This lesson covers selecting the airfoil, wing and tail geometries.
Horizontal tail
AIRCRAFT
HELİCOPTER
ZEPLİN
_{U}_{A}_{V}
SPACE SHUTTLE
PARACHUTE
WIND TURBINE
ROCKET
RACE
ENGINE
_{S}_{H}_{I}_{P}
SUBMARINE
Navy Ship Propulsion Technologies:
Options for Reducing Oil Use
Airfoil Selection
The airfoil affects the
S LO
1.44W
2
g
SL
2
Sc
L
max
T
SL
)
1/ 2
cruise speed takeoff and landing distances
2(
W
/
S
V
stall
SL
c
L
max
stall speed handling qualities (especially near the stall) overall “aerodynamic efficiency” during all phases of flight.
Airfoil Geometry
Angle of
attack
The key geometric parameters.
Total airfoil camber is defined as the maximum distance of the mean camber line from the chord line, expressed as percent of the chord. The “airfoil thickness ratio” (t/c) refers to the maximum thickness of the airfoil divided by its chord.
Airfoil Lift and Drag An airfoil generates lift by changing the velocity of the air passing over and under itself. The airfoil angle of attack causes the air over the top of the wing to travel faster than the air beneath the wing.
The integrated differences in pressure between top and bottom of the airfoil generate the net lifting force.
Note that the upper surface of the wing contributes about twothirds of the total lift.
Pressure Coefficient
Lift, Drag, and Moment Coefficients
Lift, drag, and moment on an airfoil:
l lift/unit span d drag/unit span m moment/unit span
The forces and moment are functions of:
angle of attack
V
freesteam velocity
freestream density
c airfoil chord length
freestream viscosity
a
freestream sonic speed
q
freestream dynamic pressure
Dimensional analysis can be applied to reduce the number of free parameters:
^{C}
l
^{C}
d
^{C}
m
where
Re
V
c
^{}
M
V
^{} ^{} a
Airfoil characteristics are strongly affected by the “Reynolds number” at which they are operating. The Reynolds number influences whether the flow will be laminar or turbulent and whether flow separation will occur.
A typical aircraft wing operates at a Reynolds number of about ten milllion.
Cl vs. Cd ‐ shows best locations where to fly
Drag bucket : low drag region
Airfoil Families
The early airfoils were developed mostly by trial and error.
In the 1930s, the NACA developed a widely used family of mathematically defined airfoils called the “four digit” airfoils. While rarely used for wing design today, the uncambered four ‐digit airfoils are still commonly used for tail surfaces of subsonic aircraft.
The NACA five ‐digit airfoils were developed to allow shifting the position of maximum camber forward for greater maximum lift .
The six‐series airfoils were designed for
increased reduced drag.
hence
laminar flow,
and
Six ‐series airfoils such as the 64A series are still widely used as a starting point for high ‐speed ‐wing design. (example: F15)
These two shapes are low ‐drag sections designed to have laminar flow over 60 to 70 percent of chord on both the upper and the lower surface.
Airfoil Design
In the past, the designer would select an airfoil from such a catalog by considering:
airfoil drag during cruise stall and pitchingmoment characteristics, the thickness available for structure, fuel the ease of manufacture.
With today’s computational airfoil design capabilities, it is becoming common for the airfoil shapes for a wing to be customdesigned.
Methods have been developed for designing an airfoil such that :
• the pressure diferantial between the top and bottom of the airfoil quickly reaches a maximum value attainable without flow separation.
• toward the rear of the airfoil, various pressure recovery schemes are employed to prevent separation near the trailing edge.
Airfoils with substantial pressure diferentials over a much percent of chord than a classical airfoil.
This permits a reduced wing area for a required amount of lift.
Round leading edge  increases pressure quickly:
• Gradual tapering to a sharp trailing edge – reduces likelihood of separation under adverse pressure grad.
• Camber  this curvature determines how much lift is generated at zero angle of attack
Most airfoils are designed using numerical codes based around potential flow theory with boundary layer corrections, but one can also use wind tunnel data or inverse design methods:
• Most airfoils are designed
for
specific design point,
such as:
a
max lift,
max thickness,
transonic flight,
laminar b.l.,
low Re, or
low pitching moment
If the airplane is flying at just under the speed of sound, the faster air traveling over the upper surface will reach supersonic speeds causing a shock to exist on the upper surface.
The speed at which supersonic flow first appears on the airfoil is called the “critical Mach number” M _{c}_{r}_{i}_{t} .
A supercritical airfoil is one designed to increase the critical Mach number.
Design Lift Coefficient
The first consideration in initial airfoil selection is the “design lift coefficient.”
This is the lift coefficient at which the airfoil has the best (L/D).
md
tan
max
c
L
md
c
D
md
L
^{} D
max
In subsonic flight a welldesigned airfoil operating at its design lift coefficient has a drag coefficient that is little more than skinfriction drag.
The aircraft should be designed so that it flies the design mission at or near the design lift coefficient to maximize the aerodynamic efficiency.
W
L
qSc
L
qSc
l
c
Wing lift coefficient
Airfoil lift coefficient
(First approximation)
Wing loading
q f (V,h)
c
l can be calculated for the velocity and altitude of the design mission.
During the mission fuel is burned:
W
S
to flight with the design lift coefficient
q h
“cruise climb flight”
“maximum range”
In actual practice, a design lift coefficient usually will be based upon past experience, and for most types of aircraft typically will be around “0.5.”
In fact, the initial selection of the airfoil is often simply based upon prior experience or copied from some successfull design.
Stall
Stall characteristics play an important role in airfoil selection.
Some airfoils exhibit a gradual reduction in lift during a stall, whereas others show a violent loss of lift, accompanied by a rapid change in pitching moment. This differerence reflects the existance of three entirely different types of airfoil stall.
“Fat airfoils” (t/c > %14) Stall from the trailing edge:
• ; turbulent boundary layer • At 10 ^{0} boundary layer begins to separate starting at the trailing edge, ; moving forward • The loss of lift is gradual, the pitching moment changes only a small amount.
“Thinner airfoils” (%6 < t/c < %14) Stall from the leading edge:
• The flow separates near the nose at a very
small angle of attack, but immediately reattaches
itself : little effect is felt.
• ; the flow fails to reattach: entire stall
• An abrupt change in lift and pitching moment.
• “Very thin airfoils” (t/c < %6)
• The flow separates from the nose at a small
angle of attack and reattaches immediately.
• ; “bubble” continues to stretch toward the
trailing edge. The airfoil reaches its maximum lift where the bubble completely stretches.
• The loss of lift is smooth, but large changes in pitching moment.
NACA 4412 versus NACA 4421
• Both NACA 4412 and NACA 4421 have same shape of mean camber line
• Thin airfoil theory predict that linear lift slope and _{L}_{=}_{0} should be the same for both
• Leading edge stall shows rapid drop of lift curve near maximum lift
• Trailing edge stall shows gradual bending ‐over of lift curve at maximum lift, “soft stall”
• High c _{l}_{,}_{m}_{a}_{x} for airfoils with leading edge stall
• Flat plate stall exhibits poorest behavior, early stalling
• Thickness has major effect on c _{l}_{,}_{m}_{a}_{x}
The wing twist angle is introduced to prevent stall from occurring at the wing tip before than the wing root.
Usually wings are 'washout' twisted, resulting in a decreasing angle of attack starting from the root and towards the tip.
Precisely, the twist angle is the angle between the zero ‐lift line of the profile in the current section and the zero ‐lift line of the root profile.
As the twist angle increases along the span, the lower is the local angle of attack and the lower is the lift generated. By this we prevent the wing tip from generating as much lift as the wing root, which may cause the stall to occur at the worst place we'd like it to occur, the ailerons.
By washout twist, we obtain to make stall occur at the wing root, without lost of ailerons control.
The designer may elect to use different airfoils at the root and tip:with a tip airfoil selected which stalls at a higher angle of attack than the root airfoil.
This provides good flow over the ailerons for roll controll at an angle of attack where the root is stalled.
Airfoil Thickness Ratio
Airfoil thickness ratio has a direct effect on
drag, maximum lift, stall characteristics, structural weight.
t / c
c
d
M cr
Supercritical Airfoils
• Supercritical airfoils designed to delay and reduce transonic drag rise, due to both strong normal shock and shockinduced boundary layer separation
• Relative to conventional, supercritical airfoil has reduced amount of camber, increased leading edge radius, small surface curvature on suction side, and a concavity in rear part of pressure side
Optimum Airfoil Thickness
• The thickness ratio affects the maximum lift and stall characteristics primarily by its effect on the nose shape.
• A larger nose radius provides a higher stall angle and a greater maximum lift coefficient (with hight AR and moderate sweep) (vise verse for low AR).
• NACA 63 ‐2XX, NACA 63 ‐212 ; example of optimum selection
Thickness Effect on Structural Weight
Structural weight
1 Halving the thickness ratio:
wing weight (%41)
Wing weight is typically about %15 of empty weight
Halving the thickness ratio:
empty weight (%6)
A supercritical airfoil would tend to be about %10 thicker than the historical trend.
Frequently the thickness is varied from root to tip:
Due to fuselage effects, the root airfoil of a subsonic aircraft can be as mush as 2060% thicker than the tip airfoil without greatly affecting the drag.
This is very benefical, resulting in a structural weight reduction as well as more volume for fuel and landing gear.
This thicker root airfoil should extend to no more than about 30% of the span.
Other Airfoil Considerations Another important aspect of airfoil selection is the intended Reynolds number.
Each airfoil is designed for a certain Reynolds number.
Use of an airfoil at a greately different Reynolds number (1/2 order) can produce section characteristics much different from those expected.
This is important for the laminarflow airfoils and is most crucial when an airfoil is operated at a lowerthandesign Reynolds number.
The laminar airfoils require extremely smooth skins.
An aircraft designer should not spend too much time trying to pick exactly the “right airfoil” in early conceptual design.
Later trade studies and analytical design tools will determine the desired airfoil characteristics and geometry.
For early conceptual layout, the selected airfoil is important mostly determining the thickness available for structure, landing gear, and fuel.
For sweptwing supersonic aircraft, the NACA 64A and 65A sections are good airfoils for initial design.
Wing Planform
Wing Geometry
Important considerations/constraints:
– Performance (cruise, loiter, take ‐off, landing)
– Flying qualities (handling and stability)
– Structural considerations (spar placement)
– Internal volume (for fuel/payload)
– Stealth characteristics (for military subsonic)
– Airport limitations (wing ‐span)
The “reference” wing is the basic wing geometry used to begin the layout.
• S, reference wing area
• c, chord
• b, span
• A, aspect ratio (b ^{2} /S)
• t/c, thickness ratio
• , sweep
• , taper ratio (c _{t}_{i}_{p} / c _{r}_{o}_{o}_{t} )
• Twist (aerodynamic and geometric)
• Dihedral
Graphical method for finding the mean aerodynamic chord.
Planform area:
It is the area of wing planform obtained by extending the exposed wing up to the fuselage centre line.
Reference (or Equivalent) wing:
It is a trapezoidal wing whose root chord is at the fuselage centre line and has the area same as the planform area.
The root airfoil is the airfoil of the trapezoidal reference wing at the centerline of the aircraft, not where the actual wing connects to the fuselage.
The reference wing area is fictitious:
• wing area includes the part of the reference wing that sticks into the fuselage.
3 ‐D Effect
C
L
C
AR
Comparison of a NACA 65‐ 210 airfoil lift curve with that of a wing using the same airfoil (McCormick).
There are two key sweep angles:
• the “leading edge sweep” is the angle of concern in supersonic flight: to reduce drag it is common to sweep the leading edge behind the Mach cone.
• the “sweep of the quarterchord line” is the sweep most related to subsonic flight.
It is important to avoid confusing these two sweep angles.
Airfoil pitching moment is generally provided about a point, where the pitching moment is essentially constant with changing angle of attack:
• In subsonic flow, this is at the quarterchord point on the mean aerodynamic chord.
• In supersonic flow, the aerodynamic center moves back to about 40% of the mean
aerodynamic chord. Also, the mean aerodynamic center will be important for stability.
The required reference wing area S can be determined only after the takeoff gross weight is determined.
W/S, A, known parameters
The shape of the reference wing is determined by its aspect ratio, taper ratio, and sweep.
[(1
A
) /
(1
)]
Aspect Ratio
Aspect ratio affects
A
b
c
for rectangular wings.
the slope of the lift curve of wing (c _{L}_{α} ), induced drag (c _{D}_{i} ) , structural weight of the wing the wing span.
A
b
2
S
for delta wings.
When a wing is generating lift, it has a reduced pressure on the upper surface and an increased pressure on the lower surface.
Near the tip of the wing, the high ‐pressure air will slip around to reach the top of the wing. This circulation of air around the tip creates a vortex and also pushes down on the top of the wing, spoiling lift and creating drag.
A high aspect ratio planform shape has wingtips spaced further apart. Therefore, the formation of vortices will have less of an effect because less of the wing will be exposed to the vortices.
Trailing Vortices Producing Downwash
Effect of aspect ratio on slope of the lift curve
The slope of lift curve of an elliptic wing in a low subsonic flow is given as:
A
c
L
c
l
A 2
For other types of wing, the C _{L}_{α} would in general be slightly lower than that for elliptic wing.
However equation shows that C _{L}_{α} decreases as aspect ratio decreases.
Effect of aspect ratio on induced drag:
The induced drag coefficient of a subsonic airplane is given by:
c D i
2
c L
A
(1
)
where δ depends on wing geometry i.e. Aspect ratio, taper ratio and sweep.
A wing with a high aspect ratio will generate more lift and less induced drag than a wing with a low aspect ratio.
Effect of aspect ratio on structural weight:
W wing
CS
0.649
W
A
0.5
(
t
/
c
)
0.4
root
(1
)
0.1
(cos(
))
1
Equation shows that the wing weight increases as square root of the aspect ratio.
The reason for this is that the span increases as the aspect ratio increases (A = b ^{2} /S).
An increase in the span would increase the bending moment at the wing root.
This would require higher moment of inertia of the spar and hence higher weight.
Effect of aspect ratio on span:
For a chosen wing area, the aspect ratio determines the span of the wing. In turn the span determines the hanger space needed for the airplane.
• For personal airplanes, a moderate aspect ratio of 6 to 7 is generally chosen.
• Agricultural and other airplanes, which fly in proximity of ground, are subjected to air turbulence and have moderate aspect ratio of 6 to 7.
Aspect ratio also has a direct impact on stall angle (and overall lift coefficient of the wing):
For a given Re, the wing with higher A (with long wingspan and small chord) reaches higher lift coefficient, but stalls at a lower angle of attack than the wing with low A. This is one reason why tails tend to be of lower aspect ratio. Conversely, a canard can be made to stall before the wing by making it a very high aspect ratio surface . This prevents the pilot from stalling the wing.
However, for a given wing area, increasing the aspect ratio may result in a too small wing chord with a too low Reynolds number, which may significantly reduce the lift coefficient.
In this design stage, the aspect ratio will be determined by a trade study in which the aerodynamic advantages of a higher aspect ratio are balanced against the increased weight.
For initial wing layout, the values and equations provided in the table can be used.
Propeller Aircraft 
Equivalent 
Aspect Ratio 

Flying boat 
8.0 
Twin turboprop 
9.2 
Agricultural aircraft 
7.5 
General aviation ‐ twin engine 
7.8 
General aviation ‐ single engine 
7.6 
Homebuilt 
6.0 
Jet Aircraft 
a 
C 
Jet transport 
7.500 
0 
Military cargo/bomber 
5.570 
‐ 1.075 
Jet fighter (other) 
4.110 
‐ 0.622 
Jet fighter (dogfighter) 
5.416 
‐ 0.622 
Jet trainer 
4.737 
‐ 0.979 
A
c
^{a}^{M} max
M _{m}_{a}_{x} = Maximum flight
Mach number
For Sailplane:
A
2
b
S
A
4.464(
L
/
D
0.69
^{)} best
Jet aircraft show a strong trend of aspect ratio decreasing with increasing Mach number.
This is probably due to drag ‐due ‐lift becoming relatively less important at higher speeds.
Designers of high ‐speed aircraft thus use lower ‐aspect ‐ratio wings to save weight.
Wing Sweep
• Airfoil has same thickness but longer effective chord,
• Effective airfoil section is thinner,
• Making airfoil thinner increases critical Mach number.
The wing sweep affects
slope of the lift curve (c _{L}_{α} ), induced drag coefficient (c _{D}_{i} ), critical Mach number (M _{c}_{r} ), wing weight tip stalling.
Effect of sweep on slope of lift curve:
2
1
M
2
,
c
l
2
/
c
L
Λ _{m}_{a}_{x} _{t} = sweep of the line of maximum thickness, C _{l}_{α} is the slope of lift curve of the airfoil used on wing at chosen flight Mach number.
In the absence of this information , η can be taken as 1.
Effect of sweep on induced drag
2
A
2
1
max t
C _{L}_{α} decreases as sweep increases
A = 8, M=0.8
C _{L}_{α} decrease by about 25% when sweep increases from 0 ^{0} to 35 ^{0} .
Based on experimental data on swept wing, induced drag of a swept wing is inversely proportional to cosine of (Λ‐5 ^{0} ).
c
D
i
1
cos(
0
5 )
,
75
At
M ~ 0.6, severely
reduced L/D
Benefit of this design is at
M
> 1, to sweep wings
inside Mach cone.
• Wing sweep beneficial in that it increases drag ‐divergences Mach number
• Increasing wing sweep reduces the lift coefficient
Effect of sweep on critical Mach number (M _{c}_{r} ) or drag divergence Mach number (M _{D}_{D} ):
The critical Mach number in connection with the airfoil was defined as the free stream Mach number at which the maximum Mach number on the airfoil is unity.
This quantity can be obtained theoretically by calculating the pressure distribution on the airfoil, but cannot be determined experimentally.
However when the critical Mach number is exceeded, the drag coefficient starts to increase.
Making use of this behavior we define the term “Drag divergence Mach number (M _{D}_{D} )” as the Mach number at which the drag coefficient shows an increase of 0.002 over the subsonic drag value.
Drag divergence Mach number of a Supercritical airfoil
Remark:
Some authors define M _{D}_{D} as the Mach number at which the slope of the C _{d} vs. M curve has a value of 0.1 i.e. (dCd / dM) = 0.1.
For a swept wing the change in drag divergence Mach number due to sweep angle Λ , is given by the following equation:
1
(
M
DD
)
1
(
M
)
DD 0
1
90
(M _{D}_{D} ) _{Λ}_{=}_{0} and (M _{D}_{D} ) _{Λ} are the drag divergence Mach numbers of the unswept and the swept wings. Λ is quarter‐chord sweep in degrees.
As regards the effect of sweep on critical Mach number is concerned a sweep back or sweep forward has the same effect. However from structural point of view a swept forward wing has lower flutter speed and is seldom use.
Effect of sweep on wing weight
W wing
CS
0.649
W
A
0.5
(
t
/
c
)
0.4
root
(1
)
0.1
(cos(
))
1
The weight of the wing is proportional to (1/cos Λ ).
Thus the weight of the wing increases as sweep increases.
Remarks:
i) The final choice of sweep will be done after trade ‐off studies.
Following can be given as guidelines.
• Low subsonic airplanes have unswept wings.
• For high speed airplanes, the angle of sweep can be chosen based on Figure:
Guidelines for selection of wing sweep
ii) Wing with cranked trailing edge: Instead of
having a trapezoidal wing planform, the wings of high subsonic airplanes have an unswept trailing edge up to about 30% of semi ‐span in the inboard region. These wings have the following favorable effects.
a) Higher thickness at the root and
b) Span ‐wise center of pressure is brought slightly inboard which reduces the bending moment at the root as compared to the trapezoidal wing. These two effects tend to reduce the weight of wing structure. The thicker inboard section also provides room for accommodating the backup structure for the landing gear.
Remarks:
• sweep improves lateral stability
• dihedral effect (roll due to sideslip) is proportional to sin(2 _{L}_{E} )
• variable sweep can be used as compromise
• obvious penalty in weight and complexity
Why Sweep the Wing?
Subsonic (usually small)
• Adjust wing aero center relative to cg
• On flying wing, get moment arm length for control
Transonic (significant, 30°‐35°) • Delay drag rise Mach
Supersonic (large, 45°‐70°)
• Wing concept changes, ‐ must distribute load longitudinally as well as laterally
• reduce cross‐sectional area and area variation
Wing sweep increases wing weight for fixed span
Why Variable Sweep?
• Swept back: low supersonic drag, good “on ‐the ‐deck” ride quality
• Unswept position: low landing speed, efficient loiter
• Optimum sweep back available over transonic speed range
• But: adds weight/complexity, currently unfashionable
F ‐14 Tomcat
Why Sweep the Wing Forward?
• For transonic maneuver, strong shock is close to trailing edge, highly swept TE (shock) reduces drag.
‐ forward swept wing allows highly swept TE
‐ equivalent structural AR less than aft swept wing
• Synergistic with canard
• Good high angle of attack (root stall, ailerons keep working)
• But:
‐ must be balanced at least 30% unstable
‐ not stealthy
‐ poor supersonic volumetric wave drag
X‐29
Taper Ratio ( )
The taper raio influences
Induced drag Structural weight Ease of fabrication
Effect of taper ratio on induced drag:
It is known that an elliptic wing has the lowest induced drag (δ = 0.0). However this planform shape is difficult to fabricate.
c
D
2
c L
A
(1
)
A rectangular wing is easy to fabricate but has about 7% higher C _{D}_{i} as compared to the elliptic wing (δ = 0.07). It is also heavier structurally.
An unswept wing, with λ between 0.3 to 0.5, has a slightly positive value of δ.
Further in a tapered wing, the span loading is concentrated in the inboard portions of the wing and the airfoil at the root is thicker than near the tip.
These factors help in reducing the wing weight.
Tip stalling is also not a problem when the taper ratio is between 0.3 and 0.5.
From these considerations,
a taper ratio between 0.3 and 0.5 is common for low speed airplanes.
For swept wings, a taper ratio of 0.2 is commonly used.
This would necessitate measures for avoiding tip ‐stalling.
• untapered wing is less efficient
• sweep causes extra lift near wingtip • effect is reduced by additional taper
Twist
It is given to prevent tip stalling.
Tip stalling:
Geometric twist
It is a phenomenon in which the stalling on the wing begins in the region near the wing tips. This is because the distribution of local lift coefficient (C _{l} ) is not uniform along the span and as the angle of attack of the wing increases, the stalling will begin at a location where the local lift coefficient exceeds the value of maximum lift coefficient (C _{l}_{m}_{a}_{x} ) there.
To appreciate this phenomenon let us consider an un ‐swept tapered wing. The lift distribution on such a wing has a maximum at the root and goes to zero at the tip. This distribution is also known as Γ distribution.
L
1
2
2
V
c
l
S
C _{l} is the local lift coefficient over an element (Δ y) of span.
Thus Γ distribution is proportional to the product cC _{l} .
1
2
2
V
c c
l
y
Aerodynamic twist
The local lift coefficient (C _{l} ) is proportional to Γ /c and is not uniform along the span.
The Γ distribution along the span can be approximately obtained by Schrenk’s method. According to this method, cC _{l} distribution is roughly midway between chord distribution of the actual wing and that of an elliptic wing of the same area.
From these distributions, the variation of C _{l} along the span can be calculated.
It can be shown that for a wing with taper ratio λ, the local maximum of C _{l} will occur at a span ‐wise location where
y /b / 2 (1)
Schrenk’s Method
It is known that the maximum lift coefficient (C _{l} _{m}_{a}_{x} ) of an airfoil depends on the airfoil shape, surface roughness and Reynolds number.
For simplicity, we can assume that C _{l} _{m}_{a}_{x} is approximately constant along the span.
Then from the distribution of C _{l} , we observe that as the angle of attack of the wing increases, the stalling will begin at the span ‐wise location where local C _{l} equals local C _{l} _{m}_{a}_{x} .
Subsequently, stalling will progress along the wing span and finally the wing will stall (i.e. C _{L} of wing will reach a maximum and then decrease). The beginning of stall near the tip is undesirable as ailerons are located in tip region. Stalling there would reduce aileron effectiveness. For a wing of a taper ratio 0.3, the stall is likely to begin around y/(b/2) of
0.7.
Remarks:
In the case of swept wings, there is a cross flow along the span and the tendency for the tip stall is enhanced.
Tip stalling can be prevented if the sections in the tip region have angles of attack lower than those at the root. In this case, the wing acquires a twist. The difference between the angle of attack of the airfoil at the root and that near the tip is called twist and denoted by ε . Twist is negative when airfoil near the tip is at an angle of attack lower than that at the root. This is also called wash ‐out. Sometimes airfoils with higher C _{l} _{m}_{a}_{x} are used near the tip. Thus airfoils at the root and near the tip may have a different values of angle of zero lift (α _{0}_{l} ). This leads to two different kinds of twists – geometric twist and aerodynamic twist.
Geometric twist is the angle between the chords of the airfoils at the root and near the tip. Aerodynamic twist is the angle between the zero lift lines at the root and that near the tip. To completely eliminate the occurrence of tip stalling, may require complex variation of the angle of twist. However for ease of fabrication, linear twist is given in which the angle of twist varies linearly along the span.
i) Actual value of twist can be obtained by calculating C _{l} distribution on untwisted wing and then varying the twist such that tip ‐stalling is avoided. A value of 30 can be used as an initial estimate.
ii) Early swept wing airplanes had the following features to avoid tip stalling .
(a)
Vortex generators, Fences on top surface.
Wing Incidence
The mean aerodynamic chord is the reference line on the wing. Fuselage reference line (FRL) is the reference line for the entire airplane.
The
angle
between fuselage
reference line 
and 
the 
wing 
reference line 
is 
called wing 
incidence and denoted by i _{w} .
The wing incidence is given for the following reason.
For the economy in fuel consumption, the drag should be minimum during the cruise. The fuselage has a minimum drag when its angle of attack is zero.
However, during cruise, the wing should produce sufficient lift to support the weight of the airplane. Keeping these factors in view, the wing is mounted on the fuselage in such a manner that it produces required amount of lift in cruise while the fuselage is at zero angle of attack.
During the preliminary design phase, i _{w} can be obtained as follows.
a) Obtain C _{L} _{d}_{e}_{s}_{i}_{g}_{n} corresponding to cruise or any other design condition i.e.
^{c} L design
W
1
2
V
2
S
where ρ and V correspond to the
design flight conditions
b) Obtain C _{L} _{α} for the wing .
c) Obtain zero lift angle (α _{0} _{L} ) for wing. This depends on α _{0} _{l} of the airfoil used on the wing and the wing twist.
d) Calculate i _{w} from the following equation:
Remark:
c L design
c
L
(
i
w
0L
)
The final choice of i _{w} may be arrived at from wind tunnel tests on the airplane model.
For preliminary design purposes
Suggested wing incidence angle
Airplane type 
Wing incedence angle 

General aviation / home built 
2 
^{0} 
Transport 
1 
^{0} 
Military 
0 
^{0} 
Dihedral ( )
Dihedral angle is the angle that the wings form with respect to the horizon when viewed from the front.
Its value is decided after the lateral dynamic stability calculations have been carried out for the airplane.
For preliminary design purposes.
Suggested dihedral angle

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