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# MACHINE TOOL

TECHNOLOGY
TECHNOLO

BASU SAHU
NIT RAIPUR BATCH - 2010
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
DEDICATED TO

MY HOUNARABLE TEACHERS

Page 1
PREFACE

## I am very glad to present this book to NIT Raipur. During

my semester (CSVTU scheme) I felt a lot of difficulties in
this subject due to randomness of topics & unavailability
of simplified concepts, therefore, in this book I have
made a small effort to make concepts in simplified
manner. I hope this book will be very helpful to my
juniors and also CSVTU’s students.

Basu Sahu
Mechanical Engg.
NIT Raipur 2010 batch

Page 2
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

## I gratefully remember the contributions made by

teachers to add some practical aspects in this book & to
clear my hazy concepts regarding design of feed gear
box. I also thank to my junior Vivek Singh Rathor &
Kaushik sahu to give me a positive response during
writing of this book and to urge me.

Basu Sahu
Mechanical Engg.
NIT Raipur 2010 batch

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

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Machine Tool Technology

UNIT - I
Cutting Tool – types, requirements, specification & application
Geometry of Single Point Cutting Tool - tool angle, Tool angle
specification system, ASA, ORS and NRS and
inter-relationship.
Mechanics of Metal Cutting
Theories of metal cutting, Chip formation, types of chips, chip
breakers, Orthogonal and Oblique cutting, stress and
strain in the chip, velocity relations, power and energy
requirement in metal cutting.

UNIT - II
Machinability
Concept and evaluation of Machinability, Mechanism of Tool
failure, Tool wear mechanism, Tool life, Tool life
equation, Machinability index, factors affecting machinability.
Thermal Aspects in Machining and Cutting Fluid
Source of heat in metal cutting and its distributions, temp
measurement in metal cutting, function of cutting fluid,
types of cutting fluid.

UNIT – III
Design of Machine Tool Element
Design of Lathe bed, Material and construction feature, various
bed section, analysis of force under headstock, tail

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stock and saddle, torque analysis of lathe bed, bending of lathe
bed, designing for torsional rigidity, use of
Reinforcing stiffener in lathe bed.
Design of Guide ways, Material and construction features, over
turning diagram, Antifriction guide ways.

UNIT – IV
Design of Speed Gear Box
Drives in Machine Tool, classification, selecting maximum and
minimum cutting speeds, speed loss, kinematic
advantage of Geometric progression, kinematic diagrams,
design of Gear Box of 6,9,12 and 18 speed.

UNIT – V
Design of Feed Gear Box
Elements of feed gear box, classification-Norton drive, draw key
drive, Meander’s drive, Design of feed gear box for longitudinal
and cross feed and for thread cutting.
Machine Tool Installation and Maintenance
Machine Tool installation, Machine Tool Maintenance,
lubrication, reconditioning of machine tool.
Machine Tool Testing
Testing, Geometrical checks, measuring equipment for testing,
acceptance test for Lathe and Radial drilling
machines.

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

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Unit (i)
Cutting tool
“ A cutting tool is a piece of metal having a single or a
number of hard (hardened) cutting edges, suitably
shaped.”
Classification of cutting tool
<1> According to number of cutting edges:
(a) Single point tool: e.g. turning, planning, slotting
tool etc.
(b) Double point tool: e.g. drill
(c) Multiple (more than two): e.g. milling cutter,
broaching tool, hobs, gear shaping cutter etc.
<2> According to application:
<a> Form cutting tools—tools for cutting grooves, tapers.
<b> Thread cutting tools – dies, taps etc.
<c> straight cutting tool – broach, hand saw, power saw etc.

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Cutting tool material requirements
<1> Toughness: To avoid fracture failure, the tool material
must possess high toughness. “Toughness is the capacity of
material to absorb energy without failing.” It is usually
characterised by a combination of strength and ductility in the
material.
<2> Hot hardness : “ Hot hardness is ability of a material to
retain its hardness at high temp.” It is ability of the cutting tool
to withstand at high temp. without losing its cutting edge. Hot
hardness temp. should be high.
<3> Wear resistance : Hardness is the single most important
property needed to resist abrasive wear during machining .
All cutting tool material must be hard.
<4> Mechanical and thermal shock resistance.
<5> Coefficient of friction between tool and work part should
be low in order to have low tool wear and better surface finish
in work part(s).
<6>Ability to maintain above properties at temperature
occurring during cutting operation.
<7> Ease of fabrication.
<8> It should be in range of favourable cost.
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Types of Cutting tool materials (specification and there
applications):
 Plain carbon tool steel
 Alloy tool steel
 High speed steel(HSS)
 Sintered or Cemented Carbide
 Ceramic and Oxides
 Cermets
 Diamond
 Cubic Boron Nitride
 UCON
 SIALON
Plain carbon tool steel:
Characteristics:
<a> Typical composition: C=1.2% rest iron
<b> Hot hardness temperature: 200⁰c
<c>Hardness: Rc = 55—64
<d> Cutting speed(grey CI): 20 m/min

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<e> Toughness : good
<f> Wear resistance : poor
<g> Relative cost: low
<h> Easy to fabrication

##  Typical use: Making Form tools.

It has advantage, that it is easy to fabricate and acquire keen
edge, hence useful for form tool which is because of there large
line of contact with the work are operated at low speeds upto
The use of plain carbon steel as cutting tool , now-a-days , is
limited mainly on account of loss of hardness beyond 200⁰c.

## Low Alloy steels :

Characteristics:
<a> Typical composition:
Si = 0.25%, Cr= 0.25% , Va=0.25% , Mn=1.2%
and rest iron.
<b> Hot hardness temperature: 300⁰c

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Hardness: Rc = 60—64
<c>Hardness: 60
<d> Cutting speed(grey CI): 25 m/min
<e> Toughness : good
<f> Wear resistance : poor
<g> Relative cost: slightly higher
<h> Easy to fabrication
 Typical use : Making Form tools
tools.

steels(HSS):

H.S.S.

## Tungsten type HSS Molybdenum type HSS

(T-- Series)) (M-- Series)
Series

## W as its principal W is partially or fully

alloying ingredient Replaced by Mo
(12- 20%)
Ex: T1,T2 etc. Ex.: M1,M2etc.

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Alloying element Typical content Functions

## M Type HSS:1.5-6% Improve abrasion resistance

through formation of hard
carbide

## M type HSS: 5 -10% Improve abrasion resistance

through formation of hard
carbide

## 3.75-- 4.5% Improve abrasion resistance

through formation of hard
carbide in HSS

corrosion resistance

wear resistance

better toughness

element in steel

## Provide available C to Form

Carbide with other alloying
elements for wear
resistance

Page 11
DESIGNATION
w Mo Cr V Co C

## M1 1.15% 8.50% 3.75% 1.15% 00% 0.80%

M2 6% 5% 4% 2% 00% 0.85%

## M36 6% 5% 4% 2% 8.25% 0.85%

Characteristics:
<a> Typical composition:
as shown in above table
and rest iron.
<b> Hot hardness temperature: 500⁰c
<c>Hardness: Rc = 62—65
<d> Cutting speed(grey CI): 35 m/min
<e> Toughness : fair
<f> Wear resistance : fair
<g> Relative cost: high

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 Typical use : due to high value of hot hardness temperature
and lower cost as compare to other tool material such as
ceramics, cermets etc. This is widely used for example lathe,
drilling, broaching, milling etc.
 Modes of tooll failure-
failure Flank wear, crater wear.
Block diagram of production of cemented carbide tool by P/M
technique

Cemented carbide:

cemented
carbide

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WC(tungsten carbide) with cobalt as a binder for use in
machining cast & non ferrous metals. In this grade cobalt
concentration is varied from 3-16%. Higher is the cobalt content
greater is to resistance to shock.
(titanium carbide), TaC with cobalt as a binder for use in
machining steel. (TiC=0-16%, TaC=0-10%).
 TiC reduces the tendency of chips to weld to
tool , increase hot hardness.

##  TaC helps to improve resistance to crater wear

& make the structure fine grain.

Note -It should be noted that C grade is not suitable for steel
but this drawback is overcome by
Characteristics-
<a> Typical composition: It has been described
above.
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<b> Hot hardness temperature: 800⁰c
<c>Hardness: Ra = 87-92
<d> Cutting speed(grey CI): 150 m/min
<e> Toughness : poor
<f> Wear resistance : good
<g> Relative cost: very high
 Typical use-turning, drilling, machining, broaching,
 Modes of failure- flank wear, crater wear.
 Limitation-It has strong tendency to form pressure weld at
low cutting speed. C grade cannot
use at low.
Note- It should be noted that all carbides, when
finished, are extremely brittle & weak in their resistance to
for carbide tool. The machine tool should be rigid, faster &
more powerful. Light feeds, low speed & chatter are harmful.
Due to the high cost & carbide tool materials & other factors,
cemented carbide are used in the form of inserts, or tips which
are brazed
or clamped to steel shank.

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 In case of a brazed tip, when it is worn-out, it is
resharpened either the help of special grinding wheel
on a tool & cutting grinder
Drawbacks-
1. Because of the difference in coefficients of expansion of
tip material & tool shank material, the brazing has to be done
very carefully.

## 2. Since tool is removed (un-mount) from machining

for resharpining process hence involving resetting process.
Mechanically clamped tips are known as “Index-able tips”,
because these have more thane one cutting edge which are
used one by one by indexing the tips. Once all the edge of tips
have been used tool is just thrown away. A rectangular tool bit
(insert, tip) can be used upto 8 times before disposed &
requires no sharpening cost.

Ceramics -
ceramics cutting tools are composed primarily of
fine grained Al2O3 , pressed & sintered at high pressure &
temperature with no blinder into insert form (throw away
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form). The Al2O3 is usually very pure (99% is typical)
although some manufacturers add other oxides like zirconium
oxide, MgO, NiO, Cr2O3 , TiO & TiC etc to improve the grain
structure, cutting properties & sintering.

Characteristics:
<a> Typical composition:
Al2O3=95%, Co=5%
<b> Hot hardness temperature: 1200̊ °c
<c>Hardness: Ra = 90-95%
<d> Cutting speed(grey CI): 600 m/min
<e> Toughness : very poor
<f> Wear resistance : very good
<g> Relative cost: very much high
 Typical use : turning.
 Modes of tool failure- DCL notching, micro chipping, gross
fracture.
 Limitation- low strength, low thermal or mechanical fatigue
strength, not for interrupted cutting

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Purposes of conversion of tool angles from one system to
another

## • To understand the actual tool geometry in any

system of choice or convenience from the geometry of a
tool expressed in any other systems

## • To derive the benefits of the various systems of tool

designation as and when required

## • Communication of the same tool geometry

between people following different tool designation
systems.

another

## • Graphical method – Master line principle: simple,

quick and popular

## • Transformation matrix method: suitable for

complex tool geometry

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• Vector method: very easy and quick but needs
concept of vectors

Line principle:

## This convenient and popular method of conversion of

tool angles from ASA to ORS and vice-versa is based on
use of Master lines (ML) for the rake surface and the
clearance surfaces.

## The concept and construction of ML for the tool rake

surface is shown in fig(a).
In Fig., the rake surface, when extended along πX plane,
meets the tool’s bottom surface (which is parallel to πR)
at point D’ i.e. D in the plan view. Similarly when the
same tool rake surface is extended along πY, it meets the
tool’s bottom surface at point B’ i.e., at B in plan view.
Therefore, the straight line obtained by joining B and D is
nothing but the line of intersection of the rake surface
with the tool’s bottom surface which is also parallel to
πR. Hence, if the rake surface is extended in any

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direction, its meeting point with the tool’s bottom plane
must be situated on the line of intersection, i.e., BD.

## Thus the points C and A (in Fig. 4.1) obtained by

extending the rake surface along πo and πC respectively
upto the tool’s bottom surface, will be situated on that
line of intersection, BD.
This line of intersection, BD between the rake surface
and a plane parallel to πR is called the “Master line of the
rake surface”.
From the diagram in Fig.

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Where, T = thickness of tool.
The diagram in figure(a) is redrawn in simpler form in
figure(b)for conversion of tool angle.

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Proof of above equations with the help of above
diagram:

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These inversion can be derived by inverse of above
transformation matrix:

## ☺ NOTE: These equations can also be directly derived by

using diagram.
Maximum rake angle (γmax or γm)
The magnitude of maximum rake angle (γm) and the
direction of the maximum slope of the rake surface of
any single point tool can be easily derived from its
geometry specified in both ASA or ORS by using the
diagram of fig(b). The smallest intercept OM normal to
the Master line (Fig. b) represents γmax or γm as
OM = cot γm
Single point cutting tools like HSS tools after their
wearing out are often resharpened by grinding their rake
surface and the two flank surfaces.
The rake face can be easily and correctly ground by using
the values of γm and the orientation angle, φγ (visualized
in Fig. b) of the Master line.

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Determination of γm and φγ from tool geometry specified
in ASA system

In Fig.(b),

## γm and φγ from tool geometry specified in ORS

Similarly from the diagram in Fig.(b), and taking Δ OAC,
one can prove

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Conversion of clearance angles from ASA system to ORS
and vice versa by Graphical method:
Like rake angles, the conversion of clearance angles also
make use of corresponding Master lines. The Master
lines of the two flank surfaces are nothing but the dotted
lines that appear in the plan view of the tool (Fig.(c)).

## The dotted line are the lines of intersection of the flank

surfaces concerned with the tool’s bottom surface which
is parallel to the Reference plane πR. Thus according to
the definition those two lines represent the Master lines
of the flank surfaces.

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Fig: (d) Master line of principal flank

## Fig. (d) shows the geometrical features of the Master line

of the principal flank of a single point cutting tool.
From Fig.(d),
OD = Ttanαx
OB = Ttanαy
OC = Ttanαo
OA = Tcotλ where, T = thickness of the tool shank.
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The diagram in Fig.(d)is redrawn in simpler form in Fig.(e)
for conversion of clearance angles.

## Fig(e): Use of Master line for conversion of clearance

angles
The inclination angle, λ basically represents slope of the
rake surface along the principal cutting edge and hence is
considered as a rake angle. But λ appears in the analysis
of clearance angles also because the principal cutting
edge belong to both the rake surface and the principal
flank.
• Conversion of clearance angles from ASA to ORS
Angles, αo and λ in ORS = f(αx and αy in ASA system)

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Following the same way used for converting the rake
angles taking suitable triangles (in Fig.(b)), the following
expressions can be arrived at using fig(e).

## • Conversion of clearance angles from ORS to ASA

system
αx and αy (in ASA) = f(αo and λ in ORS)
Proceeding in the same way using Fig. (e), the following
expressions are derived

The relations (4.14) and (4.15) are also possible to be attained from inversions of Equation
4.13 as indicated in case of rake angles.

## Minimum clearance, αmin or αm

The magnitude and direction of minimum clearance of a
single point tool may be evaluated from the line segment
OM taken normal to the Master line (Fig. (e)) as
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OM = tanαm
The values of αm and the orientation angle, φα (Fig.(e)) of
the principal flank are useful for conveniently grinding
the principal flank surface to sharpen the principal
cutting edge.
Proceeding in the same way and using Fig.(e), the
following expressions could be developed to evaluate the
values of αm and φα

## Similarly the clearance angles and the grinding angles of

the auxiliary flank surface can also be derived and
evaluated.

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 Interrelationship amongst the cutting angles used in
ASA and ORS

## The relations are very simple as follows:

o
φ (in ORS) = 90 - φs (in ASA)
and φ1(in ORS) = φe (in ASA)

## Theory of chip formation:

The portion of the material that has been cut away from the
work material by the cutting tool is called the chip. Chip
formation is a complex phenomenon however, the basic
mechanism by which all type of chips are formed in cutting
metal is shearing process in shearing zone. This zone is some
time also known as primary shear zone. The metal in front of
rake of tool face gets immediately compressed ,first elastically
and the plastically. Plastic deformation can be caused by
yielding, in which case strained layer of material would get
displace over other layer along slip planes which coincide with
the direction of maximum shear stress.

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 There is always a deformation of metal lying ahead
of cutting edge by process of shear. Here the metal deforms by
shear in narrow zone extending from the cutting edge to the
work surface. This zone is treated as a single plane for the
purpose of mathematical analysis & commonly referred to as
the single plane. The angle which shear plane makes with the
direction of travel of tool is known as the shear plane.
 The degree of plastic flow ahead of cutting tool
determines the type of chip that will be produced. If the
workpiece material is brittle, due to little capacity for
deformation before fracture, the chip will separate along shear
plane to form what is known as a discontinuous or segmented
chip. If material is ductile , due to capacity for plastic flow
before fracture ,will deform along shear plane without rupture.
The plane tends to slip & weld to successive shear plane and
resulting in continuous chip.
 Piispianen presented a model in which undeformed

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metal is considered as stacks of cards which would slide over
one another as the wedge shaped tool moved under these

cards.
Types of chips:
1. Discontinuous chips
 Regular sharp size chip
 Irregular sharp size chip
2.Continuous chips
 With BUE
 Without BUE
3. Segmented or serrated or shear localised chips

 Discontinuous chips:
<a> Irregular sharp shape and sized:
Condition:
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• Work material: brittle & hard like grey cast iron.
• Cutting velocity: low
• Cutting feed : high
• Rake angle: positive and small
• Cutting fluid: use of cutting fluid

Condition:

## • Work material: ductile & hard and work harden-able like

mild steel
• Cutting velocity: low
• Cutting feed : high

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• Rake angle: negative
• Cutting fluid: absence of cutting fluid

 Continuous chips:
<a> Continuous chips without BUE:
Condition:
• work material: Ductile.
• Cutting velocity: high
• Cutting feed : low
• Rake angle: positive and large
• Cutting fluid: use of cutting fluid (both cooling and
lubricant)

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<b> Continuous chips with BUE:
Condition:
• work material: Ductile.
• Cutting velocity: medium to low
• Cutting feed : medium to large
• Rake angle: positive and small
• Cutting fluid: inadequate or absent.

##  Serrated chip(inhomogeneous chip)

These chips are semi-continuous in the sense that they posses a
saw teeth appearance that is produced by a cyclical chip
formation of alternating high shear strain followed by low shear
strain. The shear deformation which occurs during the chip

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formation causes the temperature on the shear plane to rise,
which in turn may decrease the strength of material and cause
further strain if a material is poor conductor. Thus, a large
strain is developed at the point of initial strain. As cutting
process is continued , a new shear plane will developed at same
distance from the first plane and the deformation shifts to this
point. This type of chip is typical of materials in which yield
strength decreases with temperature and which have poor
thermal conductivity such some steels and titanium(Ta) alloys.
Condition:
• work material: Semi-ductile.
• Cutting velocity: low to medium
• Cutting feed : medium to large
• Rake angle: negative
• Cutting fluid: absent

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Chip breaker
Chips disposal is a problem that is often encountered in
turning and other continuous operations. Long stringy
chips are often generated , especially when turning
ductile materials at high speeds. These chips cause :
 a hazard to machine operator &
 also hazard to the work part finish,
 and they interfere with automatic operation of
turning process.
Chip breaker are frequently used with single point tool to
force the chips to curl more tightly than they would
naturally be inclined to do, thus causation them to
fracture.
Types of chips breaker:
There are two principal form of chip breaker design
commonly used on single point turning tools—

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<a> In-built type Rake surface

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 Safety of operator(s) from the hot , sharp continuous
chip flowing out at high speed.
 Convenience of collection and disposal of chips.
 Chances of damage of finished surface by entangling
or rubbing with the chip eliminated.
 More effective cutting fluid action due to shorter
and varying chip tool contact length.

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 Chances of harmful vibration due to frequent
chip breaking and hitting at the heel or flank of
the tool bit.
 More heat and stress concentration near the
sharp cutting edge and hence chance of its rapid
failure.
 Increase the cost of cutting tool.
 Increase in cutting force due to increase in cutting
edge.Increase in power consumption and that
increase is by 20%.
In- built type chip breaker

Heavy cut

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In-built breakers are in the form of step or groove at the
rake surface near the cutting edges of the tools. Such
chip breakers are provided either
• after their manufacture—in case of HSS tools like
drills , milling cutters, broaches etc. and brazed type
carbide insert.
• During their manufacture by power metallurgy
process – e.g. throw away type inserts of carbides,
ceramics and cermets.

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Unique characteristics of in-built chip breakers are:
 The outer end of step or groove acts as the heel
that forcibly bend and fracture the running chip
 Simple in configuration , easy manufacturing and
inexpensive
 The geometry of chip breaking feature are fixed
once made (i.e. cannot be controlled)
 Effective only for fixed range of speed and feed for
any given tool work combination.
Analysis of step type built chip breaker:

     


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   = (2 − )
Where
W= width of step
H= height of step
 = radius of curvature of step

## Clamped type chip breaker:

Clamped type chip breaker are basically in the principle
of stepped type chip breaker but have the provision of
varying the width of step and/ or the angle of the heel.

## Clamped type chip breaker

Variable width
Fixed geometry Variable (W), height(H) and
type width(W) only
shear angle (β)

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Analysis of clamped type chip breaker:

## From the geometry:

W= tan/2 )
And h = sin 
Where  = angle of the chip breaking strip
H is taken 1~2 mm greater than h.

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 Geometry of chip formation

## When a wedge shaped tool is pressed against the work piece

chip is produced by deformation of material ahead cutting edge
because shearing action takes place in a the (work piece).
When the tool moves with the velocity V against the work
piece, it shears the metal along shear plane. The depth of cut
t1(which is actually the feed in turning operation) change into
the chip thickness t2. This experiences two velocities

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component Vc (Velocity of chip relative to tool) and Vs (velocity
of chip relative to work piece along shear plane).

Ø is shear angle

## Chip thickness ratio (r): “ the ratio of depth of cut (thickness of

uncut chip) to the chip thickness is called chip thickness ratio.”

Chip thickness ratio, r =


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From ∆,

AB = [ ∅ "]

AB = ---------(1)
\$%(∅ ")

From ∆&,

AB = --------------(2)
 ∅

Page 49
 
\$%∅ "

 ∅

  ∅

-

 \$%∅ "

## From ∆' and ∆'(

)
 BC = Vsin ∅
Vc sin  ∅  *#

 ∅ +,
 \$%∅ "

+

 +,  ∅
Therefore,

-

 + \$%∅ "
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Now , consider consistency of volume:
Volume of metal removed from work piece
= volume of chip
 t1× /1 × 11 × 1 = 22 × /2 × 12 × 2
where t denotes thickness, b denotes width, l denotes
length ,  denotes density
and also /1 = /2 and 1 = 2
 21 × 11 = 22 × 12
 3
  = 3

Therefore,
21 12 45 sin ∅
= = =
22 11 4 cos(∅ − *)
Again,
 ∅
-=
\$%(∅ ")
 ∅
-=
\$% ∅ \$% "8 ∅  "
9: ∅
- =
\$% "89: ∅  "
 rcos ∝ +- tan ∅ sin * = tan ∅

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

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< \$% "
 tan ∅ =
  "

☺ (Merchant circle)☺
Analysis of forces in metal cutting☺ ☺

## In figure shown, Fs is shear force and Fn is normal

reaction force acting on shear plane ; and F is friction
force and N is normal reaction farce acting on tool and
chip contact surface. R’ and R are resultant force acting
on shear plane and tool-chip contact surface
respectively.

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

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Free body diagram :

##  None of four forces componets F,N,Fs and Fn can be

determined directly because their direction in which
they are applied vary with different tool geometries
(phi and alpa)and cutting condition.
 However, R is usually determined, in experimental
work , from measurement of two orthogonal
components—
 Fc(Cutting force)- is in the direction of cutting ,
same direction as cutting speed V.

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

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 Ft(Thrust force)- is associated chip thickness
before cut t1. Its direction is perpendicular to
cutting force Fc.
☺ How to measure cutting force Fc and thrust
force Ft?
• Fc and Ft can be measurement by using
suitable dynamometers (with resistance wire strain
gauge) or face transducers (such as piezo electric crystal)
mounted on machine.
• Forces Fc and Ft can also be calculated from
amount of power consumption that occurs during
cutting, often measured by power monitor provided that
the mechanical efficiency of machine tool can
detemined.
Hence F, N , Fs and Fn =function(Fc, Ft, α,Ø,μ)
Where μ=tan  is coefficient of friction between chip and
tool contact surface.
As shown in fugure, resultant of forces Fc and Ft is R
which is same as resultant of forces F and N i.e. F and N
are replaced by forces Fc and Ft.

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

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If R is taken as active force then R’ can be assumed as
reactive and vice versa.
Now , let us draw force triangle……

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

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These force Triangles can be represent in a circle which is
known as Merchant circle.
☺As we know chord which passes through centre of
circle makes right angle triangle with any point on
periphery of circle. Using this theorem we can draw
merchant circle as shown below…..

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

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Hence we can obtained following relationship….
= =? @, @ @B

= = = =
 °  ° \$%(A " ) (A " ) \$%(A "8∅)
@C
(A "8∅)

## Since F and N are active forcr components as Fc and Ft,

therefore
∑ E52FGH 5IJKILHL2 = ∑ E52FGH 5IJKILHL2
Hence F and N can be expressed in terms of Fc and Ft…
M = M5 sin * + M2 cos *
 = M5 cos * − M2 sin *

## Since Fs and Ft are reactive force components,

therefore
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
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∑ E52FGH 5IJKILHL2 + ∑ -HE52FGH 5IJKILHL2 = 0

## MO = M5 cos ∅ − M2 sin ∅

ML = M5 sin ∅ + M2 cos ∅
hence


Coefficent of friction chip- tool contact surface
@ @,  " 8@ \$% "
P = tan  = Q = @, \$% " @  "

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

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@, 9: "8@
P
@, @ 9: "

☺ Note :
Fc is the component which is responsible for
energy consumption since this is along direction of
motion of tool.
Ft is not responsible for cutting operation.
Variation of Fc and Ft with respect to cutting
velocityV, feed f and depth of cut d.

## Work done and power required:

Let W = Total work done in cutting operation
=M5 × 4
& W1 =work done in shear
=MO × 4O

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

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& W2 = work done against fricton
=M × 45
∴  = 1 + 2
 W=Fc× 4
@B \$%(A " )
W = × 4 ……………(1)
\$%(∅8A " )

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

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×S TU
As
1O × / = =
 ∅  ∅
From equation(1)………….
VB×TB \$%(A " )
W= \$%(∅8A " )
×4
VB×TU×\$%(A " )
W= ( ) ×4
 ∅ ×\$%(∅8A " )
WXQYZTQZ
W(Ø) = ( )
 ∅ ×\$%(∅8A ")

## Condition for min. power required Wmin

[\
 =0
[∅
cos(∅) cos(∅ +  − * ) − sin(∅) sin(∅ +  − * )=0
2∅ +  − * = ]/2 This relationship is known as
merchant relation.

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

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☺ What does merchant relation indicates?
•  ↑ FJK1FHO ∅ ↓
JEFL2EFLFL` * 5ILO2EL2
• * ↑ FJK1FHO ∅ ↑
JEFL2EFL`  5ILO2EL2
Since shear angle Ø increases then the tool force and
power requirement decrease.
Wmin =2aO × I × 4 × tan ∅
And Power consumed (H.P.) = W(in kgf m/min)/4500
☺ NOTE: It has been experimentally observed that the
nature of variation of cutting force Fc and chip thickness
ratio r with cutting speed V and rake angle α tallies with
that indicated in figure.

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

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Specific cutting energy:
\ \
E= =(
bU3cde S×)+
@,×+
E=
S××+
@,
E = (fLF2 /OgfF-H JJ, hIf1H/5f/H JJ)
S×
“ Specific cutting energy based on unit it is some
times also called as specific cutting pressure; Specific
cuttin force / area”.
☺ Condition for minimun energy consumption is given
by various equations by different scientists as follows:
 Ernst & Merchant
2∅ +  − * = ]/ 2
 Merchant’s second solution
2∅ +  − * = 'J
 Lee & Shaffer
∅ +  − * = ]/4
 Stabler
2∅ + 2 − * = ]/2

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

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Shear strain:
The chips are considered to be consisting of series of
plate like elements of thickness ∆j and displacement
through distance ∆O relative to each other.

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

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Shear strain can be defined as:
∆B
k

∆l
TQ8Qm
k

XQ
TQ Qm
k
XQ  XQ
nℎHE- n2-EFL k = cot(∅) + tan(∅ − * )
Condition for minimum k:
[p
 =0
[∅
−(csc ∅) + (sec(∅ − * )) = 0
)
2∅ − * =

kJFL = 2 cot(∅)
Shear stress:
shear stress can be defined as
MO
aO =
O
@,,UB∅ @BrC∅
aO = where I = / × 21
TU/BrC∅

## Strain energy per unit volume:

Strain energy per unit volume = aO × k

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

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Unit (ii)
MACHINABILITY
“Machinability of a metal is a term which is using in
comparative analysis of ease of machining of that metal
to another one on the basis of important parameters
which are
• Machining force and power consumption
• Surface finish and
• tool life”
Evaluation of machinablity of a metal:
<1> Machinability forces and power consumption :
Machining requiring larger forces results in large power
consumption and similarly machining requiring smaller
forces results in small power requirement and higher
Machinability.
Larger machining force Smaller Machinability
Smaller machining forceHigher Machinability
<2> Surface finish: In some situations, the major concern
can be over the quality of finish and , depending on the
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
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severity of this problem, the machinablity may be low or
high.
Higher surface finish and low severity  Higher
machinablity
Lower surface finish and High severity Lower
machinibility
<3> Tool life: The length of the period for which a tool
can be used is defined as the tool life. This criterion is
also linked up with the productivity and economics and
can be very good index for an overall judgement of a
machining operation.
More Tool life Higher Machinability
Lower Tool Life Lower Machinability
There are other minor factors which are also used in
evaluating machinability of a metal:
<4> Material removal rate:
High Material Removal Rate(MRR) Higher machinablity
Low Material Removal Rate(MRR) Lower machinablity
<5> Heat generated during cutting:
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
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Higher heat generation during cutting  Lower
machinability
Lower heat generation during cutting  Higher
machinability
<6> Tool life between grinds:
Higher tool life between grinds  Higher machinability
Lower tool life between grinds  Lower machinability
<7> Shape and size of chips:
Chips with BUE formation Lower machinability
Chips without BUE formation  Higher machinability

## Factors affecting machinablity:

<1> Machine variables:
• Power
• Torque
• Accuracy of machine and
• Rigidity of the machine and holding device.
Machine variable indirectly affecting the machinability.
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
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The machine should be rigid and have sufficient power to
withstand the induced cutting forces and to minimise
deflection. If not so then, both tool life and surface finish
are affected , and to limit the cutting forces , the speed ,
feed and depth of cut have to be limited.
<2> Tool life:
• Tool material
• Tool geometry
• Nature of engagement of tool with work continuous
or intermittent.
The cutting tool has to optimised to obtain a reasonable
value of tool life and remove maximum material. Proper
tool geometry is essential for efficient machining and it is
chosen depending on the work material and machining
conditions. Surface finish and other parameters have
greatly influenced by the tool geometry. Rake angle and
nose radius in large improvement of surface finish and
other have little influence. Tool rigidity affects tool life ,
surface finish and dimensional accuracy.

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

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<3> Cutting condition:
• Cutting speed
• Cutting depth
• Feed rate
• Cutting fluid
Cutting speed has the greatly influence on tool life . the
surface finish, normally , is improved by increase in the
cutting speed , due to continuous reduction of the built
up edge. Dimension of cut and cutting fluid also influence
on machinability.
<4> Work material variables:
• Hardness
• Microstructure
• Tensile strength
• Chemical composition
• Methods of production of work material.

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

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MACHINABILITY INDEX
“Machinablity index is ratio (Expressed in %)of cutting
speed of metal investigated for 20 min. tool life to
cutting speed of standard steel for 20 min. tool life .”
Let machinability index = I
Cutting speed of metal investigated
for 20 min. tool life = Vi
Cutting speed of standard steel
for 20 min. tool life = Vs

I(%)=(Vi / Vs ) × 100
Standard steel:
Carbon – 0.13% (max)
Manganese – 0.06 to 1.1 %
Sulphur -- 0.08 to 0.03%
Rest is iron.

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

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Standard steel has 100% machinability index.
Material Machinability index(%)
Low carbon steel 55 – 60
Aluminium alloy 390 – 1500
Magnesium alloy 500 – 2000
Carbon steel C – 40 125
C – 45 100
C – 55 80
C – 85 50

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

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Cutting fluid
“Cutting fluid can be defined as any liquid and gaseous
substance which is applied to a tool during cutting
operation to facillate removal of chip.”

## Function of cutting fluid:

<1> Act as Cooling agent : It cools the tool and work
piece. The heat produced is carried away by the fluid by

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

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supplying adequate quantity of cutting fluid. This makes
possible more accurate production and measurement.
<2> Acts as lubricant : It lubricates the cutting tool and
thus reduces the coefficient of friction between the chip
and tool. This increases tool life.
<3> Acts as Antiwelding agent : The cutting fluid
prevent the intimate contact between the surface of chip
and tool face.
<4> Acts as anticorrosion agent: It prevent corrosion of
work and tool and also machine.
<5> Acts as washing agent : It washes away the chips
from the tool.
<6> Breaking of chips: It causes the chips to break up
into small pieces.

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

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 Properties of cutting fluid
 It should have a high specific heat , high
conductivity and high film coefficient.
 It should possess good lubricating properties to
reduce frictional forces and to decrease the
power consumption.
 It should be odourless.
 It should non corrosive to work and machine.
 It should be non – toxic to operating personnel.
 It should have low viscosity to permit free flow
of the liquid.
 It should be stable in use and storage.
 It should permit clear view of work which is
specially desirable in precision work.
 It should be safe particularly with regards to fire
land accident hazards.

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

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 Types
ypes of cutting fluids:

Cutting fluid

## Water based cutting fluid Oil based cutting fluid

Mineral oils
Straight fatty oils
Blended oil

Sulphurised oil
Chlorinated oil

## Water based cutting fluid:

 Soft soap + water  water based cutting fluid
 Soluble oil(1 to 5%)+ water
water water based cutting
fluid(emulsion)
The ratio of soluble oil to water depends upon the
application of cutting fluid and ranges from about
1:5 to 1:50.
Turning , Drilling & Reaming:
Reaming 1:25
Milling : 1:10
Grinding : 1:50
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
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 Specific properties
Cooling properties : excellent
Lubricating properties : poor
Antiwelding properties : poor

## Oil based cutting fluids:

There are mainly two types of oil :
Fixed oil(Fatty oil) and Mineral oil.
<1>Straight fatty oils(Fixed oil):
Fixed oil consists of animal , fish & vegetable oils. Chiefly
used fixed oils are Lard oil , Sperm or whale oil & olive ,
cotton seed & Linseed oil. Turpentine oil distilled from
vegetable oils is also used. Fixed oils have greater oiliness
than mineral oils(i.e. fixed oil have excellent Lubricating
properties) but are not stable and rapidly lose their
lubricating properties by forming gummy deposits and
decomposes when heated . Neither are they satisfactory
coolants as they have a high viscosity.
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
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 Specific properties
Cooling properties : fair
Lubricating properties : excellent
Antiwelding properties : fair
Application: Suitable for light duty.
Lard oil is mainly used during thread
cutting with taps and dies.
<2> Mineral oils:
Mineral oils are primarily composed of hydrocarbons of
different structures and molecular weights derived from
petroleum oil.
 Specific properties
Cooling properties : fairly good
Lubricating properties : good
Antiwelding properties : fair
Application: Suitable for light duty
machining operation such as turret
and capstan lathes and single spindle
automatics where free cutting brasses
and steels are being machined.
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
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<3> Compounded or blended oils:
Mineral oil + Fatty oil  Blended oil
Since fatty oils have excellent lubricating properties but
unstable nature it can not be used in heavy duty to make
assure using in heavy duty this is blend with mineral oils.
The film strength of fatty oils is retained ever when
diluted with 75% mineral oil. As a result they are much
cheaper and more fluidity than straight fatty oils.
 Specific properties
Cooling properties : good
Lubricating properties : good
Antiwelding properties : good
Application : suitable for heavy duty
machining operations such as
threading on capstan and turret lathes,
automatic lathe.
☺ NOTE: To improve Antiwelding properties of oil based
cutting fluids sulphur and chlorine are added and these
are known as “Extreme pressure” (E.P.)additive. These
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
Page 79
additive form solid films of iron sulphide and iron
chloride between tool face and chips. These films are
easily sheared & have high melting points. Thus, they
help in preventing the chips from welding to nose of tool
where the pressure is maximum. Hence Antiwelding
properties prevents the formation of built up edge on
cutting tool .( Sulphur is most commonly used as EP

## <4> Sulphurised oils:

 Mineral oil + about 5% of sulphur
Sulphurised cutting oil
 Specific properties
Cooling properties : fair
Lubricating properties : Excellent
Antiwelding properties : Excellent
Application: Heavy duty machining
operation such as lathe works, gear

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

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<5>Chlorinated oils
 Mineral oil + about 3% chlorine  Chlorinated oils
 Specific properties
Cooling properties : Fairly good
Lubricating properties : good
Antiwelding properties : Excellent
Application: suitable in heavy duty.

## <5>Extreme pressure (EP) cutting oil

 Mineral oil + Fixed oil + sulphur(sulphur may be in
free form, combined or both ; upto 5%) +
chlorine(upto 3%)  E.P. cutting oil
 Specific properties
Cooling properties : good
Lubricating properties : Excellent
Antiwelding properties : Excellent
Application: heaviest duty machining
operation

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

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☺ NOTE: How cutting fluids are applied to machines?
The cutting fluid may be applied to cutting tool in
following ways:
• By hand , using a brush.
• By means of drip tank attached to the machine
body.
• By means of pump.
Selection of cutting fluid on the basis of following
factors:
 Cutting speed
 Feed rate
 Depth of cut
 Cutting tool material
 Workpiece material
 Velocity of cutting fluid
 Expected cutting tool life
 Cost of cutting tool life
 The life of cutting fluid and loss of cutting fluid
during operation.

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

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Sources of heat in metal cutting:
According to the first law of thermodynamics “ when
work is transformed into heat , the quantity of heat
produced is equivalent to work.”
This heat will be generated when conversion of
mechanical energy takes place . The main source of heat
cutting are shown in figure….
<1>Primary shear Zone: here maximum heat is
dissipated because of the main plastic deformation of
metal. A large portion of this heat is goes to the chip.
Contribution of this zone in total heat generation is
<2>Secondary shear Zone: here heat is generated mainly
due to friction between rack surface of tool and chips
and partially due to secondary deformation of built up
edge. From this source also, the chip takes away a major
portion of heat. Contribution of this zone in total heat
generation is about 15 – 20% .

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

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<3>Work tool interface: here heat is generated due to
job rubs against the flank surface of tool. But with sharp
tool , contribution of this sources to the heating
phenomenon is insignificant. Contribution of this zone in
total heat generation is about less than 5% .

## ☺The direction of maximum heat flows these zones to

chip or work piece is indicated in figure.
Distribution of heat in chip , tool and work versus
cutting speed
It is found that distribution of heat in Chips, Workpiece
and Tool is in ratio of 80:10:10, when cutting speed with
carbide cutter at speed above 30 metre/min.

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

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Maximum temperature along the rake surface:
The total power consumption (i.e. total rate of heat generation)
during machining is 
M5 × 4. If the rates of the heat
generation in the primary and the secondary deformation zones
are W1and W2, respectively, then
W = W1 + W2.
Again,
2
M × 45
M × -4
Where Vc is the chip velocity along chip tool interface ,V is
cutting velocity of tool and F is frictional force acting on chip
tool interface. We can write
1
M5 × 4  M × -4

## Thus, when enough information is available, the rate of heat

generation in the primary deformation zone (i.e. the shear plane)
and the secondary deformation zone (i.e. the rake face) can be
found out.
When a material particle moves across the primary deformation
zone, the temperature rise is given by

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

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θp = (1-Λ)W1 /ρcVt1b

where
Λ = fraction of primary heat which goes to work piece,
ρ = density of material,
c = specific heat of the material,
t1 = uncut thickness,
b= width of cut,
Since the computation of Λ needs an elaborate analysis, we will
give here only the result which agrees well with the experimental
results. It has been found that Λ is a function of the shear angle Φ
and a non-dimensional quantity, namely,

Θ = ρcVt1/k

## k being the thermal conductivity of the material. For wide range

of work materials and machining conditions,

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

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Λ = 0.15 ln{27.5/(Θ tanΦ)}.

## Hence, if Φ is known or determined, Λ & θp can be estimated

with the help of above equations
The maximum temperature rise θs when the material particle
passes through the secondary deformation zone along the rake
face of the tool can

θs ≈ 1.13s[Θt2/l × W2/ρcVbt1]

where l is the length of contact between the tool and chip. The
corresponding average temperature rise is obtained from the
equation
(θs)ave = W2/ρcVbt1
It has been found that
l/t2 = [1+tan(Φ-α)]
{
hence θs =1.13z|\$}~9[89: "]

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

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The final temperature is given as
θ = θ0+θp+θs
where θ0 is the initial temperature of the work piece. This
maximum temperature is along the rake face of the tool.

## ☺NOTE: Experimental Determination of chip Tool

interface Temp.:
Several methods have been used for measuring
temp. at the chip tool interface
<1> By calorimetric method used by A.O.Schimdt
<2> By decolorizing agent used by Bickel
<3> Tool work thermocouple technique
<4> By infra-ray detection
<5> By probing the distribution of hardness &
investigating the structural transformation used by

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

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Tool Wear And Tool life
Tool wear causes the tool to lose its original shape so
that in time tool ceases to cut efficiently or even fails
completely. After a certain degree of wear, the tool has
to be resharpened for further use. The following basic
causes which can operates singly or in various
combinations, produce tool wear:
(a)Attrition Wear:
At relatively low cutting speeds, the flow of the material
past the cutting edge is irregular and less streamlined.
Sometimes built-up edge may be formed and contact
with the tool may not be continuous. Under these
conditions, fragments of the tool are torn intermittently
from the tool surface. This phenomenon is called
attrition. This type of wear progresses slowly in the case
of continuous cutting but with interrupted cutting or
where vibrations are severe due to lack of rigidity of the
machine tool or uneven work surfaces, it leads to rapid
destruction of cutting edge. As the cutting speed is
increased, the flow of metal becomes uniform and
attrition disappears. When carbides are used at low

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 89
cutting speeds where built up edge is likely to form, the
wear is largely controlled.

## (b) Diffusion wear:

Diffusion wear occurs because of the diffusion of metal
and carbon atoms from the tool surface into the work
material and the chips. Wear by diffusion due to the high
temperature and pressure developed at the contact
surfaces in metal cutting and rapid flow of chip and the
work surfaces past the tool. The rate of diffusion wear
depends upon metallurgical relationship between the
tool and the work material. It is one of the major causes
of wear and is of special significance in the case of
carbide tools.

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

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(C) Abrasive wear:
The abrasive action of the work on the tool is basically
due to two principal effects:
• The inherently hard constituents present in the
microstructure of the material being cut.
• The strain hardening induced in chip and work by
the cutting process, and the formation of built up
edge.
Abrasive wear is caused when these hard particles are
swept over the tool surface. The action is much more
pronounced on the tool flank because of rigid backing
provided by the work. However, it is still not clear
whether this type of wear is of much significance except
when work material contains greater concentrations of
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
Page 91
hard particles such as pocket of sand on the surface of
castings, etc. In the case of carbides, a fine grain size and
lower percentages of cobalt help in reducing the abrasive
wear.

## (d)Electrochemical Wear: This type of wear may occur

when ions are passed between the tool and the work
piece causing an oxidation of the tool surface and a
consequent breakdown of the tool material in the region
of the chip tool interface. Not much data is available
regarding this type of wear in the metal cutting in order
to evaluate its relative importance.
(e) Chemical Wear: This type of wear due to interaction
between the tool and work material. While machining
some types of plastics with carbide, rapid wear on the
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
Page 92
face occurs owing to chemical action. This may be
accelerated in certain cutting fluid environments, where
the fluid is active with respect to the tool.
(f) Plastic deformation: When high compressive stresses
act on the tool rake face, the tool may be downwards;
this deformation takes place primarily in the nose area of
the insert and reduces the relief angle. This is a
deformation rather than a wear process, but it
accelerates other wear processes which reduces the tool
life. Deformation leads to sudden failure of the tool by
fracture or localised heating. The occurrence of plastic
deformation is in itself an indication of the over stressing
of the tool material. The severity should be construed as
a limit of the cutting conditions which should never be
exceeded.

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

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(g)Thermal Cracking: Owing to thermal cyclical stresses
at the cutting edges, short cracks called comb cracks are
often observed in the tool, running at right angles to the
cutting edge. These occur mainly while machining with
carbide tools and are caused by the alternating
expansion and contraction of surface layers of cutting
tool because of interruption in cutting. If these comb
cracks are deep enough, they separate the worn part of
cutting edge into several sectors. Cracks may also
appears in the transverse direction within these sectors
located in several layers one over other. This may be due
to cyclical compressive stresses which occurs in
interrupted cutting. The comb crack and transverse
cracks lead o chipping of cutting edges and premature
failure of the tool. Tougher grades of carbide with less
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
Page 94
sensitively to thermal fatigue and uniform rate of cooling
should be adopted for avoiding these thermal cracks.

##  Geometry of tool wear:

The progressively wear of the cutting tools can take
two forms:
(i) Flank Wear: Wear on the tool flank
characterised by the formation of wear land as a
result of the newly cut surface rubbing against
the tool flank; and
(ii) Crater Wear: Tool wear on the rack face
characterised by the formation of a Crater or

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 95
Depression , as a result of chip flowing over the
tool rack face.
 Flank wear: As a rule, the extent of flank wear is
considered a dependable criterion for judging the life of
the cutting edge. In the case of carbide tools, through
proper alloying of tungsten carbide with titanium and
tantalum carbides, sufficiently resistance to crater is
obtained so the most of tools do not fail by cratering or
deformation, before a reasonable amount of flank wear
is obtained on the flank of the tool. The flank wear can
be more easily observed and measured than other type
of wear and relatively easy to predict when a given
amount of wear will be reached once the wear rate has
been established. The development of flank wear initially
assume a high rate followed by more or less linear
increase and finally rises rapidly when the amount of
wear crosses beyond the critical value.
A typical case of flank wear development is shown
figure. It cab be seen from this figure that the graph can
be divided into three definite regions A,B and C.

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 96
 Region A: In region A , the wear grows rapidly within
short period of time because during the initial contact of
sharp cutting edge with the work piece, the peaks of
micro unevenness at cutting edges are rapidly broken
away.
 Region B: In the region B, the wear progresses at a
uniform rate.
 Region C: In region C, the wear rate is rapid and may
lead to catastrophic failure of the tool. In general, it has
been found that the most economical wear land at which
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
Page 97
to remove the tool and resharpen is just before the start
of rapidly increasing portion of curve.
In this case of high speed steels, the linear rate of
wear section of curve is quite flat and final failure occurs
suddenly. This phenomenon occurs at low speed
normally used in cutting with high speed tools and is the
result of protection of the cutting edge by the formation
of the built-up edge.
Since there is very little measurable increase in flank
wear, until catastrophic failure occurs, this of failure is
usually used as a criterion for the end of tool life in such
tool materials. Using catastrophic failure as the end point
of the tool life eliminates the need for frequent flank
wear measurement during tool testing.

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 98
The wear land on the flank will not be generally uniform
along the entire cutting edges length. Depending upon
the machining conditions of them are generally
observed:
1. Excessive wear at nose end of flank is brought about
by deformation of the tool material which reduces the
relief in area, thus increasing the rate of wear. This can
also be brought about if the crater on the rake face

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 99
breaks through the nose area.

## 2. Irregularities in the wear along the whole cutting

edge length due to minute chipping or attrition of cutting

edge.
3. Excessive wear at line of depth of cut. This can be
either due to the work hardened surface caused by the
previous cut or heat treat scales or by other abrasive

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 100
material on the work piece.

##  Crater wear: As the cutting speed in increased, the

tendency of the cutting tool fail by cratering is increased.
The tool chip interface temperature increases with
cutting speed, and at these higher temp. the rate of
material removed from the tool increases. The potion of
crater wear indicates that the wear in this region is
primarily due to the diffusion or chemical reaction
between the tool and chip material. At low cutting
speeds a crater may be formed owing to the action of the
chip flowing over the tool rake face. In the narrow region
close to the tool cutting edge is protected from the
action of the chip by the presence of a stable built up
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
Page 101
edge. This cavity of crater has its origin not along the
cutting edge, but at some distance away from it and

## within the chip contact

area. It is to be noted that the maximum tool chip
interface from the cutting edge, and in this region the
crater in initiated. As the crater wear progress with time,
it becomes wider, larger and deeper , and approaches
the edges of tool. If the crater wear allowed to proceed
too far, the cutting edge becomes too weak and breaks
down suddenly. The depth of crater and the distance of
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
Page 102
the centre line of the crater from cutting edge are
measured for the quantitative assessment of crater wear.

##  Tool life: Tool life may defined as “ the effectively

cutting time between resharpenings.”
When the wear reaches a certain value of the tool is
not capable of further cutting unless it resharpened.
Tool life is most important criterion for assessing the
performance of the tool material, machinablity of work
material and for determining cutting condition. Flank
wear is generally considered as the decisive factor of
the tool life. However at higher cutting speeds and
metal removal rates, the tool failure may also be
caused by cratering. Both type of wear are strongly
influenced by the cutting speed (V).

## Taylor’s tool life equations: The relationship between

cutting speed(V in m/min.) and tool life (T in min.) can
be determined from plots of wear rates at various
cutting speeds. The tool life values for different cutting
speeds are read from the graph for any stipulated
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
Page 103
value of wear.

## The values of tool life and cutting speeds shows a

straight line relationship when plotted on log-log
graph.

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 104
It has been shown by Taylor that the relationship
between the tool life and the cutting speed can be
represented by the equation:
4 C
'
Where C and n are constant depending on the tool
and work material, tool geometry , and cutting
condition(Except speed).

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 105
Tool materials Typical value of n for
4 C = '

## Low alloy steels 0.14 – 0.16

HSS 0.25
Cemented carbide 0.30
Ceramics 0.40
Coated carbides TiC or TiN 0.35
Al2O3 Coated carbide 0.40

## ☺ NOTE: when machining through the production of

continuous chips without a built-up edge, the Taylor
equation can be written as:

4 C 21   = '′
Where V = cutting speed(m/min.)
T = tool life (min.)
t1 = depth of cut (mm.)
w = width of work piece (mm.)
p, q, n and C’ are constants criterion

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

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Conversion of Turning operation to Orthogonal cutting
model:
Turning operation Orthogonal cutting model
Feed f (mm/rev) Thickness of uncut chip t1 (mm)
Depth d (mm) Width of cut b (mm)
Cutting velocity V Cutting speed V (m/min)
(m/min)
Cutting force Cutting force Fc (kgf)
Fc (kgf)
Feed force Ff (kgf) Feed force Ff (kgf)

Problem(1):
During turning a mild steel component with an
orthogonal tool a feed of 0.75 mm/rev is used at 50
R.P.M. if the chip thickness is 1.5 mm, determine the chip
thickness ratio. Also find the length of chip removed in
one minute, if the work diameter is 50 mm before the cut
is taken. Assume a continuous chip.
Solution- Given:

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 107
Feed in turning operation (f) = 0.75 mm/rev
Hence t1= thickness of uncut chip =0.75 mm
t2= thickness of chip =1.5 mm
D = Diameter of work piece = 50 mm.
and N = R.P.M. = 50


Now, r = Chip thickness ratio =

.
 r= = 0.5
.

## and l1 =Length of chip before cutting = ]DN

 l1 = π × 50 × 50 = 7850 mm
now, l2 = length of chip removed per minute can be
determined from

r = 

 0.5 =

 l2 = 3925 mm (Ans)

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 108
Problem(2):
In an orthogonal turning operation :
Cutting speed = 80 m/ min
Cutting force = 20 kgf
Feed force = 8kgf
Back rake angle = 15°
Feed = 0.2 mm/ rev.
Chip thickness = 0.4 mm
Determine the following :
(a) Shear angle.
(b) Work done in shear.
(c) Shear strain.
Solution- given :
Cutting speed ( V ) = 80 m/ min
Cutting force (Fc) = 20 kgf
Feed force or thrust force (Ft) = 8kgf

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 109
Back rake angle (α ) = 15°
Feed (f) = 0.2 mm/ rev.
hence thickness of uncut chip (t1) = 0.2 mm
Chip thickness (t2) = 0.4 mm
 .
Now , r = chip thickness ratio =  = . = 0.5

## Let φ = shear angle

- cos *
tan ∅

1  sin *
.×\$% °
 tan ∅

 .× °
 tan ∅ = 0.554753
 ∅ = 29°
And let Fs be shear force
then Fs = M5 cos ∅ − M2 sin ∅
 Fs = 20 cos 29° − 8 sin 29°
 Fs= 13.61 kgf
Now let Vs be velocity of chip with respect to
work piece

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 110
4 cos *
4O

cos∅  * 
 \$% °
 4O

\$%(° °)
 4O = 79.64J/JFL
Hence Work done in shear W1 = MO × 4O
 W1 =13.61× 79.64
 W1 = 1083`. J/JFL
Shear strain = cot ∅ + tan(∅ − *)
Shear strain = cot 29° + tan(29° − 15°) = 2.05 (ans.)
Problem(3):
Calculate the power consumed during cutting of a low
carbon steel bar 40mm. diameter if cutting force is 150
kgf at 200 rpm.
Solution :
Given:
Diameter of bar (D) = 40 mm
Cutting force (Fc) = 150 kgf
rpm (N) = 200
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
Page 111
let velocity of cutting tool = V

then V = ]   = ] ×   × 200 = 25.12 m/min


## work done by tool (W) = M5 × 4

 W = 150 × 25.12 `. J/JFL
.
 W = 150 × 25.12 × 
. J/OH5
 W = 616.068 hIf1H/OH5 = 0.616068 kw
∵ 1 = 1.341 (
 Power required = 0.616068 × 1.341 = 0.826 HP.

Problem(3)
In orthogonal cutting of a material the feed force is
80 kgf and cutting force is 150 kgf.
Calculate the following :
(a) Compression and shear force on shear plane.
(b) Coefficient of friction of the chip on the tool face.
Take chip thickness ratio as 0.3 and rake angle as
8∘ .

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

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Solution-
Given: Feed force(Ft) = 80 kgf
Cutting force (Fc) = 150 kgf
Chip thickness ratio(r) = 0.3
Rake angle (α) = 8∘
(a)
Fs = shear force on shear plane
= M5 cos  − Ft sin 
Fn = Compressive force on shear plane.
=M5 sin ∅ + M2 cos ∅
Let- φ= shear angle .
< \$%  U.  \$% 
tan  =  <  
=  .   
= 0.3

Φ = 17∘
Fn = M5 sin ∅ + M2 cos ∅
 ML = 150 sin 17° + 80 cos 17°
 ML =120.36kgf (Ans.)
Fs = M5 cos  − Ft sin 
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
Page 113
 Fs = 150 cos 17  80sin 17
Fs = 120.06 kgf (Ans.)
(b)
coefficient of friction of chip on tool face=

M5 tan ∝ M2
P

M5  M2 tan *
150 tan 8°  80
P

150  80 tan 8 °
 P
0.7285 (Ans.)

## Problem(4): During a metal cutting test under orthogonal

conditions it was found that the cutting force is 110 kgf
and Feed force is 100 kgf when cutting speed at 165
m/min. the rake angle of tool is 10∘ . If the depth of cut
was 3.50 mm. and feed is 5 cuts/ mm. and chip thickness
is 0.4 mm.
Determine followings:

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 114
(1) Chip thickness ratio(r)
(2) Shear angle (φ)
(3) Velocity of chip along shear plane(Vs)
(4) Velocity of chip along chip tool interface(Vc)
(5) Force acting on chip along shear plane (Fs)
(6) Force acting on chip along normal to shear plane
(Fn)
(7) Force acting on chip along tool chip interface(F)
(8) Force acting on chip along normal to chip
interface(N)
(9) Power Required to tool(W) and specific energy
consumption
(10) Work done by tool in shearing action (W1) and
specific shearing energy.
(11) Work done by tool against friction force(W2) and
specific frictional energy.
(12) Maximum metal removal rate (MMR max.)
(13) H.P./ 5J  /OH5 .
(14) Shear stress
(15) Shear strain
(16) Strain energy per unit volume.
(17) Normal Pressure on chip

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 115
(18) If overall efficiency of setup is 80% then find power
required for motor .
Solution :
Given :
Cutting force (Fc) = 110 kgf
Feed force or thrust force (Ft) = 100 kgf
Cutting speed (V) = 165 m/min.
Rake angle (α) = 10∘
Depth of cut (d) = width of chip (b) = 3.50 mm
Feed (f) = 1/5 mm/rev. = 0.2 mm/rev
hence (t1) = 0.2 mm
and chip thickness (t2) = 0.4mm.

now,
 .
(1) Chip thickness ratio (r) =  = .
= 0.5

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 116
< \$% ¡
 tan ∅ =
 <  ¡
. \$% °
 tan ∅ =  .  °
 ∅ = 28.33°

\$% ∅
(3) 4O = \$%(∅ " )
4
\$% .  °
 4O = \$%(.  ° °)
× 165J/JFL.
 Vs = 153 m/min.

## (4) 45 = 4 × - = 165 × 0.5 J/JFL.

 45 = 82.5 J/JFL.

## (5) MO = M5 cos  − Ft sin 

 MO = 110 cos 28.33° − 100 sin 28.33°
 MO = 49.37 `

## (6) ML = M5 sin ∅ + M2 cos ∅

 ML = 110 sin 28.33° + 100 cos 28.33°
 ML = 140.22 `

## (7) M = M5 sin * + M2 cos *

 M = 110 sin 10° + 100 cos 10°

Page 117
 M = 117.58 `

## (8)  = M5 cos * − Ft sin *

  = 110 cos 10° − 100 sin 10°
  = 90.96 `

## (9) Power required to tool (W) = M5 × 4

= 110 × 165 `. J/JFL
9.81
= 110 × 165 ×  = 2.968 
60 × 1000
( = 2.968 × 1.341 = 3.98
and Specific energy consumption =
W/ volume of chip per sec
and volume of chip per sec = 21 × / × 4
.  . 
= × × J  /OH5
  

= 1.925 × 10  J  /OH5
= 1.9255J  /OH5
Hence specific energy consumption
.
= = 1.542&h/J
.×¢£
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
Page 118
(10) Work done by tool in shearing action (W1)

MO × 4O
.
 1 = 49.37 × 153 × 
×
 1 = 1.235
And specific shearing energy
= W1/ volume of chip per sec
. 
= .×¢£ /J  /OH5 = 0.642 &h/J

## (11) Work done against frictional force(W2)

= M × 45
.
 2 = 117.58 × 82.5 × 
×
 2 = 1.586
And specific frictional energy
= W2/ volume of chip per sec
.
= .×¢£ /J  /OH5 = 0.8239 &h/J

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 119
(12) Maximum material removal rate(MMRmax.)

21 × / × 4
.  . 

× × J  /OH5
  

1.925 × 10  J  /OH5
= 1.9255J  /OH5
(13) H.P./ 5J  /OH5 = 3.98/1.925 = 2.07

## (14) Shear stress aO = MO/O

TU S×
And O = =
 ∅  ∅
3.5 × 0.2
= = 1.475JJ
sin 28.33°
= 1.475 × 10  J
. ×.   
Hence aO = ¢£ /J = 328.334 × 10 /J
.×

## (15) Shear strain

k = tan(∅ − * ) + cot ∅
 k = tan(28.33° − 10°) + cot 28.33° = 2.186

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 120
(16) Strain energy per unit volume = aO × k

328.334 × 10 × 2.186 /J
= 717.795 × 10 /J
(17) Since efficiency of setup is 80% hence
Power required for motor = 3.98/0.80 H.P.
Power required for motor = 4.975H.P.

Problem(5):
A tool life of 80 min. is obtained at a speed of 30 m/min
and 8 min. at 60 m/min.
Determine the following:
(1) Tool life equation
(2) Cutting speed for 10 min. tool life
(3) Tool life for 40 m/min cutting speed
(4) Change in cutting speed required to give 50%
reduction in tool life.
(5) If length of bar (L) is 50 mm , diameter of bar 20
mm. and feed is 0.2mm/rev and cutting speed
40m/min. determine no. of components produced
in 8 hour shift.
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
Page 121
Solution :
T1 = 80 min. and V1 = 30 m/min.
T2 = 8 min. and V2 = 60 m/min.
(1) 41 × 1C
42 × 2C
'
+ Z
 L
1I`   /1I`   =0.3
+ Z

And '
30 × 80.
111.7
 Tool life equation 4 ×  .
111.7
(2) 
10JFL.
.
4

55.98 J/JFL
¤.¥
(3) V = 40m/min
. / .
 =   = 30.67 min.

(4) Given
T = 0.5 T1
 4 ×  .  = 41 × 1.  = '
+
4 = = 1.2341
.¤.¥
 Change in cutting speed required
= (V-V1)/V1 x 100%
 Change in cutting speed required = 23%
(5)
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
Page 122
Let N = spindle speed
D = dia. of bar = 20mm = 0.02m.
]
40J/JFL
 ∴ 
2000 -KJ
And feed f = 0.2 mm/rev
Length of piece L = 50mm
¦
Cutting time per piece = §×Q
×
= OH5 = 7.5OH5
.×

× 
= = 3840
.

## Problems from GATE

Problem (1)
Maximum shear strain in orthogonal turning with a
cutting tool of zero rake angle is
(a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) 0.5

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 123
Solution:
Shear strain k
tan∅  *   cot ∅
)
And condition for maximum shear strain 2∅  *


)
Here *
0 then ∅


) )
∴ k
tan + cot = 2 ans(c)
 

Problem (2)
In machining experiment tool life was found with cutting
speed in following manners :
Cutting speed(m/min) Tool life (min)
60 81
90 36
Q(1) The exponent (n) & constant (C) of Taylor’s tool
equation are:
(a) n = 0.5 and C = 540 (b) n = 1.0 and C = 4860
(c) n = -1 and C = 0.74 (d) n = -0.5 and C = 1.115

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 124
Q(2) What is the percentages increase in tool life when
cutting speed is halved—
(a)200 (b) 100 (c) 300 (d) 400

Solution :
(1) 41 × 1C
42 × 2C
'
 60 × 81C
90 × 36C
3U¨ 
L
£¤
ª«
0.5
3U¨ 
¥£

And 60 × 81.
'
 C = 540
Hence 4 C
540
Ans (a)
(2)
41 × 1.
42 × 2.
540
And V2 = ½ V1
+ Z .
∴ 
 
+ Z

Page 125
Z .
2
 
Z
Z

4
Z
Z Z
 Z

3 ans (c)

## Problem (3) A batch of 10 cutting tools could produce

500 components while working at 50rpm with a tool feed
0.25 mm/rev & depth of cut 1mm.
A similar batch of 10 tools of same specification could
produce 122 components while a feed of 0.25 mm/rev at
1mm depth of cut.
How many components can be produce with one cutting
tool at 60 rpm—
(a) 29 (b) 31 (c) 37 (d) 42
Solution:
Let K = tool life coefficient per component per tool
 
Hence 1
¬
50¬ and 2
¬
12.2¬
 

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 126
41
50 × 0.25
12.5 and 42
80 × 0.25
20
Now, 41 × 1C
42 × 2C
'
 12.5 × 50¬ C
20 × 12.2¬C
 L
0.333
∴ 12.5 × 50¬ .
60 × 0.25 × ¬ .
 N = 29 ans(a)

Problem (4)
In a machining operation , doubling the cutting speed
reduces the tool life to 1/8th original value. Exponent in
Taylor’s tool life will be—
(a) 1/8 (b) 1/2 (c) 1/4 (d) 1/3
Solution:
 4 C
'
Z C
 4 × 
24 ×  
'
C

 n = 1/3 ans(d)

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 127
problem (5)
In a typical metal cutting operation using a cutting tool of
positive rake angle α = 10° . It was observed that shear
angle was 20°. The friction angle is
(a) 45° (b) 30° (c) 60 ° (d) 40°
Solution :
Given α = 10° and ∅
20°
2∅    *
90°
 
60 ° ans(c)

## Problem(6)In an orthogonal machining operation

Uncut chip thickness 0.5 mm.
Cutting speed 20m/min
Rake angle 15°
Width of cut 5mm
Chip thickness 0.7mm
Thrust force 200N
Cutting force 1200N
Assume Merchant’s theory.

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 128
Q(1) The value of shear angle and shear strain are:
(a) 30.3° & 1.98 (b) 30.3° & 4.23
(c) 40.2° & 2.97 (d) 40.2° & 1.65
Solution:
 .
-

 .
 
r =

 
< \$% "
And tan ∅

##  <  "


Putting values α = 15° and r
in above equation then


40.2°
And shear strain k
tan∅  *   cot ∅
Hence k
tan40.2°  15°  cot 40.2°
k
1.65 ans (d)

## Q(2) coefficient of friction at tool chip interface is—

(a) 0.46 (b) 0.23 (c) 0.85 (d) 0.96
solution:
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
Page 129
M5 tan *  M2
P

M5  M2 tan *
 9: °8
 P
  9: °
 P
0.46 ans (a)
Q(3) The fraction of total energy dissipated due to
friction at tool chip interface is—
(a) 30% (b) 42% (c) 55% (d) 70%
Solution:
Power input to tool


M5 × 4
1200 ×  E22
400 E22

## Power dissipated due to friction

2 = M × 45
and M = M5 sin * + M2 cos * EL­ 45 = -4
putting values; we have
W2 = 119.94 watt
\ .
∴ = = 0.30 ans(a)
\ 

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 130
Design of lathe bed:
Steps<1> Material selection bed for : The composition of
material & the subsequent heat treatment decide the
strength and other requirements of the machine tool
beds.
Beds are generally made up of ordinary cast iron ,
though nodular & alloy cast iron have also been used for
the purpose.
During solidification of lathe bed casting(single piece)
some distortion taking place due to cooling stress set up.
To avoid this , a very common practice of natural
seasoning, called ageing is prevalent. For this reason , the
bed casting are rough machined and then left in open for
considerable time , usually a couple of years and then
machined to required size for final assembly.
Step <2> Selection of type of cross section for lathe bed:
A lathe bed is subjected to different types of stresses
during the operation, such as tensile , compressive,
torsional and bending stress etc. which cause distortion
of lathe bed structure so design of cross section should
be adequate to provide static & dynamic stiffness to
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
Page 131
counteract the adverse effect of above stresses.

## It observed that box section is more suitable as it is

strong in bending & torsion ,& it can be easily produced.
To avoid massive section in castings carefully designed
systems of ribbing are used to offer the maximum
resistance to bending & torsional stresses.
<3>Step ribs in lathe beds:
Ribs are used to provide stiffness against bending &
torsional stresses. There are mainly two types of ribs are
used—
• Diagonal ribs
• Parallel ribs

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 132
 Characteristics of Diagonal ribs:

t1

L
 Relative torsional stiffness wrt. Bed without rib
=2.48
 Relative weight wrt. bed without rib= 1.38

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 133
 Relative torsional stiffness per unit weight
=2.48/1.38= 1.80
Diagonal ribs are quite commonly used in lathe beds.
Diagonal ribbing provides greater torsional stiffness .

##  Characteristics of Parallel ribs:

 Relative torsional stiffness wrt. Bed without rib
=1.34
 Relative weight wrt. bed without rib= 1
 Relative torsional stiffness per unit weight

Page 134
=1.34/1= 1.34
t

t1

## Use of Stiffeners (Ribs) in lathe bed:

In lathe bed mainly parallel & diagonal ribs or stiffeners
are used & mainly depends upon—
<a> thickness of main members of bed beam (t)
<b> ratio of width & length of bed (b/l=ψ)
<c> depth to length ratio (d/l=β)
<d> number of ribs or stiffeners, Z
<e> thickness of rib(t1) & t/t1=ŋ

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 135
Step <4> Design of slide-ways:
The specific functional feature of slide ways dictate the
<a> It should be possible to provide effective lubrication
without much difficulty.
<b> There must be provision for compensations of
possible wear, &
<c> The material of the slide ways should have high wear
resistance.
 Material: grey cast iron or steel.
 Shape: Flat & V shaped slide ways are generally used
in lathe bed.

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 136
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
Page 137
Step<5> An important point t be born in mind is that an
accurate location & proper levelling of bed , during
installation & afterwards, plays an important role. Even
very strong bed are observed to have been distorted if
they are placed on unlevelled foundation. This twisting of
bed effects the accuracy of work very serious. The bed
small therefore, be tested for level both lengthwise as
well as crosswise.

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 138
Force analysis in lathe bed:

In shown figure:
 Px = Axial force acting on work material
Py= Transverse component (thrust force)
Pz = Tangential component
 Force PxH, PyH, and PzH are acting on live centre
 Force PxT, PyT, and PzT are acting on dead centre

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 139
 Forces PyH1 and PzH1 are acting on bearing
housing1
 Forces Px , PyH2 and PzH2 are acting on bearing
housing2
 Forces PzH1B and PyH1B are acting on bolt no.1 in
 Forces PzH2B and PyH2B are acting on bolt no. 2 in
 Forces PyT1B and PZT1B are acting on bolt in tail
stock side
 Forces PyT2B and PZT2B are acting on heel.

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 140
Shifting of forces from peripheral point to centre point
of work piece(WP)

## Considering Forces and Moments on work piece due to

sifting of tool forces from peripheral point to centre:

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 141
FBD of work piece

## Mx =Moment due to Pz (& Moment Vector is in X

direction) = Pz × /2
and Mz = Moment due to Px ((& Moment Vector is in Z
direction) = Px . /2

## Appling equilibrium condition:

∑ &j
0
 PzH. L  Pz . ±   . ²/2
0
 ´ \
PzH = Pz  
¦ 

∑ M³
0
 PzHPz PzT 
0
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
Page 142
 PzT = Pz¦ ´ − \
¦ 

Similarly , ∑ &³ = 0
 PyH× L − Py × ± − &³ = 0
 PyH = Py´ + (±  ¶ 
¦ ·

∑ Mj = 0
 PYH−Py +PYT = 0
¦ ´ ¶
 PyT = Py  − (±  
¦ ·
 ¦ ´ ¶
PyT = Py ¦
 − (± ·

And ∑ M± = 0
 PxH − Px − PxT = 0 and PxT = K is tightening force
 PxH = Px + PxT= Px + K
Hence Forces acting on the headstock centre:
´ \
PzH = Pz  −
¦ 

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 143
´ ¶
PyH = Py   (±  
¦ ·

PxH
Px + PxT= Px + K
Forces acting on tailstock centre:
¦ ´ \
PzT = Pz ¦
 
¦ ´ ¶
PyT = Py   (±  
¦ ·

PxT
K
FORCE ANALYSIS ON BEARING HOUSING AND BOLTING:

## Free body diagram of head stock spindle and bearings

housing and bolts are shown in figure.

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 144
Now, using equilibrium equations: (applying in head
stock spindle)
∑ &j
0
 PZH1× m PZH×(m+m’) = 0
¹º»¼8¼?
 PZH1

Now, ∑ M³
0
 PZH2PZH PZH1= 0
¹º»×¼?
 PZH2
¼

Now, ∑ &³
0
 PYH1× m PYH×(m+m’) = 0
¹½»¼8¼?
 PYH1

Now, ∑ Mj
0
 PYH2PYH PYH1= 0
¹½»×¼?
 PYH2
¼

## Hence forces acting on bearing housing are:

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
Page 145
¹º»¼8¼?
PZH1

¼
¹º»×¼?
PZH2
¼
¹½»¼8¼?
PYH1

¼
¹½»×¼?
PYH2

## Fig : PxH is shifted to latheNITbed

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. and moment My is considered
RAIPUR
Page 146
due to shifting of force PxH
Fig: My
Hence is converted
now into equations:
equilibrium Fy by applying moment

∑ M³
0
 PZH1PZHB1Fy = 0
 PZHB1
PZH1Fy )
¹¾».»
 PZHB1
PZH1 )
¼

and
 PZHB2PZH2Fy = 0
 PZHB2
PZH2Fy )
¹¾».»
 PZHB2
PZH2 )
¼
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
Page 147
And ∑ Mj
0
 PyHB1PyH1 = 0
 PyHB1
− PyH1
And
 PyHB2−PyH2 = 0
 PyHB2= PyH2

¹¾»×»
PZHB1= −(PZH1+ )
¼
¹¾»×»
PZHB2= (PZH2+ ¼
)
PyHB1= − PyH1
PyHB2= PyH2

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 148
Applying equilibrium equations:
∑ &j
0
 PZT. n  n′ PZTB1.(n) + PXT. H = 0
8? »
 PZTB1 = PÀÁ ) + PXT  )

∑ M³
0
 PZTPZTB1 PZTB2 = 0
? »
 PZTB2 = PÀÁ ) + PXT  )

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 149
∑ &³
0
 PYT× n  n′ PyTB1×(n) = 0
8?
 PYTB1 = PÂÁ )

And ∑ Mj
0
 PYTPYTB1 PYTB2 = 0
?
 PYTB2 = PÂÁ  )

## Hence forces acting on rear bottom end (Heel)

8? »
PZTB1 = PÀÁ ) + PXT  )

? »
PZTB2 = PÀÁ  ) + PXT   )
8?
PYTB1 = PÂÁ )

?
PYTB2 = PÂÁ )

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 150
FORCES ACTING ON LATHE BED:
The lathe bed receives forces through:
• The saddle on which the cutting tool is mounted

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 151
Since Px, Py and Pz are acting on cutting tool, these
forces can be considered as active forces and forces
acting on lathe bed can considered as reactive forces.
∑ &±-HE52FGH
∑ &±E52FGH (applying on point C)
Ã8¶
 VA× B= PÀ ) + PY H

Ã8¶ »
 VA = PÀ ) + Py  )
Ã Ã

∑ &±-HE52FGH
∑ &±E52FGH (applying on point A)
Ã ¶
 Vc× B= PÀ 
) + PY H
Ã ¶ »
 Vc = PÀ ) + Py  )
Ã Ã
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
Page 152
∑ &³-HE52FGH
∑ &³E52FGH (applying on point of
intersection of AC and BD line)
 VB = VD (assume)
 VB× L = PÄH)
»
 VB = VD = Px  )
·

∑ &j-HE52FGH
∑ &jE52FGH (applying on point of
intersection of AC and BD line)
 HB = HD (assume)
 HB× L = PÄD/2)

 HB = HD = Px ·)

∑ Mj-HE52FGH
∑ MjE52FGH
 Hc = Py

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 153

Mt1 = PÀ ) + PYH H


Mt2 = PÀ ) + PY H


## Mt3 = PYT H

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
Page 154
Now , ∑ &±
Mt1 – Mt2 + Mt3 = 0
Bending analysis on lathe bed:

## Various simplified assumption are made:

<1> m = m’ = a
<2> n = n’ = b
<3> PzH = PzT = Pz/2
<4> PyH = PyT = Py/2
<5> Distance between headstock centre and tailstock

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 155
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
Page 156
Unit(iv)
Machine tool spindle speed:
To machine work of any diameter D at cutting speed V,
the spindle speed is given by
 +

rpm.
)m

## Where D is in mm and V is in m/min.

  ∝ 4/
The spindle speed can be obtained by two types of
drives:
(a) Stepped Drive
(b) Step-less Drive
 Stepped Drive: “ In stepped drive the output
spindle speeds are obtainable in finite number
through single or multistage with there
corresponding torque.”
NxT = constant
 N1T1=N2T2 = N3T3

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 157
 Stepless Drive: “ In stepless drive the output spindle
speed are obtainable in infinite numbers within an
finite range of speed with their corresponding
Torque.”

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 158
 In a stepped drive following factors should be
decided first –
<1> Maximum spindle speed(Nmax): Depends upon
Vmax, Dmin
<2> Minimum Spindle speed (Nmin): Depends upon
Vmin, Dmax.
<3> Number of spindle speed steps(n)
<4> The no. of subdivisions of steps.
<5> The number of stages in which the steps are to be
obtained.
☺ The output spindle speeds form a series which may be
any one of following types—
(a) Arithmetic Progression(A.P.)
(b) Geometrical Progression(G.P.)
(c) Logarithmic Progression(L.P.)

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 159
 Maximum possible speed loss:
Let us consider the various speed in some progression
in several steps be N1,N2,N3......Nn
 +,

)m
rpm.
Where Vc is given and D is given.
Let us assume that corresponding to certain diameter
(D), the required rpm(N)for accurate cutting is not
available i.e. N is unknown for given Vc. In this case loss
in speed is given as follows:

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 160
}\$ }Æ 
 & % loss in cutting speed = +,
Ç¶È Ç¶ÈÆ 
=
)mQ
È ÈÆ 
= Q
Q 

1
Q

## ∴ Maximum possible speed loss in between two steps

Np-1 & Np is thus given by:
Q 
(1− ) × 100%

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 161
2 3 4 5 K L

. . .

1 2 3 4 K  1 L  1

where

common ratio in G.P.
2  1 3  2 K L

. . .

1 2 K  1 L  1
1

1  

## i.e. Maximum possible speed loss in between any

two available range of speeds is constant & given as-

(1  × 100%

Hence in G.P.
<1> %age of max. Loss for any available range of speeds
is constant.
<2> %age max. Loss is not a function of dia.(D) for given
Vc.
<3> No crowding of speed even at higher speed.
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
Page 162
<b > In case of A.P.

## N2= N1+∆ N3= N2+∆ N4= N3+∆

Np= Np-1+∆ ................................ Nn= Nn-1+∆
Where ∆ = common difference in A.P. series
Q Q ∆ Q  Q ∆

=
Q Q Q Q
Q Q  ∆ QC QC  ∆

= Q QC
= QC

## As N2 < N3 < N4...............<Np.......<Np-1

2 − 1 3 − 2 K L
> >⋯> >. . . >
1 2 K − 1 L − 1
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
Page 163
Hence
<1> % of maximum loss for any two available range of
speed is not constant & is larger at lower speed.
<2> % of maximum loss is a function of dia.(D) for given
Vc.
<3> Considerable crowding of speeds at higher speeds.
 Speed spectrum:
Maximum loss in speed between two speed Np-1 & Np
is given as:
Q 
Max. Loss in speed
1 

## &for given dia. Dp

×+dÍ´ ×+drC
 Dp = =
)Q )Q 
Q  +drC
 =
Q +dÍ´

## <a> In case of G.P.

Let us assume Vmax is constant for all dia. range
Q  
 = = 5ILO2EL2
Q ∅

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 164
Q  +drC
 Q
= +dÍ´ = 5ILO2EL2
 As Np increases or decreases ;
Since Vmax is constant ,therefore, Vmin is always
constant

## <b> In case of A.P.

Let us assume Vmax is constant for all dia. range
Q  +drC
 =
Q +dÍ´
 & Np= Np-1+∆
+drC ∆
∴ =1−
+dÍ´ Q
 As speed increases i.e. Np increases i.e.
∆ +drC
(1 − ) increases  increases
Q +dÍ´
Since Vmax is constant ,therefore, Vmin increases
As Np↑  Vmin ↑
& as Np = ∞  Vmin = Vmax (only theoretically )
Hence considerable crowding of speed Vmax and Vmin at
higher speeds and theoretically coincide when Np= ∞ as
shown in figure.
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
Page 165
Selection of maximum & minimum speeds and feeds
Let Dmax = maximum diameter of work piece
Dmin = minimum diameter of work piece
Vmax = maximum cutting speed.
Vmin = minimum cutting speed.

×+dÍ´ ×+drC
Nmax
& Nmin =
)mdrC )mdÍ´
QdÍ´
 Rn = range ratio of spindle speed =
QdrC
+dÍ´ mdÍ´
= ×
+drC mdrC
 ÎL = ÎG × Î­
+dÍ´
Where ÎG = = ratio of cutting speed
+drC
mdÍ´
And Î­ = = ratio of work piece diameter.
mdrC
 Maximum cutting speed for which machine
Tool is designed depends upon several factors such as—
manufacturing process to be employed, the material of
work piece , cutting tool geometry and tool life and also
surface finish of work piece.

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 166
S.No. Machine Tool Rn
01 Centre lathe 40 – 60
02 Boring machine 40 – 60
03 Milling machine 30 – 50
04 Drilling machine 15 – 30
05 Shaping and planning 10
06 Grinding machine 1 – 10

## For machine tool ratio , range ratio , Rn , where the work

pieces made of alloy of steels to light alloys are machined
could have a high value.
Ex(1) Vmin for cemented carbide on alloy steels
= 100 m/min
Vmax for cemented carbide on light alloy steel
= 2000 m/min
+dÍ´ 
∴ ÎL
= = 20
+drC 

## Ex(2) Vmin for HSS on alloy steels = 20m/min

Vmax for HSS on light alloy steel = 500m/min

Page 167
+dÍ´ 
∴ ÎL
+drC
= 
= 25

## Basic rules for layout of Gear boxes having sliding

clusters:
The rules applied while designing gears boxes with sliding
clusters are as follows:
<1> Transmission ratio(r) in the gear box is limited by

≤-≤2


<2> For stable operation the range ratio (Rn) of any stage
should not be greater than 8
ÎL ≤ 8
<3> One set of gear must be completely disengaged
before the other set begins to come into mesh.
<4> The sum of teeth of mating gears in given stage must
be the same for same module in clustered set.
<5> The axial gap between adjacent gear box must be
equal to at least two gear width.

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 168
<6> The minimum difference between the no. of teeth of
∆Ð ≥ 4
<7> The minimum no. of teeth on smallest gear be
greater than or equal to 17
Ð ≥ 17
<8> Least no. of shafts , gears & Levers should be used.
<9> Gear box should be minimum possible size. Both
radial as well as axial dimensions should be as small as
possible.

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 169
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
Page 170
 Speed structure diagram
“This diagram represent the speed at output as well as
intermediate shaft of gear box is developed from
kinematic arrangement of the drive.”
• Shaft are shown in vertical equidistant &
parallel lines.
• Speeds are plotted vertical on a logarithmic
scale with log ∅ as unit.
• Transmission engaged at definite speed of
driving & driven shaft shown on the diagram by rays
connecting the points on the shaft lines representing
these speeds.
• Obviously for transmission ratio of 1 the ray is
horizontal. It is inclined up for transmission ratio greater
than 1 & inclined down for transmission ratio less than 1.

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 171
 Speed structure diagrams indicates the distributive
connection between input and output points & are
two types--
(a) Wide(Open) diagram: path do not cross each
other
(b) Narrow(Crossed) diagram: Path cross each other.

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 172
 Selection of best ray diagram of a Gear box:
The design of a Gear box should be optimum wrt. the
size, no. of gears, shafts etc. and the cost. The size(cost)
is controlled and kept minimum by the following three
rules—
(a)Ray restriction rule:
If Zmin = 20 and Zmax = 120, then (∅´ )max = 120/20 =6
This means that the horizontal projection of any ray
should be equal to or less than 6.
(b)Stage restriction:
Consider a 3 speed stage which derives three speeds at
the output from one input speed as shown in fig.
It is seen that (i)min =N1/N0=1/4 and (i)max =N3/N0=2
Therefore, the stage range Rn
Rn = (i)max/(i)min = N3/N1=∅´ =8

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 173
Hence ∅´ ≤ 8 where x is intervening space between the
ray diagram between the min. and max. ray.
(c)Shaft optimisation:

Mt∝ Q
Ó × [/ VB
& =
)[ Ô /  §B

## Where aO is shear strength and O is factor of safety and

d is diameter of shaft and Mt is torsional bending applied
on shaft.
­  ∝ &2 ∝ 1/
[ Q
 = = ∅/
[ Q

## Shaft diameter also consider a geometrical progression

having progression ratio ∅/

## ☺ NOTE: Optimisation of Gear box takes several steps

and thinking about each and every subdivisions in
structure and also a management in space for shafts and
gears. Hence whatever we are going to solve problem for
gear box such as speed 18,12,9 and 6 basically we are
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
Page 174
here more interested in only design and calculation of
teeth not in optimisation of gear box. Therefore, design
of each student may have their own design of feed gear
box.

## Design procedure of Feed gear box:

Step (1)
Find Nmax and Nmin.
Step(2)
QdÍ´ /C 
Find common ratio ∅ using ∅
 ÓdrC 

## and standardised as per ISA standard as follows:

R 20 series:
R20/n means ∅
10C/
e.g. R 20/4 series ∅
10/
1.6

1.12 ∅
1.25 ∅
1.4 ∅
1.6 ∅
2
R 20 R 20/2 R20/3 R20/4 R20/6

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 175
Machine Tool ∅
<1> general purpose
machine tools
(a) Large 1.25
(b) Medium 1.4
(c) Small 1.6
<2> heavy duty machine 1.12
tool & automates

Step(3)
Find speeds in between Nmax and Nmin using G.P
Step(4) Draw Ray diagram using an
arrangement(subdivision) keeping in mind stage
restriction.(Here We are not talking about optimised Ray
diagram but you can optimise ray diagram on the basis of
no. of gear required and it should also noted that Rn and
shaft size constraint optimisation of ray diagram. )
Step(5) Calculate teeth(Z) of gears.(Method for
calculation See in problem)
2 Ð1
F

1 Ð1′

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 176
Min. no teeth should be 17 and max. no. of teeth should
180 for spur gears.
Step(6) Draw kinematic arrangement of feed gear box.

## Design of 18 speed gear box:

Problem: specification of feed gear box are as follows:
(1) Max. dia. to be turned = 300mm
(2) Min. dia. to be turned = 20 mm
(3) Vmax = 60m/min
(4) Vmin = 18.8m/min
Solution:
Step (1):
+dÍ´ 
 JE±.

1000-KJ
)mdrC )×.
+drC .
And JFL.

20-KJ
)mdÍ´ )×.

Step(2):

JE± /(C )
∅=Õ Ö
&JFL

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 177
 / 
∅
  = 1.2587

 Standard value of progression ratio

1.25 OH-FHO Î20/2
Step (3):
N1= Nmin, N2= N1× ∅, N3= N2× ∅ and so on.
Hence output speeds are as follows:
20,25,32,40,50,65,80,100,125,160,200, 250, 315,
400, 500, 625, 800, 1000.
Step(4):
For 18 speed drive there are various arrangement
(sub division)such as
Possible subdivision No. of gears required
××××Ø (× + × + Ø) × 2 =16
××Ø×× (× + × + Ø) × 2 =16
Ø×××× (× + × + Ø) × 2 =16
Ù×× (× + 6) × 2 =18
××Ù (× + 6) × 2 =18

## The sub-divisions 3× 6 , 6× 3 may be rejected on

the basis of no. of gear required than other
combination that is in no. 18.
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
Page 178
(Here basically we are not concern about
optimisation of ray diagram rather drawing of an
arrangement.)
Take subdivision 2× 3 × 3

## Step(5) calculation of no. of teeth.

 For 1st part drive(shaft I/P- I.S.II)
  × 
i1 =

##   × 

∴ Z1 = 28 , Z1’ = 105
Hence for direct drive, Z1= 28, Z1’ = 105
Now , for same module,
(Z1+Z1’)/2 direct = (z1/2+Zi+Z1/2)reverse
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
Page 179
Where , Z1= no. of teeth on the driver gear
Z1’= no. of teeth on the driven gear
Zi= no.of teeth o the idler gear.
Therefore, for the reverse drive, the following no. of
teeth satisfy the relationship—
Z1 = 20, Zi = 19, and Z2 = 75
 For 2nd part drive(shaft I.S.II- I.S.III)
 
i2 =
0.328
...............1+3=4
.Ú
.Ô 
i3= = 2.44 = ...............12+5=19
 
LCM of 4 and 19 is k = 76and also
SZmin = E×  = 76 ; taking E= 1
∴ Z2 = 19 , Z2’ = 57
Z3 = 48 , Z3’ = 20
 For 3rd part drive(shaft I.S.III- I.S.IV)
 
i4 = = 0.262 = ...............1+4=5
.£ 
 
i5= = ...............1+2 = 3
.¥ 
 
i6= = ...............1+1 = 2
.¤ 

## LCM of 5,3and 2 is k = 30 and

SZmin= E×  = 120 ; taking E= 4
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
Page 180
× ×
∴ Z4 =
24 , Z4’ =
96
 
× ×
Z5 =
40 , Z5’ =
80

× ×
Z6 =
60 , Z6’ =
60
 
 For 4th part drive(shaft I.S.III- o/p)
 
i7 =
...............8+5=13
.Û 
 
i8= = ...............4+5=9
.« 
 
i9= = .............. 1+1=2
.¤ 
LCM of 2,9 and 13 is k = 234 and
SZmin= E×  = 2 ; taking E= 1
×  × 
∴ Z9 = = 117 , Z9’ = = 117
 
Since the value of teeth are too large(although this
value is acceptable) therefore we have to correct
value of i7:
 
i7= = ........................2+3=5
.Û
and LCM of 2,9 & 5 is K = 90 and also
SZmin = E×  = 90; taking E= 1
×  ×
∴ Z7 = = 36 , Z7’ = = 54
 
× ×
Z8 = = 40 , Z8’ = = 50

× ×
Z9 = = 45, Z9’ = = 45
 
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
Page 181
Step (6): kinematic arrangement of 18 speed gear box
with reverse drive:

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 182
Design of 12 speed gear box:
Problem(2): Design of layout of gear box for a milling
machine to provide 12 output speeds ranging from 160
rpm to 2000 rpm. Input speed 1440 rpm. Choose
standard speed ratio & construct the structural diagram
& kinematic arrangement.
Solution:
Given:
Input speed = 1440 rpm
No. of output speeds required (n)= 12
Nmax = 2000 rpm
Nmin = 160 rpm Step (1)

QdÍ´ /C 
Step(2): ∅
 
ÓdrC

 / 
∅
  = 1.2581

 Standard value of progression ratio

1.25 OH-FHO Î20/2

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 183
Step (3):
N1= Nmin, N2= N1× ∅, N3= N2× ∅ and so on.
Hence output speeds are as follows:
160, 200, 250, 315, 400, 500, 625, 800, 1000, 1250,
1600, 2000
Step(4):
For 12 speed drive there are various arrangement
(sub division)such as
Possible subdivision No. of gears required
Ø×Ø×× 2  2  3 × 2
14
××Ø×Ø ×  2  2 × 2
14
Ø×××Ø 2  ×  2 × 2
14
Ü×× (4 + ×) × 2 =14
××Ü (3 + 4) × 2 =14
Ø×Ù (2 + 6) × 2 =16
Ù×Ø (6 + 2) × 2 =16

## The sub-divisions 2 × 6 , 6× 2 may be rejected on

the basis of no. of gear required than other
combination that is in no. 16
4 × 3 , 3 × 4 are also dropped due to restriction of
min shaft size.
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
Page 184
(Here basically we are not concern about
optimisation of ray diagram rather drawing of an
arrangement.)
Take subdivision 2× 2 × 3

## Step(5): Calculation of no. of teeth:

 For 1st part drive(shaft I/P- I.S.I)
 
i1 =
.4340

 
∴ Z1 = 22 , Z1’ = 50

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

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 For 2nd part drive(shaft I.S.I- I.S.II)
 
i2 = .¥
.512
...............20+39=59
.¥
i3= = 1.953 = ...............20+39=59
 
LCM of 59 and 59 is k = 59 and also
SZmin = E×  = 59 ; taking E= 1
∴ Z2 = 20 , Z2’ = 39
Z3 = 39 , Z3’ = 20
 For 3rd part drive(shaft I.S.II- I.S.III)
 
i4 = = ...............4+5=9
.« 
.Û 
i5= 
=  ...............25+16=41
LCM of 9 and 41 is k = 369 and
SZmin= E×  = 369 ; taking E= 1
×  × 
∴ Z4 = = 164 , Z4’ = = 205

Since the value of teeth are too large(value are not
acceptable) therefore we have to correct value of
i5:
.Û 
i5= = ........................8+5=13
 
and LCM of 9 & 13 is K = 117 and also
SZmin = E×  = 117 ; taking E= 1
× ×
∴ Z4 = = 52 , Z4’ = = 65

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
Page 186
× ×
Z5 = 

72 , Z5’ = 

45
 For 4th part drive(shaft I.S.III- o/p)
 
i6= = ...............8+5=13
.Û 
 
i7= .« =  ...............4+5=9
 
i8 = = ...............1+1=2
.¤ 

## LCM of 2,9 and 13 is k = 234 and

SZmin= E×  = 2 ; taking E= 1
×  × 
∴ Z8 = = 117 , Z8’ = = 117
 
Since the value of teeth are too large(although this
value is acceptable) therefore we have to correct
value of i6:
 
i6= = ........................2+3=5
.Û
and LCM of 2,9 & 5 is K = 90 and also
SZmin = E×  = 90; taking E= 1
×  ×
∴ Z6 = = 36 , Z6’ = = 54
 
× ×
Z7 = = 40 , Z7’ = = 50

× ×
Z8= 
= 45 , Z8’ = 
= 45

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 187
Step (6) Kinematic arrangement of 12 speed
feed gear box:

## Design of 9 speed gear box:

Problem(3):Design of layout of gear box for a large
general purpose m/c tool to provide 9 output speeds
ranging from 120 rpm to 720 rpm. Input speed 600 rpm.

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 188
Choose standard speed ratio & construct the structural
diagram & kinematic arrangement.
Solution: Given:
Input speed = 600 rpm
No. of output speeds required (n)= 9

## Nmax = 720 rpm

Nmin = 120 rpm Step (1)

QdÍ´ /C 
Step(2): ∅
 
ÓdrC

 / 
∅
  = 1.251

 Standard value of progression ratio

1.25 OH-FHO Î20/2
Step (3):
N1= Nmin, N2= N1× ∅, N3= N2× ∅ and so on.
Hence output speeds are as follows:
120, 150, 188, 235, 290, 370, 460, 580, 720

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 189
Step(4): subdivision: 3× 3

## Step(5): Calculation of no. of teeth:

 For 1st part drive(shaft I/P- I.S.I)
 
i1 =
.483~
 
∴ Z1 = 24 , Z1’ = 50
 For 2nd part drive(shaft I.S.I- I.S.II)
 
i2 =
.512
...............1+2=3
.¥ 
 
i3=  = 1 =  ...............1+1=2
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
Page 190
.¥ 
i4= = 1.953 = ...............2+1=3
 

## LCM of 2 and 3 is k = 6and also

SZmin = E×  = 54 ; taking E= 9
× ×
∴ Ð2 = = 18 , Z2’ = = 36

×
Z3 = = 27 =Z3’

× ×
Z4 = = 36, Z4’ = = 18

 For 3rd part drive(shaft I.S.II-o/p)
 
i5 = = ...............4+5=9
.« 

i6= ............................1+1=2

. 
i7 = 
=  ................5+4=9

## LCM of 9 and 2 is k = 18 and

SZmin= E×  = 90 ; taking E= 5
× ×
∴ Z5 =
= 40 , Z5’ =
= 50
× ×
Z6= = 45 , Z6’ = = 45
 
× ×
Z7 =
= 50 , Z7’ =
= 40

## Step (6) Kinematic arrangement of 9 speed feed gear

box:
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
Page 191
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
Page 192
Design of 6 speed gear box:
Problem(4): Design gear box to provide 6 output speeds
ranging from 150 and 800rpm. Where input speed is 600
rpm.
Solution:
Given:
Input speed = 600 rpm
No. of output speeds required (n)= 6

## Nmax = 800 rpm

Nmin = 150rpm Step (1)

QdÍ´ /C 
Step(2): ∅
 
ÓdrC

 / 
∅
  = 1.398

 Standard value of progression ratio

1.4 OH-FHO Î20/3

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 193
Step (3):
N1= Nmin, N2= N1× ∅, N3= N2× ∅ and so on.
Hence output speeds are as follows:
150, 210, 290,410, 570,800
Step(4): subdivision: 2× 3

## Step(5): Calculation of no. of teeth:

 For 1st part drive(shaft I/P- I.S.I)
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
Page 194
 
i1 =
.683~

∴ Z1 = 21 , Z1’ = 30
 For 2nd part drive(shaft I.S.I- I.S.II)
 
i2 =
.510
...............1+2=3
. Û 
. 
i3= 
=  ...............7+5=12

## LCM of 3 and 12 is k = 12and also

SZmin. = E×  = 60; taking E= 5
× ×
∴ Ð2 = = 20 , Z2’ = = 40

× ×
Z3 = = 35 , Z3’= = 25
 
 For 3rd part drive(shaft I.S.II-o/p)
 
i4= = ...............7+5=12
. 

i5= ............................1+1=2

. 
i6 = 
=  ................7+5=12

## LCM of 2 and 12 is k = 12 and

SZmin= E×  = 60 ; taking E= 5
× ×
∴ Z5 = = 25 , Z5’ = = 35
 

Page 195
× ×
Z6=
30 , Z6’ =
30
 
× ×
Z7 =
35 , Z7’ =
25
 

box:

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 196
Unit (V)
Norton gear box:
The motion from driving shaft(input shaft) is transmitted
to driven shaft(output shaft) tumbler gear. The gears on
input shaft(1), all gears are fixed (keyed)& hence the of
transmission equal to number of gears. To engage the
required transmission b/w driving shaft (1)and driven
shaft (3) ,the tumbler gear is mounted on pin(2)in the
arm is disengaged by swiveling the arm about its axis and
moved along driven shaft(3). When the tumbler gear
comes against the required gear of gear cone, the arm is

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 197
swiveled back to mesh the tumbler gear and it is then

locked

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

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Swivelling of tumbler gear about axis
to engage and disengage with input
shaft gears

## Change of position of tumbler

or driven gear by axial
movement to mesh with
arm required fixed gears

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 199
TR i1 i2 i3 i4 i5

## Transmission ratio (TR) are:

F1=
Þ Þ Þ Þ Þ Þ Þ  Þ Þ
.
F2= .
F3= .

Þ ÞU ÞU Þ ÞU ÞU Þ ÞU ÞU
Þ Þ Þ Þ Þ Þ
F4= Þ . ÞU
ÞU F5 = Þ . ÞU
ÞU

 compact design ; 10-12 transmission may be
obtained in one group
 Small dimensions or small no. of gears as (n+2)gears
are required to obtain n feed rate value.
 Simple control as all transmission are engaged by
single lever.

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 200
 Insufficient rigidity and accuracy of meshing.
 Poor lubrication
 Possibilities of dirt penetrating into the gear box
through slots in the housing.

## Feed gear box with Meander’s mechanism:

It consists of identical double cluster gears mounted on
driving shaft(1) and intermediate shaft (2). Only the first
gear block on the driving shaft is rigidly mounted , the
rest of the gear blocks on shafts (1)&(2) are mounted
freely. Transmission to driven shaft (3) takes place
through a tumbler gear Zt which is mounted on a pin in
arm. The arm can be rotate about shaft (3) and can slide
along its axis(spline). The feed rates obtained at output
shaft from a geometrical progression.

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 201
Transmission ratio can be determined as:

Fig (a)

Page 202

F1

ß ß ß ß ß
. .
5  {let 5
}
ß ß ßU ß ßU

Fig (b)

ß ß ß ß ß
F2
ß . ß . ßU
ßU
5 ß

Fig (c)

Page 203
ß 
F3

ß ß ß
. .
5 
ß ß ßU ß

Fig (d)

ß ß ß ß 
F4
. .
5 
ß ß ßU ß

Fig(e)

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 204
ß
F5

ß ß ß ß ß
. . . .
5 
ß ß ß ß ßU ß

Fig(f)

ß ß ß ß ß ß 
F6
. . . .
5 
ß ß ß ß ßU ß

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 205
ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß 
F7
× × × × × × = 5 
ß ß ß ß ß ß ßU ß

ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß 
F8 = ß × ß × ß × ß × ß × ß × ßU = 5 ß

 Compactness in design.
 Simple control as all transmission are engaged or
disengaged by single lever.
 Large transmission can be obtained because they are
in geometrical progression(G.P.).
 Insufficient accuracy and rigidity.
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
Page 206
 Poor lubrication.
 Large no. of dimensions are required for n
transmission 2n gears are required.
Feed gear box with gear cone and sliding key:
This design consists of continuously meshing gear pairs.
The gears on driving shaft(1) are all rigidly fixed where as
those on driven shaft (2) are mounted freely. A sliding,
spring loaded key travel in the keyways of driven
shaft(2). The transmission from shaft (1) to shaft(2) can
be achieved through any of gear pairs by shifting key
with the help of pulling rod from one gear to another
gear. Thus at a time only one gear of shaft(2) transmits
torque while other rotates freely.

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 207
 Compact design; enables 8—10 transmission in a
single group.
 Simple control as all transmissions are engaged by
single lever, &
 Helical gear may be used for smooth operation.

 Inability to transmit large torque.
 Poor rigidity of driven shaft due to long key ways.
 The key may get stuck due to cocking
 Poor lubrication of gears on shafts as they are thin.

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 208
Machine Tool Installation:
While installation a machine tool the following procedure may
 Check the machine tool including all accessories for any
damage which might have been caused to any part during
transit.
 Prepare the foundation as per drawing. Foundation should
be checked for
• Level at top surface
• Position of foundation bolts
• Strength
 Lift machine tool and place it on the foundation after
inserting foundation bolts in legs of machine.
 Check level of bed of machine. Levelling is done with the
help of levelling pads, wedges and shoes.
 Tighten nuts on foundation bolts.
Function of foundation:
 Foundation transmits static load(weight) and dynamic
load(vibration and shock) of machine through bed or legs
of machine to soil.

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 209
Types of foundation:
<a> Ordinary machine shop foundation:

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 210
<b> Sand base foundation:

## ☺In this type of foundation ,machine bed should not be heavy

so much.
<c> Vibration isolation foundation:

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 211
Preventive Maintenance:
“ The aim of preventive maintenance is to reduce wear &
tear and to prevent interruption in production.”
A proper preventive maintenance schedule should be followed
such as under:
1. Daily checks: The following duties should be performed
by the operator.
a. To clean the machine
b. To check lubricating oil level & oil flow in sight
glasses.
c. To check coolant level.
d. To keep the maintenance department informed of
even the minor defect noted in the performance
of the machine.
2. Weekly checks
The following check should be carried out by the
maintenance department.
a. To check all lubrication level
b. To check coolant
c. To check all filters
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
Page 212
d. To check hydraulic & pneumatic lines.
3. Monthly checks
a. To check spindle drive belts for wear
b. To check hydraulic pump & hydraulic oil
c. To check movement of all axis under manual dial
in control
4. Six monthly check
a. To check machine alignment
b. To replace oils & filters
NOTE:
Actually preventive maintenance schedule varies for each
machine tool and those are decided by maintenance engineer.
But the basic aim is to reduce wear and tear and increase life
cycle of machine and components. Some times we wait for
failure of certain components that is known as Breakdown
maintenance.

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 213
Reconditioning:
“Reconditioning is Rebuilding of machine after certain life
span of machine to meet same productivity and is
determined by frequent corrective maintenance.”
 A rough estimate of the cost is prepared & generally it is
undesirable to reconditioning the machine tool if the cost of
parts to be replaced & repaired exceeds 50% of prevailing cost
of the new equipment.
 Another very important aspect governing the decision to
estimate the time required to put the machine back in normal
operation considering the availability of reconditioning facilities
& spare required for replacement. This will give the figures of
production loss due to direct or inter related effect on
manufacturing process. Sometimes the replacement proves to
be more economical than to recondition the machine.

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 214
Replacement:
All wearing parts in the machine or the parts subjected to
fatigue are replaced normally before failure in a preventive
maintenance system.
NOTE:
A schedule is prepared depending upon life of the part.
Reconditioning becomes undesirable when cost of replaced &
repaired of parts exceeds 50% of prevailing cost of new
equipment. Secondly, if time of reconditioning of machine tool
is much more & is affected on production cost very much then
reconditioning. Third important factor for replacement of
machine tool is obsolete. If Obsolesce machine tool does not
compete the present requirement of production in terms of
productivity, cost of production, accuracy in terms of
productivity, cost of production, accuracy required then we
have to replace the machine tool.

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 215
Testing of Machine Tool
☺The name of Dr.G.Schlesinger has for many years been linked
with subject of machine tool test and alignments. Many year
ago he established certain acceptance tests and tolerances in
Germany for machine tools which were to be supplied to Russia
under contact.
☺When machine tool testing is carried out?
 After manufacturing, repairs or overhaul each machine tool
must be tested as per alignment test chart in order to check
whether it meets the requirement of specification or not.
 Acceptance test
[ Alignment test + performance test] = Acceptance test
i.e. collectively Alignment test and Performance test is known
as Acceptance test.
 Alignment test (also known as Geometrical test):
Geometrical test cover the grade of manufacturing
accuracy of machine tool i.e. the accuracy with which
machine tool has been assembled. They check on the
relationship of various elements of machine tool when it
is idle and unloaded. Such test includes :
 Flatness of base plate and table
 Square-ness of table

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 216
 Parallelism, flatness, straightness of guiding & bearing
surface, movement of various component of machine tool
in various direction
 True running of spindle
 Perpendicularity of spindle sleeve with table
etc.
 Performance test (also known as Practical test):
Practical test are used to check the working accuracy of
machine tool by checking accuracy of finished
components. This test is performed after one hour of trial
run so that spindle get sufficiently warmed up.

 Testing equipments:
The various tools & equipment used for carrying out the
acceptance tests are as follows:
(a)Dial gauge: Dial gauge is widely used in alignment test. Dial
large scale. Its graduation need not be finer than 0.01 mm &
initial plunger should vary between 40 – 100 gm.
Application in metrology:
(b) Spirit Level: Both horizontal & frame type spirit levels are
used. It should have a sensitivity varying from 0.03 to 0.05 mm
/m for each division. The bearing surface of spirit levels be as
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
Page 217
long as possible & for medium sized machine tool testing, the
length of spirit level bearing surface should not be less than
200mm.
Application in metrology: straightness of bed,
(c) Straight edges and squares: These are made of Cast Iron or
Steel should be well rolled & seasoned. A square must have a
wider bearing surface. The standard square have a tolerance of
± 0.01 mm & precision square
± 0.005 mm.
Application in metrology: straightness
(d) Test mandrel: test mandrels are made to a length may vary
from 100 to 300 mm. They are accurately turned and ground.
The mandrel must be as light as possible otherwise deflection
may occur due to its weight.
Application in metrology:
(e)Autocollimator: autocollimator in conjunctions with block,
deflector and optical square is very sensitive instrument for
checking deflection of long beds in horizontal , vertical or
inclined planes.
Application in metrology: straightness,

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 218
(f)Waviness meter: waviness meter with 50:1 magnification is
useful in reading & examining the surface waviness.

## (1) Moment & Axis of Moment:

Moment is shown by arc having a particular direction indicated
by a single arrow whereas the Axis of Moment is shown by a
line segment having a particular direction indicated by double
arrow.
If you have direction of rotation of Moment the you can find
Axis of Moment using right hand thumb rule i.e.

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

Page 219
Curl your fingers of right hand in the
direction of Moment , your thumb will show Axis of Moment.

## (2) Axis of Moment and Force:

If you know the force and direction of displacement i.e. the
displacement of force to the point upon which you want to find
moment of force then you can find Axis of Moment by using
right hand rule as shown in figure.
&
­×M

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

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(3) Shifting of force:
Whenever a force which is acting on a body is sifted to
another point within that body then a Moment will be always
come into role along with that Force.

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Equivalent FBD

## (4) Equilibrium Equations:

According to Newton’s III rd Law action force(Active Force) is
always equal and opposite of reaction force(Reactive force).

0

## But it should be noted that if active components are replaced

by another forces in such a way that their resultant force is
remains same then

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

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á 52FGH MI-5H = á H 52FGH MI-5H

## Similarly we can write for reactive components also; basic

thing is that resultant of reactive forces must not change.

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG. NIT RAIPUR
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