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THE GOD RA: ICONOGRAPHY

(WITH ALL THE FORMS AND NAMES FROM THE “LITANY OF RA”)

RA: ICONOGRAPHY (WITH ALL THE FORMS AND NAMES FROM THE “LITANY OF RA”) AMNTE NOFRE -

AMNTE NOFRE - ⲀⲘⲚⲦⲈ ⲚⲞϤⲢⲈ

RA: ICONOGRAPHY (WITH ALL THE FORMS AND NAMES FROM THE “LITANY OF RA”) AMNTE NOFRE -
RA: ICONOGRAPHY (WITH ALL THE FORMS AND NAMES FROM THE “LITANY OF RA”) AMNTE NOFRE -
RA: ICONOGRAPHY (WITH ALL THE FORMS AND NAMES FROM THE “LITANY OF RA”) AMNTE NOFRE -
RA: ICONOGRAPHY (WITH ALL THE FORMS AND NAMES FROM THE “LITANY OF RA”) AMNTE NOFRE -

Copyright © 2015 Amentet Neferet All right reserved

Cover: detail from the ceiling of the Hypostyle Hall of the Temple of the Goddess Hathor at Nitentore (Dendera), second band east:

The sacred barque of the God Ra-Harakhty sailing across the sky:

from right to left,

a sacred baboon seated on the bow,

a falcon-headed God spearing the cursed apophis (the enemy of Ra and of all the Gods) here represented by the hieroglyphic signs for his name, the Goddess Maat,

a Goddess wearing the cow's horns and the Solar disk, the two Gods Sia and Hu, the God Ra-Harakhty standing inside a shrine,

a falcon-headed God steering the sacred barque

THE GOD RA:

ICONOGRAPHY

(written by Luigi Tripani)

-Ra as a falcon-headed man:

The God Ra usually is represented semi-anthropomorphic as a man with the head of a falcon and wearing the Solar disk with the Uraeus; this is the most common form of Ra. In addition to the Solar disk with the Uraeus, sometimes Ra is represented also wearing the 'Atef' Crown; in few scenes, Ra wears the Triple-'Atef' (the “Roaring One”) and the Double Feathered Crown with the Solar disk, and very rarely He is associated with the Double Crown. Moreover, in a relief from one of the Chapels of Osiris on the roof of the Temple of Hathor at Nitentore (Dendera), Ra is represented with two human-shaped bodies which merge into each other at the back, and with two falcon-heads. Concerning the Solar barques, Ra is depicted as a falcon-headed man in all the Solar barques represented in the “Book of the Day” and as the form of Ra during the V hour of the day (that is the hour preceeding the noon).

-Anthropomorphic form of Ra:

The God Ra is also represented in fully anthropomorphic form, usually wearing the Solar disk. In His form of Divine Child, Ra is always depicted in fully anthropomorphic form, usually represented inside the Sun; moreover in some scenes He is represented seated upon the Primeval Lotus flower. The form of Ra in the first two hours of the day is the Divine Child inside the Sun.

-Zoomorphic and combined forms of Ra:

Ra is one of the Egyptian Gods with the largest number of forms, and in fact there are many sacred animals that are associated with Him in the iconography: the falcon, the cat, the lion, the calf and the bull, the baboon, the serpent, the crocodile, and the ram.

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As falcon, Ra is depicted as a falcon-headed man and in the full form of falcon; moreover, in the first hour of the day represented on the ceiling of the “Pure Place” (the “Chapel of the New Year”) of the Temple of Horus at 'Behdet' (Edfu) Ra is depicted as a human-headed falcon. Another combined form of Ra is the ram-headed falcon inside the Sun, that represents the 'Ba'-Soul of Ra (as attested by the “Litany of Ra”).

As cat, Ra is depicted as a cat-headed man and also in the full form of cat.

As lion, Ra is always represented as a lion-headed man, that is also the form of Ra during the IX hour of the day. Moreover, Ra is also depicted as a hieracosphinx (falcon-headed lion), that is also the form of Ra during the III hour of the day.

As calf and bull, Ra is always represented in fully zoomorphic form.

As baboon, Ra is depicted in the full form of baboon and also as a baboon-headed man, that moreover are the forms of Ra during the VII and VIII hours of the day.

As serpent, Ra is represented in fully zoomorphic form: the only known image of Ra as serpent, as attested also by the LGG, is from the ceiling of the Hypostyle Hall of the Temple of Hathor at Nitentore (Dendera), where Ra is represented in His form of Rasomtou (Rˁ-sm3-t3wy , “Ra the Unifier of the Two Lands”) identified with the Serpent God Site (s3-t3, the “Son of the Earth”) and depicted as a serpent rising from the great lotus flower within a sacred barque.

As crocodile, Ra is depicted as a crocodile-headed man and also in the full form of crocodile.

As ram, Ra is represented as a four-faced ram in the VI hour of the day (that is the noon). Ra is also depicted in the combined form of ram-headed man usually wearing the Solar disk. In the “Book of the Night” and in the “Books of the Netherworld” (like the “Book of the Amduat” and the “Book of Gates”) Ra is always represented in this combined form and is called “the flesh of Ra”. Moreover, Ra is represented as a ram-headed man during the IV hour of the day.

-The Sun with the forms of Ra:

An iconographic motif represented mostly in the “Houses of Eternity” (that are the tombs) is the Sun with the scarab and a ram-headed God depicted inside, that are the scarab that represents

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Khepry, and the “flesh of Ra”. This same iconographic motif is also depicted in the 'Prologue' of the “Great Litany of Ra”, where it represents the descent of Ra into the Netherworld, as we will see in the last part of this study.

In addition to the various forms of Ra listed here, there are the forms of Ra attested only in the “Litany of Ra” and connected to the worship of Ra in Amente (that is one of the names of the Netherworld): in the last part of this study you will find all the images, the names, and the invocations of the “Litany of Ra”.

Then there are also these two forms of Ra attested by the LGG but for which there are no examples in this paper:

- a white greyhound dressed in black (cfr. Hornung und Staehelin, Skarabäen Basel, 99)

- semi-anthropomorphic form with the head of vulture (represented in the “House of Eternity” of Khabekhnet, TT2)

Concerning the Egyptian pronunciation of the name of the God Ra ( ), in this paper I have used the widespread conventional pronunciation “Ra”, but it is important to note that its real pronunciation is preserved in Coptic (that is the last stage of the Egyptian language) as “Ré” when stressed (“Ri” in modern Coptic) and “Ra” when unstressed, as in “Ra-Haràkhty”. For more informations on the phonetic system and pronunciation of the Egyptian language, see our blog:

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at left, some of the most common spellings of the name of the God Ra

at left, some of the most common spellings of the name of the God Ra in hieroglyphs; at right, the two most common spellings of the name of the God Ra-Harakhty

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Iconographic index:

I part: Ra as a falcon-headed man

II part: Ra in anthropomorphic form

-Ra in His form of Divine Child

III part: Ra in His form of sacred falcon

-Ra

as a human-headed falcon

-Ra

as a ram-headed falcon

IV part: Ra in His form of sacred cat

-Ra as a cat-headed man

V part: Ra as a lion-headed man

-Ra in His form of hieracosphinx

VI part: Ra in His sacred forms of calf and bull

VII part: Ra in His forms of sacred baboon and baboon-headed man

VIII part: Ra in His form of sacred serpent

IX part: Ra as a crocodile-headed man

-Ra in His form of sacred crocodile

X part: Ra as a ram-headed man

-the

“flesh of Ra” in the “Books of the Netherworld”

-Ra

in His form of four-faced ram

XI part: the Sun with the forms of Ra

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XII part: “The Litany of Ra”:

-introduction -the 'Prologue' of the “Great Litany” -the forms of Ra in the “Great Litany” -the forms of Ra in the “Little Litany”

I part: Ra as a falcon-headed man

I part: Ra as a falcon-headed man “Great Temple” of King Sethi I at Abydos, Chapel

“Great Temple” of King Sethi I at Abydos, Chapel of Ra-Harakhty, detail from the south-west wall, lower register: Ra-Harakhty, falcon-headed, wearing the 'Atef'-Crown with ram's horns and uraei and the bull's horns with the Solar disk

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Scene from the “House o Eternity” (TT1) of Sennedjem, “Servant in the Seat of Righteousness

Scene from the “House o Eternity” (TT1) of Sennedjem, “Servant in the Seat of Righteousness and Truth (the Valley of the Kings)” during the reign of King Sethi I and the first years of King Ramses II:

“Ra-Harakhty-Atum, Lord of the two Lands of On-Heliopolis, Khepry” seated in His sacred barque. He is represented falcon-headed, wearing the Solar disk encircled by the Uraeus, and holding the 'Ankh' ('Life')

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Temple of the God Horus at Behdet (Edfu), detail from the Girdle Wall, inner face,

Temple of the God Horus at Behdet (Edfu), detail from the Girdle Wall, inner face, west wall:

Ra-Harakhty (falcon-headed, wearing the Solar disk with the Uraeus) enthroned inside a shrine upon a sacred barque

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Temple of the God Horus at Bedhet (Edfu), detail from the eastern tower of the

Temple of the God Horus at Bedhet (Edfu), detail from the eastern tower of the Pylon (upper register, I scene):

Ra of Behdet” enthroned, falcon-headed, wearing the Solar disk with the Uraeus, holding the 'Ankh' and the 'Uas'-scepter

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Temple of the God Horus at Behdet (Edfu), detail from the Girdle Wall, inner face,

Temple of the God Horus at Behdet (Edfu), detail from the Girdle Wall, inner face, west wall:

Ra-Harakhty (falcon-headed, wearing the Solar disk with the Uraeus) enthroned within the sacred 'Ished'-Tree

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Temple of the Goddess Hathor at Nitentore (Dendera), detail from the second west Chapel of

Temple of the Goddess Hathor at Nitentore (Dendera), detail from the second west Chapel of Osiris (one of the three western chapels called the “House of Isis-Shentayet”) located on the roof of the Temple. Drawing from A. Mariette, “Denderah, description générale”, IV-82. “Ra-Harakhty” represented with two human-shaped bodies which merge into each other at the back, and with two falcon-heads; He wears the 'Udjat'-Eye and holds two 'Uas'-scepters

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Detail from the “House of Eternity” of King Sethi I, Valley of the Kings (KV

Detail from the “House of Eternity” of King Sethi I, Valley of the Kings (KV 17), West 'Uaset'-Thebes:

King Sethi I (wearing the Nemes with the Uraeus) and Ra-Harakhty (falcon-headed and wearing the Solar disk with the Uraeus)

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“Great Temple” of King Sethi I at Abydos, Chapel of Ra-Harakhty, north-east wall. Scene from

“Great Temple” of King Sethi I at Abydos, Chapel of Ra-Harakhty, north-east wall. Scene from the Daily Rituals (performed in the Inner Shrines of the Temples) called Formula for seeing the Deity” ( r3 n m33 Nṯr ):

King Sethi I (wearing the Blue Crown) kneeling and offering incense to Ra-Harakhty (falcon- headed, wearing the Solar disk with the Uraeus) . On the top right, the Goddess Nekhbet in Her form of sacred vulture, holding the 'shen'-ring and spreading Her wings in protection

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Scene from one of the pillars of the Portico of the “Great Temple” of King

Scene from one of the pillars of the Portico of the “Great Temple” of King Sethi I at Abydos:

Ra-Harakhty (falcon-headed, wearing the Solar disk with the Uraeus) embracing King Ramses II (wearing the 'Atef'-crown with ram's horns and holding the 'Ankh')

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Scene from the facade of the Great Temple of Amon, Ra-Harakhty, Ptah, and Ramses II

Scene from the facade of the Great Temple of Amon, Ra-Harakhty, Ptah, and Ramses II at Meha, Lower Kush/Nubia (now known as “the Great Temple of Abu Simbel”):

King Ramses II, represented twice, offering a statuette of Maat to Ra-Harakhty (falcon-headed, wearing the Solar disk with the Uraeus)

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The Pyramidion of the King's writer Pawty from the necropolis of Saqqara; XIX Dynasty, now

The Pyramidion of the King's writer Pawty from the necropolis of Saqqara; XIX Dynasty, now in the Rijksmuseum van Oudheden of Leiden Pawty kneeling and making adorations to Ra-Harakhty enthroned (falcon-headed, wearing the Solar disk with the Uraeus); on the top, the Sun rising from the Horizon

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Pyramidion of Ramose, from the top of one of the two small pyramids in the

Pyramidion of Ramose, from the top of one of the two small pyramids in the Tomb Complex (three tombs, TT 7, TT 212 and TT 250) of Ramose, West 'Uaset'-Thebes; now in the Egyptian Museum of Torino Ramose lived during the reign of the Great King Ramses II, and was “Scribe in the House (the “Temple of Millions of Years”) of MenkheperuRa (Thutmosis IV)”, “Treasurer in chief of the House of MenkheperuRa”, “Director of the administration in the department of the director of the sealed things”, “Scribe accountant of the livestock of Amon-Ra”, “Assistant scribe for the correspondence of the Hereditary Prince”, “Servant in the domain of Amon-Ra”, and “Administrator of the funerary domain in the fields of Amon-Ra”. Ramose standing and making adorations to Ra-Harakhty-Atum (falcon-headed, wearing the Solar disk with the Uraeus and holding the 'Ankh'):

(above and before Ra-Harakhty-Atum) Ra-Harakhty-Atum, Lord of the Two Lands, He of On-Heliopolis, the Great God (below, from right to left) By the scribe, rightful in all the disputes, Ramose, whose word is right and true.

(before Ramose) Adoring Ra at the time of His setting in the Western Horizon of the Sky, by Osiris, the scribe (above) in the Seat of Righteousness and Truth (behind him) Ramose, son of Amonemheb, whose word is right ad true. (below, from left to right) By the Osiris, the excellent-one of the “Imyt-Wret”, the scribe Ramose, whose word is right and true

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One of the two sides of the wooden stele of Lady Taperet; XXII Dynasty, now

One of the two sides of the wooden stele of Lady Taperet; XXII Dynasty, now in the Louvre Museum Lady Taperet making offerings and adorations to the God Ra-Harakhty. In the middle, the altar with the offerings; Ra-Harakhty wears the Solar disk that spreads its lotus-like rays on the face of Taperet. On the top, the Solar Orb with the Two Uraei (with hanging 'Ankh'-signs) flanked by the Two Eyes. To the left are represented papyrus plants, and lilies to the right

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“Temple of Millions Years” of King Ramses III, west 'Uaset'-Thebes, detail from the east tower

“Temple of Millions Years” of King Ramses III, west 'Uaset'-Thebes, detail from the east tower of the First Pylon. Drawing from Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Aegypten und Aethiopien III-210):

King Ramses III (wearing the Red Crown) smiting the rebels against Maat, enemies of the Gods and of Egypt, before Ra-Harakhty. Behind the King is represented His Royal 'Ka'-spirit. Ra-Harakhty is represented falcon-headed, wearing the Solar disk with the Uraeus, holding the 'Uas'-scepter and the falcon-headed 'khepesh'-blade, and leading captives bound by ropes; behind Ra-Harakhty, a small image of Onuri (Jnj ḥrt) holding the ropes with the bound prisoners (each with a name-ring containing the names of Egypt's conquered enemies). On the top right, above the King, the Solar Orb with the Two Uraei flanked by Nekhbet (at left, in Her form of vulture) and Horus of Behdet (at right, in His form of falcon) both spreading Their wings in protection and holding the 'shen'-ring

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“Great Temple” of King Sethi I at Abydos, Chapel of Ra-Harakhty, north-west wall, lower register.

“Great Temple” of King Sethi I at Abydos, Chapel of Ra-Harakhty, north-west wall, lower register. The scene of the Daily Rituals (performed in the Inner Shrines of the Temples) called “Formula for removing the garment” ( r3 n sfḫt mnḫt ):

King Sethi I removing the garment from the cult statue of the God Ra-Harakhty enthroned. Ra-Harakhty in represented falcon-headed and mummiform, wearing the Solar disk with the Uraeus and holding the 'Uas'-scepter

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Detail from the stela of the Princess Isis; from Koptos, now in the Manchester Museum

Detail from the stela of the Princess Isis; from Koptos, now in the Manchester Museum The Princess Isis, daughter of King Ramses VI, God’s Wife of Amon and Divine Adoratrice, censing and playing the sistrum before Ra-Harakhty. She wears the vulture cap with the uraeus, topped by the vulture and another uraeus. Ra-Harakhty is represented mummiform, falcon-headed, wearing the Solar disk with the uraeus, holding the flail, the 'heqa'-scepter, and the combined 'Djed'-'Ankh'-'Uas'-scepter. In the middle, the altar with the offerings. The hieroglyphs above the Princess Isis say:

“I play the sistrum before Your fair face, gold is in front of You. May You allow me to see the Sunrise. The Osiris, the Hereditary Princess, great of favours, the God’s Wife of Amon, the King’s Daughter, the God’s Adoratrice, Isis, Whose word is right and true”. The hieroglyphs above Ra-Harakhty say:

“Ra-Harakhty, by Whose shining all is illuminated, Great God, Ruler of Eternity”

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Stele of Neskhonsupakhered, Dynasty XXI-XII (1070-736 BCE); now in the Egyptian Museum of Torino Neskhonsupakhered

Stele of Neskhonsupakhered, Dynasty XXI-XII (1070-736 BCE); now in the Egyptian Museum of Torino Neskhonsupakhered (wearing a large perfume cone on Her head) making adorations to Ra- Harakhty-Atum enthroned. The God is represented falcon-headed and mummiform, wearing the Solar disk with the Uraeus, holding the 'Heqa'-scepter and the 'Ankh'. In the middle, the altar with the 'nemset'-jar and the lotus flower. To the left, a standard with the symbol for “East”; to the right, a standard with the symbol for “West”. On the top, the Winged Solar Orb with the two Uraei (representing Horus of Behdet). Below, a naturalistic landscape with trees and the entrance to a tomb

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Stele of Djedkhonsuiuefank, singer of the God Amon; 1069-664 BCE, now in the Louvre Museum

Stele of Djedkhonsuiuefank, singer of the God Amon; 1069-664 BCE, now in the Louvre Museum Djedkhonsuiuefank kneeling and playing an angle harp (decorated with the head of a Pharaoh) before the God Ra-Harakhty enthroned (falcon-headed, wearing the Solar disk with the Uraeus, and mummiform). In the middle, the altar with the 'nemset'-jar and a lotus flower. On the top, the Two Eyes

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Temple of the Goddess Hathor at Nitentore (Dendera), ceiling of the Hypostyle Hall, second band

Temple of the Goddess Hathor at Nitentore (Dendera), ceiling of the Hypostyle Hall, second band east. Detail of the sacred barque of Ra-Harakhty sailing across the sky:

to the right, Ra-Harakhty standing inside a shrine. Ra-Harakhty is represented falcon-headed, wearing the Solar disk with the Uraeus, holding the 'Ankh' and the 'Uas'-scepter; on the stern, a falcon-headed God steering the sacred barque

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“Great Temple” of King Sethi I at Abydos, south-west wall of the Chapel of Ra-Harakhty:

“Great Temple” of King Sethi I at Abydos, south-west wall of the Chapel of Ra-Harakhty:

scene from the Daily Ritual in honor of Ra-Harakhty. King Sethi I kneeling and offering the sceptre, crook, flail, armlets, and anklets to Ra-Harakhty (falcon-headed, wearing the Solar disk with the Uraeus); Ra-Harakhty gives the 'Ankh' with the 'Uas'-scepter to the King. Behind Ra-Harakhty is represented the Goddess Iusaas with Her right hand raised in blessing

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Great Temple of Amon-Ra at 'Ipet-Sut' (Karnak), 'Uaset'-Thebes, scene from the east half of the

Great Temple of Amon-Ra at 'Ipet-Sut' (Karnak), 'Uaset'-Thebes, scene from the east half of the north wall of the Hypostyle Hall:

King Sethi I kneeling on a podium before Ra-Harakhty (falcon-headed, wearing the Solar disk with the Uraeus) enthroned inside a shrine (topped by a row of Uraei). Behind the King is represented the Goddess 'Uret-Hekau', lioness-headed. Both Ra-Harakhty and 'Uret-Hekau' hold the year-staff with which They bestow Jubilees (the 'Heb- Sed' signs), Life, Protection, and Dominion to the King

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Scene from the “House o Eternity” [TT 1] of Sennedjem, “Servant in the Seat of

Scene from the “House o Eternity” [TT 1] of Sennedjem, “Servant in the Seat of Righteousness and Truth (the Valley of the Kings)” during the reign of King Sethi I and the first years of King Ramses II; West 'Uaset'-Thebes. Ra-Harakhty-Atum (falcon-headed, wearing the Solar disk with the Uraeus) standing in His sacred barque. Before Ra is represented the 'Benu' bird, the sacred phoenix, wearing the 'Atef'-Crown with ram's horns; behind Him, five Gods called “the Gods of the Great Ennead Who are in the barque”

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Scene from the “Great Harris Papyrus”, 1150 BCE; now in the British Museum… King Ramses

Scene from the “Great Harris Papyrus”, 1150 BCE; now in the British Museum… King Ramses III (wearing the White Crown) making adorations to the Gods of the highly sacred On-Heliopolis: from right to left, “Ra-Harakhty Great God Lord of the Sky”, “Atum Lord of the Two Lands of On-Heliopolis”, “Iusaas Lady of On-Heliopolis”, and “Hathor Lady of Nebethetep (sacred city of the Goddess Nebethotepet in the nome/region of On-Heliopolis, the 13th Lower Egyptian nome)

nome/region of On-Heliopolis, the 13th Lower Egyptian nome) Scene from the “Book of Coming Forth by

Scene from the “Book of Coming Forth by Day” of the priest Khonsumes: Khonsumes pouring sacred water on the offerings and burning incense before Ra-Harakhty-Atum, Osiris Onnophris, Isis, and Nephthys; ca. 1000 BCE, now in the Louvre Museum

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Scene from the Luynes papyrus of SerAmon, priest of Amon at 'Uaset'-Thebes, XXI Dynasty; now

Scene from the Luynes papyrus of SerAmon, priest of Amon at 'Uaset'-Thebes, XXI Dynasty; now in the Cabinet des médilles Ra-Harakhty-Atum (falcon-headed, wearing the Solar disk with the Uraeus) enthroned (holding the 'Ankh' and the 'Heqa'-scepter) and carried by four Gods (scarab-headed at left, and serpent-headed at right) in triumphal procession. Below the throne, Upuaut in His form of sacred wolf/jackal, with the Flail; in front of Him, the feather of Maat

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Detail from the outer coffin of Taywheryt, wife of the High Priest of Amon-Ra at

Detail from the outer coffin of Taywheryt, wife of the High Priest of Amon-Ra at 'Uaset'-Thebes, Masaharta, XXI Dynasty:

Ra-Harakhty enthroned, wearing the 'Atef'-Crown with ram's horns and uraei, holding the 'Ankh', the Flail, and the 'Heqa'-scepter. In front of Him, the altar with the offerings, and the 'Ba'-soul of Taywheryt (represented as a human-headed bird) making adorations. On the top right, a winged 'Udjat'-Eye with an hanging Uraeus with the 'Ankh'

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Temple of the God Horus at Behdet (Edfu), detail from the north wall of the

Temple of the God Horus at Behdet (Edfu), detail from the north wall of the east staircase:

Ra-Horus, falcon-headed and wearing the Double Crown, and Amon (wearing the Solar disk with the two feathers). Drawing from “Le temple d'Edfou” by E. Chassinat, plate XXXVIII-i

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Temple of the Goddess Hathor at Nitentore (Dendera), scene from the rear wall (west side):

Temple of the Goddess Hathor at Nitentore (Dendera), scene from the rear wall (west side):

'Touayt', the Goddess of the North, holding up the Sky before Ra-Harakhty (falcon-headed, wearing the Double Feathered Crown with the Solar disk) enthroned. On the top of the sky symbol (where is depicted a row of stars) is represented the Winged Solar Orb (Horus of Behdet) with the Two Uraei (Outo to the left with the Red Crown, and Nekhbet to the right with the White Crown)

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Temple of Monthu and Raettawy at Armant-Hermonthis, scene from the south wall of the Inner

Temple of Monthu and Raettawy at Armant-Hermonthis, scene from the south wall of the Inner Hall. Drawing from Lepsius, “Denkmaeler aus Aegypten”,

IV-60.

Ra-Harakhty enthroned (falcon-headed, wearing the Double Feathered Crown with the Solar disk) embracing Horus-Ra the Child; to the right, Queen Kleopatra VII playing the sistrum and offering the 'Heb-Sed' (the symbol for the Royal Jubilee) with the “Year-staff”

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Temple of the Goddess Hathor at Nitentore (Dendera), scene from the inner shrine of the

Temple of the Goddess Hathor at Nitentore (Dendera), scene from the inner shrine of the “House of Birth”:

Hathor suckling Ihy-Harsomtou the Child, and Ra-Harakhty (falcon-headed, wearing the Solar disk with the Uraeus) holding the 'Year'-staff and bestowing Royal Jubilees to the Child-God

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The last two Solar barques represented at the end of the “Book of Day”; from

The last two Solar barques represented at the end of the “Book of Day”; from the “House of Eternity” of King Ramses V and VI, Valley of the Kings, KV9, west 'Uaset'- Thebes. On both the Solar barques are represented, from right to left, Geb (hare-headed), “the Lady of the Barque”, Horus Hekenu-Heka Semsu, Ra, falcon-headed, wearing the Solar disk and standing inside a shrine, Hu (falcon-headed in the Solar barque at left), and Sia represented as the rudder. The Solar barques are represented on the waters of the heavenly Nile, that is the ecliptic

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The daily journey of Ra during the hours of the day represented on the Ceiling

The daily journey of Ra during the hours of the day represented on the Ceiling of the Hypostyle Hall of the Temple of the Goddess Hathor at Nitentore (Dendera):

detail from the V hour of the day. Isis (at left) and Thoth (at right) making adorations to Ra. Ra is represented standing inside the Sun, falcon-headed, wearing the Solar disk with the Uraeus and holding the 'Uas'-Scepter

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II part: Ra in anthropomorphic form

II part: Ra in anthropomorphic form “Great Temple” of King Sethi I at Abydos, detail from

“Great Temple” of King Sethi I at Abydos, detail from the north-east wall of the Chapel of Sethi I:

Ra enthroned, mummiform, holding the 'Uas'-scepter

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Scene from the “Book of the Faiyum”: the God Ra; the lower part of His

Scene from the “Book of the Faiyum”:

the God Ra; the lower part of His body is hidden in the waters

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“Temple of Millions of Years” of King Sethi I at west 'Uaset'-Thebes, detail from the

“Temple of Millions of Years” of King Sethi I at west 'Uaset'-Thebes, detail from the north wall (east side) of the Solar Court (XLII):

Ra-Harakhty enthroned, wearing the Solar disk with the Uraeus, holding the 'Ankh' and the 'Uas'-scepter

holding the 'Ankh' and the 'Uas'-scepter “Temple of Millions of Years” of King Sethi I at

“Temple of Millions of Years” of King Sethi I at west 'Uaset'-Thebes, scene from the north wall (east side) of the Solar Court (XLII):

King Ramses II offering wine to Ra-Harakhty

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“Great Temple” of King Sethi I at Abydos, Chapel of Ra-Harakhty, north-west wall, lower register.

“Great Temple” of King Sethi I at Abydos, Chapel of Ra-Harakhty, north-west wall, lower register. The scene of the Daily Rituals (performed in the Inner Shrines of the Temples) called “Formula for placing the two hands on the Deity” ( r3 n rdjt ˁwy ḥr Nṯr ):

King Sethi I placing His hands on the cult statue of the God Ra-Harakhty enthroned. Ra-Harakhty in represented antropomorphic, wearing the Nemes with the Uraeus and the Solar disk with a sacred scarab inside

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The “Book of the Heavenly Cow” represented in the “House of Eternity” of King Sethi

The “Book of the Heavenly Cow” represented in the “House of Eternity” of King Sethi I, Valley of the Kings, KV17, west 'Uaset'-Thebes. The God Shu (in the middle) supporting the Goddess Nut in Her form of cow; Shu is assisted by the eight 'Heh'-Gods (the “Infinite-Ones”). On the barque at left, Ra (wearing the Solar disk) standing and making adorations; on the barque at right, Ra is represented seated inside a shrine. Drawing from “Les hypogées royaux de Thèbes (Band 1): Le tombeau de Séti Ier” by E. Lefébure, plate XVII-d

42

Detail from the “Book of the Heavenly Cow” represented in the “House of Eternity” of

Detail from the “Book of the Heavenly Cow” represented in the “House of Eternity” of King Sethi I, Valley of the Kings, KV17, west 'Uaset'-Thebes

This is the description of the scene from the text of the “Book of the Heavenly Cow” (translation from “The Literature of Ancient Egypt” by K. Simpson):

This spell is to be recited over a (picture of) a cow at whose chest is (inscribed) ‘‘The Infinite Ones who are’’ and over whose back is (inscribed) ‘‘The Infinite Ones who are,’’ / whose four hoofs are filled out in (black) paint and upon whose belly are a plurality of stars, issuing from its hind- quarters in front of its hind legs, while beneath its belly stands Shu, painted in yellow ocher, His arms under these stars, and inscribed with His name between them using the word ‘‘Shu’’ by itself. A barque, on which are a steering-oar and a shrine with a solar disk over it and Ra in it, is in front of Shu next to His hand, while another version (of a barque) is behind Him next to His (other) hand. Its udder is rendered in the middle of its left hind leg, its profile being drawn in paint in the middle of this hind leg with the following words (inscribed) outside in retrograde: ‘‘I am who I am. I will not let them take action.’’ What is (inscribed) beneath the barque that is in front is as follows: ‘‘You shall not grow / weary, my son,’’ they (the signs) being in retrograde, and as follows: ‘‘Your condition is like that of one who lives forever,’’ and as follows: ‘‘Your son is in me (or “Your son am I”). Life, prosperity and health be to this your nose!’’ What is (inscribed) behind Shu next to His arm is as follows: ‘‘Watch over them!’’ What is behind Him at His flank is (inscribed) in retrograde as follows: ‘‘It is right that they (the stars) should enter in when I retire each day.’’ What is (inscribed) under the arm of the figure that is beneath the left hind leg and behind it is as follows:

‘‘Everything should be sealed.’’ What is (inscribed) above His head, beneath this cow’s hindquarters and what is between its hind legs is as follows: ‘‘As for him who shall go forth.’’ What is (inscribed) behind the two figures that are between its hind legs and above their heads: ‘‘The aged one is in 'Igeret' (the Netherworld). Praise / is given, moreover, when He is introduced.’’ What is (inscribed) over the heads of the two figures that are between its forelegs: ‘‘(He who adores) rectitude, Hearer, Support of the Sky.”

43

Scene from the Luynes papyrus of SerAmon, priest of Amon at 'Uaset'-Thebes, XXI Dynasty; now

Scene from the Luynes papyrus of SerAmon, priest of Amon at 'Uaset'-Thebes, XXI Dynasty; now in the Cabinet des médilles Ra-Harakhty-Atum enthroned, wearing the Solar disk, holding the 'Heqa'-scepter and the Flail; behind Him, the two Goddesses Iusaas and Nebethotepet. To the right, the altar with the offerings. On the top, the Solar disk flanked by the Two Eyes with fans

44

Detail from the coffin of Nesykhonsu, ca. 976-889 BCE; now in the Cleveland Museum of

Detail from the coffin of Nesykhonsu, ca. 976-889 BCE; now in the Cleveland Museum of Art A 'Sem'-priest, wearing the leopard skin, pouring a libation with the 'nemset'-jar before Ra-Harakhty-Atum enthroned, represented mummiform, wearing the Solar disk with the Uraeus, holding the 'Heqa'-scepter and the Flail. On the top, a row of Uraei with the Solar disk

45

-Ra in His form of Divine Child

-Ra in His form of Divine Child The daily journey of Ra during the hours of

The daily journey of Ra during the hours of the day represented on the Frieze of the Outer Hypostyle Hall of the Temple of Horus at Behdet (Edfou):

detail of the form of Ra during the II hour of the day. “Ra of Behdet, Lord of the Sky” enthroned inside the Sun. Ra is represented in His form of Divine Child, with the sidelock of youth and a finger on His lips. Drawing from “I Monumenti dell' Egitto e della Nubia” by Ippolito Rosellini, Band 4,3, plate XXXVIII

46

Scene from the 'Prologue' of the “Book of Day” represented in the “House of Eternity”

Scene from the 'Prologue' of the “Book of Day” represented in the “House of Eternity” of King Ramses V and VI, Valley of the Kings, KV9, west 'Uaset'-Thebes:

the Sun in the womb of Nut; inside the Sun is represented Ra in His form of Divine Child. Nut is flanked by Isis (at left) and Nephthys (at right) both raising and lowering Their hands in a gesture of protection and adoration

47

Detail from the IV scene of the “Book of Day” represented in the “House of

Detail from the IV scene of the “Book of Day” represented in the “House of Eternity” of King Ramses V and VI, Valley of the Kings, KV9, west 'Uaset'-Thebes. The meeting of the Solar barques: at left, the Day barque with Isis; at right, the Night barque with Nephthys. In the middle, Ra in His form of Divine Child inside the Sun and flanked by two Uraei representing 'Mehen'

48

Detail from the lid of the sarcophagus of Uereshnefer, Priest of the Goddesses Mut, Nephthys,

Detail from the lid of the sarcophagus of Uereshnefer, Priest of the Goddesses Mut, Nephthys, Sekhmet, Neith, and Sati; XXX Dynasty (380–300 BCE); now in the Metropolitan Museum Ra in His form of Divine Child (with the sidelock of youth and a finger on His lips) standing inside the Sun, and flanked by two Uraei

His lips) standing inside the Sun, and flanked by two Uraei Detail from the lid of

Detail from the lid of the sarcophagus of Uereshnefer, Priest of the Goddesses Mut, Nephthys, Sekhmet, Neith, and Sati; XXX Dynasty (380–300 BCE); now in the Metropolitan Museum The meeting of the Solar barques: at left, the Day barque; at right, the Night barque. On the prows, the Goddess of the East (at left, on the Day barque) and the Goddess of the West (at right, on the Night barque) both rising the God Ra represented in His form of Divine Child standing inside the Sun and flanked by two Uraei. The Solar barques are represented on the waters of the heavenly Nile, that is the ecliptic. On the lower frieze, four images of Anubis in His form of sacred jackal crouching upon a shrine, with the 'sekhem'-scepter and the flail

49

Detail from a coffin dated to the 1000-945 BCE; now in the British Museum Ra

Detail from a coffin dated to the 1000-945 BCE; now in the British Museum Ra in His form of Divine Child represented inside the Sun and emerging from the Lotus Flower, flanked by the Two Eyes and by two images of Neith (that is the Divine Mother of Ra) in Her form of winged Uraeus spreading Her wings in protection. Ra is represented with the Uraeus on His forehead, holding the 'Heqa'-scepter, and with a finger on His lips; in front of Him, the Uraeus with the Red Crown

50

Detail from the Papyrus of Lady Heruben, XXI Dynasty; now in the Cairo Museum. Ra

Detail from the Papyrus of Lady Heruben, XXI Dynasty; now in the Cairo Museum. Ra in His form of Divine Child seated inside the Sun, with the Uraeus on His forehead, holding the 'Heqa'-scepter and the Flail, and with a finger on His lips; the Sun is encircled by the Ouroboros and flanked by two arms (the symbol for the 'Ka'-spirit) Below, 'Ruty', the Twin Lion Gods of Yesterday and Tomorrow, supporting the Sun. On the top right, the 'Udjat'-Eye

51

“House of Birth” of the Sanctuary of the Goddess Hathor at Nitentore (Dendera), detail from

“House of Birth” of the Sanctuary of the Goddess Hathor at Nitentore (Dendera), detail from the second column (lower part, south outer face):

Ra in His form of Divine Child (above His head is represented the Solar disk with the two Uraei), with the sidelock of youth and a finger on His lips, seated upon a lotus flower, holding the 'Heqa'-scepter and the Flail. At left, the Goddess Outo in Her form of uraeus, wearing the Red Crown, and at right the Goddess Nekhbet in Her form of vulture, wearing the 'Atef'-Crown, both standing on the symbol for “gold”; below the Goddess Outo are represented the papyrus flowers of Lower Egypt, while below the Goddess Nekhbet there are the lilies of Upper Egypt

52

Temple of Hibis, scene from the south wall of the Sanctuary A: “Ra-Harakhty of Shmoun

Temple of Hibis, scene from the south wall of the Sanctuary A:

“Ra-Harakhty of Shmoun (Hermopolis Megale)”. Ra-Harakhty in His form of Divine Child (wearing the Solar disk, with the sidelock of youth and a finger on His lips) seated upon the Primeval Lotus Flower. Around Him, the eight Deities of the Ogdoad of Shmoun-Hermopolis Megale (the four Goddesses are serpent-headed, while the four Gods are frog-headed). Drawing from “The Temple of Hibis in El Khārgeh oasis : Part III” by Norman de Garis Davies (plate IV)

53

Temple of Hibis, detail from the north wall of the Sanctuary A: Ra-Harakhty in His

Temple of Hibis, detail from the north wall of the Sanctuary A:

Ra-Harakhty in His form of Divine Child seated between the horns of the sacred 'Mḥt-wrt'-Cow. Drawing from “The Temple of Hibis in El Khārgeh oasis : Part III” by Norman de Garis Davies (plate III)

54

The daily journey of Ra during the hours of the day represented on the ceiling

The daily journey of Ra during the hours of the day represented on the ceiling of the Hypostyle Hall (first strip east) of the Temple of the Goddess Hathor at Nitentore (Dendera):

detail from the I hour of the day. On the Solar barque are represented:

in the middle, Ra in His form of Divine Child standing inside the Sun, flanked by Nephthys (at left) and Isis (at right) both raising and lowering Their hands in a gesture of protection and adoration. Behind Isis is represented Thoth (ibis-headed) with His arms raised in adoration. On the stern is represented Montu (falcon-headed) steering the Solar barque

55

The daily journey of Ra during the hours of the day represented on the Ceiling

The daily journey of Ra during the hours of the day represented on the Ceiling of the Hypostyle Hall of the Temple of Neith and Khnum at 'Iunyt'-Latopolis (Esna):

detail from the I hour of the day. Ra is represented in His form of Divine Child, seated inside the Sun; below, the Winged Scarab (representing Khepry) supporting the Sun. At right, Isis; at left, Nephthys, both raising and lowering Their hands in a gesture of protection and adoration

56

III part: Ra in His form of sacred falcon

III part: Ra in His form of sacred falcon The Pyramidion from the “House of Eternity”

The Pyramidion from the “House of Eternity” of Khonsu [TT2], “Servant in the Seat of Righteousness and Truth (the Valley of the Kings)”, son of Sennedjem; now in the Egyptian Museum of Torino Ra-Harakhty in His form of sacred falcon, wearing the Solar disk with the Uraeus, represented on the symbol for “Horizon”; before Him, an Uraeus with the White Crown

57

Temple of the Goddess Hathor at Nitentore (Dendera), detail from the frieze of the west

Temple of the Goddess Hathor at Nitentore (Dendera), detail from the frieze of the west wall of the second east chapel of Osiris (one of the three chapels called the “House of Life of the statues”) located on the roof of the Temple and representing the 'Ba'-souls of the Gods of the nomes of Lower Egypt protecting Osiris:

Ra-Harakhty of On-Heliopolis (Jwnw, capital city of the XIII nome of Lower Egypt, “Prospering Scepter”-”Heliopolites”) represented as a falcon spreading His wings in protection of Osiris. Ra-Harakhty is represented perched on the symbol for “gold”, with a fan and a large 's'-hieroglyph topped by a bird perched on the sign for 'canal', and wearing the Solar disk. Drawing from A. Mariette, “Denderah, description générale”, IV-43

58

Pyramidion of Ramose, from the top of one of the two small pyramids in the

Pyramidion of Ramose, from the top of one of the two small pyramids in the Tomb Complex (three tombs, TT 7, TT 212 and TT 250) of Ramose, West 'Uaset'-Thebes; now in the Egyptian Museum of Torino Ramose making adorations to Ra-Harakhty represented in His form of sacred falcon wearing the Solar disk with the Uraeus.

(above and before Ra-Harakhty) Ra-Harakhty, Great God, Lord of the Sky (below, from right to left) for the good of His Majesty, by the Royal Scribe of the 'Imyt-Wret' (name of a team of priests, or also a name for the necropolis), beloved by his King, Ramose, whose word is right and true.

(before Ramose) Adoring Ra at the time of His rising in the Eastern Horizon of the Sky, by (above) Osiris, the scribe of Maat (behind him) in the Seat of Righteousness and Truth (the Valley of the Kings), Ramose, whose word is right and true (below, from left to right) By he who knows Maat (the Goddess of Righteousness and Truth), he who has put Her in his heart, the scribe who excels in knowledge, Ramose.

59

-Ra as a human-headed falcon

-Ra as a human-headed falcon The daily journey of Ra during the first two hours of

The daily journey of Ra during the first two hours of the day represented on the ceiling of the “Pure Place” (the “Chapel of the New Year”) of the Temple of the God Horus at Behdet (Edfou). Drawing from E. Chassinat, "Le temple d'Edfou", plate XXXIII-c . On the upper register, the Solar barque of the I hour of the day: Ra is represented inside the Sun, as a human-headed falcon wearing the Solar disk with the two feathers; on the lower register, the Solar barque of the II hour of the day: Ra is represented enthroned inside the Sun, in His form of Divine Child, wearing the Solar disk with the Uraeus

60

-Ra as a ram-headed falcon

-Ra as a ram-headed falcon Detail from the “House of Eternity” of King SiPtah, Valley of

Detail from the “House of Eternity” of King SiPtah, Valley of the Kings, KV47, west 'Uaset'-Thebes. Ra in His form of ram-headed falcon representing “the 'Ba'-Soul of Ra”, depicted inside the Sun

61

IV part: Ra in His form of sacred cat

IV part: Ra in His form of sacred cat Detail of a facsimile painting of a

Detail of a facsimile painting of a scene represented in the “House of Eternity” of Sennedjem (West 'Uaset-Thebes', TT1):

the God Ra in His form of sacred cat slaughtering with His knife the cursed apophis (the enemy of the Gods) represented in his form of snake, under the sacred persea tree of On-Heliopolis

62

“The Great Cat, Who appears in the image of Ra”: the Almighty Sun God Ra

“The Great Cat, Who appears in the image of Ra”:

the Almighty Sun God Ra represented as a Great Cat slaughtering with His knives the cursed snake apophis, the enemy of the Gods: its body is riddled with stab wounds, from where its blood flows out, whilst its head, in which is a large cut, is fixed firmly on the ground by the paw of the Great Cat. The Great Cat smiles whilst slaying the cursed snake. From the “House of Eternity” of NakhtAmon, TT335, West 'Uaset'-Thebes. NakhtAmon lived during the reign of King Ramses II; he was a sculptor in the “Seat of Truth” (the Valley of the Kings) and 'Uab'-Priest of the deified King Amenhotep I; son of Piay who, like himself, was a sculptor in the “Valley of the Kings”, and of the lady Neferetkhau, “Lady of the House”. NakhtAmon' s wife is Nebuemsheset, daughter of Pached and of the Lady Makhai

63

The God Ra represented in His form of the “Great Cat of On-Heliopolis” slaughtering with

The God Ra represented in His form of the “Great Cat of On-Heliopolis” slaughtering with His knife the cursed apophis (the enemy of the Gods) in his form of snake, under the sacred persea tree of On-Heliopolis, and placing His right front paw on the snake's head. Scene from the “House of Eternity” of Inherkhau son of Hay (TT359), a member of a family of leaders of the craftsmen of the “Place of Righteousness and Truth” (the “Valley of the Kings”). Inherkhau was “Foreman in the Place of Righteousness and Truth in the west of Thebes” and “Director of the works of the Lord of the Two Lands” during the reigns of Ramses III and Ramses IV

64

-Ra as a cat-headed man

-Ra as a cat-headed man Temple of Hibis, detail from the west wall of the Sanctuary

Temple of Hibis, detail from the west wall of the Sanctuary A:

the God Ra-Harakhty, cat-headed and mummiform, holding an egg in His hands. Drawing from “The Temple of Hibis in El Khārgeh oasis : Part III” by Norman de Garis Davies (plate II)

65

V part: Ra as a lion-headed man

V part: Ra as a lion-headed man Temple of Hibis, scene from the west wall of

Temple of Hibis, scene from the west wall of the Sanctuary A:

the King burning incense and pouring a libation before two images of the God Ra-Harakhty, both lion-headed (the one at left wears the Solar disk and holds the 'Uas'-scepter and a knife, while the one at right holds the 'Ankh', the flail, and the 'Uas'-scepter). Drawing from “The Temple of Hibis in El Khārgeh oasis : Part III” by Norman de Garis Davies (plate II)

66

The daily journey of Ra during the hours of the day represented on the Ceiling

The daily journey of Ra during the hours of the day represented on the Ceiling of the Hypostyle Hall of the Temple of the Goddess Hathor at Nitentore (Dendera):

detail from the IX hour. Ra is represented lion-headed, wearing the Solar disk with the Uraeus, holding a little baboon on His left and the 'Ankh' in the right. On the stern, Horus steering the solar barque

67

-Ra in His form of hieracosphinx

-Ra in His form of hieracosphinx The daily journey of Ra during the hours of the

The daily journey of Ra during the hours of the day represented on the Frieze of the Outer Hypostyle Hall of the Temple of Horus at Behdet (Edfou):

detail of the form of Ra during the III hour. “Ra of Behdet, Lord of the Sky” as a hieracosphinx upon a lotus flower, represented inside the Sun. Drawing from “I Monumenti dell' Egitto e della Nubia” by Ippolito Rosellini, Band 4,3, plate XXXIX

68

Great Temple of Amon, Ra-Harakhty, Ptah, and Ramses II at Meha, Lower Kush/Nubia (now known

Great Temple of Amon, Ra-Harakhty, Ptah, and Ramses II at Meha, Lower Kush/Nubia (now known as “the Great Temple of Abu Simbel), detail from the doorway of the Great Hall leading to the Second Hall of the Temple:

King Ramses II offering a statuette of Maat to Ra-Harakhty, represented as a hieracosphinx crouching. In the middle, two altars with the 'nemset'-jars

69

VI part: Ra in His sacred forms of calf and bull

VI part: Ra in His sacred forms of calf and bull Detail from the “House of

Detail from the “House of Eternity” of Irynefer, “Servant in the Seat of Righteousness and Truth (the Valley of the Kings) during the reign of King Ramses II; West Uaset-Thebes (TT290). Ra in His form of white calf as the son of the Celestial Cow, the Goddess Nut

70

Scene from the “House of Eternity” of Irynefer, West Uaset-Thebes (TT290). Irynefer and his wife

Scene from the “House of Eternity” of Irynefer, West Uaset-Thebes (TT290). Irynefer and his wife Mehytkhati making adorations to Ra represented in His form of sacred white calf standing in between two turquoise sycamores (“the two turquoise sycamores between which Ra goes forth”, spell CIX of the “Book of Coming Forth by Day”). Above Him, the Solar disk

71

Scene from the “House of Eternity” (TT1) of Sennedjem, West 'Uaset'-Thebes (TT1). Ra in His

Scene from the “House of Eternity” (TT1) of Sennedjem, West 'Uaset'-Thebes (TT1). Ra in His form of white calf with black markings standing in between two turquoise sycamores (cfr. spell CIX of the “Book of Coming Forth by Day”); on His back He carries the deceased (with a green face as a symbol of rebirth). To the right, Ra-Harakhty-Atum, falcon-headed and wearing the Solar disk with the Uraeus. On the top left, the Solar disk

72

Detail from the “Luynes papyrus” of SerAmon, priest of Amon at 'Uaset'-Thebes, XXI Dynasty; now

Detail from the “Luynes papyrus” of SerAmon, priest of Amon at 'Uaset'-Thebes, XXI Dynasty; now in the Cabinet des médilles Ra-Harakhty-Atum represented as a sacred bull; in front of Him, the altar with the offerings

a sacred bull; in front of Him, the altar with the offerings Scene from the “Luynes

Scene from the “Luynes papyrus” of SerAmon, priest of Amon at 'Uaset'-Thebes, XXI Dynasty; now in the Cabinet des médilles on the top, Ra-Harakhty-Atum represented as a sacred bull; in the middle, Iusaas-Nebethotepet as a sacred cow; in the lower register, a sacred bull called “the Mysterious 'Ba'-Soul Who rises in the primordial ocean”

73

VII part: Ra in His forms of sacred baboon and baboon-headed man

part: Ra in His forms of sacred baboon and baboon-headed man The daily journey of Ra

The daily journey of Ra during the hours of the day represented on the Ceiling of the Hypostyle Hall of the Temple of the Goddess Hathor at Nitentore (Dendera):

detail from the VII hour. Ra is represented as a baboon wearing the Solar disk with a scarab and shooting a bow; above Him, Nekhbet in Her form of sacred vulture spreading Her wings in protection. On the stern, Horus steering the solar barque

74

The daily journey of Ra during the hours of the day represented on the Ceiling

The daily journey of Ra during the hours of the day represented on the Ceiling of the Hypostyle Hall of the Temple of the Goddess Hathor at Nitentore (Dendera):

detail from the VIII hour. Ra is represented baboon-headed, holding the 'Ankh' and the 'Uas'-scepter. On the stern, Horus steering the solar barque

75

VIII part: Ra in His form of sacred serpent

VIII part: Ra in His form of sacred serpent Temple of the Goddess Hathor at Nitentore

Temple of the Goddess Hathor at Nitentore (Dendera), ceiling of the Hypostyle Hall, detail from the eastermost strip: Rasomtou” Who resides in Nitentore (Dendera)”. Rasomtou (Rˁ-sm3-t3wy , “Ra the Unifier of the Two Lands”) represented in His form of sacred serpent rising from the great lotus flower within a sacred barque. Harsomtou (Ḥr-sm3-t3wy, “Horus the Unifier of the Two Lands”) in His form of the Serpent Site (s3-t3, the “Son of the Earth”) is identified with Ra, and in this aspect is often called “Rasomtou”

76

IX part: Ra as a crocodile-headed man

IX part: Ra as a crocodile-headed man Scene from the “Book of the Faiyum”: the God

Scene from the “Book of the Faiyum”:

the God Ra enthroned, crocodile-headed, mummiform, wearing the Solar disk with two uraei

77

Scene from the “Book of the Faiyum”: the God Ra, crocodile-headed, wearing the “Crown of

Scene from the “Book of the Faiyum”:

the God Ra, crocodile-headed, wearing the “Crown of Geb” (a composite Red Crown with the 'Atef'), holding the 'Ankh' and the 'Uas'-scepter, enthroned in the Solar barque (with ram's head wearing the Solar disk with the uraeus represented at the bow and stern). On the throne of Ra is depicted the symbol for “Union of the Two Lands”. In front of Ra, the Goddess 'Meret' of Upper Egypt making adorations. Behind Ra and behind 'Meret', a crouching lion with a tree

78

-Ra in His form of sacred crocodile

-Ra in His form of sacred crocodile Scene from the “Book of the Faiyum”: the God

Scene from the “Book of the Faiyum”:

the God Ra represented as a crocodile with a mummy on His back. On the top, three coffins, each with a tree on the lid. Drawing from “Das Buch vom Fayum” by H. Beinlich (page 114)

79

X part: Ra as a ram-headed man

X part: Ra as a ram-headed man “Great Temple” of King Sethi I at Abydos, detail

“Great Temple” of King Sethi I at Abydos, detail from the II Hypostyle Hall:

the God Ra-Harakhty enthroned, ram-headed, wearing the Solar disk, holding the 'Ankh' and the “Year-staff” with the 'Djed'-pillar and the 'Ankh'. On the throne is represented the symbol for “Union of the Two Lands”; on its base, a row of 'Uas'-scepters and 'Ankh'-signs

80

The daily journey of Ra during the hours of the day represented on the Frieze

The daily journey of Ra during the hours of the day represented on the Frieze of the Outer Hypostyle Hall of the Temple of Horus at Behdet (Edfou):

the form of Ra during the IV hour. “Ra of Behdet, Lord of the Sky”, ram-headed, holding the 'Ankh' and the 'Uas'-scepter, and standing inside the Sun.

Drawing from “I Monumenti dell' Egitto e della Nubia” by Ippolito Rosellini, Band 4,3, plate

XXXIX

81

“Great Temple” of King Sethi I at Abydos, Chapel of Ra-Harakhty, north-east wall, lower register.

“Great Temple” of King Sethi I at Abydos, Chapel of Ra-Harakhty, north-east wall, lower register. The scene of the Daily Rituals (performed in the Inner Shrines of the Temples) called “Formula for untying the seal” ( r3 n sfḫ ):

King Sethi I kneeling and making adorations to the cult statue of the God Ra-Harakhty enthroned inside a shrine. Ra-Harakhty in represented ram-headed, wearing the Solar disk with the Uraeus and holding the 'Uas'-scepter and the 'Ankh'

82

Temple of Neith and Khnum at 'Iunyt' (Esna), detail from the north-west wall of the

Temple of Neith and Khnum at 'Iunyt' (Esna), detail from the north-west wall of the Hypostyle Hall:

the King, the Emperor Commodus (wearing the “Crown of Geb”) offering a bouquet of flowers to the God Ra-Harakhty enthroned. Ra-Harakhty is represented ram-headed, wearing the Solar Crown with the Uraeus

83

Scene from the “House of Eternity” of Queen Nefertari, Valley of the Queens, QV66, west

Scene from the “House of Eternity” of Queen Nefertari, Valley of the Queens, QV66, west 'Uaset'-Thebes: the God Ra, ram-headed (with green skin), mummiform, and wearing the Solar disk; He is flanked by Isis (at right) and Nephthys (at left) both raising and lowering Their hands in a gesture of protection and adoration

84

The daily journey of Ra during the hours of the day represented on the Ceiling

The daily journey of Ra during the hours of the day represented on the Ceiling of the Hypostyle Hall of the Temple of the Goddess Hathor at Nitentore (Dendera), detail of the IV hour:

Bastet (at left) and Thoth (at right) making adorations to Ra (ram-headed, holding the 'Ankh' and the 'Uas'-scepter) represented standing inside the Sun

85

-the “flesh of Ra” in the “Books of the Netherworld”

-the “flesh of Ra” in the “Books of the Netherworld” The first two Solar barques represented

The first two Solar barques represented at the beginning of the “Book of Night” in the “House of Eternity” of King Ramses V and VI, Valley of the Kings, KV9, west 'Uaset'-Thebes. On both the Solar barques are represented, from right to left:

a Divine Child seated on the bow, Sia, a shrine surrounded by the serpent Mehen, and Hu. Inside the shrine is represented the “flesh of Ra”, ram-headed, wearing the Solar disk and holding the 'Uas'-scepter; in front of Him, Maat offering the 'Ankh'. Behind the Goddess, a serpent standing on His tail. On the lower register, two rows of Star Gods towing the Solar barques; on both scenes, They are headed by the Guardian God of the barque and by the King (above Him is represented the Solar Orb with the two Uraei)

86

Detail from the sacred “Book of Gates” (first division, second hour), represented in the “House

Detail from the sacred “Book of Gates” (first division, second hour), represented in the “House of Eternity” of King Ramses IV, Valley of the Kings, KV2, West 'Uaset'-Thebes:

on the sacred barque is represented King Ramses IV kneeling and offering a statuette of Maat (that is the offering of Righteousness and Truth) to the “flesh of Ra”. Ra is represented in His ram- headed form, wearing the Solar disk, and standing inside a shrine enveloped and protected by the sacred serpent Mehen; He holds the 'Ankh' (the symbol of Life) in His right and the 'Uas'-scepter of Power and Dominion in His left; before Him there is another sacred serpent, standing on his tail. On the stern is represented 'Heka' (God of Magic and Power), and on the bow Sia (the God of perception); to the right, a Deity towing the sacred barque

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Detail from the II division (III hour) of the sacred “Book of Gates”, from the

Detail from the II division (III hour) of the sacred “Book of Gates”, from the “House of Eternity” of King Ramses I, Valley of the Kings, KV16, West 'Uaset'-Thebes:

on the sacred barque, from right to left, Heka, the “flesh of Ra”, ram-headed, wearing the Solar disk, holding the 'Ankh' and the 'Uas'-scepter, and standing in a shrine encircled by the protective serpent Mehen; in front of Him, there is another sacred serpent standing on His tail, and Sia. To the left, one of four Gods called “Those of the Duat (one of the names of the Netherworld)” towing the sacred barque. To the right, the open leaf of the gate, and its guardian, a sacred serpent standing on his tail

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Detail from the fourth division (fifth hour) of the “Book of Gates” represented in the

Detail from the fourth division (fifth hour) of the “Book of Gates” represented in the “House of Eternity” of King MerenPtah, Valley of the Kings, KV8, west 'Uaset'-Thebes. On the sacred barque are represented, from right to left:

Heka, the “flesh of Ra”, and Sia. The “flesh of Ra”is represented ram-headed, wearing the Solar disk, holding the 'Uas'-scepter, standing in a shrine encircled by the protective serpent Mehen; inside the shrine, in front of Him, there is another sacred serpent standing on his tail. To the right, a God towing the sacred barque

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-Ra in His form of four-faced ram

-Ra in His form of four-faced ram The daily journey of Ra during the hours of

The daily journey of Ra during the hours of the day represented on the Frieze of the Outer Hypostyle Hall of the Temple of Horus at Behdet (Edfou):

detail from the VI hour. The God “Ra of Behdet, Lord of the Sky” represented as a four-faced ram (with the 'Atef'-Crown) inside the Sun. Drawing from “I Monumenti dell' Egitto e della Nubia” by Ippolito Rosellini, Band 4,3, plate XLI

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XI part: the Sun with the forms of Ra

XI part: the Sun with the forms of Ra “The God's passage of the way of

“The God's passage of the way of Shu” (the Entrance-Gate) of the “House of Eternity” of King MerenPtah (XIX Dynasty): the two Goddesses Isis (at left) and Nephthys (at right) making adorations to the Sun with a sacred scarab and ram-headed God represented inside

with a sacred scarab and ram-headed God represented inside Detail from the Entrance Gate of the

Detail from the Entrance Gate of the “House of Eternity” of King MerenPtah, Valley of the Kings (KV 8), West 'Uaset'-Thebes: the Goddess Nephthys making adorations to the Sun with a ram- headed God represented inside

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Scene from the “House of Eternity” of King Ramses X, Valley of the Kings (KV

Scene from the “House of Eternity” of King Ramses X, Valley of the Kings (KV 18),

West 'Uaset',-Thebes. Drawing from “I monumenti dell’Egitto e della Nubia” by Ippolito Rossellini.

A double representation of King Ramses X kneeling in adoration before the Sun and offering to

Him the Eye of Ra (the right eye) and the 'Udjat'-Eye (the left eye, the Eye of Horus); inside the Sun

is represented the sacred scarab and a ram-headed God. At left and at right, behind the King, the two Goddesses Isis (at left) and Nephthys (at right) making adorations

Isis (at left) and Nephthys (at right) making adorations Scene from the Entrance Gate of the

Scene from the Entrance Gate of the “House of Eternity” of King SiPtah, Valley of the Kings (KV 47), West 'Uaset'-Thebes:

the Two Goddesses Isis (at left) and Nephthys (at right) kneeling and making adorations to the Sun with a sacred scarab and a ram-headed God represented inside

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XII part: “The Litany of Ra”

-Introduction:

The “Litany of Ra” is one of the most important religious texts dedicated to the God Ra and His worship: it is a litany of divine names that accompanies the figures of 74/75 forms of Ra. Among the various forms of Ra listed in the Litany, there are also some Deities that here are praised as aspects or manifestations of Ra: Shay, Khepry, Nun, Atum, Shu, Tefnut, Nut, Geb, Isis, Nephthys, and Horus. Concerning the iconography of Ra in the Litany, most of His forms are represented with a mummiform body; of these, most are anthropomorphic, and the others are composite anthropomorphic forms (for example, ram-headed, falcon-headed, and scarab-headed). Among the other forms of Ra represented in the Litany there are: the ram, the cat, the scarab, the Solar disk associated with other forms, the Eye of Ra, and also a Stake to which is tied a prisoner. It is important to note that some forms of Ra are represented only in the Litany, and therefore are not listed in the collection of images presented in the previous pages; and at the same time, some of the forms of Ra presented in the previous pages are missing in the Litany: for example, Ra anthropomorphic and lion-headed, as a hieracosphinx, as a Divine Child, as a crocodile and as a crocodile-headed man. Hence in the Litany of Ra, at least concerning the iconography, are listed and praised only some of the forms of Ra, and not all: as the Title says, the Litany contains the forms of Ra related to His worship in Amente (that is to say, not the forms of Ra in Amente, but the forms of Ra that are praised in Amente).

The “Litany of Ra” is known in two different versions: the “Great Litany” and the “Little Litany”. The names of the forms of Ra in the two versions are the same, and the images are almost identical. The only difference is the order in which they are listed.

The “Great Litany” is composed of two sections: in the first section are eulogized 75 forms of Ra, each one with an invocation and a praise; the second section is devoted to the worship of Ra in Amente and to the mystic union of the King with Ra and Osiris: “King N is Ra, and reciprocally. He is the 'Ba'-Soul of Osiris”. The oldest known text of the “Great Litany” is represented on the shroud of King Thutmosis III, a gift dedicated to Him by His son and successor, King Amenhotep II. Its first complete representation is from the “House of Eternity” of King Sethi I; others copies are from the tombs of

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Ramses II, MerenPtah, Amenmesses, SiPtah, Sethi II, Ramses III, Ramses IV and Ramses IX (in a shortened version); and some parts of it are inscribed also on the sarcophagi of the Late Period. The “Great Litany” is represented also on the walls of the great Temples of Egypt: at Abydos, in the decorations dated to the reign of MerenPtah in the Osireion and in the “Temple of Millions of years” of Ramses II, and at 'Ipet-sut', in the edifice of Taharqa and in the Chapel of Hakoris. Some extracts are also inscribed in the Nilometer of Roda. In the “Houses of Eternity” the “Great Litany” is inscribed on the walls of the first two corridors: it begins on the left wall, from the first corridor, known as “the passage of Ra” or “the first God's passage of the Sun's path” (corridor B according to the modern designations), to the end of the second corridor, known as “Second God's passage” (corridor C); and it continues on the right wall, from the end of the second corridor, to the beginning of the first corridor. Before the Title there are two scenes that are the 'Prologue' of the “Great Litany”: the King making adorations to Ra-Harakhty, and the descent of Ra into the Netherworld. In the latter scene, is represented the Sun with a scarab and a ram-headed God inside; above the Solar disk there is a serpent, and on the right corner the head of a bubalis or of an antelope with an horn or a torch or a serpent between the horns; below the Solar disk there is a crocodile, and on the right corner the head of the same animal depicted above. The Title of the “Great Litany” is:

“Beginning of the Book of the Adoration of Ra in Amente and of the Adoration of the One Joined Together in Amente.” The Rubric says:

“When this Book is being recited, these images must be painted on the ground, at night. This Book represents the victory of Ra over His enemies in Amente. It is useful for a man upon Earth, and it is useful for him after his burial”.

The “Little Litany” is a shortened version of the “Great Litany” with 74 names and forms of Ra but without invocations. The “Little Litany” is represented in the “Houses of Eternity” of many Kings, such as Thutmosis III, Sethi I, Ramses III and others. The Rubric says:

“This spell is to be recited to every God, and these must be depicted exactly as those on the two side-walls of the Netherworld, while the two parts must be placed on them as a Divine action. Then You are a 'Ba'-soul as the second self of Ra, the Heir of the 'Djeba' of the One Joined Together. This book is to be recited every day when Ra goes to rest in the West, exactly and correctly.”

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-The 'Prologue' of the “Great Litany”

- The 'Prologue' of the “Great Litany” The first scene from the 'Prologue' of the “Great

The first scene from the 'Prologue' of the “Great Litany of Ra” represented in the “House of Eternity” of King MerenPtah, KV8: King MerenPtah making adorations to Ra-Harakhty (falcon- headed, wearing the Solar disk with the Uraeus)

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The second scene from the 'Prologue' of the “Great Litany of Ra” represented in the

The second scene from the 'Prologue' of the “Great Litany of Ra” represented in the “House of Eternity” of King SiPtah, KV47: the descent of Ra into the Netherworld. From “The Tomb of SiPhtah” by E. Harold Jones

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Detail from the second scene of the 'Prologue' of the “Great Litany of Ra” represented

Detail from the second scene of the 'Prologue' of the “Great Litany of Ra” represented in the “House of Eternity” of King SiPtah, KV47:

the Sun with a scarab and a ram-headed God represented inside

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-The forms of Ra in the “Great Litany”

(The images are from the Temple of King Ramses II at Abydos; drawings from “Abydos:

description des fouilles, Band 2”, by A. Mariette. The translations of the invocations are taken from “The Litany of Re” by A. Piankoff)

are taken from “The Litany of Re” by A. Piankoff) From right to left: 1, “the

From right to left:

1, “the One Joined Together” ; 3, “He at the head of His Cavern” ; 5, “He Who protects the 'Baw'- souls” ; 7, “ the Wind to the 'Baw'-souls” ; 9, “the Darkened One” ; 9a , “The 'Ba'-Soul of Ra” (without invocation)

9a , “The 'Ba'-Soul of Ra” (without invocation) From left to right: 2, “the Becoming One”

From left to right:

2, “the Becoming One” ('Khepry') ; 4, “Ra of the Solar Disk” ; 6, “Severe Face” ; 8, “He Who punishes with the Stake” ; 10, “He Who gives the light to the bodies”

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1- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, Lord of the Caverns of the 'Duat', He Whose forms are hidden, He Who goes to rest into the mysteries when He transforms Himself into the One Joined Together. 2- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, this Becoming One ('Khepry') Who folds His wings, He Who goes to rest in the 'Duat', and transforms Himself into He Who comes out of His Own members. 3- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, Exalted Earth Who gives birth to His Gods, He Who protects what is in Him, He Who transforms Himself into He at the head of His Cavern. 4- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, He Who makes the Earth visible, He Who gives light to those in Amente, He Whose forms are His beings, when He transforms Himself into His Great Solar Disk (in Ramses II: His form is His becoming, when He continuously comes into being as His Great Solar Disk). 5- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, 'Ba'-Soul Who speaks, He Who rests on His bank, He Who protects the 'Baw'-souls of those of Amente while they breathe through Him. 6- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, Unique One, Severe Face (in Thutmosis III: Powerful Heart), Joined to His body, He Who calls His Gods while passing through the mysterious caverns of the 'Duat'. 7- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, He Who calls His Eye, He Who speaks to Himself He Who gives the wind to the 'Baw'-souls in their places, and they receive their breath. 8- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, Coming 'Ba'-Soul, He Who annihilates His enemies, He Who decrees the punishment of the dead. 9- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, Darkened One in His Cavern, He Who decrees that there be darkness in the Cavern which hides Him Who is in it. 10- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, He Who gives the light to the bodies, He Who is on the horizon, He Who enters His Cavern.

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From right to left, 11, “Atum” ; 13, “Shu” ; 15, “Geb” ; 17, “Isis”

From right to left, 11, “Atum” ; 13, “Shu” ; 15, “Geb” ; 17, “Isis” ; 19, “Horus”

“Shu” ; 15, “Geb” ; 17, “Isis” ; 19, “Horus” From left to right, 12, “the

From left to right, 12, “the Becoming One” ('Khepri') ; 14, “Tefnut” ; 16, “Nut” ; 18, “Nephthys” ; 20, “Nun”

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11- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, He Who approachest to the Caverns of He at the head of Amente. Thou art the forms of Atum. 12- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, He Who comes to what Anubis hides. Thou art the forms of the Becoming One (Khepri). 13- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, He Whose existence is longer than that of She Who hides Her Images. Thou art the forms of Shu. 14- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, He Who is led towards the members. Thou art the forms of Tefnut. 15- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, He Who gives orders to the Time Gods at Their time. Thou art the forms of Geb. 16- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, the Great One of reckonings of what is in Him. Thou art the forms of Nut. 17- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, He Who goes always towards Him Who precedes Him (in Sethi II: Lord of manifestations of what is in His head), Thou art the forms of Isis. 18- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, Head more shining than those before Him. Thou art the forms of Nephthys. 19- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, the Crater of the creatures (in Sethi II: Filler of the members), the Unique-one, He Who unites the generative substances, Thou art the forms of Horus. 20- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, Shaper, He Who shines in the flood. Thou art the forms of Nun.

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From right to left, 21, “the Weeper” ; 23, “Those of the 'Adw'-fish” ; 25,

From right to left, 21, “the Weeper” ; 23, “Those of the 'Adw'-fish” ; 25, “Netwty” ; 27, “Amente (the West/Netherworld)” ; 29, “the Mourner”

“Amente (the West/Netherworld)” ; 29, “the Mourner” From left to right, 22, “The Decomposed One” ;

From left to right, 22, “The Decomposed One” ; 24, “the Divine Eye” ; 26, “the Great Ram” ; 28, “He of the Cavern” ; 30, “Hidden Members”

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21- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, Protector of Nun, He Who comes out of Himself. Thou art the forms of the Weeper. 22- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, He of the two cobras, ornamented with two plumes. Thou art the bodies of the Decomposed One. 23- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, He Who enters and comes out, He Who comes out and enters, He Who belongs to His mysterious and hidden Cavern. Thou art the forms of the 'Adu'-fish (the flathead mullet ) 24- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, 'Ba'-Soul to Whom is presented what He lacks. Thou art the forms of the Divine Eye. 25- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, Arising 'Ba', Unique One Who protects His children. Thou art the forms of 'Netwty'. 26- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, He Who rises His head, He with high horns. Thou art the Ram, Great of forms. 27- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, seed of Shu in Amente. Thou art the forms of Amente. 28- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, Seeing 'Ba' in Amente. Thou art the forms of He of the Cavern. 29- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, He Who belongs to wailing, 'Ba' of the Weeper. Thou art the forms of the Mourner. 30- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, the One with the arm which comes out, He Who is praised for His Eye. Thou art the forms of Hidden Members.

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From right to left, 31, “He at the head of those of Amente ” ;
From right to left, 31, “He at the head of those of Amente ” ;

From right to left, 31, “He at the head of those of Amente” ; 33, “He of the Cat” (cat-headed and not human-headed as in this plate); 35, “He of the Coffin” ; 37, “Shay” ; 39, “Hidden Bodies”

of the Coffin” ; 37, “Shay” ; 39, “Hidden Bodies” From left to right, 32, “the

From left to right, 32, “the Ever-Becoming” ; 34, “the Ejector” ; 36, “He Who causes to breathe” ; 38, “the Resting 'Ba'-Soul”; 40, “the Flaming One”

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31- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, the Arising One towards the Mysterious Region. Thou art the forms of He at the head of Amente. 32- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, He of many forms in the Sacred Chamber. Thou art the forms of the Ever-Becoming. 33- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, He Who places His enemies in their bonds. Thou art the forms of He of the Cat. 34- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, He Who shines in the Mysterious Place. Thou art the forms of the Ejector. 35- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, He Who adorns the bodies, He Who makes the throat breathe. Thou art the forms of He of the Coffin. 36- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, He Who calls the bodies in Amente: they breathe and their decay is arrested. Thou art the forms of He Who causes to breathe. 37- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, Mysterious Face, Leader of the Divine Eye. Thou art the forms of Shay. 38- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, Lord of Arising, He Who comes to rest in Amente. Thou art the forms of the Resting 'Ba'. 39- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, He of the hidden forms to those among whom He is. Thou art the forms of the Hidden forms. 40- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, Stouter heart than those who follow Him, He Who sends flames into the Place of Destruction. Thou art the forms of the Flaming One.

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From right to left, 41, “He of the 'Duat'” ; 43, “He with Reassembled Members”

From right to left, 41, “He of the 'Duat'” ; 43, “He with Reassembled Members” ; 45, “Provider of the Earth” ; 47, “the Venerable One” ; 49, “the Traveller”

; 47, “the Venerable One” ; 49, “the Traveller” From left to right, 42, “the Brilliant

From left to right, 42, “the Brilliant One” ; 44, “the Hidden One” ; 46, “the Jubilating One” ; 48, “He Whose ways are correct” ; 50, “the Lightning One”

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41- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, He Who decrees destruction, He Who creates breath among His forms in Amente, Thou art the forms of He of the 'Duat'. 42- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, the Wonderful One Who dwells in His Eye, Brilliant One in the Mysterious Region, Thou art the forms of the Brilliant One. 43- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, He with reassembled members, Foundation of He in the Earth. Thou art the forms of He with Reassembled Members. 44- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, Creator of hidden things, Generator of bodies. Thou art the forms of the Hidden One. 45- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, He Who has provided those in Amente when passing the Mysterious Caverns. Thou art the forms of the Provider of the Earth. 46- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, Your members jubilate when they see Your forms, Your 'Ba' is glorified when passing by Your members. Thou art the forms of the Jubilating One. 47- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, Venerable One owing to the drippings from His whole Eye, the Ensouled One, for Whom His Glorious Eye is being filled. Thou art the forms of the Venerable One. 48- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, He Whose ways are correct in Amente, Opener of the Roads in the Mysterious Region. Thou art the forms of He Whose ways are correct. 49- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, Traveling 'Ba' with passing steps. Thou art the forms of the Traveler. 50- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, He Who gives orders to His stars when He lights the darkness in the Caverns mysterious of forms. Thou art the forms of the Lightning One.

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From right to left, 51, “Maker of Bodies” ; 52, “Hidden One” ; 55, “Elevated

From right to left, 51, “Maker of Bodies” ; 52, “Hidden One” ; 55, “Elevated One” ; 56, “Great Cat” ; 57, “He Whose Brilliant Eye speaks” ; 60, “Iwty”

; 57, “He Whose Brilliant Eye speaks” ; 60, “Iwty” From left to right, 53, “Shining

From left to right, 53, “Shining Horn” ; 54, “Exalted Forms” ; 58, “Distant 'Ba'-Soul” ; 59, “High 'Ba'-Soul”

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51- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, He Who creates the Caverns, He Who causes the bodies to come into being by His own decree to Himself. Thou decreest, oh Ra, for those who exist and for those who do not exist, the Dead, the Gods, the spirits. Thou art the forms of the Maker of Bodies. 52- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, Mysterious, Mysterious, this Hidden One Whose manifestations of the Head (the Solar disk) are like His image, He Who causes those who follow him to pass on! Thou art the forms of the Hidden One. 53- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, Shining Horn, Pillar of the West, He of the darkened looks when tired. Thou art the forms of Shining Horn. 54- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, with exalted forms when He traverses Amente, and causes the 'Ba' in their Caverns to jubilate. Thou art the forms of Exalted Forms. 55- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, He Who unites himself to the Beautiful Amente, at Whom those of the Netherworld rejoice when seeing Him. Thou art the bodies of the Elevated One. 56- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, Great Cat, Protector of the Gods, Judge, President of the Council, He at the head of the Holy Caverns, Thou art the forms of the Great Cat. 57- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, He Who tends His Eye and Whose brilliant Eye speaks while the bodies are in mourning. Thou art the forms of He Whose Brilliant Eye speaks. 58- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, He Whose 'Ba' is on high, Whose bodies are hidden, Shining One when He sees his hidden things. Thou art the forms of the Distant 'Ba'. 59- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, High Ba Who repulses His enemies. He Who decrees the flame against the transgressors. Thou art the forms of the High 'Ba'. 60- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, 'Iwty', He Who hides the decomposition, Power of the 'Baw'-souls of the Gods. Thou art the forms of 'Iwty'.

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From left to right, 61, “He of the Two Children” ; 63, “Blazing One in

From left to right, 61, “He of the Two Children” ; 63, “Blazing One in the Earth” ; 65, “He of the Caldron” ; 67, “The Watchers”

; 65, “He of the Caldron” ; 67, “The Watchers” From right to left, 62, “Dark

From right to left, 62, “Dark Face” ; 64, “the Binder” ; 66, “Exalted Earth ('Ta-tenen')”

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61- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, the Great Elder in the Netherworld, Kheper-Ra Who becomes the Two Children, Thou art the forms of the Two Chidren. (the Two Chidren are “the Child of Ra” and “the Primeval Essence of Ra”) 62- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, the Great Traveler Who renews the movement, Brilliant 'Ba' of the members, Dark Face, Thou art the forms of the Dark Face. 63- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, He Who protects Himself, He Who judges the Gods as the Blazing One, Mysterious One in the Earth. Thou art the forms of the Blazing One in the Earth. 64- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, the Lord of Bonds for His enemies, Unique One, Great One, Chief of His she-monkeys. Thou art the forms of the Binder. 65- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, He Who orders fire into His caldrons, He Who severs the heads of the annihilated ones. Thou art the forms of He of the Caldrons. 66- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, Generator Who annihilates the offspring, Unique One, He Who exalts the Earth by His power. Thou art the forms of the Exalted Earth ('Ta-tenen'). 67- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, before Whom the Watchers rise, while they on Their stands do not see their mysteries. Thou art the forms of the Watchers.

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At right, 68 and 72, “Outflow” and “the Walker” (one form with two names and

At right, 68 and 72, “Outflow” and “the Walker” (one form with two names and two invocations); at left, 70 and 74, “Renewer of the Earth” and “He of the Temple of the Obelisk” (one form with two names and two invocations)

the Obelisk” (one form with two names and two invocations) From left to right, 69, “the

From left to right, 69, “the Baboon of the 'Duat'” ; 71, “Eternal One” ; 73, “Lord of Might” ; 75, “Lord of Darkness”

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68- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, He of the 'Djent'-jar of Heaven, Star of the Netherworld, Outflow of His mummies. Thou art the forms of the Outflow. 69- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, the baboons salute Thee, Thou of the Desert Land, Kheper-Ra Who leads the forms, Thou art the Baboon of the Netherworld. 70- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, Renewer of the Earth, Opener of what is therein, Speaking Ba, Rearer of His members. Thou art the forms of the Renewer of the Earth. 71- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, Eternal One Who burns His enemies, Flaming One, Flame Which shoots a tongue of fire. Thou art the forms of the Eternal One. 72- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, the Walker Who passes by, Brilliant One Who creates darkness after His light. Thou art the forms of the Walker. 73- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, Lord of Might, He in His Obelisk, Chief of the Gods Who are in front. Thou art the forms of the Lord of Might. 74- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, He of the Temple of the Obelisk at On-Heliopolis, Great God Who ties together time. Thou art the forms of He of the Temple of the Obelisk at On-Heliopolis. 75- Glory be to Thee, oh Ra, Supreme Power, Lord of Darkness, He Who speaks from (reveals) His Mysteries, 'Ba' Who calls the inhabitants who are in their caverns. Thou art the forms of the Lord of Darkness.

Oh Ra of the Caverns, oh Ra Who calls those of the Caverns, oh Ra, He Who is in His Caverns. Glory be to Thee, Ra, the Wanderer. (to say four times) Those of the Caverns pay homage to Thee, 'Ba' of the Wanderer. They pay homage to His 'Ba', they adore Thy forms among which Thou art. Glory be to the Great Wanderer. (to say four times)

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The image of the form of Ra n. 33 of the “Great Litany”: “He of

The image of the form of Ra n. 33 of the “Great Litany”:

“He of the Cat”, mummiform and cat-headed, represented in the “House of Eternity” of King Sethi I, Valley of the Kings, KV9. Drawing from E. Lefébure, “Les hypogées royaux de Thèbes (Band 1): Le tombeau de Séti Ier”, plate XV

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-The forms of Ra in the “Little Litany”

(the images are from the “House of Eternity” of King Thutmosis III [KV34], inscribed on the two pillars of the “House of Gold wherein one rests”, that is the Burial chamber)

of Gold wherein one rests”, that is the Burial chamber) From right to left, 1-“The Becoming

From right to left,

1-“The Becoming One ('Khepry')” mummiform, the head is a winged scarab

2-“Ra of the Solar Disk” / “His Great Solar Disk”

a scarab represented inside the Solar disk 3-“Severe Face” mummiform and ram-headed 4-“He Who punishes with the Stake”

the Stake represents Ra; a captive is bound to the stake 5-“He Who gives the light to the bodies” mummiform, falcon-headed and wearing the Solar disk 6-“The Becoming One ('Khepri')”

a scarab rising the Sun

7-“Tefnut”

8-“Nut”

9-“Nephthys”

10-“Nun”

mummiform, with the head of an horned mammal, and surrounded by the waters

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From right to left, 11-“The Decomposed One” 12-“The Great Ram” 13-“The Divine Eye” the Eye

From right to left,

11-“The Decomposed One” 12-“The Great Ram” 13-“The Divine Eye” the Eye of Ra (the right eye) in an oval 14-“He of the Cavern” 15-“Hidden Members” mummiform and represented inside an oval 16-“The Ever-becoming” scarab-headed 17-“The Ejector” ithyphallic 18-“He Who causes to breathe” mummiform, with the head of an horned mammal 19-“The Resting 'Ba'-Soul” 20-“The Flaming One” mummiform and red, with fire springing from His head

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From right to left, 21-“The Brilliant One” 22-“The Hidden One” 23-“The Jubilating One” 24-“He Whose

From right to left,

21-“The Brilliant One” 22-“The Hidden One” 23-“The Jubilating One” 24-“He Whose ways are correct” 25-“The Lightning One” a scarab rising the Sun 26-“The Shining Horn” mummiform and with the head of a mammal with a high horn 27-“Exalted Forms” 28-“The Distant 'Ba'-Soul” mummiform and falcon-headed 29-“The High 'Ba'-Soul” mummiform and ram-headed 30-“He of the Two Children” mummiform and with a red head

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From right to left, 31-“The Blazing One in the Earth” mummiform and with a red

From right to left,

31-“The Blazing One in the Earth” mummiform and with a red head 32-“He of the Caldron” 33-“The Watchers” 34-“The Baboon of the 'Duat'” mummiform and baboon-headed 35-“The Eternal One” mummiform and baboon-headed 36-“Lord of Might” 37-“Lord of Darkness” mummiform and ram-headed

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From right to left, 38-“The One Joined Together” mummiform and wearing the White Crown 39-“He

From right to left,

38-“The One Joined Together” mummiform and wearing the White Crown 39-“He at the Head of His Cavern” mummiform and wearing the White Crown

40-“He who protects the 'Baw'-souls” / “He Who protects the 'Akhw' (the spirit-souls)” 41-“The Wind in the 'Baw'-souls” 42-“The Darkened One”

a ram-head represented inside a Disk 43-“The 'Ba'-Soul of Ra”

a ram-headed 'ba'-bird inside the Sun

44-“Atum”

45-“Shu”

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From right to left, 46-“Geb” 47-“Isis” 48-“Horus” mummiform and falcon-headed 49-“The Weeper” 50-“Those

From right to left,

46-“Geb”

47-“Isis”

48-“Horus”

mummiform and falcon-headed 49-“The Weeper” 50-“Those of the 'Adw'-fish” three mummiform Gods

51-“Netwty”

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From right to left, 52-“Amente (the West/Netherworld)” 53-“The Mourner” 54-“He at the Head of those

From right to left,

52-“Amente (the West/Netherworld)” 53-“The Mourner” 54-“He at the Head of those of Amente” mummiform and wearing the White Crown 55-“He of the Cat” mummiform and cat-headed 56-“He of the Coffin”

57-“Shay”

mummiform and with the head of a mammal

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From right to left, 58-“Hidden Bodies” 59-“He of the 'Duat'” mummiform and falcon-headed 60-“He with

From right to left,

58-“Hidden Bodies” 59-“He of the 'Duat'” mummiform and falcon-headed 60-“He with Reassembled Members” 61-“Provider of the Earth” mummiform and with the head of a mammal 62-“The Venerable One” 63-“The Traveller”

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From right to left, 64-“The Maker of Bodies” mummiform and ram-headed 65-“The Hidden One” mummiform

From right to left,

64-“The Maker of Bodies” mummiform and ram-headed 65-“The Hidden One” mummiform and with the head of a mammal 66-“The Elevated One” 67-“The Great Cat” 68-“He Whose Brilliant Eye speaks” mummiform and ram-headed

69-“Iwty”

mummiform and red

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From right to left, 70-“Dark Face” mummiform and with a lamp as head 71-“The Binder”

From right to left,

70-“Dark Face” mummiform and with a lamp as head 71-“The Binder” the head seems to be represented by two snakes 72-“The Exalted Earth ('Ta-tenen')” mummiform and wearing the Crown with two feathers and ram's horns 73-“The Outflow” / “The Walker” (one form with two names) mummiform and falcon-headed 74-“The Renewer of the Earth” / “He of the Temple of the Obelisk” (one form with two names)

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