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`"Plumbing" also refers to the skilled trade which deals with installation and maintenance.

The plumbing industry is a basic and substantial part of every developed economy.[1] The word
derives from the Latin plumbum for lead, as the first effective pipes used in Roman era were lead
"Plumbing" often denotes the supply and waste system of an individual building, distinguishing it
from water supply and sewage systemsthat serve a group of buildings.[3]
Plumbing originated during ancient civilizations such as the Greek, Roman, Persian, Indian, and
Chinese cities as they developed public bathsand needed to provide potable water and wastewater
removal, for larger numbers of people.[4] Standardized earthen plumbing pipes with
broadflanges making use of asphalt for preventing leakages appeared in the urban settlements of
the Indus Valley Civilization by 2700 B.C.[5] The Romans used lead pipe inscriptions to prevent water
Plumbing reached its early apex in ancient Rome, which saw the introduction of expansive systems
of aqueducts, tile wastewater removal, and widespread use of lead pipes. With the Fall of
Rome both water supply and sanitation stagnatedor regressedfor well over 1,000 years.
Improvement was very slow, with little effective progress made until the growth of modern densely
populated cities in the 1800s. During this period, public health authorities began pressing for better
waste disposal systems to be installed, to prevent or control epidemics of disease. Earlier, the waste
disposal system had merely consisted of collecting waste and dumping it on the ground or into a
river. Eventually the development of separate, underground water and sewage systems eliminated
open sewage ditches and cesspools.
Most large cities today pipe solid wastes to sewage treatment plants in order to separate and
partially purify the water, before emptying into streams or other bodies of water. For potable water
use, galvanized iron piping was commonplace in the United States from the late 1800s until around
1960. After that period, copper piping took over, first soft copper with flared fittings, then with rigid
copper tubing utilizing soldered fittings.
The use of lead for potable water declined sharply after World War II because of increased
awareness of the dangers of lead poisoning. At this time, copper piping was introduced as a better
and safer alternative to lead pipes.[6][7]
Water systems of ancient times relied on gravity for the supply of water, using pipes or channels
usually made of clay, lead, bamboo, wood, or stone. Hollowed wooden logs wrapped in steel

banding were used for plumbing pipes, particularly water mains. Logs were used for water
distribution in England close to 500 years ago. US cities began using hollowed logs in the late 1700s
through the 1800s.[6] Today, most plumbing supply pipe is made out of steel, copper, and plastic;
most waste (also known as "soil")[8] out of steel, copper, plastic, and cast iron.[8]
The straight sections of plumbing systems are called "pipes" or "tubes". A pipe is typically formed
via casting or welding, whereas a tube is made through extrusion. Pipe normally has thicker walls
and may be threaded or welded, while tubing is thinner-walled and requires special joining
techniques such as brazing, compression fitting, crimping, or for plastics, solvent welding. These
joining techniques are discussed in more detail in the piping and plumbing fittings article.