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Web technology

Device & Media: Devices and media are the physical

elements or hardware of the network. Hardware is often the
visible components of the network platform such as a
laptop, a PC, a switch, or the cabling used to connect the
devices. Occasionally, some components may not be so
visible. In the case of wireless media, messages are
transmitted through the air using invisible radio frequency
or infrared waves.

Services: Services and processes are the communication

programs, called software, that run on the networked
devices. A network service provides information in
response to a request. Services include many of the
common network applications people use every day, like e-
mail hosting services and web hosting services. Processes
provide the functionality that directs and moves the
messages through the network. Processes are less obvious
to us but are critical to the operation of networks.

Network media: these media are:

Metallic wires within cables
Glass or plastic fibers (fiber optic cable)
Wireless transmission
a) The size of the area covered
b) The number of users connected
c) The number and types of services available

An individual network usually spans a single geographical

area, providing services and applications to people within a
common organizational structure, such as a single business,
campus or region. This type of network is called a Local
Area Network (LAN). A LAN is usually administered by a
single organization. The administrative control that governs
the security and access control policies are enforced on the
network level.

WAN: Individual organizations usually lease connections

through a telecommunications service provider network.
These networks that connect LANs in geographically
separated locations are referred to as Wide Area Networks
(WANs). Although the organization maintains all of the
policies and administration of the LANs at both ends of the
connection, the policies within the communications service
provider network are controlled by the TSP.


The term intranet is often used to refer to a private

connection of LANs and WANs that belongs to an
organization, and is designed to be accessible only by the
organization's members, employees, or others with

Network Interface Card - A NIC, or LAN adapter,

provides the physical connection to the network at the PC
or other host device. The media connecting the PC to the
networking device plugs directly into the NIC.

Physical Port - A connector or outlet on a networking

device where the media is connected to a host or other
networking device.
Network protocol:
Networking protocols suites describe processes such as:
1. The format or structure of the message
2. The process by which networking devices share
3.information about pathways with other networks
4. How and when error and system messages are passed
between devices
5. The setup and termination of data transfer sessions

OSI model:
Initially the OSI model was designed by the International
Organization for Standardization (ISO) to provide a
framework on which to build a suite of open systems
protocols. The vision was that this set of protocols would
be used to develop an international network that would not
be dependent on proprietary systems.
Service of protocol:

DNS: Domain Name Service Protocol (DNS) is used to

resolve Internet names to IP addresses.

HTTP: Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is used to

transfer files that make up the Web pages of the World
Wide Web.

SMTP: Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is used for

the transfer of mail messages and attachments.

Telnet,: a terminal emulation protocol, is used to provide

remote access to servers and networking devices.

FTP :File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is used for interactive

file transfer between systems.

Client & server:

In the client/server model, the device requesting the

information is called a client and the device responding to
the request is called a server.

Telnet: servers typically have multiple clients requesting

information at the same time. For example, a Telnet server
may have many clients requesting connections to it. These
individual client requests must be handled simultaneously
and separately for the network to succeed. The Application
layer processes and services rely on support from lower
layer functions to successfully manage the multiple

Peer-to-Peer Networks
In a peer-to-peer network, two or more computers are
connected via a network and can share resources (such as
printers and files) without having a dedicated server. Every
connected end device (known as a peer) can function as
either a server or a client. One computer might assume the
role of server for one transaction while simultaneously
serving as a client for another. The roles of client and
server are set on a per request basis.

DNS service protocol:

.au - Australia
.co - Colombia
.com - a business or industry
.jp - Japan
.org - a non-profit organization


Two example Application layer protocols are Post Office
Protocol (POP) and Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
(SMTP), shown in the figure. As with HTTP, these
protocols define client/server processes.

Telnet: telnet provides a way to use a computer. Connected

via the network, to access a network device as if the
keyboard and monitor were directky connected to the
IP Address:
Private Addresses

The private address blocks are: to ( /8) to ( /12) to ( /16)

(Document object model): The dom is a cross platform and
language – independent convention for representing and
interacting with object in HTML, xHTML, and xML,

The public interface of a DOM are specified in its

application programming – interface (API)

The ARPHANET was created with a view of enable
academic and government resourses to communicate by e-
mail and to share data and camping resourses.
The internet is a huge public forum which is ideally suited
for merchant real time etc. and the posting of other “public”
Internet= internet+extranet
Intranet: with a individual network. Sort network. Public
Must be connected with other internet