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1700 Fireproofing

Abstract
This section describes various types, relative merits, and properties of fireproofing
materials. It gives guidelines for determining structures that require fireproofing and
recommended materials and suppliers. It also discusses the various types of fireproofed and fire resistant systems for critical control systems. API RP 2218 is the
industry standard for fireproofing.
Contents

Page

1710 Introduction

1700-2

1711 Definition of Terms


1712 Company and Industry Documents
1720 Support Structures

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1721 Where Fireproofing of Support Structures Is Warranted


1722 Level of Protection Required
1723 Layout and Design Considerations
1724 Materials
1725 Specific Applications
1730 Critical Valves, Instrumentation, and Shutdown Systems

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1731 Emergency Shutdown or Isolation Valves


1732 Tank Block Valves
1733 Air Supply
1734 Switchgear Housing and Junction Boxes
1735 Instrument and Electrical Cables
1736 Home Runs for Cable Trays and Conduit Banks
1740 Materials Suppliers and Applicators

1700-20

1741 Support Structures


1742 Critical Valves, Instrumentation, and Shutdown Systems

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1750 Fireproofing Test Methods

1700-22

1760 References

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1710 Introduction
Selecting a fireproofing material involves answering three questions:

What level of protection is required, if any?


What materials will provide this level of protection?
Of those materials, which is the appropriate choice?

Section 1720 answers these questions for support structures and Section 1730 for
critical valves, instrumentation and shutdown systems.
This section defines terms used in this section and lists relevant Company and
industry documents.

1711 Definition of Terms


Fireproofing: Protection that provides resistance to fire and heat transfer long
enough to allow critical structures to remain standing or critical control systems to
operate, while the fire is brought under control.
Fire-Exposed Envelope:

For structural steel, vessel/column skirts, etc., the area within a horizontal
radius of 20-40 feet and 20-40 feet vertically of fire-potential equipment.
Distances can be expanded or reduced based on drainage, pressure and liquid
holdup.

For instrumentation, electrical power cables and/or air piping/tubing, the area
within a 50' horizontal radius or 50' vertically.

Fire Potential Equipment:

Fired equipment, including heaters and furnaces, that handles flammable materials.

Rotating or reciprocating mechanical equipment, such as pumps or compressors, that handles flammable materials.

Drums, exchangers, columns, and similar operating vessels that handle flammable materials and have a volume of more than 1000 gallons (24 barrels).

Plot-limit piping manifolds that contain flammable materials and ten or more
valves.

Tanks, spheres, and spheroids that contain flammable materials including their
drainage and relief path and impounding basis.

Flammable Materials: For the purpose of this section of the manual, flammable
materials include flammable gases, vapors, and liquids having a flash point below
100F or being handled at temperatures above their flash point.
Emergency Shutdown or Depressuring System: A system that will shut down a
plant or other facility under emergency conditions, either automatically or by

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remote push button; actuate remote block valves to stop the flow of flammable
liquids or gases; stop heat input to process furnaces, reboilers, or heaters; stop the
rotation of associated machinery (especially pumps); or depressure the equipment
through a vent, if appropriate.
Emergency Isolation System: A system of remote-operated valves to isolate a
piece of equipment or unit involved in a fire or other emergency, thus limiting the
supply of fuel. This may be an individual pump, compressor, vessel, LPG sphere,
etc., or it may encompass an entire area inside the plot limits of a plant or battery.
Critical Instrument or Electrical Cables: Cables or tubing associated with emergency shutdown, depressuring, or isolation systems. Typically, these systems must
maintain their operational integrity to facilitate safe unit shutdown for at least 20
minutes into a fire.
Home Runs: Large groups of multiconductor signal cables from the control house
to the main junction boxes in the plant. Home runs are expensive to install and time
consuming to repair. Their loss may cause damage to plant(s) outside the fire area as
a result of loss of control.
Plot Limit Valves: The boundary valves for a plant area containing a complete
operation or group of operations that may be shut down as a unit. These valves are
used for isolation on turnarounds or fire emergencies. They should have at least a
50-foot separation from other hydrocarbon-handling facilities.

1712 Company and Industry Documents


See Section 1760, References, for a complete listing of Company and industry
guidelines for fireproofing. The Standard Drawings can be found in the Standard
Drawings section. Use API RP 2218, Fireproofing Practices in Petroleum and Petrochemical Processing Plants as a guide to determine the extent of fireproofing
required. This section is a supplement to that publication.

1720 Support Structures


This section presents guidelines for fireproofing support structures to protect them
from failure due to fire exposure for specific time periods.

1721 Where Fireproofing of Support Structures Is Warranted


Fireproofing of the principal members is warranted if the structure is in the fireexposed envelope and failure of these members could cause any of the following:

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Threat of injury to personnel


Loss or serious damage to valuable or critical supported equipment
Release of large volumes of flammable material
Release of toxic material
Threat to adjacent property and structures of high value
Serious loss of productive capacity

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Conversely, fireproofing is not warranted in these situations:

The value of the structure and supported equipment is low when compared to
the cost of fireproofing.

Member failure would not cause failure of the structure or equipment. Thus,
wind and earthquake bracing and other secondary members, such as supports
for stairs, platforms, and walkways, are not normally fireproofed.

The structure is far enough removed from the source of a fire to preclude
serious damage.

The fire would cause failure or serious damage to supported equipment whether
or not the structure was fireproofed.

The structure supports piping that is not carrying flammable liquids. Piping
carrying only gases does not normally justify fireproofing of the supports.

1722 Level of Protection Required


Major factors that determine the level of fireproofing needed are the intensity and
duration of potential fire and the importance of the structure or equipment. Typically, fireproofing should protect structures supporting high-risk or valuable equipment from reaching 1000F for a period of three hours, as defined by UL 1709 (see
Section 1750). For dense concrete, this is equivalent to four hours as defined by
ASTM E-119, the test used prior to 1984. (Refer to Section 1750 for a discussion of
the differences between ASTM E-119 and UL 1709 fire tests.) Fireproofing in
excess of these requirements may be necessary for special high valued equipment
such as reactors or equipment handling large quantities of flammable material in
congested areas. Non-critical structures are not protected. Consult the CRTC Fire &
Process Safety Team if you feel the above criteria do not fit your needs.
When fireproofing of structural supports is warranted, the following types of protection are recommended:
Three-hour fireproofing as shown on Standard Drawing GA-N33336 (in Standard
Drawings Section) is for main support members of structures and equipment within
the fire-exposed envelope (see Section 1711). A three-hour level of protection is
appropriate for a typical hydrocarbon processing unit fire duration.
Less than three-hour protection. Thinner coatings may be used where three-hour
protection is not warranted. See Figures 1700-1 and 1700-2 for guidance. Threehour protection may not be justified in areas where the flammable inventory is such
that a three-hour fire is unfeasible.
A three-hour rating for formed and poured concrete fireproofing is usually worth the
small incremental cost of the additional concrete. If gunite concrete is used, it is
economical to use the thickness corresponding to the particular fire rating needed
because cost is more nearly proportional to thickness.

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Comparative Fire Rating


The required weight and thickness of fireproofing material for a given duration of
fire exposure varies depending on the type of material chosen. Estimated weights
and thicknesses for different types of material and different ratings are given in
Figures 1700-1 and 1700-2

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INTERMEDIATE
STRENGTH

LOW STRENGTH

Concrete (poured-in-place Haydite Vermiculite Mix Pyrocrete 240 (High Yield)

Pyrocrete 241

Fendolite M II(1)

HIGH STRENGTH
Product Name

or gunited)
Standard mix of portland
cement and rock aggregate

Haydite and Vermiculite


(light weight aggregate)
plus portland cement

Proprietary inorganic
cement formulation

Proprietary inorganic
cement formulation

Spray-applied vermiculite
portland cement mix

140-150

75-95

47

55

44

Compressive Strength (PSI)

2500-3000

1500-2000

836

817

548

Thermal Conductivity (BTU


in/deg F-hr-sq ft @ 75 deg
F mean temperature)

13

1.19

0.87

1.32

70-90

70-90

55

55

40-41

Design No. XR-716

Design No. XR-701

Design No. XR-704

Specifications
Density (lbs./cu ft)

Hardness (Shore D)
UL 1709 Fire Time Rating
(thickness in inches at:

1700-6

1 hour

11/16

1.5 hours

11/16

15/16

1-3/16

2 hours

1-1/8

1-1/8

1-7/16

2.5 hours

1-5/8

2 Note(2)

1-3/8

1-3/8

1-13/16

3 hours
4 hours

2.5 Note

(2)

1-9/16

1-9/16

2-5/16+

Recommended Primer

(3)

Epoxy

Epoxy(3)

Note(4)

None(4)

Epoxy(3)

Recommended Topcoat

None(5)

None(5)

Note(4)

None(4)

Note(4)

Recommended Use

Note(6)

Note(7)

Notes(8) (7) (9)

Notes(10) (7) (9)

Notes(7) (9)

Chevron has not used this system extensively. Before using it, contact the CRTC Materials and Equipment Engineering Specialist.
While there is no test data to support this number, it is equivalent to a 4 hr ASTM E-119 rating, for which test data is available.
Coating System Data Sheet 4.4 in the Coatings Manual (Quick Ref Guide page 69).
Follow manufacturers recommendations.
For severe weathering and corrosive conditions, consider an epoxy topcoat.
Structures such as piers, legs, pipe supports, etc., where weight is not a concern.
Vessels, skirts and other applications requiring lighter weight aggregate. Generally not used on structural steel.
Better for modular designs where flexing occurs during transport.
Oil platforms and other applications requiring lighter weight and low volume.
Chevron has good experience with this product.

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(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
(10)

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Fig. 1700-1 Properties of Cementitious Base Fireproofing Materials

INTUMESCENT
Chartek VII

SUBLIMING
(1)

Pittchar XP

Product Name

Thermolag 3000 (100%


Solids)

INSULATING
Super Fire Temp (Electric Cable Trays)

Eternit Promat H

100% solids epoxy intumescent

Density (lbs./cu ft)

62.4

73

78.5

28

54

Compressive Strength
(PSI)

2700

2264

2190

900

1420

Thermal Conductivity
(BTU in/deg F-hr-sq ft @
75 deg F mean temperature)

1.48

1.69

0.076

1.14

70

60

50

UL 1709 Fire Time Rating


(thickness in inches at):

Design No. XR-617

Design No. XR-612

Design No. XR-618

1986 HIFT Test Results

1/4 hour

1/2 hour

1.5

1 hour

0.28

0.12

Note(2)

1.5 hours

0.40

0.40

0.21

Note(2)

2 hours

0.60

0.52

0.31

Note(2)

2.5 hours

0.80

0.63

0.41

Note(2)

3 hours

0.75

0.50

Note(2)

4 hours

0.69

Note(2)

Note(3)

Note(3)

Note(3)

None

None

Recommended Topcoat

Note

(3)

Note(3)

Note(3)

Note(4)

Note(3)

Recommended Use

Note(5)

Note(5)

Note(6)

Cable Trays

Note(1)

Hardness (Shore D)

1700-7

Recommended Primer

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(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)

Two-component epoxy High density calcium sili- High density calcium silisubliming coating
cate insulation
cate insulation

Chevron has not used this system extensively. Before using it, contact the CRTC Fire & Process Safety Team or CRTC Materials and Engineering Specialist.
See manufacturers brochure for calculation instructions (page 18-19).
Follow manufacturers recommendations.
Outdoor installations need weatherjacketing. Silicone waterproofing is recommended by Johns Manville and may be adequate for dry locations.
Oil platforms and other applications requiring light weight and low volume.
Thermolag 3000 has both on and off-shore applications. See Manufacturers brochures for each market.

1700 Fireproofing

100% solids epoxy intumescent

Specifications

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Fig. 1700-2 Properties of Non-Cementitious Base Fireproofing Materials

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1723 Layout and Design Considerations


The API Publication 2218, Guideline for Fireproofing Practices in Petroleum and
Petrochemical Processing Plants, gives a sequence of steps to follow when considering what to fireproof. This section of the manual offers supplemental information.
Consider the following during design:

General layout of the plant (see Section 1300).

Drainage (both of the plant area and within structures) should carry hydrocarbon spills away from supports, structural members, and equipment. This
reduces the amount of potential fire damage due to an accidental spill. Where
drainage does not meet these criteria, additional fireproofing may be justified
(see Section 1400).

Fire risks in plants should be adequately spaced from one another (see
Section 1300).

Sources of ignitionfurnaces, shops, etc.should be located as far as practical from areas where flammable vapor might be released to the air. Where
risks are not adequately separated, additional fireproofing may be justified.

1724 Materials
Types of Fireproofing Materials
The Company usually uses concrete material because it is often the most cost-effective. Many commercial products are also available. They have specialized uses and
are usually more expensive than concrete. Fireproofing materials come in three
categories:

Cementitious-based materials such as concrete, Carbolines Pyrocrete 241,


and Hydraulic Press Brick Co.s Haydite-Vermiculite field mix.

Ablative materials or non-cementitious coatings such as Thermal Science


Inc.s (TSI) Thermolag 3000 (subliming) and Textrons Chartek VII (intumescent)

Insulation-based material such as Johns Manville Super Firetemp

Figures 1700-1 and 1700-2 give the UL 1709 and/or ASTM E-119 rating for these
materials. Use these figures to compare the relative performance of the tested materials. New applications should use materials that have been rated by UL 1709. (See
Section 1750.)
Both cementitious-based and insulation-based materials insulate the structure from
heat generated during a fire. These materials are not destroyed by the high temperatures of a fire. Both intumescent and subliming coatings absorb heat through mass
reduction. Subliming coatings absorb heat by transforming to a gas and intumescent
coatings work by quickly swelling to four times their original thickness to insulate
the structure.

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If you use concrete, follow Specification CIV-EG-850, Plain and Reinforced


Concrete. Concrete should be specified as ASTM C-150, Type II. If you use other
materials, follow the manufacturers recommended installation procedures.
UL 1709 rapid rise fire testing (described in Section 1750) indicates that gunited
concrete may not provide the same protection as cast-in-place concrete. Even
though Company experience with gunited concrete in actual fire conditions is
limited, it does not indicate that gunited concrete is inferior to cast-in-place
concrete. Until experience indicates otherwise, gunited concrete can be considered a
cost-effective fireproofing method for low-risk, lower-value areas where aesthetics
is not a high priority. Consult with the Fire Protection Staff about using it in critical
high risk areas.

Properties of Fireproofing Materials


Figures 1700-1 and 1700-2 compare fireproofing materials. Some of the terms used
in the figures are discussed below.
Applied Weight. Design of structures must include the weight of fireproofing,
which can significantly add to the total dead weight load. Concrete has a density of
150 lb/cu ft. Less dense materials minimize dead weight. However, lighter weight
materials may not save money because they are generally more expensive than
concrete.
Compressive Strength. Will the area you are fireproofing be subject to mechanical
abuse? Compressive strength is a good indicator of impact resistance. Some lightweight fireproofing systems such as Pyrocrete 241 have low compressive strength
and are more easily dented or damaged. These materials should not be used in hightraffic, high-maintenance areas.
Thermal Conductivity. Normally, thermal conductivity is not a major factor in
choosing a fireproofing material unless the material is to insulate the structure also.
Figures 1700-1 and 1700-2 show 75F mean temperature K factors for some
common materials. If used as both insulation and fireproofing, these materials
should not be exposed to continuous temperatures over 200F.

Mineral/Chemical Composition of Fireproofing Materials


The composition of a fireproofing material determines its compressive strength and
the need to use primers and/or topcoating with the material.
Concrete and Haydite-Vermiculite Mix. Concrete fireproofing is a standard
mixture of Portland cement and rock aggregate conforming to ASTM C-150. The
Haydite-Vermiculite (H-V) mixture also uses Portland cement but with lightweight
aggregates. Except in severe freeze-thaw service, concrete and the H-V mix do not
normally need a topcoat. Haydite is an expanded shale/clay and Vermiculite is
expanded Mica.
Lightweight Cementitious Materials. Commercial lightweight cementitious fireproofing materials must be topcoated. They are mostly lightweight aggregate with
just enough cement to hold them together. The lightweight aggregates will absorb

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water and tend to degrade much faster than normal concrete. Topcoating slows
degrading.
Pyrocrete 240 & 241 have lower range compressive strengths, and now being chloride-free, do not cause corrosion problems. Refer to the manufacturers recommendations for primers and topcoats.
Noncementitious Materials. The Company has limited experience with noncementitious coatings like Thermolag 3000 and Chartek VII. Thus far, experience has been
good on the few existing applications. However, a cautious approach is warranted
with their use. Thermolag 3000 is a subliming coating which just chars away during
a fire.
Intumescent coatings, like Chartek VII, work by quickly swelling up to four times
their original thickness during a fire. The swelled material forms a strongly oxidation-resistant char layer. In this manner, it resists the fire. It also protects the underlying steel by being a good insulator. Chartek VII comes in the form of a strong
epoxy. Epoxies are not very permeable, so leaching of chloride should not be a
problem.
Shelf Life of Fireproofing Materials. Some of these specialty fireproofing materials have a limited shelf life, similar to some brands of coatings. Therefore, it is
unwise to purchase excessive amounts that cannot be used in a short time. The shelf
life of Pyrocrete 241, for example, is two years. In general, suppliers will not take
their material back and there will be disposal costs for the expired material.
Weathering. Long-term environmental exposure does not have much effect on fireproofing materials. Dense cementitious materials are usually unaffected. Lightweight cementitious materials and noncementitious materials can be protected by
topcoating. However, the weathering resistance of noncementitious coatings needs a
more careful evaluation. Figures 1700-1 and 1700-2 indicate where topcoating is
recommended.
In a 1975 test program by the Smithers Company, (an independent testing laboratory), a noncementitious, intumescent coating, Albi Clad 890, was found to retain
only 30% of its fireproofing capabilities after an accelerated weathering test. This
loss in fireproofing was greater than that indicated by physical appearance. Another
intumescent coating, Firex RX 2384, showed only a nine-minute time of protection
in a high rise fire after accelerated weathering. Consequently, these products are not
recommended.
The Smithers program did not test Chartek VII and Thermolag 3000. However,
product literature states that these two products can pass accelerated weathering
tests without significant loss of fireproofing capabilities.
Reuse After a Fire. Cementitious fireproofing materials are not necessarily ruined
after exposure to a fire. Remaining properties depend on how much water of hydration was lost. The amount lost is a function of the intensity and duration of fire
exposure. Concrete is a good insulator and it is not unusual to find much of the
remaining concrete in good condition after a fire. All loose and damaged material
must be removed. The fireproofing can then be rebuilt to original thickness using

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standard concrete repair practices found in the Civil and Structural Manual, Section
260.
Proprietary materials (e.g., Pyrocrete 241) may require reapplication of material to
bring the total thickness back to the required fire rating.
Intumescent and subliming fireproofing systems must be replaced after a fire. Insulation-based systems would normally also need to be replaced after a fire.

Problems with Fireproofing


The Company has no reported failures of a fireproofing material during a fire.
However, fireproofing has caused the following problems:

Severe corrosion of the structural steel and reinforcement mesh underneath fireproofing. The primary cause is water that gets between the fireproofing and the
steel. As noted above, some proprietary fireproofing may cause corrosion problems if the steel is not coated. Refer to the Corrosion Prevention Manual,
Section 630, for more information on corrosion under fireproofing.

Excessive cracking of cementitious fireproofing.

Corrosion Prevention. Abrasive blasting and priming the structural steel prior to
fireproofing and proper cure of cementitious fireproofing are important in eliminating corrosion. Flashing or caulking prevent entry of water between the fireproofing and the steel. Acceptable sealants should be specified. Two such products
are Dow Corning No. 732 Silicone elastomeric sealer and H. B. Fuller, Foster Products Division No. 95-44 butyl caulking.
Commercial fireproofing manufacturers usually specify primers to be epoxy, inorganic zinc, or combinations of the two. However, epoxy provides better protection
against corrosion. Epoxy is preferred in plants that have a previous history of corrosion under fireproofing. Standard Drawings GA-N3336 and GD-N99994 specify a
polyamide epoxy (Coating System Data Sheet 4.4 in the Coatings Manual) on a
near white metal finish.
Chlorinated rubber coatings may also be considered where application restrictions,
such as low-temperature climates, limit the use of epoxy.
Touchup is required if the primer is damaged during shipment or application of the
reinforcing anchor studs. The touchup coating must be compatible with the original
primer. Also consider economics spraying a new primer coat may be less costly
than extensive touchup.
Cracking and Proper Cure. Proper cure of cementitious fireproofing materials
greatly reduces the amount of cracking. In some geographic locations, it is necessary to take extra measures like spray-applying a curing compound to seal the
surface to prevent moisture loss. Another measure is to wrap the freshly poured
concrete work with burlap or polyethylene sheet; however, this method can cause
staining. The concrete can also be cured by continuous application of a fine fresh
water mist to keep the surface moist.

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Cracking can occur even when concrete is properly cured. The main causes are
thermal cycling, shrinkage, and corrosion of reinforcing steel. If the cracking is bad
enough, it can accelerate corrosion of the underlying steel by allowing in water.
While cracking is undesirable, it is not cause for rejection unless severe.
There are no well-established criteria for judging severity of cracking. However, the
following checks can help you decide if a job needs more thorough review or repair.

Spalling of concrete, removing more than 20% of depth.


Many long, full-thickness cracks wider than 1/8 inch.
Substantial thinning of the steel substrate.

Selecting the Appropriate System


Concrete has usually been the most cost-effective fireproofing material. It is readily
available and the materials are least expensive. It does not require specialized installation techniques like some commercial fireproofing materials.
Some proprietary fireproofing systems, such as Pyrocrete 241, are becoming more
competitive with concrete from an installed cost standpoint, and have performed
better than concrete in fire tests.
Consider the long-term costs of fireproofing systems. If a topcoat is required in the
original design, plan to recoat it about every 10 years. Discounted cash flow calculations may show this maintenance cost to be low; however, also consider the chance
that the required planned maintenance will not be carried out. Concrete fireproofing
avoids this problem.
The weight savings of lightweight fireproofing does not always translate into cost
savings. Some offshore platforms are exceptions. Users should be wary of this claim
and be sure that the benefits are real.

1725 Specific Applications


Refer to API RP 2218 for guidance on where to apply fireproofing. This section
provides supplemental information.

Vertical Vessel Skirts


Fireproofing for skirts of columns and other vertical vessels is detailed in Standard
Drawing GD-N99994 (see the Standard Drawings Section). Skirts limited to one
access openings of less than 24 inches in diameter, with pipe openings of no more
than 1-inch maximum annulus clearance around the pipe or pipe insulation (per the
Standard Drawing) need not be fireproofed on the inside. Spilled fuel within the
skirt cannot get sufficient oxygen through only one opening. Additional openings
would permit cross-ventilation that could greatly increase the intensity of a possible
fire and would justify fireproofing the inside of the skirt. Fireproofing should be
included at the bottom of the skirt in the bolt area between the bottom reinforcing
plate and the base plate ring per Standard Drawing GD-N99994. Fireproofing for
the support legs of vertical vessels should be similar to that shown in Drawing GAN33336.

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Hydroprocessing Reactor Skirts


Reactors with a hot box design at the shell-to-skirt joint should be fireproofed to
the bottom of the hot box. Insulation covering the hot box should be protected with
a 10-gage stainless steel flame shield. The flame shield should extend from the top
of the fireproofing to the head-to-shell joint and be mechanically secured. Consult a
fireproofing or reactor design specialist for details of the flame shield.
The flame shield design was tested in 1989 with a UL 1709 test modified with a
high pressure hydrogen jet. The flame shield protected the underlying insulation
from the erosive effects of the hydrogen jet. Concrete fireproofing and Pyrocrete
241 were also tested, and neither was affected by the hydrogen jet. See Materials
Division Report, Fireproofing Tests with Hydrogen Jet Impingement, M.D. Gibb,
January, 1990 File No. 56.35, available from Chevron Research and Technology
Company, Process & Equipment Technology Group.

Piers or Legs for Horizontal Vessels


Support piers or legs for horizontal vessels near ground level, when not constructed
of reinforced concrete, should be fireproofed. (Exception: Metal saddles less than 9
inches high at the lowest point need not be fireproofed.)

Offshore Structures
Cementitious fireproofing materials have performed poorly offshore because the
reinforcing steel in the concrete corrodes. Consequently, these materials are not
recommended for offshore structures. Specialty, lightweight fireproofing materials
are often used offshore instead of concrete, to save space and weight. In addition,
there are no reinforcing bars in the materials to corrode. Chartek was used on Platform Ninian, Pyrocrete 241 was used on Platform Hidalgo, and Thermolag was used
on Platforms Gail and Esther. (Refer to Section 1750 for a discussion of ratings that
apply to offshore fireproofing of decks and bulkheads.)

Fireproofing for Structures Subject to Physical Damage


For structures subject to physical damage, we recommend Portland cement concrete
with normal aggregates and a compressive strength of at least 2500 psi (28-day test)
or one of the proprietary fireproofing materials with comparable compressive
strength. Fireproofing for vessel skirts is normally made with lightweight aggregates per Standard Drawing GD-N99994. Follow CIV-EG-850 for the proper installation and curing procedures for concrete.
Intumescent coatings do not resist mechanical damage nearly as well as gunited
concrete does. For this reason, intumescent coatings should be considered only for
pipeway stanchions and secondary risk applications. They should not be considered
equivalent to gunited concrete for critical applications such as column skirts or
major vessel supports without detailed review.

Filling Hollow Supports with Concrete


Filling pipe stanchions and other hollow supports with concrete increases resistance
to failure from fire exposure up to an hour or longer. Tests have shown that tank legs
constructed of structural steel tubing and filled with concrete withstood two hours of

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fire exposure without collapse or failure. Under some conditions, this type of
construction provides adequate fireproofing for pipe stanchions because the piping
being supported generally fail in less time.

Prefabricated Fireproofed Beams


Often it is economical to fireproof structural members off-site. Material such as
Pyrocrete 241 can be used to butter up the ends of prefabricated concrete fireproofed beams after they are installed.

1730 Critical Valves, Instrumentation, and Shutdown Systems


Refer to Figure 1700-3 for an overview of this section.
Critical valves are defined as valves equipped with remote operated actuators that
must retain their operational integrity for a minimum of 20 minutes during a fire to
facilitate safe unit shutdown (refer to Section 1750).

1731 Emergency Shutdown or Isolation Valves


Fail-Safe design is preferred for critical and emergency valves. It uses spring
opposed valved actuators and normally pressured or electrically energized control
circuits. Failure of the control circuit will cause the valve to move to its fail-safe
position. See the Instrumentation and Control Manual, Section 1300 for more information on failure modes.

Fireproofing Systems for Valves


If a fail-safe design is not feasible and the valve must be located in a fire hazardous
area, the valve must be fireproofed to withstand a UL 1709 fire for 20 minutes. This
is done by using a fire-safe valve design (see Section 2000) with a fireproofed valve
actuator, fire-safe air supplies (refer to Section 1733), fire-safe instrument and electrical cables (refer to Section 1735), and locating a remote actuation station at grade
in a safe location at least 50 feet from the protected equipment.
Valve actuators can be fireproofed with the following systems:

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Intumescent Coating (preferred); K-Mass Fireproofing System. K-Mass is a


Chartek-based intumescent coating system shop-applied to a thickness of about
1/2-inch. During a fire, the coating swells and forms an insulating char under a
glazed surface. Because of the molding-type process used to apply the coating,
K-Mass systems can be designed to provide normal maintenance and operating
access to the actuator. The major disadvantage is that the system can be applied
only in the Thermal Designs Shop in Houston, TX.

Insulated Box Enclosure. This system (Figure 1700-4) is a box-like assembly


to fully enclose the motor/air operator of a critical valve including motor,
gearbox, and drive nut or the entire housing of the protected component. The
fireproofing enclosure is made from a refractory ceramic fiber (RCF) block
inside a stainless steel weather jacket. It is designed to keep the internal temperature of electrical components at or below 200F for 20 minutes during a fire.

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Fig. 1700-3 Determining Fireproofing Needs for Critical Valves, Instrumentation and Shutdown Systems

This fireproofing system is easily applied to the smaller-sized and more rectangular-shaped valve operators.

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The enclosure should be designed and installed so that leakage (e.g., from a
valve stem packing) does not enter the enclosure. If there is evidence of oil
accumulation, the enclosure should be promptly removed and cleaned and the
leakage problem corrected.
Normal local operation of an MOV/AOV (e.g., push buttons, lights, declutch,
or handwheel) may be retained by minor modification to the valve operator.
Components that require servicing are made accessible by removing the insulation cover and insulation as required. This is a significant disadvantage because
frequently these covers or panels are not reinstalled properly, reducing fire
protection capabilities.

Insulated Bag. This system (Figure 1700-5) uses insulation pads laced together
with galvanize- coated steel wire to form a bag that fully encloses the motor/air
operator of a critical valve, including motor, gearbox, and drive nut or the entire
housing of the protected component. The insulation bag is constructed of semiflexible pads of ceramic fiber or fiberglass insulation. The assembly is weather
protected by a vinyl-coated Dacron cover. It is designed to keep the internal
temperature of electrical components at or below 200F for 20 minutes if
exposed to a 2000F fire, as described by UL 1709.

Fig. 1700-4 Insulated Box Enclosure for Valve


Actuators

Fig. 1700-5 Insulated Bag for Valve Actuators

This fireproofing system is easily applied to the larger-sized and more


complex-shaped valve operators.
The enclosure should be designed and installed so that leakage (e.g., from a
valve stem packing) does not enter the enclosure. If there is evidence of oil
accumulation, the enclosure should be promptly removed and cleaned and the
leakage problem corrected.

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Normal local operation of any MOV/AOV (e.g., push buttons, lights, declutch
or handwheel,) may be retained by minor modification to the valve operator.
Components that require servicing are made accessible by unlacing and
opening or removing the bag, which takes only a few minutes. As with the
insulated box enclosure, this is a major disadvantage of this system.

1732 Tank Block Valves


Tank valves 12 inches or smaller are easily hand-operated and are not normally
power-operated; therefore, fireproofing is not required.
For larger size tank valves where air or motor operators have been installed, fireproofing may be justified for the operator, conduit, and controls within the fire
hazardous areas. The switchgear should be located outside the tank impounding
areas or drainage paths and the conduit should be buried as close as possible to the
valve. For MOVs with a separate control box, it is normally less costly to locate the
box outside the tank impounding basin. This is because a water-tight enclosure
(NEMA 3 or 4) can be used instead of an XP enclosure (NEMA 7) and fireproofing
is not necessary. This also improves access in case of fire.
Fireproofing of motor operators on tank block valves is justified where all of the
following conditions are met:

Tank fill/suction valves are larger than 12 inches.

Flash point of tank contents is under 100F.

Valve or piping failure during a fire would cause burning liquid to spread fire to
other tanks, equipment, important facilities, or the property of others.

Other considerations that may justify fireproofing include:

The tank field is operated from a remote control center.

The facility is considered a major or critical facility.

The number of personnel available during the first 20 minutes of a fire emergency is limited, so remote operating capability must be maintained.

The risk of a tank overfill is increased due to high use or filling rate.

A spill resulting from a fire could cause serious environmental damage.

1733 Air Supply


Air supply tubing for control and motive power for air-operated emergency isolation valves (AOVs) should be steel or stainless steel. It should be supported every 6
feet in horizontal runs or every 8 feet in vertical runs; or it should be in rigid steel
conduit, supported every 10 feet. Type 304 or 316 stainless steel tubing, without
fireproofing can safely be used for instrument air through a fire hazardous area as
long as it is well supported.

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For air used for motive power of AOVs, consider locating air filters, lubricators, and
solenoids outside the fire hazardous area. If this is not practical, then these items
must be fireproofed along with the valve activator.

1734 Switchgear Housing and Junction Boxes


Switchgear housing and junction boxes for power and control of emergency shutdown, and isolation valves (MOVs), and motor starters should be located outside a
fire hazardous area. If this equipment must be placed closer, the entire enclosure, as
well as the rear of any exposed mounting support plate, should be fireproofed. Johns
ManvilleSuper FireTemp X Board fireproofing can be used in this application.
Switchgear and junction boxes can also be protected to a lesser degree by installing
a radiant heat shield between the enclosure and the potential fire source.

1735 Instrument and Electrical Cables


Critical control instrument cables, power cables and instrument air piping/tubing
is defined as being part of a critical valve/shutdown system that must maintain its
operational integrity for a minimum of 20 minutes in a fire to facilitate a safe unit
shutdown.
Critical control tubing, instrument cables, and power wiring should be located
outside fire hazardous areas wherever possible. This includes routing underground
and routing in the upper level of elevated pipeways, separate from main cable trays,
to prevent a single incident from disabling both systems.
Critical instrument tubing or electrical cables located above ground within 50 horizontal feet of fire hazardous equipment should be fire resistant or fireproofed to
withstand exposure up to 2000F for at least 20 minutes. Cables should be installed
in galvanized steel conduit or cable tray (refer to Section 1711, Definition of
Terms).
Do not locate fire resistant wiring in or under aluminum conduit or cable trays. The
tray or conduit can fail during a fire, causing the wiring to fail, or melted aluminum
can fall on the wiring, damaging the sheathing.
Where main cable runs are buried, individual cable risers to motors, switches, etc.,
should withstand exposure up to 2000F for at least 20 minutes or be externally fireproofed if the motors and switches are part of a critical emergency shutdown and
isolation system and the system is not fail-safe.
You can use the following systems, presented in order of preference, to protect critical wiring or tubing systems located in fire hazardous areas. These systems are
designed to maintain circuit integrity for at least 20 minutes in a 2000F fire, as
described by UL 1709.

Fire-Resistant Wiring with Rigid Sheathing


This system can be of two types: 1) wiring enclosed by mineral insulation inside an
Incoloy 825 shield (e.g., Pyrotenax MI Cable); or 2) nickel conductors enclosed by

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silicon dioxide insulation in a stainless steel sheath (e.g., Meggitt Safety Systems
SI 2400 Fire Cable). Neither system requires conduit.

Fire-Resistant Wiring Needing Steel Conduit


This system uses wiring or cable with electrical insulation which will withstand
exposure up to 2000F for at least 20 minutes. The cable must be installed inside a
steel conduit for support (e.g., DeKoron Fire Resistant Circuit Integrity Cable).

Nonfire-resistant Tubing or Wiring with Thermal Insulation


This system protects critical instrument leads or electrical wiring that is not heat
resistant (e.g., plastic tubing and wiring with PVC insulation). It consists of the
tubing or wiring inside a rigid steel conduit covered by thermal insulation and stainless steel weather jacketing.

Conduit
Conduit should be rigid steel with steel fittings and covers. Supports should be
spaced 6 feet or less in horizontal runs and 8 feet or less in vertical runs to support
the weight of the fireproofing material and to avoid sagging during a fire. In fire
hazard areas, conduit supports should be insulated because they may conduct heat
inside the fireproofing during a fire.
Thermal insulation that can withstand exposure up to 2000F for at least 20 minutes
should cover the conduit. Due to the short exposure, most thermal insulation for
pipe will be adequate if it is at least 1-1/2 inches thick. Extended protection may be
gained by using ceramic fiber or two-layer calcium silicate insulation. Mineral wool
would also work, but for a shorter length of time. To seal against weather and
protect against mechanical damage, a galvanized or stainless steel weather jacket
secured with stainless steel bands should cover the insulation. Aluminum weather
jacketing would melt, exposing the insulation to damaging effects of the fire or hose
streams.

1736 Home Runs for Cable Trays and Conduit Banks


Location
Home runs of cable trays and conduit banks should be routed outside fire hazardous
areas wherever possible. This includes routing underground and routing on the
upper level(s) of elevated pipeways at least 30 feet above the ground and outside the
drainage path of hydrocarbon spills.
Home runs located within 50 feet of equipment or drainage that could expose them
to a spill fire (e.g., areas within the drainage pattern of pumps operating over 600F,
or over the auto-ignition temperature, or pumps with a history of fires) should be
fireproofed if loss from the home run and corresponding facility down time is unacceptable.
It is often preferable to separate the critical instrumentation and alarm wiring from
the home runs. Non-critical home run cables do not require fireproofing. Critical
cables should be protected as described in Section 1735.

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Design
Generally, cable trays are recommended over conduit banks because of their ease of
installation and fireproofing.
Conduit or tray supports should be spaced 6 feet or less in horizontal runs and 8 feet
or less in vertical runs to bear the weight of the fireproofing material and to avoid
sagging during a fire. Supports should be insulated to protect the conduit or tray
within a fire hazard area because they will conduct heat inside the fireproofing.
Conduit should be rigid steel with all steel fittings and covers.
Due to the cost of re-entry into a fireproofed conduit raceway or tray, future additions should be taken into account during initial construction. Fireproofed cable tray
networks should contain about 20% spare cables or tubing for future additions and
replacements because the tray is totally enclosed by the fireproofing system.
Where home run conduit and cable trays enter control buildings, wall penetrations
should be sealed to prevent entry of vapors, smoke, and fire.

Methods of Fireproofing
The following methods of fireproofing prevent internal temperature from exceeding
200F for 20 minutes in a 2000F fire per UL 1709.

Wrap the conduit bank or tray with flexible blanket insulation designed for use
at 2000F and cover with stainless or galvanized steel weather jacket and stainless steel bands.
3Ms Interam system uses ceramic fiber blanket with an aluminum covering.
This material is thinner than conventional insulation (0.6 inches vs. 1.5 inches)
and can be used economically on odd shaped sections where fitup of thicker,
more rigid systems is difficult.

Box-in cable trays with prefabricated panels (usually calcium silicate) and
weather jacketing. This type of system is economical for simple rectangular
shapes. Promat-H and Johns Manville Super Firetemp can be used for this.

1740 Materials Suppliers and Applicators


The recommended sources listed below are current as of 1999.

1741 Support Structures


Fireproofing Materials
Haydite-Vermiculite Mix
Hydraulic Press Brick Company
8900 Hemlock Rd.
P.O. Box 31330
Cleveland, OH 44130
Phone: (216) 524-2950

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Chartek
201 Lowell St.
Wilmington, MA 01887
Phone: (978) 657-2904
Fendolite M II
Mandoval Industrial Fireproofing Products
7025 W. Tidwell, Suite 111
Houston, TX 77092
Phone: (800) 847-5768
Pittchar
PPG Industries
151 Colfax St.
Springsdale, PA 15144
Phone: (724) 274-3473
Super Firetemp
Johns Manville
1559 9th Avenue
San Francisco, CA 94122
Phone: (415) 665-0767
Pyrocrete
Carboline
1401 South Hanley Rd.
St. Louis, MO 63144
Phone: (925) 838-7571
Thermolag
Thermal Sciences Inc.
2200 Cassens Dr.
St. Louis, MO 63026
Phone: (314) 349-1233 or (281) 482-7000

1742 Critical Valves, Instrumentation, and Shutdown Systems


For sources of acceptable wire other than those listed below, we strongly recommended that you consult with CRTC, Machinery & Electrical Systems Team.

Valve Actuator Fireproofing


K-Mass Fireproofing System and Box Enclosures
Thermal Designs, Inc.
5352 Prudence Street
Houston, TX 77045
Phone: (713) 433-8110

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High Temperature Wire


DeKoron Fire Resistant Circuit Integrity Cables
USA Cables
1199 So. Chillicothe Road
Aurora, OH 44202
Phone: (800) 562-5151
MI (Mineral Insulated) Cable
Pyrotenax
BICC General
750 E. Green St. Suite 301
Pasadena, CA 91101
Phone: (626) 796-1040
SI 2400 Fire Cable
Meggitt Safety Systems
1955 Surveyor Ave.
Simi Valley, CA 93063
Phone: (805) 584-4100

Cable Tray Fireproofing


3M Interam
3M Ceramic Materials Department
Building 225-4N, 3M Center
St. Paul, MN 55144
Phone: (800) 328-1687
Promat H
Eternit
Village Center Drive
Reading, PA 19607
Phone: (800) 255-3975
Super Firetemp
Johns Manville
1559 9th Avenue
San Francisco, CA 94122
Phone: (415) 665-0767

1750 Fireproofing Test Methods


Various tests measure the level of protection offered by a fireproofing material or
system. If the material fails the test after 2 hours, it gets a 2-hour rating on that test;
if it fails after 4 hours, it gets a 4-hour rating.

UL 1709 Standard for Rapid Rise Fire Tests of Protection Materials for
Structural Steel
Underwriters Laboratories, in cooperation with the industry, has developed tests to
more closely simulate fire conditions expected in a process plant. These tests are

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now used by many companies, including Chevron. Fireproofing manufacturers use


the tests instead of ASTM E-119, because the UL 1709 tests more closely approximate hydrocarbon fires. These high rise fire tests include a faster temperature rise
and higher energy input than ASTM E-119 as shown in Figure 1700-6. The ASTM
E-119 test is primarily for buildings or combustible structures. Hydrocarbon fires
reach higher temperatures more quickly than building fires. The first standardized
oil industry test for high rise fires, UL 1709, came out in late 1984.
Fig. 1700-6 Comparison of Standard and High Rise Time-Temperature Curves

ASTM E-119 ratings are often longer than the UL 1709 counterpart. For example,
depending on the material, the ASTM E-119 4-hour test is equivalent to only 2-3
hours in the UL 1709 test (concrete). Consequently, the UL 1709 test usually shows
that thicker protection is needed than that predicted by ASTM E-119. It also shows
that the behavior of some materials may be significantly poorer in hydrocarbon fires
than in conventional fires. This is why UL 1709 is now used for both structural
supports and for critical control systems.
ASTM E-1529 closely follows UL 1709 and is also considered a rapid rise fire
test, however, ASTM E-1529 utilizes a lower heat flux factor, and therefore is not
the equivalent of UL1709.

UL 1709 Fire Test Conditions


In this test, a uniform thickness of a fireproofing material is applied in accordance
with accepted field practice on a steel I-beam at least 8' in length. The I-beam is
supported vertically during the application and during the test. The beam is then put
in a furnace. Temperature of the I-beam is measured by not less than three thermocouples located at each of four levels (minimum of 12 thermocouples). The upper
and lower levels are 2' from the beam ends and the remaining two intermediate
levels are equally spaced between the upper and lower levels. Thermocouples are

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placed to measure significant temperatures of the component elements of the beam.


Thermocouple design is also specified in the test standard.
The transmission of heat through the protection material during the period of fire
exposure for which Classification is desired shall not raise the average temperature
at any of the four levels of the steel column above 1000F (538C) and no thermocouple shall indicate a temperature greater than 1200F (649C).
The UL Fire Resistance Directory gives the specific rating for different thicknesses
and configurations of beams. Some theoretical relationships have been developed
between I-beam size, fireproofing thickness, and fire. UL is paid by the manufacturer to test their fireproofing materials. Therefore, non-proprietary materials like
concrete have no UL rating. However, favorable Company experience shows that
concrete and Haydite-Vermiculite Mix provide the degree of protection recommended.

Off-shore Ratings
For bulkheads and deck sections of offshore installations, fireproofing can be
applied to any of the following ratings, depending upon application: A-60, A-120,
H-60, and H-120. Manufacturers must certify product ratings with test results.
Fig. 1700-7 Examples of Product Rating Tests(1)
Rating
A-60
(2)

(60 min)

H-60
(3)

(60 min)

Normal Configuration

Test Environmental
Temperature

Bulkhead, deck
section 9 sq. m
usually 4.8 mm or
greater steel thickness
Bulkhead, deck
section 9 sq. m
usually 4.8 mm or
greater steel thickness

Criteria to be Met

Test Type

Follow ASTM E-119


temp. curve (or
equivalent)

Protected steel
temp not to exceed
a rise of 250F
(139C) for 30
minutes

Cellulosic fire simulation - designed for


commercial
building. Gas fired
furnace.

Follow UL 1709
temp. curve (or
equivalent)

Protected steel
temp not to exceed
a rise of 250F
(139C) for 30
minutes.

Norwegian Petroleum Directorate


high intensity of
high rise fire curve.
Gas fired furnace.

No passage of
smoke or flames
and maintain structural integrity for
120 minutes.
(1) A-120 and H-120 are 120-minute tests.
(2) This is an ASTM E-119 test for use in protecting living quarters for 60 minutes under typical combustible materials fire conditions.
(3) This is a UL 1709 test for use in protecting process areas for 60 minutes under high rise fire conditions typical of hydrocarbon fires

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1760 References
American Petroleum Institute (API)
API 2218

Guideline for Fireproofing Practices in Petroleum and


Petrochemical Processing Plants

American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM)


ASTM E-119

Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials

PIPSTS03001

Plain and Reinforced Concrete

Chevron References
Specifications and Engineering Forms:
CIV-EG-850

Plain and Reinforced Concrete

Coatings Quick Reference Guide


Standard Drawings:
GA-N33336

Standard DetailsConcrete Fireproofing for Structural


Members

GD-N99994

Standard Fireproofing Specification for Vessel Skirts

CRTC, Materials Division: Fireproofing Tests with Hydrogen Jet Impingement,


M.D. Gibb, January 1990, File No. 56.35
Civil and Structural Manual
Coatings Manual
Corrosion Prevention and Metallurgy Manual
Instrumentation and Control Manual

Underwriters Laboratories (UL)


UL 1709

Standard for Rapid Rise Fire Tests of Protection Materials for


Structural Steel

Fire Resistance Directory

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