TECHNOLOGY
TECHNOLO
BASU SAHU
NIT RAIPUR BATCH  2010
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
DEDICATED TO
MY HOUNARABLE TEACHERS
Basu Sahu
Mechanical Engg.
NIT Raipur 2010 batch
Basu Sahu
Mechanical Engg.
NIT Raipur 2010 batch
UNIT  I
Cutting Tool – types, requirements, specification & application
Geometry of Single Point Cutting Tool  tool angle, Tool angle
specification system, ASA, ORS and NRS and
interrelationship.
Mechanics of Metal Cutting
Theories of metal cutting, Chip formation, types of chips, chip
breakers, Orthogonal and Oblique cutting, stress and
strain in the chip, velocity relations, power and energy
requirement in metal cutting.
UNIT  II
Machinability
Concept and evaluation of Machinability, Mechanism of Tool
failure, Tool wear mechanism, Tool life, Tool life
equation, Machinability index, factors affecting machinability.
Thermal Aspects in Machining and Cutting Fluid
Source of heat in metal cutting and its distributions, temp
measurement in metal cutting, function of cutting fluid,
types of cutting fluid.
UNIT – III
Design of Machine Tool Element
Design of Lathe bed, Material and construction feature, various
bed section, analysis of force under headstock, tail
UNIT – IV
Design of Speed Gear Box
Drives in Machine Tool, classification, selecting maximum and
minimum cutting speeds, speed loss, kinematic
advantage of Geometric progression, kinematic diagrams,
design of Gear Box of 6,9,12 and 18 speed.
UNIT – V
Design of Feed Gear Box
Elements of feed gear box, classificationNorton drive, draw key
drive, Meander’s drive, Design of feed gear box for longitudinal
and cross feed and for thread cutting.
Machine Tool Installation and Maintenance
Machine Tool installation, Machine Tool Maintenance,
lubrication, reconditioning of machine tool.
Machine Tool Testing
Testing, Geometrical checks, measuring equipment for testing,
acceptance test for Lathe and Radial drilling
machines.
H.S.S.
corrosion resistance
M2 6% 5% 4% 2% 00% 0.85%
Characteristics:
<a> Typical composition:
as shown in above table
and rest iron.
<b> Hot hardness temperature: 500⁰c
<c>Hardness: Rc = 62—65
<d> Cutting speed(grey CI): 35 m/min
<e> Toughness : fair
<f> Wear resistance : fair
<g> Relative cost: high
Cemented carbide:
cemented
carbide
C grade S grade
Note It should be noted that C grade is not suitable for steel
but this drawback is overcome by
adding TaC in WC in S grade.
Characteristics
<a> Typical composition: It has been described
above.
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
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<b> Hot hardness temperature: 800⁰c
<c>Hardness: Ra = 8792
<d> Cutting speed(grey CI): 150 m/min
<e> Toughness : poor
<f> Wear resistance : good
<g> Relative cost: very high
Typical useturning, drilling, machining, broaching,
Modes of failure flank wear, crater wear.
LimitationIt has strong tendency to form pressure weld at
low cutting speed. C grade cannot
use at low.
Note It should be noted that all carbides, when
finished, are extremely brittle & weak in their resistance to
impact & shock loading. Due to this, vibrations are very harmful
for carbide tool. The machine tool should be rigid, faster &
more powerful. Light feeds, low speed & chatter are harmful.
Due to the high cost & carbide tool materials & other factors,
cemented carbide are used in the form of inserts, or tips which
are brazed
or clamped to steel shank.
Ceramics 
ceramics cutting tools are composed primarily of
fine grained Al2O3 , pressed & sintered at high pressure &
temperature with no blinder into insert form (throw away
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
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form). The Al2O3 is usually very pure (99% is typical)
although some manufacturers add other oxides like zirconium
oxide, MgO, NiO, Cr2O3 , TiO & TiC etc to improve the grain
structure, cutting properties & sintering.
Characteristics:
<a> Typical composition:
Al2O3=95%, Co=5%
<b> Hot hardness temperature: 1200̊ °c
<c>Hardness: Ra = 9095%
<d> Cutting speed(grey CI): 600 m/min
<e> Toughness : very poor
<f> Wear resistance : very good
<g> Relative cost: very much high
Typical use : turning.
Modes of tool failure DCL notching, micro chipping, gross
fracture.
Limitation low strength, low thermal or mechanical fatigue
strength, not for interrupted cutting
In Fig.(b),
The relations (4.14) and (4.15) are also possible to be attained from inversions of Equation
4.13 as indicated in case of rake angles.
cards.
Types of chips:
1. Discontinuous chips
Regular sharp size chip
Irregular sharp size chip
2.Continuous chips
With BUE
Without BUE
3. Segmented or serrated or shear localised chips
Discontinuous chips:
<a> Irregular sharp shape and sized:
Condition:
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
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• Work material: brittle & hard like grey cast iron.
• Cutting velocity: low
• Cutting feed : high
• Rake angle: positive and small
• Cutting fluid: use of cutting fluid
Continuous chips:
<a> Continuous chips without BUE:
Condition:
• work material: Ductile.
• Cutting velocity: high
• Cutting feed : low
• Rake angle: positive and large
• Cutting fluid: use of cutting fluid (both cooling and
lubricant)
Disadvantages:
Variable width
Fixed geometry Variable (W), height(H) and
type width(W) only
shear angle (β)
From ∆&,
AB = (2)
∅
∅

$%∅ "
+, ∅
Therefore,

+ $%∅ "
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
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Now , consider consistency of volume:
Volume of metal removed from work piece
= volume of chip
t1× /1 × 11 × 1 = 22 × /2 × 12 × 2
where t denotes thickness, b denotes width, l denotes
length , denotes density
and also /1 = /2 and 1 = 2
21 × 11 = 22 × 12
3
= 3
Therefore,
21 12 45 sin ∅
= = =
22 11 4 cos(∅ − *)
Again,
∅
=
$%(∅ ")
∅
=
$% ∅ $% "8 ∅ "
9: ∅
 =
$% "89: ∅ "
rcos ∝ + tan ∅ sin * = tan ∅
☺ (Merchant circle)☺
Analysis of forces in metal cutting☺ ☺
Coefficent of friction chip tool contact surface
@ @, " 8@ $% "
P = tan = Q = @, $% " @ "
☺ Note :
Fc is the component which is responsible for
energy consumption since this is along direction of
motion of tool.
Ft is not responsible for cutting operation.
Variation of Fc and Ft with respect to cutting
velocityV, feed f and depth of cut d.
∆l
TQ8Qm
k
XQ
TQ Qm
k
XQ XQ
nℎHE n2EFL k = cot(∅) + tan(∅ − * )
Condition for minimum k:
[p
=0
[∅
−(csc ∅) + (sec(∅ − * )) = 0
)
2∅ − * =
kJFL = 2 cot(∅)
Shear stress:
shear stress can be defined as
MO
aO =
O
@,,UB∅ @BrC∅
aO = where I = / × 21
TU/BrC∅
I(%)=(Vi / Vs ) × 100
Standard steel:
Carbon – 0.13% (max)
Manganese – 0.06 to 1.1 %
Sulphur  0.08 to 0.03%
Rest is iron.
Cutting fluid
Sulphurised oil
Chlorinated oil
where
Λ = fraction of primary heat which goes to work piece,
ρ = density of material,
c = specific heat of the material,
t1 = uncut thickness,
b= width of cut,
Since the computation of Λ needs an elaborate analysis, we will
give here only the result which agrees well with the experimental
results. It has been found that Λ is a function of the shear angle Φ
and a nondimensional quantity, namely,
Θ = ρcVt1/k
θs ≈ 1.13s[Θt2/l × W2/ρcVbt1]
where l is the length of contact between the tool and chip. The
corresponding average temperature rise is obtained from the
equation
(θs)ave = W2/ρcVbt1
It has been found that
l/t2 = [1+tan(Φα)]
{
hence θs =1.13z$}~9[89: "]
edge.
3. Excessive wear at line of depth of cut. This can be
either due to the work hardened surface caused by the
previous cut or heat treat scales or by other abrasive
4 C 21 = '′
Where V = cutting speed(m/min.)
T = tool life (min.)
t1 = depth of cut (mm.)
w = width of work piece (mm.)
p, q, n and C’ are constants criterion
Problem(1):
During turning a mild steel component with an
orthogonal tool a feed of 0.75 mm/rev is used at 50
R.P.M. if the chip thickness is 1.5 mm, determine the chip
thickness ratio. Also find the length of chip removed in
one minute, if the work diameter is 50 mm before the cut
is taken. Assume a continuous chip.
Solution Given:
Now, r = Chip thickness ratio =
.
r= = 0.5
.
1 sin *
.×$% °
tan ∅
.× °
tan ∅ = 0.554753
∅ = 29°
And let Fs be shear force
then Fs = M5 cos ∅ − M2 sin ∅
Fs = 20 cos 29° − 8 sin 29°
Fs= 13.61 kgf
Now let Vs be velocity of chip with respect to
work piece
cos∅ *
$% °
4O
$%(° °)
4O = 79.64J/JFL
Hence Work done in shear W1 = MO × 4O
W1 =13.61× 79.64
W1 = 1083`. J/JFL
Shear strain = cot ∅ + tan(∅ − *)
Shear strain = cot 29° + tan(29° − 15°) = 2.05 (ans.)
Problem(3):
Calculate the power consumed during cutting of a low
carbon steel bar 40mm. diameter if cutting force is 150
kgf at 200 rpm.
Solution :
Given:
Diameter of bar (D) = 40 mm
Cutting force (Fc) = 150 kgf
rpm (N) = 200
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
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let velocity of cutting tool = V
then V = ] = ] × × 200 = 25.12 m/min
Problem(3)
In orthogonal cutting of a material the feed force is
80 kgf and cutting force is 150 kgf.
Calculate the following :
(a) Compression and shear force on shear plane.
(b) Coefficient of friction of the chip on the tool face.
Take chip thickness ratio as 0.3 and rake angle as
8∘ .
Φ = 17∘
Fn = M5 sin ∅ + M2 cos ∅
ML = 150 sin 17° + 80 cos 17°
ML =120.36kgf (Ans.)
Fs = M5 cos − Ft sin
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
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Fs = 150 cos 17 80sin 17
Fs = 120.06 kgf (Ans.)
(b)
coefficient of friction of chip on tool face=
M5 tan ∝ M2
P
M5 M2 tan *
150 tan 8° 80
P
150 80 tan 8 °
P
0.7285 (Ans.)
now,
.
(1) Chip thickness ratio (r) = = .
= 0.5
$% ∅
(3) 4O = $%(∅ " )
4
$% . °
4O = $%(. ° °)
× 165J/JFL.
Vs = 153 m/min.
= 1.925 × 10 J /OH5
= 1.9255J /OH5
Hence specific energy consumption
.
= = 1.542&h/J
.×¢£
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
Page 118
(10) Work done by tool in shearing action (W1)
MO × 4O
.
1 = 49.37 × 153 ×
×
1 = 1.235
And specific shearing energy
= W1/ volume of chip per sec
.
= .×¢£ /J /OH5 = 0.642 &h/J
1.925 × 10 J /OH5
= 1.9255J /OH5
(13) H.P./ 5J /OH5 = 3.98/1.925 = 2.07
TU S×
And O = =
∅ ∅
3.5 × 0.2
= = 1.475JJ
sin 28.33°
= 1.475 × 10 J
. ×.
Hence aO = ¢£ /J = 328.334 × 10 /J
.×
Problem(5):
A tool life of 80 min. is obtained at a speed of 30 m/min
and 8 min. at 60 m/min.
Determine the following:
(1) Tool life equation
(2) Cutting speed for 10 min. tool life
(3) Tool life for 40 m/min cutting speed
(4) Change in cutting speed required to give 50%
reduction in tool life.
(5) If length of bar (L) is 50 mm , diameter of bar 20
mm. and feed is 0.2mm/rev and cutting speed
40m/min. determine no. of components produced
in 8 hour shift.
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
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Solution :
T1 = 80 min. and V1 = 30 m/min.
T2 = 8 min. and V2 = 60 m/min.
(1) 41 × 1C
42 × 2C
'
+ Z
L
1I` /1I` =0.3
+ Z
And '
30 × 80.
111.7
Tool life equation 4 × .
111.7
(2)
10JFL.
.
4
55.98 J/JFL
¤.¥
(3) V = 40m/min
. / .
= = 30.67 min.
(4) Given
T = 0.5 T1
4 × . = 41 × 1. = '
+
4 = = 1.2341
.¤.¥
Change in cutting speed required
= (VV1)/V1 x 100%
Change in cutting speed required = 23%
(5)
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
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Let N = spindle speed
D = dia. of bar = 20mm = 0.02m.
]
40J/JFL
∴
2000 KJ
And feed f = 0.2 mm/rev
Length of piece L = 50mm
¦
Cutting time per piece = §×Q
×
= OH5 = 7.5OH5
.×
)
Here *
0 then ∅
) )
∴ k
tan + cot = 2 ans(c)
Problem (2)
In machining experiment tool life was found with cutting
speed in following manners :
Cutting speed(m/min) Tool life (min)
60 81
90 36
Q(1) The exponent (n) & constant (C) of Taylor’s tool
equation are:
(a) n = 0.5 and C = 540 (b) n = 1.0 and C = 4860
(c) n = 1 and C = 0.74 (d) n = 0.5 and C = 1.115
Solution :
(1) 41 × 1C
42 × 2C
'
60 × 81C
90 × 36C
©¤
3U¨
L
£¤
ª«
0.5
3U¨
¥£
And 60 × 81.
'
C = 540
Hence 4 C
540
Ans (a)
(2)
41 × 1.
42 × 2.
540
And V2 = ½ V1
+ Z .
∴
+ Z
Problem (4)
In a machining operation , doubling the cutting speed
reduces the tool life to 1/8th original value. Exponent in
Taylor’s tool life will be—
(a) 1/8 (b) 1/2 (c) 1/4 (d) 1/3
Solution:
4 C
'
Z C
4 ×
24 ×
'
C
n = 1/3 ans(d)
.
r =
< $% "
And tan ∅
∅
40.2°
And shear strain k
tan∅ * cot ∅
Hence k
tan40.2° 15° cot 40.2°
k
1.65 ans (d)
M5 M2 tan *
9: °8
P
9: °
P
0.46 ans (a)
Q(3) The fraction of total energy dissipated due to
friction at tool chip interface is—
(a) 30% (b) 42% (c) 55% (d) 70%
Solution:
Power input to tool
M5 × 4
1200 × E22
400 E22
t1
L
Relative torsional stiffness wrt. Bed without rib
=2.48
Relative weight wrt. bed without rib= 1.38
t1
In shown figure:
Px = Axial force acting on work material
Py= Transverse component (thrust force)
Pz = Tangential component
Force PxH, PyH, and PzH are acting on live centre
Force PxT, PyT, and PzT are acting on dead centre
∑ M³
0
PzHPz PzT
0
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
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PzT = Pz¦ ´ − \
¦
Similarly , ∑ &³ = 0
PyH× L − Py × ± − &³ = 0
PyH = Py´ + (± ¶
¦ ·
∑ Mj = 0
PYH−Py +PYT = 0
¦ ´ ¶
PyT = Py − (±
¦ ·
¦ ´ ¶
PyT = Py ¦
− (± ·
And ∑ M± = 0
PxH − Px − PxT = 0 and PxT = K is tightening force
PxH = Px + PxT= Px + K
Hence Forces acting on the headstock centre:
´ \
PzH = Pz −
¦
PxH
Px + PxT= Px + K
Forces acting on tailstock centre:
¦ ´ \
PzT = Pz ¦
¦ ´ ¶
PyT = Py (±
¦ ·
PxT
K
FORCE ANALYSIS ON BEARING HOUSING AND BOLTING:
Now, ∑ M³
0
PZH2PZH PZH1= 0
¹º»×¼?
PZH2
¼
Now, ∑ &³
0
PYH1× m PYH×(m+m’) = 0
¹½»¼8¼?
PYH1
Now, ∑ Mj
0
PYH2PYH PYH1= 0
¹½»×¼?
PYH2
¼
¼
¹º»×¼?
PZH2
¼
¹½»¼8¼?
PYH1
¼
¹½»×¼?
PYH2
∑ M³
0
PZH1PZHB1Fy = 0
PZHB1
PZH1Fy )
¹¾».»
PZHB1
PZH1 )
¼
and
PZHB2PZH2Fy = 0
PZHB2
PZH2Fy )
¹¾».»
PZHB2
PZH2 )
¼
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
Page 147
And ∑ Mj
0
PyHB1PyH1 = 0
PyHB1
− PyH1
And
PyHB2−PyH2 = 0
PyHB2= PyH2
∑ M³
0
PZTPZTB1 PZTB2 = 0
? »
PZTB2 = PÀÁ ) + PXT )
And ∑ Mj
0
PYTPYTB1 PYTB2 = 0
?
PYTB2 = PÂÁ )
∑ &±HE52FGH
∑ &±E52FGH (applying on point A)
Ã ¶
Vc× B= PÀ
) + PY H
Ã ¶ »
Vc = PÀ ) + Py )
Ã Ã
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
Page 152
∑ &³HE52FGH
∑ &³E52FGH (applying on point of
intersection of AC and BD line)
VB = VD (assume)
VB× L = PÄH)
»
VB = VD = Px )
·
∑ &jHE52FGH
∑ &jE52FGH (applying on point of
intersection of AC and BD line)
HB = HD (assume)
HB× L = PÄD/2)
¶
HB = HD = Px ·)
∑ MjHE52FGH
∑ MjE52FGH
Hc = Py
1 2 3 4 K 1 L 1
∅
where
∅
common ratio in G.P.
2 1 3 2 K L
⋯
. . .
1 2 K 1 L 1
1
1
∅
Hence in G.P.
<1> %age of max. Loss for any available range of speeds
is constant.
<2> %age max. Loss is not a function of dia.(D) for given
Vc.
<3> No crowding of speed even at higher speed.
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
Page 162
<b > In case of A.P.
×+dÍ´ ×+drC
Nmax
& Nmin =
)mdrC )mdÍ´
QdÍ´
Rn = range ratio of spindle speed =
QdrC
+dÍ´ mdÍ´
= ×
+drC mdrC
ÎL = ÎG × Î
+dÍ´
Where ÎG = = ratio of cutting speed
+drC
mdÍ´
And Î = = ratio of work piece diameter.
mdrC
Maximum cutting speed for which machine
Tool is designed depends upon several factors such as—
manufacturing process to be employed, the material of
work piece , cutting tool geometry and tool life and also
surface finish of work piece.
<2> For stable operation the range ratio (Rn) of any stage
should not be greater than 8
ÎL ≤ 8
<3> One set of gear must be completely disengaged
before the other set begins to come into mesh.
<4> The sum of teeth of mating gears in given stage must
be the same for same module in clustered set.
<5> The axial gap between adjacent gear box must be
equal to at least two gear width.
Step(3)
Find speeds in between Nmax and Nmin using G.P
Step(4) Draw Ray diagram using an
arrangement(subdivision) keeping in mind stage
restriction.(Here We are not talking about optimised Ray
diagram but you can optimise ray diagram on the basis of
no. of gear required and it should also noted that Rn and
shaft size constraint optimisation of ray diagram. )
Step(5) Calculate teeth(Z) of gears.(Method for
calculation See in problem)
2 Ð1
F
1 Ð1′
Step(2):
JE± /(C )
∅=Õ Ö
&JFL
QdÍ´ /C
Step(2): ∅
ÓdrC
/
∅
= 1.2581
Standard value of progression ratio
∅
1.25 OHFHO Î20/2
∴ Z1 = 22 , Z1’ = 50
QdÍ´ /C
Step(2): ∅
ÓdrC
/
∅
= 1.251
Standard value of progression ratio
∅
1.25 OHFHO Î20/2
Step (3):
N1= Nmin, N2= N1× ∅, N3= N2× ∅ and so on.
Hence output speeds are as follows:
120, 150, 188, 235, 290, 370, 460, 580, 720
QdÍ´ /C
Step(2): ∅
ÓdrC
/
∅
= 1.398
Standard value of progression ratio
∅
1.4 OHFHO Î20/3
locked
F1=
Þ Þ Þ Þ Þ Þ Þ Þ Þ
.
F2= .
F3= .
Þ ÞU ÞU Þ ÞU ÞU Þ ÞU ÞU
Þ Þ Þ Þ Þ Þ
F4= Þ . ÞU
ÞU F5 = Þ . ÞU
ÞU
Advantages :
compact design ; 1012 transmission may be
obtained in one group
Small dimensions or small no. of gears as (n+2)gears
are required to obtain n feed rate value.
Simple control as all transmission are engaged by
single lever.
Fig (a)
ß ß ß ß ß
. .
5 {let 5
}
ß ß ßU ß ßU
Fig (b)
ß ß ß ß ß
F2
ß . ß . ßU
ßU
5 ß
Fig (c)
ß ß ß
. .
5
ß ß ßU ß
Fig (d)
ß ß ß ß
F4
. .
5
ß ß ßU ß
Fig(e)
ß ß ß ß ß
. . . .
5
ß ß ß ß ßU ß
Fig(f)
ß ß ß ß ß ß
F6
. . . .
5
ß ß ß ß ßU ß
ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß
F8 = ß × ß × ß × ß × ß × ß × ßU = 5 ß
Advantages:
Compactness in design.
Simple control as all transmission are engaged or
disengaged by single lever.
Large transmission can be obtained because they are
in geometrical progression(G.P.).
Disadvantages:
Insufficient accuracy and rigidity.
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
Page 206
Poor lubrication.
Large no. of dimensions are required for n
transmission 2n gears are required.
Feed gear box with gear cone and sliding key:
This design consists of continuously meshing gear pairs.
The gears on driving shaft(1) are all rigidly fixed where as
those on driven shaft (2) are mounted freely. A sliding,
spring loaded key travel in the keyways of driven
shaft(2). The transmission from shaft (1) to shaft(2) can
be achieved through any of gear pairs by shifting key
with the help of pulling rod from one gear to another
gear. Thus at a time only one gear of shaft(2) transmits
torque while other rotates freely.
Disadvantages:
Inability to transmit large torque.
Poor rigidity of driven shaft due to long key ways.
The key may get stuck due to cocking
Poor lubrication of gears on shafts as they are thin.
Testing equipments:
The various tools & equipment used for carrying out the
acceptance tests are as follows:
(a)Dial gauge: Dial gauge is widely used in alignment test. Dial
gauge should have clearly readable graduation on sufficient
large scale. Its graduation need not be finer than 0.01 mm &
initial plunger should vary between 40 – 100 gm.
Application in metrology:
(b) Spirit Level: Both horizontal & frame type spirit levels are
used. It should have a sensitivity varying from 0.03 to 0.05 mm
/m for each division. The bearing surface of spirit levels be as
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
Page 217
long as possible & for medium sized machine tool testing, the
length of spirit level bearing surface should not be less than
200mm.
Application in metrology: straightness of bed,
(c) Straight edges and squares: These are made of Cast Iron or
Steel should be well rolled & seasoned. A square must have a
wider bearing surface. The standard square have a tolerance of
± 0.01 mm & precision square
± 0.005 mm.
Application in metrology: straightness
(d) Test mandrel: test mandrels are made to a length may vary
from 100 to 300 mm. They are accurately turned and ground.
The mandrel must be as light as possible otherwise deflection
may occur due to its weight.
Application in metrology:
(e)Autocollimator: autocollimator in conjunctions with block,
deflector and optical square is very sensitive instrument for
checking deflection of long beds in horizontal , vertical or
inclined planes.
Application in metrology: straightness,