mobile
terminal into the PCM stream and transmits it over the network. The calls between
mobile users require voice encoding/decoding conversions, that is, AMR-PCM-AMR.
Frequent encoding/decoding reduces the voice quality.
In view of this, the 3GPP organization has introduced the Tandem Free Operation (TFO)
and Transcoder Free Operation (TrFO) in the R4 protocol to avoid voice
encoding/decoding. Meantime, the TFO and TrFO help save the transmission network
bandwidth between core networks. The differences between the technologies are as
follows: The TFO still needs TC resource. After the call establishment, a direct
connection is established between the TCs of the calling and called MSCs by means of
in-band signaling negotiation to bypass encoding/decoding. The TrFO does not need any
TC resource at all. It means that outband signaling encoding/decoding function (OoBTC)
is used during call establishment to implement consistent voice encoding/decoding
negotiation between the UE and the network.
The TFO technology is implemented in the core network equipment. It does not need the
RAN equipment. The TrFO technology requires that the RAN equipment should support
outband voice encoding negotiation and the process related to user plane. Both the TFO
and TrFO can be used for the AMR-WB encoding.
ZTE RAN equipment supports the TrFO function and complies with the 3GPP TS 23.153
and TS 25.415.
Introduced Version

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U9.1&Before
Enhancement
No

3.5.3

ZWF26-01-002 Improved DL L2 Support


Benefits
This feature supports the variable-length PDU of downlink RLC, breaks the downlink
transmission speed bottleneck of R6 or earlier version, and helps to improve the
downlink peak rate in HSPA evolution technology.
Description
The new technologies such as 64QAM introduced in the evolution of the HSPA will
continuously increase the transmission rate of the downlink data. However, the
fixed-length PDU (320 or 640 bits), RLC transmit window size (the maximum size is
2047), and the inherent round-trip time delay (about 50ms) defined by the 3GPP R99 for
the AM RLC limit the peak rate of the upper layer service. The RLC cannot support
services with bit rate higher than 14Mbps. Therefore, the original RLC protocol becomes
the bottleneck of the HSPA evolution.
The ZTE RAN supports Improved DL L2 Technology in 3GPP R7.

When services are carried over the HS-DSCH channel, the AM RLC uses
flexible PDU size, supports variable-length PDU, and expands the maximum
PDU length to 1504 bytes. The length of the PDU actually used can be
configured in OMC.

The HS-DSCH frame matching the RLC flexible PDU size is added to the FP
layer.

In the MAC layer of the UE and Node B, the MAC-ehs entity is added to
replace the MAC-hs entity, as shown in Figure 3-8. The data segmentation
function is also added to the MAC layer to realize the RLC flexible PDU size.

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Figure 3-8

Structure of the HS-DSCH without MAC-c/sh

RLC

RLC

MAC

MAC-d

PHY

MAChs /
MACehs

HSDSCH
FP

HSDSCH
FP

L2

L2

PHY

L1

L1

Uu

Iub/ Iur

ZTE RNC can control the configuration exchange between enhanced L2 and traditional
L2 mode when the transmission channel is moving or switched between Node Bs.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
No

3.5.4

ZWF26-02-002 Improved UL L2 support


Benefits
This feature supports the flexible-length PDU of uplink RLC, breaks the uplink
transmission speed bottleneck of R7 or earlier version, and helps to improve the uplink
peak rate in HSPA evolution technology.
Description

Flexible RLC PDU and MAC segmentation in uplink are introduced in Rel-8 to reduce
overhead of head and padding, and improve high speed data transmission efficiency in

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uplink. Besides, flexible RLC PDU can decrease the processed PDU number within a TTI,
hence benefits decreasing the processing load of network and UE, and MAC
segmentation also benefits decreasing residual error block rate of HARQ entity.

UL L2 enhancement supports the following functions:

RLC

The maximal length of RLC PDU is extended to 12040 bits. UL L2 enhancement


supports AM and UM Flexible RLC PDU size. UE decides the actual used RLC
PDU size according to data volume waiting for transmitting and network granted
transmitting data within a TTI.

MAC

To implement UL L2 enhancement and keep its compatibility with later release


version, the MAC-i and MAC-is entity are introduced. The selection of using
MAC-es/e and MAC-is/i by UTRAN and UE is configured by upper layer according
to equipment capability.

Figure 3-9

New E-DCH Protocol Structure

DTCH DCCH

DCCH DTCH

MAC- d

MAC - d
MAC-es
/MAC-is

MAC -es /
MAC- e
MAC-e/
- EDCH FP
MAC-i

MAC - e

PHY

UE

PHY

Uu

EDCH FP

TNL

Node

TNL

Iub

TNL

TNL

DRNC

Iur

SRNC

New E-DCH Architecture

In order to adapt to the change of RLC PDU size, MAC-is/I PDU size should also be

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extended, meanwhile, data segmentation should be supported to improve


transmission efficiency of big packet.

FP

New FP type UL DATA FRAME FOR E-DCH TYPE 2 is introduced to support the
transmission of MAC-d PDU with flexible length. In addition MAC-d PDU length in
IUB FRAME TYPE2 is extended to support maximal 1504 bytes length and IUB
FRAME TYPE2 can support higher bitrate service.
Introduced Version
UR11.1.
Enhancement
No.

3.6

RAN Management

3.6.1

ZWF21-20-001 NCP/CCP Management


Benefits
This feature is used to manage the statuses of NCP and CCP, making NBAP messages
transmitted and received correctly.
Description
The NCP/CCP management refers to the maintenance of NBAP signaling channel status
between RNC and Node B. Each Node B has a Node B Control Port (NCP) and several
Communication Control Ports (CCPs). The NCP is used to transmit and receive NBAP
messages and to implement logical O&M of the Node B which is independent of specific
UEs and contains public process and global process, for example, AUDIT, cell setup and
radio link setup. As communication context channels controlled by Node B, CCPs are
used to carry the NBAP dedicated signaling and to control the Node B communication
context.

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The RNC initiates the NCP and CCP setup procedure which can also be initiated by the
Node B when the system starts or a Node B is deployed in the OMC. After the NCP and
CCPs are available, the RNC can exchange NBAP messages with the Node B. After that,
both the RNC and the Node B monitor the status of NCP and CCPs, and decide whether
to continue service or re-establish links based on the status of NCP and CCPs.
When a Node B is deleted in the OMC, the RNC deletes the links related to the Node B,
and terminates the NCP and CCP services of the Node B.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
No

3.6.2

ZWF21-20-002 Node B Resource Management


Benefits
This feature is used to ensure resource consistency between RNC and Node B.
Description
Node B resource management refers to Node B-level resource management, including
NBAP common procedures, for example, reset and Audit request and resource status
indication procedures. It ensures the resource consistency between the RNC and the
Node B.
The reset procedure can be initiated by the RNC or the Node B to delete Node B or
CRNC communication context and release resources. Operator can reset one or several
communication context each time. All communication contexts are controlled through the
CCP or related Node B. In the event of radio link deletion failure, CCP failure or system
power restart, the RNC or Node B initiates a specific reset procedure.
The RNC initiates an AUDIT procedure to configure logical resources for the Node B
when the system power restarts. After that, the RNC periodically initiates the AUDIT
procedure to check resource consistency. In the event of any inconsistency, the RNC

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adjusts the configuration information through cell management or CCH management.


If Node B expects to check the resource consistency with the RNC, it initiates an AUDIT
request procedure. The RNC can implement the Audit procedure based on the message
received from the Node B.
In the case of the Node B resource status change, for example, adding or deleting a local
cell, Node B informs the RNC of the change through resource status indication
procedure. The RNC then checks local cell and other parts and initiates the AUDIT
procedure after confirming the change.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
No

3.6.3

ZWF21-20-003 Cell Management


Benefits
This feature is used by RNC to manage cell resources in Node B, and makes the cell
work according to the background configuration parameters.
Description
This feature involves procedures of cell setup, cell reconfiguration, cell deletion, resource
blocking and resource unblocking.
After the system starts normal operation after power-on, the RNC initiates cell setup
procedure if the cell configuration information exists in the RNC and the Node B contains
related configurations of the local cell. The cell starts to operate after successful cell
setup.
The RNC informs the Node B of cell configuration changes in the OMC through cell
reconfiguration procedure. If the configuration is correct, the new configuration is used in
the cell.

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If a cell is no longer required, the RNC initiates a cell deletion procedure and release
related resources.
Operator can add or delete a cell in the OMC. The RNC automatically implements the
cell setup, reconfiguration or deletion procedure based on the configuration change.
When a Node B expects to block a cell, it sends a blocking request to the RNC. After the
RNC responds to the blocking request from the Node B, the cell may be blocked
immediately or blocked after the service in this cell is over or blocked upon the expiry of
specified period based on the provided blocking priority.
After a cell is blocked, the Node B informs the RNC to initiate the unblocking procedure
to resume the using of cell resources.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
No

3.6.4

ZWF21-20-004 Common Channel Management


Benefits
This feature is used by RNC to manage common channel resources in Node B.
Description
This feature involves procedures of CCH setup, reconfiguration and deletion. In these
procedures, operator can configure one SCCPCH and relevant FACH, PCH and PICH or
one PRACH and relevant RACH and AICH.
After a new cell is set up, the RNC continues to establish CCH resources on Node B
through the CCH setup procedure. Upon receiving response from the Node B, the RNC
sets up a lub data bearer for the FACH, PCH or RACH. Then the data bearer is sent from
the UE to the RNC over the RACH or from the RNC to the UE over the FACH or the
PCH.

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As specified in 3GPP TS 25.433, some CCH parameters are modified through the
RNC-initiated CCH reconfiguration procedure, and new parameters are used upon
successful modification.
When one SCCPCH and relevant FACH(s), PCH and PICH or one PRACH and relevant
RACH and AICH is not used, the RNC initiates a CCH deletion procedure to delete it.
Operator can dynamically add, modify or delete the CCH in the OMC. The RNC
automatically initiates the CCH setup, reconfiguration and deletion procedures based on
the configuration changes and AUDIT results.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
No

3.6.5

ZWF21-20-005 Common Measurement Controlling


Benefits
This feature is used to monitor the using status of common resources in Node B and
make a decision on the RRM algorithm.
Description
This feature involves measurement of common resources on Node B. The measurement
object can be cells or RACHs. Involved procedures include common measurement
initialization, common measurement report, common measurement termination and
common measurement failure.
Upon the successful setup of a cell or CCH, the RNC initiates common measurement
regarding the cell or RACH through the common measurement initialization request.
Node B performs measurement, and sends the measurement report to the RNC once or
periodically. The RNC collects the measurement results for admission control and load
balancing.

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When the common measurement is no longer required or some measurement


parameters are modified, the RNC sends a termination request to the Node B to
terminate the measurement. If some measurement parameters are modified, the RNC
continues to initiate a new measurement request.
After Node B detects common measurement report failure, it terminates local
measurement and sends a common measurement failure message to the RNC. The
RNC re-initiates common measurement if necessary.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
No

3.6.6

ZWF21-20-008 Node B Operations & Maintenance Channel


Benefits
This feature is used to set up a O&M channel between OMC and Node B.
Description
Node B O&M channel is a data channel between the Node B and the OMC server.
Comparing with Iub interface, both in-band and out-of-band Node B O&M channel are
supported by ZTE RAN. In-band Node B O&M channel means O&M data is transmitted
banding with the same transmission link with Iub interface from Node B to RNC. The
OMC server is connected to the RNC over Ethernet, and RNC severs as a router for
O&M data between Node B and OMC server. Out-of-band Node B O&M channel means
O&M data is transmitted separately from Node B to OMC server without routing of RNC,
which only applies to IP transmission network.
For in-band Node B O&M channel, transmission of O&M data could be carried by ATM or
IP depending on choice of transmission link of Iub interface.

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Node B is connected to the RNC by IPOA tunnel. O&M data is transmitted as


IP packets on ATM PVC between the Node B and RNC. The RNC provides, as
the gateway for the O&M channel between Node B and OMC, IP data
transmission function, including TCP packets, UDP packets and ICMP
packets.
ZTE RNC adopts the BOOTP to process the broadcast packet requested by
the IP address of the Node B, assigns the IP address of Node B based on the
corresponding port No. on the RNC side, informs the Node B through
broadcast packet response message, and sets up IPOA channel to remotely
transmit O&M data between RNC and Node B.

Iub interface on ATM


If the IP mode is adopted for Iub transmission between RNC and Node Bs,
RNC assigns IP address of Node B through DHCP function. O&M data can be
remotely transmitted on the IP-in-IP tunnel between RNC and Node Bs.

ZTE Node B also supports out-of-band Node B O&M channel, which means standalone
IP address for O&M for separating management of service network and O&M network.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
Standalone IP address for O&M in Node B is supported in UR11.1.

3.6.7

ZWF21-20-010 Equipment Redundancy


Benefits
This feature ensures the reliability of the system by redundant configuration of single
board and the function of automatic fault switching.
Description
ZTE RAN equipment provides diversified board backup modes for the key boards of the

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RNC and the Node B; the system can fulfill fault self-healing by using standby board to
take over current service to ensure the reliability while a board is abnormal. The backup
modes that the equipment supports are as follows:

1+1 backup
The mode is configured for key boards such as system clock board, O&M
board and control plane process board. For the mutual-backup boards, only
one board carries services at a time and the standby board does not carry any
service. The standby board takes over current service automatically while the
active board is faulty or manual switchover.

1:1 backup
The mode is configured for the key boards such as system clock board, O&M
board and control plane process board. Only one board carries services at a
time. The standby board takes over current ongoing service automatically
while the active board is faulty or manually switched over.

Load sharing backup


The mode is configured for various interface boards in order to implement
redundancy protection of transmission ports. APS is implemented inside each
group divided by resources and interfaces of the mutual-backup boards. Only
one board processes data at a time. The interface units can be distributed in
the mutual-backup boards, for example, the corresponding optical ports in the
active/standby interface board that processes fiber transmission can form an
APS group. The active/standby state of a board is independent of the
active/standby state of the external optical port of the board, thus ensuring the
transmission reliability of high-speed optical port.

Load sharing backup


The mode is configured for U-plane processing board and various interface
boards. All boards in the resource pool are active to share the load. The load is
shared by other active boards automatically while one board or several boards
are faulty. In the redundancy configuration mode, the system is not affected
even one board is faulty.

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To deal with the compatibility problem, RNC should cooperate with the transmission
equipments which only support GE port 1+1 backup. The following requirements should
be fulfilled.

Both sides can switch correctly in case of fault of GE physical link.

When RNC OMC operator initiates manual switching, standby board will close
its GE port temporarily to induce peer to switch simultaneously.

When a manual switchover is initiated through OMC, if mutual-backup boards both


transmit optical signal after switch, then peer equipments may not identify which is active
equipment, therefore a temporary processing is needed: when GE port status transfers
to backup (temporary backup), the external GE ports need to be closed and

do not

transmit optical or electric signal temporarily, then peer equipments can distinguish
losing of physical signal, and transfers the active ports to comply with GE port on local
active board.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
In U9.3, GIPI laser is switched off when manual Switching is introduced.

3.6.8

ZWF21-20-011 System Data Acquisition


Benefits
This feature supports monitoring the operation status of the system, collecting various
dynamic data in real time, and providing graphic interfaces through tools of an NMS. It is
convenient for operators to monitor the service quality of system, observe the
performance of network, and to provide the statistical data for network optimization and
regulation.
Description
ZTE RAN equipment supports the collection of the following system data:

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Performance statistics
Collects various records generated by users in the whole network during call and service
process. According to these records, operator may customize from an NMS the output
reports which include the following KPIs:

Success rate of RRC establishment and RAB establishment

Call blocking rate and call drop rate of CS/PS

Success ratio of soft handover, hard handover, and Inter-RAT handover

Throughput and bandwidth utilization of Iu/Iub/Iur interface

Traffic and flow of RNC/cell

Cell load level, utilization of code resource

E1/IMA link performance statistics, AAL5/AAL2 performance statistics

Signaling message
Collect signaling messages generated when specified users make calls, support the
signaling tracing tool of an NMS and trace specific users' messages to observe their call
process and status, which facilitates the analysis and location of a call drop.
Online analysis of radio parameters
Collect real-time radio parameters during a user call, including transmitting power and
the quality of radio links, transmitting power of a cell, and uplink interference. The graphic
interfaces provided by an NMS, such as curve diagrams and forms, make it more
convenient for users to analyze and browse the data.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
No

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3.6.9

ZWF21-20-020 RNC Dynamic Load Energy Saving


Benefits
This feature makes it possible to adjust status of processing boards in RNC according to
real-time load of network, which means lower power energy on condition of lower load, to
save total operation cost of RNC equipment.
Description
Traffic in the telecommunication network changes periodically, that is very high during
busy hours but lower in other hours a day. ZTE RNC can execute specific energy-saving
handling according to real-time load of network.
To all kinds of processing boards, when traffic load is low and so to usage of CPUs in
these boards, dynamic CPU clock frequency scaling could be triggered to save power for
these boards. On the other hand, when traffic load is getting up higher, those boards
which have been energy-saving handled could recover to its normal clock frequency to
meet the requirement of higher capacity.
To the whole RNC, if traffic load of network it served is lower than its capacity, some
processing boards could be chosen to be dormant or shutdown. Vice versa, those
boards which have been energy-saving handled would be activated again when network
load become higher and capacity of whole RNC get to recovery. Method of dormancy or
shutdown will only be applied to the boards in User Plane and Control Plane.
Introduced Version
UR11.1, only applicable to ZXUR 9000.
Enhancement
No.

3.6.10

ZWF21-20-021 RNC Resource Sharing


Benefits
This feature treats all user plane or control plane processing boards, respectively, in a

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RNC as a pooling to share their resource in RNC level to avoid local congestion in some
boards due to disproportionate traffic distribution in network.
Description
Traffic in the telecommunication network could be different from time to time and from
area to area. Assuming traffic in Node Bs and cells are bonding to a given user plane or
control plane processing board, sometime traffic in these Node Bs and cells could
exceed the capacity limit of the board, which means congestion happening and call
dropping. Meantime other boards in the same RNC might not be fully utilized
ZTE RNC can evenly respectively distribute traffic among all user plane processing
boards RUP or control plane processing boards DMP even in different racks or shelves.
Resource of capacity of user plane or control plane processing boards is dynamically
shared in a pool in RNC level to achieve trucking gain and to avoid local congestion in
part boards.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before user plane processing board RUP resource can be sharing in RNC level.
Enhancement
UR11.1 control plane processing board DMP resource can be sharing in RNC level.

3.6.11

ZWF21-20-030 Radio DOS Detection


Benefits
This feature can help operator to quickly check the status and methods of attacking,
locate cells attacked and give fast response to network fault.
Description
DoS is Denial of Service. The attack which makes the network deny normal services is
called DoS attack.
When numbers of users in a cell repeatedly exit or access and the load of access
number or frequency is significantly higher than usual, the nomal access will be denied,

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and the overall network performance declines sharply.


ZTE Node B supports monitoring RACH in time. Operator can set threshold for the
subscriber access frequency and other behavior. If it is over a certain threshold, then
UTRAN will send alarm to notify operator.
Introduced Version
U9.3
Enhancement
No

3.6.12

ZWF21-20-031 Node B Energy Saving Mode


Benefits
This feature first guarantees the battery backup for transmission and basic service, lower
the load of battery to prolong its recycling life which decreases the OPEX; this feature
can also make it possible to use battery with less capacity, which decreases the
corresponding CAPEX. For mobile user, the basic service gets better guaranteed.
Description
The power supply will be switched to battery automatically when the AC input is broken.
Then we can choose to close parts of Node B module at a particular time to guarantee
the transmission and basic service firstly and lower the requirement of battery capacity.
When this feature is working and the battery capacity does not change, if the AC break
duration is less than the battery configuration time, the battery recycling life will be
prolonged because the discharging is lowered; if the AC break duration is longer than the
battery configuration time, the transmission and the third-party equipments in user space
can work for a longer time. This is suitable for the site which is used for transmission
relay.
With this feature, we can also adjust the new battery capacity configuration, or use the
existing battery with existing devices so as to lower corresponding investment.

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Node B supports the following steps:


At time T0, the main power is broken; then at time T1, it will shut down other cells until
there is only one in each sector; we have considered the effect on the existing users;
they will hand over to the reserved cells smoothly. At time T2, all cells are shut down, and
the base band boards are powered down; the other modules in BBU are reserved, which
can remain the connections with RRU and RNC.
User can configure the function ON/OFF, adjust the timer T1/T2, and choose the cells to
be reserved. This configuration can be done locally or remotely. When the AC power
device is outside the Node B, there should be an extend alarm port to provide main
power down alarm, such as a dry contactor. When the AC power device is contained by
Node B, this will be done by Node B.
By the way, Node B can also support 1st shut-down and 2nd shut-down function, which
needs cooperation with power device outsides. This function needs to connect the loads
to dedicated DC output ports.
At 1st shut-down, it will shut down the devices excluding the BBU and the third-party
transmission devices.
At 2nd shut-down, it will shut down all loads to prevent the over-discharge of battery.
For DC powered macro Node B, there is only one DC input and it can only be shut down
totally.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
No

3.6.13

ZWF21-20-101 Time Synchronization via SNTP for RNC


Benefits
This feature helps local time in all RNC equipments keep synchronization with an

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absolute time, which facilitates the collection and process of operation and maintenance
data like event logs and system performance.
Description
SNTP protocol is applied to synchronize time among these processors inside the RNC
and other devices of external OMCR. OMM server acts as an NTP client which acquires
time from upper NTP server. On the other hand, it provides service of time
synchronization to RNC as the server of SNTP. As an SNTP client, the time
synchronization process can be initiated automatically and manually as well.

Automatic synchronization
OMM Server acquires time from NTP server periodically, and then updates the
local time and the time value stored in built-in SNTP server. OMP acquires
time via SNTP client function from SNTP server built in OMM Server
periodically, and then distributes the time value to other processors in RNC.

Manual synchronization
OMCR operator can send a time synchronization command to OMP to force
OMP to initiate a time synchronization process. OMP in the RNC then acquires
time from SNTP server built in OMCR via SNTP client function immediately,
and then distributes the time value to other processors inside RNC.

Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
No

3.6.14

ZWF21-20-102 Time Synchronization via SNTP for Node B


Benefits
This feature helps local time in all Node B equipments keep synchronization with an
absolute time, which facilitates the collection and process of operation and maintenance

ZTE Confidential Proprietary

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data like event logs and system performance.


Description
SNTP protocol is applied to synchronize time among these processors inside the Node B
and other devices of external OMCR. OMM server provides service of time
synchronization to Node B as the server of SNTP. As an SNTP client, the time
synchronization process can be initiated automatically and manually as well.

Automatic synchronization
Node B acquires time via SNTP client function from SNTP server built in OMM
Server periodically, then distributes the time value to other processors in Node
B.

Manual synchronization
OMCB operator can send a time synchronization command to Node B to
initiate a time synchronization process to SNTP server built in OMCB via
SNTP client function immediately, and then distribute the time value to other
processors inside Node B.

Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
No

3.7

Enhanced RAN Functionality

3.7.1

ZWF21-30-031Direct Tunnel
Benefits
This feature enables RNC to directly deliver user traffic to GGSN, instead of SGSN, by Iu
PS interface. Therefore a node for data relay is saved and network complexity and

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latency are decreased. It also saves the investment on SGSN and reduces TCO of the
network.
Description
After HSPA/HSPA+ is introduced to WCDMA network, data throughput is greatly
increased and the requirements for bandwidth and latency are much higher.
Direct tunnel is officially defined in 3GPP R7 standard. It supports direct connection of
user plane between RNC and GGSN. Direct Tunnel feature is transparent to RNC.
SGSN decides when to use Direct Tunnel. RNC is not involved during direct tunnel
establishment and release. ZTE RAN system supports the following functions, which
interoperates with SGSN to implement Direct Tunnel feature.

Iu PS interface protocol RAB process supports modification on address of peer


user plane.

RNC triggers RAB release request, with reason GTP Resources Unavailable,
if GTP user plane error is indicated.

RNC supports IP on Iu PS interface so that it may connect to Gn interface.


ATM on Iu PS is able to connect to Gn interface as well, but its a must to add
ATM gateway router.

Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
No

3.8

Radio Part

3.8.1

ZWF21-40-001 Active Tx Gain Calibration


Benefits

ZTE Confidential Proprietary

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UTRAN UR11.1 Basic Feature Description

This feature offers customers the following advantages:

Enhance the security and precision of the RF Tx power

Reduce the margin demand calculated for the maximum downlink output
power in network planning to obtain higher output power.

Description
This function supports downlink active Tx gain calibration, i.e., the system calculates the
Tx baseband digital power and the Tx analog output power at the same time. If the
analog power deviates from the digital power to a certain threshold, the system will
adjust the downlink Tx gains to keep the Tx analog power consistent with the Tx digital
power. This avoids not only damage to the amplifier due to over high power but also
capacity reduction due to over low power, ensuring accuracy of downlink output power of
the base station.
According to the 3GPP TS 25.104 protocol, the maximum output power of the Node B
must be within the range of device rated output power provided by the manufacturer,
2.0 dB normally. In an extreme situation, it must be within the range of device rated
output power provided by the manufacturer, 2.5 dB.
To enhance the security and precision of the RF Tx power, and to reduce the margin
demand calculated for the downlink maximum output power in network planning for
higher output power, ZTE has developed active Tx gain calibration. Normally, the output
power of the Node B can be within the range of baseband digital output power, 0.5 dB
normally; in an extreme situation, it can be within the range of baseband digital output
power, 1 dB.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
No

102

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UTRAN UR11.1 Basic Feature Description

3.8.2

ZWF21-40-002 Joint Channel Estimation


Benefits
This feature supports the accuracy ensuring of the channel parameter estimation to
effectively improve the fading channel performance in the high-speed environment and
increase the receive error performance.
Description
The baseband signal received by RAKE receiver after RF processing will have the
modification in frequency, phase, amplitude and so on due to the effect of channel
interference and fading, etc. The channel estimation can be used to remove the channel
impact to receive the real signal.
In order to accurately estimate DPDCH information, this channel estimation method will
utilize all DPCCH symbols, including pilot and non-pilot symbols. Firstly the complement
and verdict for the non-pilot should be processed to obtain the non-pilot symbol. Then
the channel estimation value can be obtained by the pilot and non-pilot multiplying the
de-spreaded pilots with the pilot sequence after smoothing filtering. The channel
complement value of non-pilot is derived by the pilot channel estimation value.
The method of pilot and non-pilot joint channel estimation can effectively improve the
channel estimation performance and increase the receiving demodulation performance
especially in high-speed environment.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
No

3.8.3

ZWF21-40-003 Two Antenna Receive Diversity


Benefits
This feature is used for improving uplink radio performance and enhancing uplink

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coverage.
Description
ZTE RAN equipment provides two-way receiving channel, including roof antenna
connector and relative demodulation resource, and supports receiving signals from
different paths with two independent antennae. And these signals are selected and
integrated into a whole signal in RAKE receiver. Two-antenna receiving diversity works
on the following principles:

The radio signals received by the two antennae are processed by RF units
respectively, and then are sent to the base band unit (BBU) of Node B.

In the base band unit (BBU), perform Rake receiving, maximal ratio combining
and subsequent processing in two antennae.

Figure 3-10 shows the hardware connection of two-antenna receiving diversity.

Figure 3-10

Connection of Two-Antenna Receiving Diversity

ANT1

R&T

ANT2
R

RRU/RSU

DF
T

2R

RTR+PA

BBU

Compared with single antenna, two independent antennae can increase the power of
receiving signal (theoretically about 3dB gain corresponding to 20~30% coverage plus)
to reduce the effect of radio signal spatial fading and enhance uplink coverage.
Introduced Version

104

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U9.1&Before
Enhancement
No

3.8.4

ZWF21-40-009 OCNS
Benefits
This feature enables you to configure the orthogonal channel noise stimulation (OCNS)
function in the Node B so that the system can simulate users in the downlink network
load test. With the feature, the operator can test RF performance and radio network
performance without a large number of terminals.
Description
The system performance test is usually subject to limitation on the number of terminals
and the test environment. It is very hard to set up a radio transmission environment with
certain interference based on a large number of terminals.
The ZTE RAN device adopts mutually orthogonal channel codes for channels emulated
through the OCNS function. Each channel adopts PN9 random codes without relevance.
Though each channel has different power, the inter-channel power ratio is fixed. Through
the feature, you can emulate the ISI and peak-to-average ratio in the actual environment.
By configuring the total power of all emulated channels, you can emulate the downlink
interference (or load) and evaluate the system performance under various downlink
loads. The ZTE RAN can emulate R99 and HSDPA channels through the OCNS function
and enable the OCNS function for multiple cells.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
No

ZTE Confidential Proprietary

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UTRAN UR11.1 Basic Feature Description

3.8.5

ZWF21-40-018 smoothly Cell in/out of Service


Benefits
When switching off cell, this feature reduces the power of Common Pilot Channel step by
step, in order to smoothly handover the UE in this cell service to the cell of other Node B
or GSM network. When switching on cell operation, this feature increases the power of
Common Pilot Channel step by step in order to avoid cell power burst to result in RF
interference burst on adjacent cell and Node B.
The feature is applied to switch off or switch on cell in Node B software/hardware
upgrade or other maintenance scene.
Description
In Node B software/hardware upgrade or other maintenance scene, action of switching
off/on cell in service network is required at first.
In order to avoid call drop caused by the sudden disappearance of the cell power, which
influences user experience, we adopt the method that the power of CPICH is reduced
step by step while switching off the cell. So UE can report to RNC in time that the radio
quality is worse and it should handover to adjacent cell of other Node B or GSM network.
In this way, call drop will not occur even Node B is out of service. The cell power will be
closed completely while the power of CPICH is below a certain value.
When switching on cell, the power of CPICH is increased step by step in the same away
to avoid cell power burst to result in RF interference on adjacent cell and Node B. This
interference also affects UE handover or causes the call drop in adjacent cells.
The time duration of every step to adjust CPICH power can be set by OMC-B.
This feature should be operated in OMC-B or LMT.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
In U9.3, function of smoothly cell in service is introduced.

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3.8.6

ZWF21-42-002 VSWR Alarm Resume


Benefits
The functions of VSWR alarm resume could reduce manual operation.
Description
For some reason, Power amplifier will be closed if VSWR is more than 3.0. The cell will
be delete and not to be resumed. Maintenance personnel need go to site and manual
operation in OMC.
If using this function, no manual operation, and RRU will detect VSWR every fixed time.
When VSWR is in normal range, RRU power amplifier will be opened, and the cell will be
resumed.
Introduced Version
U9.3
Enhancement
No

3.8.7

ZWF21-42-003 RTWP Unbalanced Alarm


Benefits
This feature can be used to locate the problem of abnormal receiving path without
manual analysis at OMCB/LMT.
Description
During Base Station swap process, the values of RTWP received by two antennas may
be inconsistent for some reason. In order to quick locate the problem, a new requirement
is proposed in some market -- when the difference of reported RTWP from two antennas
exceeds a certain threshold, an alarm must be given. The alarm threshold is configurable,
1~10dB. The alarm is detected every 15 minutes.
Introduced Version

ZTE Confidential Proprietary

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U9.2
Enhancement
No

Transport Network Functionality

4.1

ZWF22-01-001 IP Switching Platform


Benefits
ZTE RAN system is based on all-IP switching platform. All data communication between
boards applies IP protocol. Thus UTRAN system of higher capacity can be implemented.
And native IP interface greatly satisfies the needs for all-IP UTRAN evolution.
Description
As shown in Figure 4-1 below, the IP switching platform is divided into two layers: level-2
switching and level-1 switching. The inter-board IP switching is accomplished through
level-2 switching; the IP switching among different level-2 switching is accomplished
through level-1 switching. RNC can support the switching platform of the media plane
and the switching platform of the control plane by selecting different level-1 switching
boards and level-2 switching boards.

Figure 4-1

Architecture of RNC IP Switching Platform


Level-1 Switching

Level-2
Switching

Board

108

Board

Level-2
Switching

Board

Board

Level-2
Switching

Board

Level-2
Switching

Board

Board

Board

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UTRAN UR11.1 Basic Feature Description

IP switching platform of Node B is shown in Figure 4-2. The main control board provides
with two external GE/FE ports. To realize smooth upgrading to LTE, the CC board
provides with gigabit level switching capability. The internal boards are connected to the
CC board through GE network ports. The standard IP data packets are converged and
switched in the CC board.

Figure 4-2

IP Switching of Node B

BP

BP

Main
Control
Board

GE/FE

GE/FE

BP

ZTE follows the trend of all-IP UTRAN evolution closely. ZTE RAN system uses IP
processing and switching mechanism for both external interface and internal
interconnection to avoid protocol conversion and provide Native IP interface.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
No

4.2

ZWF22-01-002 RAN Topologies


Benefits
The system supports diverse networking topologies over Iur interface and they are
widely used in various network scenarios.

ZTE Confidential Proprietary

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UTRAN UR11.1 Basic Feature Description

Description
ZTE RNC-Node B networking topologies includes: star topology, daisy chain topology
and tree topology. The factors for choosing proper topology include: physical location,
limitation of transmission network, bandwidth multiplexing, and convenience in
maintenance and construction.
Generally speaking, the star topology is adopted in most scenarios (especially areas with
heavy traffic), and is characterized by simple connection, high reliability, and
convenience in engineering and maintenance; the daisy chain topology is suitable for the
scenarios such as railways and high ways, which can reduce transmission cost but may
reduce the reliability of the connection due to cascading. The tree topology incorporates
the features of the star and daisy chain topologies and is suitable for complicated
scenarios, but its reliability decreases because of cascading.
The lub interface of the UTRAN supports ATM connection, IP connection, hybrid
transmission and corresponding switching & convergence function. The Node B supports
various networking modes through its transmission convergence function.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
No

4.3

ZWF22-01-005 Transport CAC


Benefits
Transport CAC controls transmission resource allocation to avoid congestion on Iub, Iur
and Iu interface, guaranteeing QoS of the existing sessions.
Description
Call Admission Control (CAC) in the transmission layer is implemented by
bandwidth-based admission control mechanism. In order to guarantee the required link

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rate, the system reserves definite bandwidth when a new connection is established. The
reserved bandwidth will be released after the connection is closed.

CS and PS Conversation Service


If the request service is CS AMR call, WB-AMR call, video call or VoIP, the
system reserves the bandwidth for maximum bit rate (MBR) provided by the
RAB assignment. Voice activation factor is considered for voice service to
improve efficiency of bandwidth usage and the capacity.

PS Interactive/Background Service
Since these kinds of services do not specify its GBR, a configured value is
used to allocate and reserve bandwidth.

Streaming Service
Adopt GBR assigned by RAB in CAC.

Common Transport Channels


Adopt calculated bandwidth based on TBFS configuration of these common
transport channels. An configurable activation factor can be used to improve
efficiency of bandwidth usage.

The Voice activation factor and the bandwidth reserved for PS Interactive/Background
Service can all be configured in OMC.
Transport CAC is mandatory for all service types on all Iub, Iur, Iu-CS and Iu-PS
interfaces. Generally, transmission bandwidth

of Iub interface is relatively limited.

Therefore higher priority CS user could be able to preempt bandwidth occupied by lower
priority PS users during congestion situation in Iub interface.
Generally, the bandwidth of Iu/Iur/Iub is static configuration, but theres exception. For
example, if one or more E1 links of an IMA group or an MLPPP group fail or recover, ZTE
RAN system can detect the changes of link status. The system automatically
downgrades available bandwidth when E1 link fails and upgrades available bandwidth
when the E1 link recovers.

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Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
In U9.3, higher priority CS user could be able to preempt bandwidth occupied by lower
priority PS users during congestion situation in Iub interface, and configurable activation
factor for bandwidth reservation of common transport channels can be used.
UR11.1, Transport CAC is supported on IuPS.

4.4

ZWF22-01-006 Overbooking on Iub/Iur


Benefits
Overbooking on Iub/Iur interface dynamically adjusts bandwidth of services on Iub
interface and Iur interface. Investment on transmission facility is saved with the
improvement of transmission.
Description
With the adoption of high-rate services and the improvement of the utilization efficiency
of air interface resources, ground transmission resources, especially Iub/Iur interface,
always become a bottleneck restricting the volume of accessed traffic. To improve the
efficiency of ground transmission resources and guarantee the ground transmission
quality of services, it becomes necessary for an RAN to implement overbooking and
congestion avoidance on ground transmission resources.
Its occasional that all users request for maximum throughput at the same moment.
Actually bandwidth used by users is usually lower than that allocated by RNC. A logical
bandwidth can be defined to exceed the physical bandwidth. Admission control refers to
logical bandwidth upon an incoming access request. Exceeding the actual capacity of
Iub/Iur interface, more users can be served by overbooking. The utilization rate of
transmission is improved.
The link rate changes after admission. If a burst throughput of all users exceeds the

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physical capacity of Iub/Iur, congestion may occur. Unless proper admission control is
introduced, data may lose and the quality of service may be affected. ZTE RAN system
supports backward control for data source according to practical situation. If practical
traffic is close to the transmission capacity, the system will adjust the bandwidth of each
user. This guarantees the transmission delay and transmission rate of high-priority traffic
on one hand and reflects the fairness of services scheduling on the other hand.
Overbooking control is meant to improve the transmission efficiency of ground resources
and simultaneously guarantee the QoS of different traffic.

Downlink overbooking
In an RNC, overbooking control is adopted so that the data traffic volume does
not exceed the restriction of ground transmitting bandwidth and meanwhile
guarantees the maximum efficiency of transmission resources.
The RNC guarantees in precedence the transmission of data at the
guaranteed bit rate (GBR) for conversational and streaming traffic. Next, the
RNC allocates transmission resources according to the requested traffic
volume of downlink data of all traffic classes from the high layer: a large
number of transmission resources are allocated to services with a high
subscribing rate and high traffic requirements and otherwise fewer
transmission resources are allocated. However, the total traffic transmitted
does not exceed the restriction of transmit bandwidth.

Uplink overbooking
The ratio of information sources of different subscribers on the HSUPA uplink
traffic channel changes constantly and special flow control mechanism is
absent in layer 2 (L2) 3GPP protocol. Therefore, upper layer flow control
mechanism is necessary to guarantee that different subscribers share the Iub
bandwidth. When the real-time rate of traffic over the E-DCH is high, disorder,
drop or delay of data is possible because of transmitting layer reasons. The
SRNC must be able to detect the disorder, drop or delay and notify the Node B
of traffic congestion so as to lower the actual rate of a UE, relieve the
congestion and avoid impacts on other services.

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Figure 4-3

Overbooking Benefit

ZTE RAN system with Overbook feature can smooth burst traffic. It helps to improve
transmission efficiency of non-realtime service while QoS is guaranteed. See Figure 10
for the overbooking benefit.
If multiple Node Bs cascaded to one RNC, each Iub of a Node B will have one logic path
connected to RNC and those multi paths share the same physical transmission link and
limit bandwidth. The guaranteed bandwidth for each path is satisfied first, then the rest
bandwidth can be shared among each path. The shared bandwidth is allocated to each
path according to different bandwidth requirement, pre-defined sharing factor and current
bandwidth utilization, thus making the total bandwidth fully utilized and not exceeding the
limit.
Introduced Version
U9.1&Before
Enhancement
In U9.3, multi paths sharing bandwidth allocation is improved.

114

Abbreviation
16QAM

16 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

AAL

ATM Adaptation Layer

AAL2

ATM Adaptation Layer type 2

ABR

Available Bit Rate

ZTE Confidential Proprietary

UTRAN UR11.1 Basic Feature Description

AC

Access Class

ACK

Acknowledgement

ACL

Address Control List

A-DPCH

Associated Dedicated Physical Channel

AICH

Acquisition Indicator Channel Acquisition Indicator Channel

AISG

Antenna Interface Standards Group

AG

Absolute Grant

AGPS

Assisted Global Positioning System

ALCAP

Access Link Control Application Protocol

AM

Acknowledged Mode

AMC

Adaptive Modulation and Coding

AMR

Adaptive Multi Rate

AMR-WB

Adaptive Multi-Rate Wide band

AMR-NB

Adaptive Multi-Rate Narrow band

ANT

Antenna

APS

Active Protection System

ARP

Allocation/Retention Priority

ARQ

Automatic Repeat ReQuest

AS

Access Stratum

ASC

Access Service Class

ATM

Asynchronous Transfer Mode

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116

AWGN

Additive White Gaussian Noise

BBU

Base Band Unit

BER

Bit Error Ratio

BFD

Bidirectional Forwarding Detection

BITS

Building Integrated Timing Supply System

BLER

Block Error Ratio

BM-SC

Broadcast Multicast Serving Center

BOOTP

Bootstrap Protocol

BSC

Base Station Controller

BSSMAP

Base Station Subsystem Management Application Part

BTS

Base Transceiver Station

CAC

Call Admission Control

CBC

Cell Broadcast Center

CBE

Cell Broadcast Entity

CBR

Constant Bit Rate

CBS

Cell Broadcast Service

CC

Continuity Check

CC

Chase Combining

CCCH

Common Control Channel

CCP

Communication control ports

CDT

Call Detail Trace

ZTE Confidential Proprietary

UTRAN UR11.1 Basic Feature Description

CE

Channel Element

CN

Core Network

COS

Class of Service

CPC

Continuous Packet Connectivity

CPEX

Capital expenditure

CPICH

Common Pilot Channel

CQI

Channel Quality Indication

CS

Circuit Switched

CSTM-1

Channelized STM-1

DCCH

Dedicated Control Channel

DCH

Dedicated Channel

DC-HSDPA

Dual Cell HSDPA

DF

Duplexer and Filter

DHCP

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

DoS

Denial of Service

DPCCH

Dedicated Physical Control Channel

DPCH

Dedicated Physical Channel

DPDCH

Dedicated Physical Data Channel

DPT

Dynamic Power Track

DRBC

Dynamic Radio Bearer Control

DRNC

Drifting RNC

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118

DRT

Delay Relative Time

DRX

Discontinuous Reception

DSAR

Domain Specific Access Restriction

DSCR

Directed Signalling Connection Re-establishment

DTCH

Dedicated Traffic Channel

DTM

Dual Transfer Mode

DTX

Discontinuous Transmission

EcN0

Received energy per chip divided by the power density in the band

E-AGCH

E-DCH Absolute Grant Channel

E-HICH

E-DCH HARQ Acknowledgement Indicator Channel

E-DCH

Enhanced Dedicated Channel

E-DPCCH

E-DCH Dedicated Physical Control Channel

E-DPDCH

E-DCH Dedicated Physical Data Channel

eNodeB

E-UTRAN NodeB

EPD

Early Packet Discard

E-RGCH

E-DCH Relative Grant Channel

ETWS

Earthquake and Tsunami Warning System

E-UTRAN

Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network

E-VAM

Evolved VAM

EVC

Ethernet Virtual Connection

FACH

Forward Access Channel

ZTE Confidential Proprietary

UTRAN UR11.1 Basic Feature Description

F-DPCH

Fractional Dedicated Physical Channel

FE

Fast Ethernet

FEC

Forward Error Correction

FIR

Full Incremental Redundancy

FLC

Frequency Layer Convergence

FLD

Frequency Layer Dispersion

FP

Frame Protocol

FSN

Frame Sequence Number

GA

Geographical Area

GBR

Guarantee Bit Rate

GE

Gigabit Ethernet

GGSN

Gateway GPRS Support Node

GMGW

Gated Media Gateway

GMSC

Gateway MSC

GPS

Global Positioning System

GERAN

GSM EDGE Radio Access Network

GSM

Global System for Mobile communications

GTP

GPRS Tunneling Protocol

G/U

GSM/UMTS

GWCN

Gateway Core Network

HARQ

Hybrid Automatic Repeat request

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120

HCS

Hierarchical Cell Structure

HLR

Home Location Register

H-RNTI

HSDPA Radio Network Temporary Identifier

HSDPA

High Speed Downlink Packet Access

HS-DPCCH

Dedicated Physical Control Channel (uplink) for HS-DSCH

HS-DSCH

High Speed Downlink Shared Channel

HS-PDSCH

High Speed Physical Downlink Shared Channel

HS-SCCH

High Speed Physical Downlink Shared Control Channel

HSUPA

High Speed Uplink Packet Access

IC

Interference cancellation

IDNNS

Intra Domain NAS Node Selector

IKE

Internet Key Exchange

IMA

Inverse Multiplexing over ATM

IMS

IP Multimedia Subsystem

IMSI

International Mobile Subscriber Identity

IPOA

IP over ATM

IR

Incremental Redundancy

KPI

Key Performance Index

LA

Location Area

LACP

Link Aggregation Control Protocol

LCS

Location Services

ZTE Confidential Proprietary

UTRAN UR11.1 Basic Feature Description

LMMSE

Linear Minimum Mean Square Error

LMT

Local Maintenance Terminal

LTE

Long Term Evolution

M3UA

MTP3 User Adaptation Layer

MAC

Medium Access

MBMS

Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service

MBR

Maximum Bit Rate

MCCH

MBMS point-to-multipoint Control Channel

MCPPP

Multi-Chasis PPP

MCS

Modulation and Coding Scheme

MEP

Maintenance End Point

MEG

Maintenance Entity Group

MGW

Media GateWay

MICH

MBMS Indicator Channel

MIMO

Multiple-Input Multiple-output

MLPPP

Multilink-PPP

MME

Mobile Management Entity

MMS

Multimedia Messaging Service

MOCN

Multi-Operator Core Network

MPC

Multi Path Cancellation

MPO

Measurement Power Offset

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122

MR

Measurement Report

MRR

Measurement Report Record

MSC

Mobile Switching Centre

MSCH

MBMS point-to-multipoint Scheduling Channel

MSTP

Multi-Service Transfer Platform

MTCH

MBMS point-to-multipoint Traffic Channel

MTP3B

Message Transfer Part level 3

MTU

Maximum Transfer Unit

MUD

Multi User Detection

NACC

Network Assisted Cell Change

NACK

Negative Acknowledgement

NAS

Non-Access Stratum

NAT

Network Address Translation

NBAP

Node B Application Part

NBR

Nominal Bit Rate

NCP

Node B control port

N-ISDN

Narrowband Integrated Services Digital Network

NITZ

Network Identity and Time Zone

NNSF

Network Node Selection Function

NRI

Network Resource Identifier

NRT

Non-Real Time

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UTRAN UR11.1 Basic Feature Description

NTP

Network Time Protocol

OAM

Operation and Maintenance

OMC

Operation and Maintenance Centre

OMCR

Operation and Maintenance Centre of RNC

OPEX

Operating expenses

OSPF

Open Shortest Path First

OVSF

Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor

PA

Power Amplifier

PCI

Pre-coding Index

PDP

Packet Data Protocol

PDU

Protocol Data Unit

PF

Proportional Fair

PHS

Personal Handy phone System

PICH

Paging Indicator Channel

PIR

Partial Incremental Redundancy

PLMN

Public Land Mobile Network

POS

Packet over SONET/SDH

PPA

Preferred Pool Area

PPD

Partial Packet Discard

PPP

Point-to-Point Protocol

PRACH

Physical Random Access Channel

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UTRAN UR11.1 Basic Feature Description

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PS

Packet Switched

PSTN

Public Switched Telephone Network

PtM

Point-to-Multipoint

PtP

Point to Point

PVC

Permanent Virtual Circuit

PWS

Public Warning System

QAM

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

QoS

Quality of Service

QPSK

Quadrature (Quaternary) Phase Shift Keying

RA

Routing Area

RAB

Radio Access Bearer

RACH

Random Access Channel

RAN

Radio Access Network

RANAP

Radio Access Network Application Part

RAT

Radio Access Technology

RB

Radio Bearer

RF

Radio Frequency

RG

Relative Grant

RL

Radio Link

RLC

Radio Link Control

ROHC

Robust Header Compression

ZTE Confidential Proprietary

UTRAN UR11.1 Basic Feature Description

RR

Radio Resources

RRC

Radio Resource Control

RRM

Radio Resource Management

RRU

Radio Remote Unit

RNC

Radio Network Controller

RNSAP

Radio Network Subsystem Application Part

RSCP

Received Signal Code Power

RSEPS

Received Scheduled E-DCH Power Share

RSU

Radio Sector Unit

RT

Real-Time

RTCP

Real-Time Transport Control Protocol

RTP

Real Time Protocol

RTR

RRU Transceiver

RTT

Round-Trip Time

RTWP

Received Total Wideband Power

SA

Service Area

SAI

Service Area Identifier

SABP

Service Area Broadcast Protocol

SCCP

Signalling Connection Control Part

SCCPCH

Secondary Common Control Physical Channel

SCUDIF

Service Change and UDI/RDI Fallback

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UTRAN UR11.1 Basic Feature Description

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SDH

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy

SDP

Session Description Protocol

SF

Spreading Factor

SFN

System Frame Number

SG

Scheduling Grant

SGSN

Serving GPRS Support Node

SIB

System Information Block

SIP

Session Initiation Protocol

SIR

Signal-to-Interference Ratio

SLA

Service Level Agreement

SMLC

Service Mobile Location Center

SMS

Short Message Service

SMS-CB

SMS Cell Broadcast

SNA

Shared Network Area

SNR

Signal-to-noise ratio

SNTP

Simple Network Time Protocol

SONET

Synchronous Optical Networking

SPI

Schedule Priority Indicator

SRB

Signalling Radio Bearer

SRNC

Serving Radio Network Controller

SRNS

Serving RNS

ZTE Confidential Proprietary

UTRAN UR11.1 Basic Feature Description

SR-VCC

Single Radio Voice Call Continuity

SSCF

Service Specific Co-ordination Function

SSCOP

Service Specific Connection Oriented Protocol

STM-1

Synchronous Transport Module Level 1

STTD

Space Time Transmit Diversity

TB

Transport Block

TC

Traffic Class

TCP

Transmission Control Protocol

TDM

Time-division multiplexing

TFI

Transport Format Indicator

TFO

Tandem Free Operation

TFRC

Transport Formation and Resources Combination

THP

Traffic Handling Priority

TM

Transparent Mode

TPC

Transmit Power Control

TrCH

Transport Channel

TrFO

Transcoder Free Operation

TTI

Transmission Time Interval

UBR

Unspecified Bit Rate

UBR+

Unspecified Bit Rate Plus

UDI

Unrestricted Digital Information

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UTRAN UR11.1 Basic Feature Description

UE

User Equipment

UEA

3G Encrypt Algorithm

UM

Unacknowledged Mode

UMTS

Universal Mobile Telecommunications System

URA

User Registration Area


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USIM

Universal Subscriber Identity Module

UTRAN

UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network

VAM

Virtual Antenna Mapping

VBR

Variable Bit Rate

VC

Virtual Circuit

VLAN

Virtual Local Area Network

VoIP

Voice over IP

VP

Virtual Path

VSWR

Voltage Standing Wave Ratio

WCDMA

Wideband Code Division Multiple Access

WRR

Weighted Round Robin

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