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excretory system

I. The purpose of the experiment

1. name the organs and parts of organs of excretion
2. explain the function of each organ
3. explain the functions and workings of the nephron
4. explain pH and composition of urine
5. explain the influence of water, sugar, tea water and formation water sports
II. theory
the process of spending the rest of the substances in the human body can be
divided into three kinds, namely defecation, excretions and secretions
1. defecation
the expenditure remains of digestion is called faecal and expelled through the
anus. substances that are released through the anus is not absorbed by the
intestine, the intestinal epithelial cells are damaged and gut microbes
2. excretion
expenditure metabolic waste substances are no longer used by the cells and
blood, expelled with urine, sweat and breathing.
3. secretion
sap spending process by cells and glands. sap released is useful for focil
processes in the body. This sap usually contain enzymes.
excretory system functions:
1. discard useless waste and toxic in the body
2. adjust the volume and concentration of body fluids
3. mempertahankatemperatur body in the normal range
4. homeostatic
organs of excretion system consists of two kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra.
urine that form will be sent to most of the ureter through the pelvis, urinary
dikantung collected then removed through uereter
human kidney numbered pair, located in the abdominal cavity next to the right
front and left front segments of spinal waist.

right kidney is lower than the left because there is above the right kidney, liver,
kidney shaped like pea seeds with about 10 cm long and weighs about 200
grams. kidney longitudinally split will show the parts of the cortex is the outer
layer, the medulla, pelvis. in the cortex there is the nephron.
kidney cross section

Renal function:
1. maintaining balance in the blood or body H20
2. maintain appropriate body fluid osmolarity, mainly through regulatory balance
3. maintain proper plasma volume
4. helps balance the body's acid
5. excrete the end products of metabolism
6. issuing a lot of foreign compounds
7. produce renin, a hormone that triggers a reaction
8. convert vitamin D into a form aktivnya.

the function of the parts of the nephron

-arteriola afferent: carry blood to the glomerulus

-glomerulus: a capillary filter kantum free plasma proteins into the tubular
-kapsula bowman: collect the glomerular filtrate
-tubulus proximal: reabsorption and secretion of certain controlled substances
-ansa Henle: forming an osmotic gradient in the renal medulla are essential
ability of the kidneys to produce urine concentrations of diverse
-tubulus distal and collecting duct: na + reabsorption controlled diverse and h2o
and secretion of K + and H + happens here, leave the collecting duct fluid is
urine, which goes into the renal pelvis
based on the structure and function of nephrons is divided into 2
1. nephron kartikalis
where the corpus renalisnya nephron located in the cortex is relatively far from
the cord so that only a portion of the loop of Henle, located in the medulla
2. nephron jurkomedullaris
nephron where corpus renalisnya close to the cord so that Henle longer part of
the medulla


1. filtration
is the first step in the formation of urine
glomerular capillary filtration occurs in the Bowman capsule. in the glomerular
capillary endothelium are porous cents for filtering. factor of the filtering is the
osmotic pressure, hydrostatic pressure and osmotic pressure difference
filtration results in the form of water, glucose, bicarbonate, urea, amino acids,
electrolytes. whereas the cells darahdikeluarkan through efferent veins vena
2. reabsorption
human urine volume is only 1% of the glomerular filtrate. so 99% of the
glomerular filtrate will actively reabsorbed in the tubules convoluted disatal still
useful substances returned to the blood. the rest of the trash and excess salt and
other materials brought into the loop of Henle and reabsorbed materials that are
still useful as ion na. the result is of secondary urine which there no longer are
substances that the body needs.
3. augmentation
waste materials and the process of adding urea which occurs in the distal tubules
konturtus. the result is actually where urine urine into the renal pelvis and ureter.
prior to release of urine collected while dikantung urine.
subsequently expelled through the urethra with mikfurasi process is a reflex
response to stretching of the bladder wall when fully occupied urine.

consists of two pipelines, each concatenated from the kidney to the bladder.
length + - 25-30 cm, with a cross-section of + - 0.5 cm. ureter partly in the
abdominal cavity and partly in the pelvic cavity.
lining the walls of the ureter causing peristalsis every 5 minutes that will push
through ireter urine excreted by the kidneys.
filtration bladder can accommodate large volumes of urine. bladder consists of
smooth muscle that lined the inside by a special type of epithelium.
the bladder is where urine is stored. located within a large stage shaped like a
cone. bladder surrounded by powerful muscles.
a channel that runs from the bladder neck out holes.
urethra mucous membranes coated with a membrane coated continued bladder
Kemin. urethra in women lies in the upper part of the vagina, which acts as an
outlet for urine from the bladder. urethra in men walk the winding length + - 20
cm, which serves as a terminal of the reproductive tract
III. work procedures
3.1 tools and materials
- Erlenmeyer
- Beaker
test tube
tea water

3.2 workings
five people in the practicum in each group was asked to participate in this
experiment and will do the following things:

a. someone drank half a liter of drinking water

b. someone drinking tea 1 cup water + 25% sugar
c. a person drink 1 glass of water 25% sugar solution
d. a person exercising the activity jog about 10 minutes
e. someone as control
a. time of formation of urine
b. volume of urine
c. check the pH, BJ, color to determine the presence / absence of glucose /
d. tabelkan observations brother

take 5 ml benedict +2 drops of urine boil for 5 minutes in a water bath and then
specify the number of glucose:
a. negative when the blue color cloudy
b. + When a bluish-greenish yellow color (containing 0.01-0.03 9%)
c. ++ When a dark green color (containing 1-1.5 9%)
d. +++ When yellow (containing 1.5-2.5 9%)
e. ++++ When the red-orange color (containing 2.5-49%)
ketones examination
take 5 ml + 5 drops of a solution of FeCl3, (+) when formed in burgundy.