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Physics

Investigatory Project

Full Wave Rectifier


Submitted by:
Prabhat Singh Tomar

DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS
CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that
Prabhat Singh Tomar
, a student of class
XII-C,
has successfully completed the project titled FULL
WAVE RECTIFIER under the guidance of Mrs. Darakhshan
Gupta (Subject Teacher) during the academic year 2015-16 .

Mrs. Darakhshan Gupta


Dept. of Physics
Cambridge School

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
In the accomplishment of this project successfully, many
people have bestowed upon me their blessings and the heart
pledged support, this time I am utilizing to thank all the
people who have been concerned with project.
Primarily I would thank god for being able to complete this
project with success. Then I would like to thank my physics
teacher Mrs.Darakhshan Gupta, whose valuable guidance has
been the one that helped me patch this project and make it
foolproof success. Her instructions has served as the major
contributor towards the completion of the project.
Then I would like to thank my parents and friends who have
helped me with their valuable suggestions and guidance has
been helpful in various phases of the completion of the project.

INDEX
1.INTRODUCTION
2.AIM
3. MATERIALS REQUIRED
4. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
5. PROCEDURE
6. WORKING
7. BIBLIOGRAPHY

INTRODUCTION
A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating
current (AC), which periodically changes direction, to direct
current (DC), which flows in only one direction. The process
is known as
rectification
. Rectification produces a type of DC
that encompasses active voltages and currents, which are then
adjusted into a type of constant voltage DC, although this
varies depending on the current's end-use. The current is
allowed to flow uninterrupted in one direction, and no current
is allowed to flow in the opposite direction. Physically,
rectifiers take a number of forms, including vacuum tube
diodes, mercury-arc valves, copper and selenium oxide
rectifiers, semiconductor diodes, silicon-controlled rectifiers
and other silicon-based semiconductor switches.
Rectifier circuits may be single-phase or multi-phase.
Most low power rectifiers for domestic equipment are
single-phase, but three-phase rectification is very important
for industrial applications and for the transmission of energy
as DC.

AIM
To construct a Full Wave rectifier and show that
the (AC) alternating current is rectified into direct
current (DC).

MATERIALS REQUIRED
1. Connecting Wires
2. A plug
3. Single Lead Wire- 2m
4. Cardboard
5. Capacitor
6. A Transformer (6V)
7. A Resistor
8. P-N Junction Diode
9. A LED
10. Insulation Tape, Blades, Soldering
Wax, Soldering Lead, Soldering Iron &
Sand Paper

Connection Details:

Connections are done as in the circuit. The A.C. supply is given


to both the input wires of the transformer and the two ends of
the secondary coil is given to the P side of the two diodes and
the N side of the diodes are twined and then connected to one
end of the capacitor and the other end to the center tap lead
and to the resistor. Further, the other end of capacitor with the
diode connection isconnected to the other end of the resistor.
Connect 2 leads on both the ends of the resistor to measure the
output and this is connected to the +ve & -ve terminals of the
bulb.

WORKING
First when the A.C. is supplied to the transformer, it steps
down the 220V main supply to 6 volts. It has a capability of
delivering a current of 500mA.
The 6 volts A.C. appearing across the secondary is the RMS
value and the peak value is 8.4 volts.
During the first half cycle of the A.C. input Diode D1 is forward
biased and a current
I flows in t
he circuit in the direction
S
1
D1
ABEOS

1
.
During this time diode D2 is reverse biased. So it does not
conduct any electric current. During the next half cycle the
diode D2 is forward and D1 is reversed. Hence D2 conducts
current in the direction S
2
D2
ABEOS

2
and D1 does not conduct
any current.
In subsequent half cycles of the A.C current the above
processes are repeated. In both the half cycles it is clear that
current flows through the resistor in only one direction ABE.
Even though the voltage across RL is unidirectional it will still
contain a few A.C components. This is filtered and made

smooth using a capacitor, which filters 99% of the A.C current.


A resistor is then used to adjust the output voltage. Capacitor
also nearly filters all A.C components from the supply and
resistance is adjusted for the required output. As this is a
simple circuit, only one capacitor and a resistance are being
used. But there will be slight factor of A.C.current still left in
the output but it is negligible. The output Direct Current and
voltage light up the LED.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

www.google.com
www.wikipedia.com
School Library
www.physicstoday.com
www.scribd.com