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Petroleum Experts

User Manual

IPM
PROSPER
Version 11.5
January 2010

PROSPER
IPM - Single Well Model OVERVIEW
by Petroleum Experts Limited

PROSPER is a well performance, design and optimisation program which is part of the
Integrated Production Modelling Toolkit (IPM). This tool is the industry standard well
modelling with the major operators worldwide.
PROSPER is designed to allow the building of reliable and consistent well models, with the
ability to address each aspect of well bore modelling VIZ, PVT (fluid characterisation), VLP
correlations (for calculation of flow-line and tubing pressure loss) and IPR (reservoir inflow).
PROSPER provides unique matching features, which tune PVT, multiphase flow
correlations and IPR to match measured field data, allowing a consistent well model to be
built prior to use in prediction (sensitivities or artificial lift design). PROSPER enables
detailed surface pipeline performance and design: Flow Regimes, pipeline stability, Slug
Size andFrequency
APPLICATIONS
Design and optimise well completions including multi-lateral, multilayer and horizontal wells
Design and optimise tubing and pipeline sizes
Design, diagnose and optimise Gas lifted, Hydraulic pumps and ESP wells
Generate lift curves for use in simulators
Calculate pressure losses in wells, flow lines and across chokes
Predict flowing temperatures in wells and pipelines
Monitor well performance to rapidly identify wells requiring remedial action
Calculate total skin and determine breakdown (damage, deviation or
partial penetration)
Unique black oil model for retrograde condensate fluids, accounting
for liquid dropout in the wellbore
Allocate production between wells

Copyright Notice
The copyright in this manual and the associated computer program are the property of Petroleum Experts
Ltd. All rights reserved. Both, this manual and the computer program have been provided pursuant to a
Licence Agreement containing restriction of use.
No part of this manual may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, or translated
into any language, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, magnetic, optical or otherwise, or
disclose to third parties without prior written consent from Petroleum Experts Ltd., Petex House, 10 Logie
Mill, Edinburgh, EH7 4HG, Scotland, UK.
Petroleum Experts Ltd. All rights reserved.
IPM Suite, GAP, PROSPER, MBAL, PVTP, REVEAL, RESOLVE, IFM, ModelCatalogue and OpenServer are
trademarks of Petroleum Experts Ltd.
Microsoft (Windows), Windows (2000) and Windows (XP) are registered trademarks of the Microsoft
Corporation
The software described in this manual is furnished under a licence agreement. The software may be used or
copied only in accordance with the terms of the agreement. It is against the law to copy the software on any
medium except as specifically allowed in the license agreement. No part of this documentation may be
reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying,
recording, or information storage and retrieval systems for any purpose other than the purchaser's personal
use, unless express written consent has been given by Petroleum Experts Limited.

Address:
Petroleum Experts Limited
Petex House
10 Logie Mill
Edinburgh, Scotland
EH7 4HG
Tel : (44 131) 474 7030
Fax : (44 131) 474 7031
email: edinburgh@petex.com
Internet: www.petex.com
1990-2010 Petroleum Experts Limited

PROSPER

Table of Contents
0

Chapter 1

Technical Overview

1 Fluid modelling
...................................................................................................................................
options
2
2 Inflows...................................................................................................................................
and Sand Control options
4
3 Well bore
...................................................................................................................................
and Pipeline hydraulics
6
4 Artificial
...................................................................................................................................
lift systems
7
5 Flow assurance
................................................................................................................................... 8
Advanced Therm
..........................................................................................................................................................
al Models
8
General Flow Assurance
..........................................................................................................................................................
Features
8

6 What's ...................................................................................................................................
New
9
7 Examples
...................................................................................................................................
Guide
34

Chapter 2

User Guide

39

1 Introduction
................................................................................................................................... 39
Using PROSPER
.......................................................................................................................................................... 39
PROSPER and ..........................................................................................................................................................
System s Analysis
42
About PROSPER
......................................................................................................................................................... 44
Exam ples
.......................................................................................................................................................... 46

2 File Management
................................................................................................................................... 47
PROSPER Files.......................................................................................................................................................... 47
PVT Data (*.PVT)
......................................................................................................................................................... 47
Input Data (*.SIN)
......................................................................................................................................................... 48
Analysis Data
.........................................................................................................................................................
(*.ANL)
48
Output Data
.........................................................................................................................................................
(*.OUT)
48
Creating a .........................................................................................................................................................
New File
49
Opening an.........................................................................................................................................................
Existing File
49
Saving a File
......................................................................................................................................................... 49
Copying a File
......................................................................................................................................................... 50
Preferences .......................................................................................................................................................... 50
Main Screen
......................................................................................................................................................... 50
File
......................................................................................................................................................... 52
Plot
......................................................................................................................................................... 53
User Applications
......................................................................................................................................................... 55
Limits
......................................................................................................................................................... 56
Units
......................................................................................................................................................... 58
Equipment ......................................................................................................................................................... 59
VPC
......................................................................................................................................................... 59
Softw are Key ..........................................................................................................................................................
Maintenance
60
FileList
.......................................................................................................................................................... 63
Evaluate OpenServer
..........................................................................................................................................................
Statem ent
64
User Correlations
.......................................................................................................................................................... 66
Printer Setup .......................................................................................................................................................... 67
Preparing to
.........................................................................................................................................................
Print
67
Selecting and
.........................................................................................................................................................
configuring a Printer
68
Printing Export
.........................................................................................................................................................
Data
68

Contents

II

Selecting an
.........................................................................................................................................................
Exported Data to Print
70
Word Processing
..........................................................................................................................................................
in PROSPER
70
Clipboard Com
..........................................................................................................................................................
m and
71
Com m and Buttons
.......................................................................................................................................................... 71

3 Data Input
...................................................................................................................................
- General
73
PROSPER Main..........................................................................................................................................................
Menu
73
File
......................................................................................................................................................... 74
Options ......................................................................................................................................................... 74
PVT
......................................................................................................................................................... 74
System ......................................................................................................................................................... 75
Matching ......................................................................................................................................................... 75
Calculation......................................................................................................................................................... 75
Design
......................................................................................................................................................... 75
Output
......................................................................................................................................................... 75
Wizard
......................................................................................................................................................... 76
Units
......................................................................................................................................................... 76
Help
......................................................................................................................................................... 76
Options - Options
..........................................................................................................................................................
Selection
76
Fluid Description
......................................................................................................................................................... 77
Fluid Type
......................................................................................................................................... 78
Method
......................................................................................................................................... 78
Equation of State.........................................................................................................................................
Setup
78
Separator
......................................................................................................................................... 79
Emulsions
......................................................................................................................................... 79
Hydrates
......................................................................................................................................... 79
Water Viscosity ......................................................................................................................................... 79
Water Vapour ......................................................................................................................................... 80
Viscosity model ......................................................................................................................................... 80
Well
......................................................................................................................................................... 80
Flow Type
......................................................................................................................................... 80
Well Type
......................................................................................................................................... 80
Artificial Lift
......................................................................................................................................................... 81
Method
......................................................................................................................................... 81
Type
......................................................................................................................................... 82
Calculation.........................................................................................................................................................
Type
83
Predict
......................................................................................................................................... 83
Model
......................................................................................................................................... 84
Calculation
......................................................................................................................................... 85
Output
......................................................................................................................................... 86
Steam Calculation
......................................................................................................................................................... 86
Well Completion
......................................................................................................................................................... 86
Type
......................................................................................................................................... 86
Sand Control
......................................................................................................................................... 86
Reservoir ......................................................................................................................................................... 86
Type
......................................................................................................................................... 86
Gas Coning
......................................................................................................................................... 87
User Information
.........................................................................................................................................................
and Comments
87
Options - Perforating
..........................................................................................................................................................
Gun DataBase
87
Options - Tubing
..........................................................................................................................................................
DataBase
90
Options - Casing
..........................................................................................................................................................
DataBase
91
Options - Pipe..........................................................................................................................................................
Schedule
91

4 PVT Data
...................................................................................................................................
Input
92
Introduction .......................................................................................................................................................... 92

January, 2010

PROSPER Manual

III

PROSPER
Black Oil - Oil and
..........................................................................................................................................................
Water
94
Input Data ......................................................................................................................................................... 94
Tables
......................................................................................................................................................... 96
Match Data......................................................................................................................................................... 97
Regression......................................................................................................................................................... 98
Match
......................................................................................................................................... 99
Match All
................................................................................................................................... 99
Parameters
................................................................................................................................... 99
View ing the Match
...................................................................................................................................
Parameters
99
Matching FVF above
...................................................................................................................................
Bubble Point
100
Correlations
......................................................................................................................................................... 100
Calculate ......................................................................................................................................................... 101
Calculating PVT.........................................................................................................................................
Data
101
Displaying the Calculated
.........................................................................................................................................
Data on the screen
102
Plotting the Calculated
.........................................................................................................................................
Data
103
Saving PVT tables
.........................................................................................................................................
from Calculated Data
104
Save the .........................................................................................................................................................
PVT Data
104
Open
......................................................................................................................................................... 104
Composition
......................................................................................................................................................... 105
Emulsions......................................................................................................................................................... 106
Emulsions
......................................................................................................................................... 106
Non-New .........................................................................................................................................................
tonian Fluid
109
Pow er Fluid
.........................................................................................................................................................
Data
111
Hydrates .........................................................................................................................................................
Formation table
113
Black Oil - Dry
..........................................................................................................................................................
And Wet Gas
114
Input Data......................................................................................................................................................... 114
Black Oil - Retrograde
..........................................................................................................................................................
Condensate
116
Input Data......................................................................................................................................................... 116
Calculations
......................................................................................................................................................... 117
Export
.......................................................................................................................................................... 117
Equation Of State
..........................................................................................................................................................
- All Fluids
118
EOS Model
.........................................................................................................................................................
Setup
120
EOS PVT.........................................................................................................................................................
Input Data
124
Importing Matched
.........................................................................................................................................
EoS
126
Using the.........................................................................................................................................................
EoS
126
Generate PVT properties
......................................................................................................................................... 126
Phase Envelope......................................................................................................................................... 129
Target GOR
......................................................................................................................................... 131

5 Equipment
...................................................................................................................................
Data Input
132
Predicting Pressure
..........................................................................................................................................................
Only
132
Deviation .........................................................................................................................................................
Survey
133
Filter
......................................................................................................................................... 136
Surface Equipment
......................................................................................................................................................... 139
Dow nhole.........................................................................................................................................................
Equipment
143
Temperature
.........................................................................................................................................................
Survey
145
Pipe Schedule
.........................................................................................................................................................
and Equipment
146
Predicting Pressure
..........................................................................................................................................................
and Tem perature
150
Rough Approximation
......................................................................................................................................................... 150
Deviation Survey......................................................................................................................................... 151
Surface Equipment
......................................................................................................................................... 151
Dow nhole Equipment
......................................................................................................................................... 151
Geothermal Gradient
......................................................................................................................................... 152
Average Heat Capacities
......................................................................................................................................... 152
Enthalpy Balance
......................................................................................................................................................... 153

Contents

IV

Deviation Survey......................................................................................................................................... 154


Surface Equipment
......................................................................................................................................... 154
Dow nhole Equipment
......................................................................................................................................... 157
Temperature Data
......................................................................................................................................... 158
Drilling and Completion
......................................................................................................................................... 159
Lithology
......................................................................................................................................... 161
Databases
......................................................................................................................................... 162
Improved .........................................................................................................................................................
Approximation
164
Deviation Survey......................................................................................................................................... 165
Surface Equipment
......................................................................................................................................... 165
Dow nhole Equipment
......................................................................................................................................... 166
Temperature Data
......................................................................................................................................... 166

6 IPR Data
...................................................................................................................................
Input
168
IPR Single Well
..........................................................................................................................................................
Data
169
The Main .........................................................................................................................................................
Data Entry Screen
169
Section Buttons
......................................................................................................................................................... 170
Action Buttons
......................................................................................................................................................... 170
Model Selection
.........................................................................................................................................................
Screen
172
Data Input.........................................................................................................................................................
Screen
173
IPR Models for
..........................................................................................................................................................
Oil and Water Wells
175
P.I. Entry ......................................................................................................................................................... 176
Vogel
......................................................................................................................................................... 176
Composite......................................................................................................................................................... 176
Darcy ......................................................................................................................................................... 177
Fetkovich......................................................................................................................................................... 177
Multi-rate .........................................................................................................................................................
Fetkovich
177
Jones ......................................................................................................................................................... 177
Multi-rate .........................................................................................................................................................
Jones
178
Transient......................................................................................................................................................... 178
Hydraulically
.........................................................................................................................................................
Fractured Well
179
Horizontal.........................................................................................................................................................
Well - No Flow Boundaries
179
Horizontal.........................................................................................................................................................
Well - Constant Pressure Upper Boundary
181
Multi-Layer
.........................................................................................................................................................
Inflow
181
External Entry
......................................................................................................................................................... 183
Horizontal.........................................................................................................................................................
w ell - dP Friction Loss in Wellbore
184
Multi-Layer
.........................................................................................................................................................
- dP Loss in Wellbore
188
SkinAide ......................................................................................................................................................... 191
Dual Porosity
......................................................................................................................................................... 191
Horizontal.........................................................................................................................................................
Well w ith Transverse Vertical Fractures
191
Thermally.........................................................................................................................................................
Induced Fracture Model
192
Overview
......................................................................................................................................... 192
Data Entry
......................................................................................................................................... 193
Relative Permeability
.........................................................................................................................................................
Curves
194
Test Data
......................................................................................................................................... 195
Plot
......................................................................................................................................... 196
Relative Permeability
.........................................................................................................................................
Calculation Details
197
Coning Calculation
......................................................................................................................................................... 198
IPR for Gas and
..........................................................................................................................................................
Retrograde Condensate
199
Jones ......................................................................................................................................................... 199
Forchheimer
......................................................................................................................................................... 200
Back Pressure
......................................................................................................................................................... 200
C and n ......................................................................................................................................................... 200
Multi-rate .........................................................................................................................................................
C and n
201
Multi-rate .........................................................................................................................................................
Jones
202

January, 2010

PROSPER Manual

PROSPER
External Entry
......................................................................................................................................................... 202
Petroleum.........................................................................................................................................................
Experts
202
Hydraulically
.........................................................................................................................................................
Fractured Well
204
Horizontal.........................................................................................................................................................
Well - No-Flow Boundaries
204
Multi-layer.........................................................................................................................................................
Inflow
205
Horizontal.........................................................................................................................................................
Well - dP Friction Loss in Wellbore
205
Dual Porosity
......................................................................................................................................................... 205
Horizontal.........................................................................................................................................................
Well w ith Transverse Vertical Fractures
205
Multi-Layer
.........................................................................................................................................................
- dP Loss in Wellbore
205
Modified Isochronal
.........................................................................................................................................................
Inflow Model
205
Forchheimer
.........................................................................................................................................................
w ith Pseudo Pressure
207
Multirate Forchheimer
.........................................................................................................................................................
w ith Pseudo Pressure
207
Skin Models .......................................................................................................................................................... 208
Mechanical/Geometrical
.........................................................................................................................................................
Skin
208
Deviation/Partial
.........................................................................................................................................................
Penetration Skin
213
Sand Options.......................................................................................................................................................... 214
Sand Failure
......................................................................................................................................................... 214
Sand Control
.........................................................................................................................................................
Options
215
Gravel Packed Completion
......................................................................................................................................... 217
Pre-Packed Screen
.........................................................................................................................................
completion
220
Wire-Wrapped Screen
.........................................................................................................................................
Completion
224
Slotted Liner Completion
......................................................................................................................................... 228
Other IPR-related
..........................................................................................................................................................
features
232
Gravel Pack
.........................................................................................................................................................
Completion Velocities
232
Viscosity Modelling
.......................................................................................................................................................... 233
Com paction ..........................................................................................................................................................
Perm eability Reduction
235
Injection Wells
.......................................................................................................................................................... 236
SkinAide
.......................................................................................................................................................... 237
SkinAide Theoretical
.........................................................................................................................................................
Background
237
Position of the producing
.........................................................................................................................................
interval w ith respect to reservoir geometry
237
Interference betw
.........................................................................................................................................
een perforations and the damaged zone
238
The Crushed Zone
......................................................................................................................................... 239
Perforation tunnel
.........................................................................................................................................
w hich penetrates the formation
239
Perforation tunnel
.........................................................................................................................................
through the casing and cement
240
Annulus betw een
.........................................................................................................................................
Casing and Screen
240
Hemispherical Flow
.........................................................................................................................................
Model
241
Using SkinAide
......................................................................................................................................................... 242
Flow Model
......................................................................................................................................... 242
Skin Model
......................................................................................................................................... 243
Perforation Data......................................................................................................................................... 243
Geometry
......................................................................................................................................... 244
Petrophysics ......................................................................................................................................... 245
Damaged Zone ......................................................................................................................................... 246
Cased Hole
......................................................................................................................................... 247
Crushed Zone ......................................................................................................................................... 247
Perforations
......................................................................................................................................... 249
SPOT: Shell Perforating
..........................................................................................................................................................
Optim isation Tool
256
Introduction
.........................................................................................................................................................
to SPOT
256
Gun System
.........................................................................................................................................................
databases
258
Gun
......................................................................................................................................... 263
Spot Perforation.........................................................................................................................................
Calculations
265
SPOT: Model
.........................................................................................................................................................
inputs
267
SPOT: Model inputs
.........................................................................................................................................
- Options
269
SPOT: Model inputs
.........................................................................................................................................
- Layers
277

Contents

VI

SPOT: Model inputs


...................................................................................................................................
- Rel Perm Data
282
SPOT: Model inputs
...................................................................................................................................
- Mud Invasion
286
SPOT: Model inputs
...................................................................................................................................
- Old Gun
295
SPOT: Model inputs
.........................................................................................................................................
- Log Data
297
SPOT: Model inputs
...................................................................................................................................
- Generate Log Data
301
SPOT: Model inputs
...................................................................................................................................
- Perforation Cutoff
301
SPOT: Model inputs
...................................................................................................................................
- Perforation Depth
302
SPOT: Model inputs
.........................................................................................................................................
- Completion
303
SPOT: Model inputs
.........................................................................................................................................
- Gravel Pack
305
SPOT: Model
.........................................................................................................................................................
Results
306
SPOT: Model Results
.........................................................................................................................................
- Layer Results
307
SPOT: Model Results
.........................................................................................................................................
- Log Results
308
Multi-Lateral..........................................................................................................................................................
Interface
309
Netw ork Interface
......................................................................................................................................................... 309
Motivation
......................................................................................................................................... 309
Interface Overview
......................................................................................................................................... 309
Netw ork Window
................................................................................................................................... 311
The Navigator Window
................................................................................................................................... 313
Toolbar Details ................................................................................................................................... 314
Netw ork Manipulation
................................................................................................................................... 315
Menu Details ................................................................................................................................... 316
Visualisation Screens
................................................................................................................................... 319
Data Entry......................................................................................................................................................... 321
Overview
......................................................................................................................................... 321
Tie-point and Junction
.........................................................................................................................................
Data
321
Tubing Data
......................................................................................................................................... 321
Completion Data......................................................................................................................................... 322
Reservoir Data ......................................................................................................................................... 322
Example of
.........................................................................................................................................................
How to Set Up a Simple System
323
Introduction
......................................................................................................................................... 323
Place the Nodes.........................................................................................................................................
in the Netw ork Window
324
Connect the Nodes
......................................................................................................................................... 324
Enter the Data ......................................................................................................................................... 324
Visualise / Calculate
......................................................................................................................................... 326

7 Artificial
...................................................................................................................................
Lift Data Input
326
Continuous Gas
..........................................................................................................................................................
Lift Input Data
326
Fixed Depth
.........................................................................................................................................................
Of Injection
327
Optimum Depth
.........................................................................................................................................................
of Injection
328
Valve Depth
.........................................................................................................................................................
Specified
329
Gas Lift (Safety
.........................................................................................................................................................
Equipment)
330
Gas Lift (Allow
.........................................................................................................................................................
injection in Pipe Line above w ellhead)
332
Interm ittent ..........................................................................................................................................................
Gas Lift
334
ESP Input Data
.......................................................................................................................................................... 334
HSP Input Data
.......................................................................................................................................................... 336
Progressive ..........................................................................................................................................................
Cavity Pum ps
337
Coiled Tubing
..........................................................................................................................................................
Gas Lift
338
Diluent Injection
.......................................................................................................................................................... 340
Jet Pum ps .......................................................................................................................................................... 341
Multiphase Pum
..........................................................................................................................................................
ps
342
Sucker Rod Pum
..........................................................................................................................................................
ps
342

8 Matching
...................................................................................................................................
Menu
343
VLP/IPR Match
..........................................................................................................................................................
and Quality Check
345
VLP Matching
......................................................................................................................................................... 349

January, 2010

PROSPER Manual

VII

PROSPER
VLP Correlation .........................................................................................................................................
Applications
351
IPR Matching
......................................................................................................................................................... 352
Gradient Matching
.......................................................................................................................................................... 355
Surface Pipe..........................................................................................................................................................
Matching
357
Correlation Com
..........................................................................................................................................................
parison
358
QuickLook for
..........................................................................................................................................................
Gas Lift
364
Input
......................................................................................................................................................... 364
Performing
.........................................................................................................................................................
the QuickLook Calculation
368
QuickLook for
..........................................................................................................................................................
ESP
371
Input
......................................................................................................................................................... 371
Performing
.........................................................................................................................................................
the QuickLook Calculation
373
QuickLook for
..........................................................................................................................................................
HSP
375
Input
......................................................................................................................................................... 376
Performing
.........................................................................................................................................................
the QuickLook Calculation
378
Tubing Param
..........................................................................................................................................................
eters
380
Pipeline Param
..........................................................................................................................................................
eters
380
Correlation Thresholds
.......................................................................................................................................................... 380

9 Calculation
...................................................................................................................................
Menu
380
Inflow (IPR) .......................................................................................................................................................... 381
System (Ipr +..........................................................................................................................................................
Vlp)
386
Left - Hand
.........................................................................................................................................................
Intersection for VLP/IPR curves
388
Sensitivity.........................................................................................................................................................
Variables Screen
389
Sensitivity Combinations
.........................................................................................................................................
Screen
391
Calculation
.........................................................................................................................................................
Screen
392
Gradient (Traverse)
.......................................................................................................................................................... 402
Options ......................................................................................................................................................... 405
Maximum Grain Diameter
......................................................................................................................................... 405
Erosional Velocity
.........................................................................................................................................
Calculation for Sand Laden Fluids
408
Gradient (Traverse)-Modified
.........................................................................................................................................
Turner Equation
410
Pigging
......................................................................................................................................... 412
Note on HSP
......................................................................................................................................................... 412
VLP (Tubing ..........................................................................................................................................................
Curves)
413
VLP (Tubing)
.........................................................................................................................................................
Curves - 3 Variables
413
VLP (Tubing)
.........................................................................................................................................................
Curves - 4 Variables
418
VLP (Tubing)
.........................................................................................................................................................
- Multi Variables
422
Choke Perform
..........................................................................................................................................................
ance
422
Generate for..........................................................................................................................................................
GAP
425
Bottom Hole ..........................................................................................................................................................
Pressure from Wellhead Pressure
425
References
......................................................................................................................................................... 427
Note on Enthalpy
..........................................................................................................................................................
Balance Model
427
Reset Results
.......................................................................................................................................................... 428

10 Design
...................................................................................................................................
Menu
429
Continuous Gas
..........................................................................................................................................................
Lift Design
430
Menu Options
......................................................................................................................................................... 430
New Well......................................................................................................................................................... 431
Setting Up the Design
.........................................................................................................................................
Problem
432
Gas Lift Valve Selection
......................................................................................................................................... 437
Performing the Design
.........................................................................................................................................
(New Well)
438
Existing Mandrels
.........................................................................................................................................................
Design
443
Setting Up the Design
.........................................................................................................................................
Problem
444
Defining the Depths
.........................................................................................................................................
of Existing Mandrels
444
Gas Lift Valve Selection
......................................................................................................................................... 446
Performing the Design
.........................................................................................................................................
(Existing Mandrels)
446

Contents

VIII

Valve Spacing ......................................................................................................................................... 450


Designing w ith Tubing
.........................................................................................................................................
Sensitive Valves
450
Spacing Procedure
.........................................................................................................................................
for Tubing Sensitive Valves
451
Proportional Valves
......................................................................................................................................... 452
Gas Lift Adjustments
......................................................................................................................................................... 455
Gaslift Valve
.........................................................................................................................................................
Performance
459
Valve Performance
.........................................................................................................................................
Clearinghouse (VPC)
459
Interm ittent ..........................................................................................................................................................
Gas Lift
460
Electrical Subm
..........................................................................................................................................................
ersible Pum p Design
464
ESP Calculate
......................................................................................................................................................... 466
Checking Suitability
.........................................................................................................................................
of Separator Efficiency
468
ESP Design
.........................................................................................................................................................
(Pump, Motor and Cable Selection)
469
Checking the Pump
.........................................................................................................................................
Design
471
Hydraulic Pum
..........................................................................................................................................................
p Design
472
HSP Calculate
......................................................................................................................................................... 474
HSP Design
.........................................................................................................................................................
(Pump and Turbine Selection)
475
Checking the Pump/Turbine
.........................................................................................................................................
Design
477
Progressive ..........................................................................................................................................................
Cavity Pum p Design
478
PCP Calculate
......................................................................................................................................................... 479
PCP Design
.........................................................................................................................................................
(Pump and Rod Selection)
481
Coiled Tubing
..........................................................................................................................................................
GasLift Design
482
Jet Pum p Design
.......................................................................................................................................................... 484
Jet Pump .........................................................................................................................................................
Calculate
485
Jet Pump .........................................................................................................................................................
Design (Pump Selection)
487
Sucker Rod Pum
..........................................................................................................................................................
p Design
488
Background
......................................................................................................................................................... 488
Design Sucker
.........................................................................................................................................................
Rod Pump
491
Enter Design Parameters
......................................................................................................................................... 492
Perform Design ......................................................................................................................................... 493
Rod Sensitivity ......................................................................................................................................... 494
Artificial Lift ..........................................................................................................................................................
Database
496
Gas Lift Valve
.........................................................................................................................................................
Database
497
Adding a New Valve
......................................................................................................................................... 498
ESP Database
......................................................................................................................................................... 499
Pump Database ......................................................................................................................................... 499
Adding a New Pump
................................................................................................................................... 501
Motor Database......................................................................................................................................... 503
Adding a New Motor
................................................................................................................................... 504
Cables Database
......................................................................................................................................... 505
Adding a New Cable
................................................................................................................................... 505
HSP Database
......................................................................................................................................................... 506
Pumps Database......................................................................................................................................... 506
Adding a New Pump
......................................................................................................................................... 507
Turbines Database
......................................................................................................................................... 507
Adding a New Turbine
......................................................................................................................................... 508
PCP Database
......................................................................................................................................................... 509
Pumps Database......................................................................................................................................... 509
Adding a New Pump
................................................................................................................................... 511
Sucker Rods Database
......................................................................................................................................... 512
Adding a New Sucker
...................................................................................................................................
Rod
513
Jet Pumps.........................................................................................................................................................
Database
514
Pumps Database......................................................................................................................................... 514
Adding a New Pump
................................................................................................................................... 515
MultiPhase
.........................................................................................................................................................
Pumps Database
515

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Pumps Database......................................................................................................................................... 516
Adding a New Pump
......................................................................................................................................... 517
Sucker Rod
.........................................................................................................................................................
Pump
518
Pump database ......................................................................................................................................... 518
Adding a New Pump
................................................................................................................................... 519
Sucker Rods Database
......................................................................................................................................... 519
Adding a New Sucker
...................................................................................................................................
Rod
520

11 Output
................................................................................................................................... 521
Report
.......................................................................................................................................................... 522
Setting Up.........................................................................................................................................................
the Reporting System
522
Reports ......................................................................................................................................................... 522
Export
.......................................................................................................................................................... 537
Export Setup
......................................................................................................................................................... 537
Plot
.......................................................................................................................................................... 539
Plot Command
.........................................................................................................................................................
Summary
540

12 Units................................................................................................................................... 543
Units Sum m ary
.......................................................................................................................................................... 543
Unit Systems
......................................................................................................................................................... 544
Changing.........................................................................................................................................................
Unit Systems for some variables
545
Changing.........................................................................................................................................................
the Units
546
Validation.........................................................................................................................................................
Limits
547
Units Details .......................................................................................................................................................... 547
Units Reset .......................................................................................................................................................... 548
Units Save .......................................................................................................................................................... 548

13 Wizard
................................................................................................................................... 548
Running the ..........................................................................................................................................................
Wizard
548
Creating/Editing
..........................................................................................................................................................
a Wizard
549
Notes of OS
.........................................................................................................................................................
strings
550
Wizard examples
......................................................................................................................................................... 551

14 Help ................................................................................................................................... 551


Finding Inform
..........................................................................................................................................................
ation in Help
552
Use the Search
.........................................................................................................................................................
feature in Help
552
Use the Help
.........................................................................................................................................................
Index
552
Context Sensitive
.........................................................................................................................................................
Help
552
Accessing Help
.......................................................................................................................................................... 552
Help Through
.........................................................................................................................................................
the Menu
552
Getting Help
.........................................................................................................................................................
Using the Mouse
552
Getting Help
.........................................................................................................................................................
Using the Keyboard
553
To Minimise
.........................................................................................................................................................
Help
553
Flow Correlations
.......................................................................................................................................................... 553
Open Server.......................................................................................................................................................... 553
Help About PROSPER
.......................................................................................................................................................... 553
Web Options.......................................................................................................................................................... 554

15 Appendix
................................................................................................................................... 555
A - References
.......................................................................................................................................................... 555
PVT Calculations
......................................................................................................................................................... 555
CO2 Injection ......................................................................................................................................... 556
PVT Separator Pressure
......................................................................................................................................... 556
IPR Calculations
......................................................................................................................................................... 558
Multiphase
.........................................................................................................................................................
Flow Calculations
559
Temperature
.........................................................................................................................................................
Calculations
560
Artificial Lift
.........................................................................................................................................................
Design
561

Contents

B - Equations.......................................................................................................................................................... 562
Black Oil Model
.........................................................................................................................................................
for Condensate
562
Mass Balance Calculations
......................................................................................................................................... 562
Using the mass .........................................................................................................................................
balance results to define Condensate Model
565
Estimation of CGRmin
......................................................................................................................................... 567
Multiphase
.........................................................................................................................................................
Pseudo Pressure
568
Temperature
.........................................................................................................................................................
Models
570
Rough Approximation
.........................................................................................................................................
Temperature Model
571
Overall Heat Transfer
...................................................................................................................................
Coefficient
572
Enthalpy Balance
......................................................................................................................................... 573
Default Thermal...................................................................................................................................
Properties Database
579
Choke Calculation
......................................................................................................................................................... 580
Multi-Phase
.........................................................................................................................................................
Flow Correlations
581
C - Dietz Shape
..........................................................................................................................................................
Factors
582
D - File Form ats
.......................................................................................................................................................... 584
Introduction
......................................................................................................................................................... 584
External PVT
.........................................................................................................................................................
Tables
584
Lift Curves
......................................................................................................................................................... 586
IPR
......................................................................................................................................................... 587
ESP PUMPS
......................................................................................................................................................... 588
ESP MOTORS
......................................................................................................................................................... 589
ESP CABLES
......................................................................................................................................................... 590
HSP PUMPS
......................................................................................................................................................... 591
HSP TURBINES
......................................................................................................................................................... 592
E - Glossary .......................................................................................................................................................... 593
F - Im porting..........................................................................................................................................................
Data from Text Files
600

Chapter 3

Examples Guide

606

1 Prosper
...................................................................................................................................
Tutorials
606
Tutorial 00: Integrated
..........................................................................................................................................................
Oil Well Model
608
Objectives......................................................................................................................................................... 608
Statement.........................................................................................................................................................
of the Problem
609
General Approach
......................................................................................................................................................... 609
Available .........................................................................................................................................................
Data & Information
609
PVT Data from the
.........................................................................................................................................
lab
611
Well Equipment Data
.........................................................................................................................................
(Tubing etc)
612
Inflow Performance
.........................................................................................................................................
Data
614
Multi-Rate Well Test
.........................................................................................................................................
Data
615
Model Construction:
.........................................................................................................................................................
Step by Step Procedure
615
Well Test .........................................................................................................................................................
Analysis: Step by Step
630
Sensitivity.........................................................................................................................................................
Runs
649
Tutorial 01: Modelling
..........................................................................................................................................................
a dry and w et gas producer
654
Statement.........................................................................................................................................................
Of The Problem
655
PVT Input.........................................................................................................................................................
Data
655
System Equipment
.........................................................................................................................................................
Input Data
655
Deviation survey......................................................................................................................................... 655
Surface Equipment
......................................................................................................................................... 656
Dow n hole Equipment
......................................................................................................................................... 656
Static Geothermal
.........................................................................................................................................
Gradient
656
Average Heat Capacities
......................................................................................................................................... 656
Reservoir.........................................................................................................................................................
Input Data
657
Step by Step
......................................................................................................................................................... 657
System Options ......................................................................................................................................... 658

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PVT data Input ......................................................................................................................................... 658
Saving the file ......................................................................................................................................... 659
System Equipment
.........................................................................................................................................
Description
660
Deviation Survey
................................................................................................................................... 660
Surface Equipment
................................................................................................................................... 662
Dow n Hole Equipment
................................................................................................................................... 662
Geothermal gradient
................................................................................................................................... 663
Average Heat Capacities
................................................................................................................................... 664
Equipment Summary
................................................................................................................................... 665
Saving the PROSPER
...................................................................................................................................
file
668
Inflow Performance
.........................................................................................................................................
Relation (IPR)
668
Estimation of the.........................................................................................................................................
w ell flow rate
672
Well Performance
.........................................................................................................................................
Curve Generation
676
Lift Curve generation
.........................................................................................................................................
for other applications
682
Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 682
Steps
................................................................................................................................... 683
Data Entry For Lift
...................................................................................................................................
Curve Generation
683
Lift Curve generation
................................................................................................................................... 686
Lift Curve Inspection
................................................................................................................................... 687
Lift Curve Export
................................................................................................................................... 688
Tutorial 02: Modelling
..........................................................................................................................................................
a naturally flow ing oil w ell
691
Statement.........................................................................................................................................................
Of The Problem
691
PVT Input.........................................................................................................................................................
Data
692
System Equipment
.........................................................................................................................................................
Input Data
692
Deviation survey......................................................................................................................................... 692
Surface Equipment
......................................................................................................................................... 692
Dow n hole Equipment
......................................................................................................................................... 692
Static Geothermal
.........................................................................................................................................
Gradient
693
Average Heat Capacities
......................................................................................................................................... 693
Reservoir.........................................................................................................................................................
Input Data
693
Step by Step
......................................................................................................................................................... 694
System Options ......................................................................................................................................... 694
PVT data Input ......................................................................................................................................... 695
Saving the file ......................................................................................................................................... 696
System Equipment
.........................................................................................................................................
Description
697
Deviation Survey
................................................................................................................................... 698
Surface Equipment
................................................................................................................................... 699
Dow n Hole Equipment
................................................................................................................................... 700
Geothermal gradient
................................................................................................................................... 701
Average Heat Capacities
................................................................................................................................... 702
Equipment Summary
................................................................................................................................... 703
Saving the PROSPER
...................................................................................................................................
file
705
Inflow Performance
.........................................................................................................................................
Relation (IPR)
706
Estimation of the.........................................................................................................................................
w ell flow rate
709
Well Performance
.........................................................................................................................................
Curve Generation
713
Lift Curve generation
.........................................................................................................................................
for other applications
718
Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 718
Steps
................................................................................................................................... 719
Data Entry For Lift
...................................................................................................................................
Curve Generation
719
Lift Curve generation
................................................................................................................................... 721
Lift Curve Inspection
................................................................................................................................... 722
Lift Curve Export
................................................................................................................................... 723
Tutorial 03: Modelling
..........................................................................................................................................................
an oil w ell w ith black oil PVT m atching
726
Statement.........................................................................................................................................................
Of The Problem
726

Contents

XII

PVT Input.........................................................................................................................................................
Data
727
System Equipment
.........................................................................................................................................................
Input Data
727
Deviation survey......................................................................................................................................... 727
Surface Equipment
......................................................................................................................................... 728
Dow n hole Equipment
......................................................................................................................................... 728
Static Geothermal
.........................................................................................................................................
Gradient
728
Average Heat Capacities
......................................................................................................................................... 729
Reservoir.........................................................................................................................................................
Input Data
729
Step by Step
......................................................................................................................................................... 729
System Options ......................................................................................................................................... 730
PVT data Input ......................................................................................................................................... 730
Saving the file ......................................................................................................................................... 734
System Equipment
.........................................................................................................................................
Description
735
Deviation Survey
................................................................................................................................... 736
Surface Equipment
................................................................................................................................... 737
Dow n Hole Equipment
................................................................................................................................... 738
Geothermal gradient
................................................................................................................................... 739
Average Heat Capacities
................................................................................................................................... 740
Equipment Summary
................................................................................................................................... 741
Saving the PROSPER
...................................................................................................................................
file
743
Inflow Performance
.........................................................................................................................................
Relation (IPR)
743
Estimation of the.........................................................................................................................................
w ell flow rate
747
Well Performance
.........................................................................................................................................
Curve Generation
751
Lift Curve generation
.........................................................................................................................................
for other applications
755
Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 755
Steps
................................................................................................................................... 756
Data Entry For Lift
...................................................................................................................................
Curve Generation
756
Lift Curve generation
................................................................................................................................... 759
Lift Curve Inspection
................................................................................................................................... 760
Lift Curve Export
................................................................................................................................... 761
Tutorial 04: Modelling
..........................................................................................................................................................
an horizontal oil w ell
763
Statement.........................................................................................................................................................
Of The Problem
764
PVT Input.........................................................................................................................................................
Data
764
System Equipment
.........................................................................................................................................................
Input Data
764
Deviation survey......................................................................................................................................... 765
Surface Equipment
......................................................................................................................................... 765
Dow n hole Equipment
......................................................................................................................................... 765
Static Geothermal
.........................................................................................................................................
Gradient
765
Average Heat Capacities
......................................................................................................................................... 766
Reservoir.........................................................................................................................................................
Input Data
766
Step by Step
......................................................................................................................................................... 767
System Options ......................................................................................................................................... 767
PVT data Input ......................................................................................................................................... 768
Saving the file ......................................................................................................................................... 772
System Equipment
.........................................................................................................................................
Description
772
Deviation Survey
................................................................................................................................... 773
Surface Equipment
................................................................................................................................... 774
Dow n Hole Equipment
................................................................................................................................... 775
Geothermal gradient
................................................................................................................................... 776
Average Heat Capacities
................................................................................................................................... 778
Equipment Summary
................................................................................................................................... 778
Saving the PROSPER
...................................................................................................................................
file
780
Inflow Performance
.........................................................................................................................................
Relation (IPR)
780
Sensitivity on w .........................................................................................................................................
ell length and w ater cut
784

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Tutorial 05: Modelling
..........................................................................................................................................................
a m ultilateral Dry Gas Producer
788
Statement.........................................................................................................................................................
Of The Problem
789
PVT Input.........................................................................................................................................................
Data
789
System Equipment
.........................................................................................................................................................
Input Data
790
Deviation survey......................................................................................................................................... 790
Surface Equipment
......................................................................................................................................... 791
Dow n hole Equipment
......................................................................................................................................... 791
Static Geothermal
.........................................................................................................................................
Gradient
791
Average Heat Capacities
......................................................................................................................................... 791
Multilateral.........................................................................................................................................................
IPR Data
792
Step by Step
......................................................................................................................................................... 794
System Options ......................................................................................................................................... 794
PVT data Input ......................................................................................................................................... 795
Saving the file ......................................................................................................................................... 798
System Equipment
.........................................................................................................................................
Description
799
Deviation Survey
................................................................................................................................... 800
Surface Equipment
................................................................................................................................... 802
Dow n Hole Equipment
................................................................................................................................... 802
Geothermal gradient
................................................................................................................................... 803
Average Heat Capacities
................................................................................................................................... 804
Equipment Summary
................................................................................................................................... 804
Saving the PROSPER
...................................................................................................................................
file
806
Multilateral IPR Input
.........................................................................................................................................
section
806
Estimation of the.........................................................................................................................................
w ell flow rate and inspecting the detailled results
824
Tutorial 07: Modelling
..........................................................................................................................................................
a slanted oil w ell
830
Statement.........................................................................................................................................................
Of The Problem
830
PVT Input.........................................................................................................................................................
Data
831
System Equipment
.........................................................................................................................................................
Input Data
831
Deviation survey......................................................................................................................................... 831
Surface Equipment
......................................................................................................................................... 831
Dow n hole Equipment
......................................................................................................................................... 831
Static Geothermal
.........................................................................................................................................
Gradient
832
Average Heat Capacities
......................................................................................................................................... 832
Reservoir.........................................................................................................................................................
Input Data
833
Step by Step
......................................................................................................................................................... 833
System Options ......................................................................................................................................... 833
PVT data Input ......................................................................................................................................... 834
Saving the file ......................................................................................................................................... 835
System Equipment
.........................................................................................................................................
Description
836
Deviation Survey
................................................................................................................................... 836
Surface Equipment
................................................................................................................................... 838
Dow n Hole Equipment
................................................................................................................................... 838
Geothermal gradient
................................................................................................................................... 839
Average Heat Capacities
................................................................................................................................... 841
Equipment Summary
................................................................................................................................... 841
Inflow Performance
.........................................................................................................................................
Relation (IPR)
843
Estimation of the.........................................................................................................................................
w ell flow rate
848
Tutorial 08: Modelling
..........................................................................................................................................................
a gas w ell w ith connected pipeline
852
Statement.........................................................................................................................................................
Of The Problem
852
Input Data......................................................................................................................................................... 853
Step by Step
......................................................................................................................................................... 853
Tutorial 09: Modelling
..........................................................................................................................................................
a w ater injection w ell
857
Statement.........................................................................................................................................................
Of The Problem
857
PVT Input.........................................................................................................................................................
Data
858

Contents

XIV

System Equipment
.........................................................................................................................................................
Input Data
858
Deviation survey......................................................................................................................................... 858
Surface Equipment
......................................................................................................................................... 858
Dow n hole Equipment
......................................................................................................................................... 858
Static Geothermal
.........................................................................................................................................
Gradient
859
Average Heat Capacities
......................................................................................................................................... 859
Reservoir.........................................................................................................................................................
Input Data
860
Step by Step
......................................................................................................................................................... 860
System Options ......................................................................................................................................... 860
PVT data Input ......................................................................................................................................... 861
Saving the file ......................................................................................................................................... 862
System Equipment
.........................................................................................................................................
Description
862
Deviation Survey
................................................................................................................................... 863
Surface Equipment
................................................................................................................................... 864
Dow n Hole Equipment
................................................................................................................................... 865
Geothermal gradient
................................................................................................................................... 866
Average Heat Capacities
................................................................................................................................... 868
Equipment Summary
................................................................................................................................... 868
Inflow Performance
.........................................................................................................................................
Relation (IPR)
870
Estimation of the.........................................................................................................................................
w ell injection flow rate
874
Lift Curve generation
.........................................................................................................................................
for other applications
878
Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 878
Steps
................................................................................................................................... 879
Data Entry For Lift
...................................................................................................................................
Curve Generation
879
Lift Curve generation
................................................................................................................................... 882
Lift Curve Inspection
................................................................................................................................... 883
Lift Curve Export
................................................................................................................................... 884
Tutorial 10: Modelling
..........................................................................................................................................................
a gas injection w ell
886
Statement.........................................................................................................................................................
Of The Problem
887
PVT Input.........................................................................................................................................................
Data
887
System Equipment
.........................................................................................................................................................
Input Data
887
Deviation survey......................................................................................................................................... 887
Surface Equipment
......................................................................................................................................... 888
Dow n hole Equipment
......................................................................................................................................... 888
Static Geothermal
.........................................................................................................................................
Gradient
888
Average Heat Capacities
......................................................................................................................................... 889
Reservoir.........................................................................................................................................................
Input Data
889
Step by Step
......................................................................................................................................................... 890
System Options ......................................................................................................................................... 890
PVT data Input ......................................................................................................................................... 891
Saving the file ......................................................................................................................................... 891
System Equipment
.........................................................................................................................................
Description
892
Deviation Survey
................................................................................................................................... 892
Surface Equipment
................................................................................................................................... 893
Dow n Hole Equipment
................................................................................................................................... 894
Geothermal gradient
................................................................................................................................... 895
Average Heat Capacities
................................................................................................................................... 896
Equipment Summary
................................................................................................................................... 897
Inflow Performance
.........................................................................................................................................
Relation (IPR)
897
Estimation of the.........................................................................................................................................
w ell injection flow rate
901
Lift Curve generation
.........................................................................................................................................
for gas injectors
904
Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 904
Steps
................................................................................................................................... 905
Data Entry For Lift
...................................................................................................................................
Curve Generation
905

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Lift Curve generation
................................................................................................................................... 910
Lift Curve Inspection
................................................................................................................................... 910
Lift Curve Export
................................................................................................................................... 910
Tutorial 11: Modelling
..........................................................................................................................................................
a steam injection w ell
912
Statement.........................................................................................................................................................
Of The Problem
912
PVT Input.........................................................................................................................................................
Data
913
System Equipment
.........................................................................................................................................................
Input Data
913
Deviation survey......................................................................................................................................... 913
Surface Equipment
......................................................................................................................................... 913
Dow n hole Equipment
......................................................................................................................................... 913
Static Geothermal
.........................................................................................................................................
Gradient
914
Reservoir.........................................................................................................................................................
Input Data
914
Step by Step
......................................................................................................................................................... 915
System Options ......................................................................................................................................... 915
PVT data Input ......................................................................................................................................... 916
System Equipment
.........................................................................................................................................
Description
917
IPR Data
......................................................................................................................................... 922
Estimation of the.........................................................................................................................................
w ell injection flow rate
924
Tutorial 12: Modelling
..........................................................................................................................................................
an oil w ell w ith gravel pack
930
Pre-requisite
.........................................................................................................................................................
and Statement Of The Problem
930
Gravel Pack
.........................................................................................................................................................
Data
930
Step by Step
......................................................................................................................................................... 931
System Options ......................................................................................................................................... 931
Inflow Performance
.........................................................................................................................................
Relation (IPR)
932
Estimation of the.........................................................................................................................................
w ell flow rate
935
Tutorial 13: Modelling
..........................................................................................................................................................
a frac and packed w ell
939
Pre-requisite
.........................................................................................................................................................
and Statement Of The Problem
939
Frac & Pack
.........................................................................................................................................................
Data
939
Step by Step
......................................................................................................................................................... 940
System Options ......................................................................................................................................... 940
Inflow Performance
.........................................................................................................................................
Relation (IPR)
941
Estimation of the.........................................................................................................................................
w ell flow rate
946
Tutorial 14: Modelling
..........................................................................................................................................................
a w ell w ith Pre-Packed Screen
950
Pre-requisite
.........................................................................................................................................................
and Statement Of The Problem
950
Pre-packed
.........................................................................................................................................................
Screen Data
950
Step by Step
......................................................................................................................................................... 951
System Options ......................................................................................................................................... 951
Inflow Performance
.........................................................................................................................................
Relation (IPR)
952
Estimation of the.........................................................................................................................................
w ell flow rate
954
Tutorial 15: Modelling
..........................................................................................................................................................
a w ell w ith slotted liners
958
Pre-requisite
.........................................................................................................................................................
and Statement Of The Problem
958
Slotted Liner
.........................................................................................................................................................
Data
958
Step by Step
......................................................................................................................................................... 959
System Options ......................................................................................................................................... 959
Inflow Performance
.........................................................................................................................................
Relation (IPR)
960
Estimation of the.........................................................................................................................................
w ell flow rate
962
Tutorial 16: Modelling
..........................................................................................................................................................
a w ell w ith Wire Wrapped Screen
966
Pre-requisite
.........................................................................................................................................................
and Statement Of The Problem
966
Wire Wrapped
.........................................................................................................................................................
Screen Data
966
Step by Step
......................................................................................................................................................... 967
System Options ......................................................................................................................................... 967
Inflow Performance
.........................................................................................................................................
Relation (IPR)
968
Estimation of the.........................................................................................................................................
w ell flow rate
969
Tutorial 17: Fully
..........................................................................................................................................................
com postional w ell m odel for retrograde condenssate
973

Contents

XVI

Statement.........................................................................................................................................................
Of The Problem
973
PVT Input.........................................................................................................................................................
Data
974
System Equipment
.........................................................................................................................................................
Input Data
975
Deviation survey......................................................................................................................................... 975
Surface Equipment
......................................................................................................................................... 975
Dow n hole Equipment
......................................................................................................................................... 975
Static Geothermal
.........................................................................................................................................
Gradient
975
Average Heat Capacities
......................................................................................................................................... 976
Reservoir.........................................................................................................................................................
Input Data
976
Step by Step
......................................................................................................................................................... 977
System Options ......................................................................................................................................... 977
PVT data Input ......................................................................................................................................... 979
Saving the file ......................................................................................................................................... 981
System Equipment
.........................................................................................................................................
Description
981
Deviation Survey
................................................................................................................................... 982
Surface Equipment
................................................................................................................................... 983
Dow n Hole Equipment
................................................................................................................................... 984
Geothermal gradient
................................................................................................................................... 985
Average Heat Capacities
................................................................................................................................... 986
Equipment Summary
................................................................................................................................... 987
Saving the PROSPER
...................................................................................................................................
file
989
Inflow Performance
.........................................................................................................................................
Relation (IPR)
989
Estimation of the.........................................................................................................................................
w ell flow rate
993
Tutorial 18: Fully
..........................................................................................................................................................
com postional CO2 injection w ell
997
Statement.........................................................................................................................................................
Of The Problem
997
PVT Input.........................................................................................................................................................
Data
998
System Equipment
.........................................................................................................................................................
Input Data
998
Deviation survey......................................................................................................................................... 999
Surface Equipment
......................................................................................................................................... 999
Dow n hole Equipment
......................................................................................................................................... 999
Static Geothermal
.........................................................................................................................................
Gradient
999
Reservoir
.........................................................................................................................................................
Input Data
1000
Step by .........................................................................................................................................................
Step
1001
System Options......................................................................................................................................... 1001
PVT data Input......................................................................................................................................... 1003
Saving the file ......................................................................................................................................... 1005
System Equipment
.........................................................................................................................................
Description
1005
Deviation Survey
................................................................................................................................... 1005
Surface Equipment
................................................................................................................................... 1007
Dow n Hole Equipment
................................................................................................................................... 1007
Geothermal gradient
................................................................................................................................... 1008
Equipment Summary
................................................................................................................................... 1010
Inflow Performance
.........................................................................................................................................
Relation (IPR)
1011
Estimation of the
.........................................................................................................................................
w ell flow rate
1015
Tutorial 19: ..........................................................................................................................................................
Matching a dry gas w ell test
1019
Statement
.........................................................................................................................................................
Of The Problem
1019
Well Test.........................................................................................................................................................
data
1020
Step by .........................................................................................................................................................
Step
1020
Open the PROSPER
.........................................................................................................................................
file
1020
Resetting any previous
.........................................................................................................................................
VLP matching
1021
Matching - VLP.........................................................................................................................................
/IPR Quality Check
1022
Well Test Data...................................................................................................................................
Entry
1023
Estimate the U-value
................................................................................................................................... 1024
Correlation Comparison
................................................................................................................................... 1025

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VLP matching................................................................................................................................... 1028
VLP / IPR matching
................................................................................................................................... 1030
Performing Sensitivity
...................................................................................................................................
runs
1032
Tutorial 20: ..........................................................................................................................................................
Matching a naturally flow ing oil w ell test
1037
Statement
.........................................................................................................................................................
Of The Problem
1037
PVT Lab.........................................................................................................................................................
data & Well Test data
1038
Step by .........................................................................................................................................................
Step
1039
Open the PROSPER
.........................................................................................................................................
file
1039
Resetting any previous
.........................................................................................................................................
VLP matching
1039
PVT matching ......................................................................................................................................... 1040
Matching - VLP.........................................................................................................................................
/IPR Quality Check
1044
Well Test Data...................................................................................................................................
Entry
1045
Estimate the U-value
................................................................................................................................... 1046
Correlation Comparison
................................................................................................................................... 1047
VLP matching................................................................................................................................... 1051
VLP / IPR matching
................................................................................................................................... 1052
Performing Sensitivity
...................................................................................................................................
runs
1058
Tutorial 21: ..........................................................................................................................................................
Matching a w ater injection w ell test
1063
Statement
.........................................................................................................................................................
Of The Problem
1063
Well Test.........................................................................................................................................................
data
1063
Step by .........................................................................................................................................................
Step
1064
Open the PROSPER
.........................................................................................................................................
file
1064
Resetting any previous
.........................................................................................................................................
VLP matching
1064
PVT matching ......................................................................................................................................... 1065
Matching - VLP.........................................................................................................................................
/IPR Quality Check
1066
Well Test Data...................................................................................................................................
Entry
1067
Estimate the U-value
................................................................................................................................... 1068
Correlation Comparison
................................................................................................................................... 1069
VLP matching................................................................................................................................... 1071
VLP / IPR matching
................................................................................................................................... 1073
Performing Sensitivity
...................................................................................................................................
runs
1076
Tutorial 22: ..........................................................................................................................................................
Matching a gas injection w ell test
1080
Statement
.........................................................................................................................................................
Of The Problem
1080
PVT Lab.........................................................................................................................................................
data & Well Test data
1081
Step by .........................................................................................................................................................
Step
1081
Open the PROSPER
.........................................................................................................................................
file
1082
Resetting any previous
.........................................................................................................................................
VLP matching
1082
PVT matching ......................................................................................................................................... 1083
Matching - VLP.........................................................................................................................................
/IPR Quality Check
1083
Well Test Data...................................................................................................................................
Entry
1084
Estimate the U-value
................................................................................................................................... 1085
Correlation Comparison
................................................................................................................................... 1086
VLP matching................................................................................................................................... 1088
VLP / IPR matching
................................................................................................................................... 1090
Performing Sensitivity
...................................................................................................................................
runs
1091
Tutorial 23: ..........................................................................................................................................................
Continuous Gas Lift Design
1094
Statement
.........................................................................................................................................................
of the Problem
1095
Input Data
.........................................................................................................................................................
For Continuous GL design
1095
PVT Data
......................................................................................................................................... 1095
Reservoir Data.........................................................................................................................................
for GL design
1095
Equipment Data......................................................................................................................................... 1095
Gas Lift design.........................................................................................................................................
parameters
1095
Step by .........................................................................................................................................................
step procedure
1097
Defining the options
......................................................................................................................................... 1097

Contents

XVIII

Description of the
.........................................................................................................................................
gas lift PVT
1098
Description of the
.........................................................................................................................................
IPR
1099
Description of the
.........................................................................................................................................
Gas Lift Design Conditions
1101
Performing the.........................................................................................................................................
gas lift design
1104
Transferring the
.........................................................................................................................................
valve depths
1107
System Calculation
.........................................................................................................................................
for a gas-lifted w ell
1108
Tutorial 24: ..........................................................................................................................................................
Interm ittent Gas Lift design
1112
Introduction
.........................................................................................................................................................
to intermittent Gas Lift
1112
Statement
.........................................................................................................................................................
of the problem
1113
Step by .........................................................................................................................................................
step procedure
1114
Setting up the PROSPER
.........................................................................................................................................
model
1114
Design of the intermittent
.........................................................................................................................................
gas lift
1125
Constant Surface
.........................................................................................................................................
Closing Pressure design
1126
OptiFlow Gas Lift
.........................................................................................................................................
Valve Design method
1129
Tutorial 25: ..........................................................................................................................................................
Coiled Tubing Gas Lift Design
1130
Statement
.........................................................................................................................................................
of the Problem
1131
Input Data
.........................................................................................................................................................
For Continuous GL design w ith Coiled Tubing
1131
PVT Data
......................................................................................................................................... 1131
Reservoir Data.........................................................................................................................................
for GL design
1131
Equipment Data......................................................................................................................................... 1132
Coiled Tubing Gas
.........................................................................................................................................
Lift design parameters
1132
Step by .........................................................................................................................................................
step procedure
1133
Defining the options
......................................................................................................................................... 1133
Gas lift PVT and
.........................................................................................................................................
CT Data
1134
Description of the
.........................................................................................................................................
IPR
1135
Description of the
.........................................................................................................................................
CT Gas Lift Design Conditions
1136
Performing the.........................................................................................................................................
CT gas lift design
1138
Fixing the CT injection
.........................................................................................................................................
depth
1140
System Calculation
.........................................................................................................................................
for a CT gas-lifted w ell
1141
Tutorial 26: ..........................................................................................................................................................
ESP Design
1145
Statement
.........................................................................................................................................................
of the Problem
1145
Input Data
.........................................................................................................................................................
For ESP design
1145
PVT Data
......................................................................................................................................... 1145
Reservoir Data.........................................................................................................................................
for ESP design
1146
Equipment Data......................................................................................................................................... 1146
ESP design parameters
......................................................................................................................................... 1146
Step by .........................................................................................................................................................
step procedure
1147
Defining the options
......................................................................................................................................... 1147
Description of the
.........................................................................................................................................
w ell dow n hole equipment
1148
Description of the
.........................................................................................................................................
IPR
1148
Description of the
.........................................................................................................................................
ESP Design Conditions
1150
Performing the.........................................................................................................................................
ESP design
1151
System Calculation
.........................................................................................................................................
for an ESP-lifted w ell
1155
Notes on system
.........................................................................................................................................
plot (VLP+IPR) for ESP-lifted w ells
1161
Tutorial 27: ..........................................................................................................................................................
Design of an Hydraulic Dow nhole Pum p for an oil w ell
1165
Statement
.........................................................................................................................................................
of the Problem
1165
Input Data
.........................................................................................................................................................
For HSP design
1166
Produced Fluid.........................................................................................................................................
& Pow er Fluid PVT Data
1166
Reservoir Data.........................................................................................................................................
for HSP design
1166
Equipment Data......................................................................................................................................... 1166
HSP design parameters
......................................................................................................................................... 1166
Step by .........................................................................................................................................................
step procedure
1167
Defining the options
......................................................................................................................................... 1167
Produced Fluid.........................................................................................................................................
& Pow er Fluid PVT Data
1168

January, 2010

PROSPER Manual

XIX

PROSPER
Description of the
.........................................................................................................................................
w ell dow n hole equipment
1169
Description of the
.........................................................................................................................................
IPR
1170
HSP Design ......................................................................................................................................... 1172
Tutorial 28: ..........................................................................................................................................................
Sucker Rod Pum p Design
1177
Statement
.........................................................................................................................................................
of the Problem
1178
Input Data
.........................................................................................................................................................
for SRP-Design
1178
Fluid Properties......................................................................................................................................... 1178
Equipment Data......................................................................................................................................... 1178
Deviation Survey
................................................................................................................................... 1178
Surface Equipment
................................................................................................................................... 1178
Dow nhole Equipment
................................................................................................................................... 1178
Geothermal Gradient
................................................................................................................................... 1179
Average Heat...................................................................................................................................
Capacities
1179
Inflow Performance
.........................................................................................................................................
Relation
1179
SRP-Design parameters
......................................................................................................................................... 1179
Step by .........................................................................................................................................................
step SRP design
1180
Options
......................................................................................................................................... 1181
PVT Data: Input.........................................................................................................................................
& Matching
1181
System Equipment
......................................................................................................................................... 1185
SRP Data
......................................................................................................................................... 1189
Inflow Performance
.........................................................................................................................................
Data
1191
SRP Design ......................................................................................................................................... 1196
Running.........................................................................................................................................................
sensitivities w ith a SRP-lifted w ell model
1199
Tutorial 29: ..........................................................................................................................................................
Progressive Cavity Pum p (PCP) Design
1201
Statement
.........................................................................................................................................................
of the Problem
1201
Adding a.........................................................................................................................................................
PCP to the pump database
1202
Adding a.........................................................................................................................................................
Sucker Rod to the database
1204
Input Data
.........................................................................................................................................................
for PCP-Design
1206
Fluid Properties......................................................................................................................................... 1206
Well Equipment.........................................................................................................................................
Data
1206
Deviation Survey
................................................................................................................................... 1206
Surface Equipment
................................................................................................................................... 1207
Dow nhole Equipment
................................................................................................................................... 1207
Geothermal Gradient
................................................................................................................................... 1207
Average Heat...................................................................................................................................
Capacities
1207
Inflow Performance
.........................................................................................................................................
Relation
1207
PCP-Design parameters
......................................................................................................................................... 1208
Step by .........................................................................................................................................................
step procedure
1208
PROSPER Well.........................................................................................................................................
model set-up
1208
PCP Design procedure
......................................................................................................................................... 1217
PCP sensitivity .........................................................................................................................................
calculation
1219
Tutorial 30: ..........................................................................................................................................................
Modelling Diluent Injection into an oil w ell
1224
Statement
.........................................................................................................................................................
of the Problem
1224
Input Data
......................................................................................................................................................... 1225
Produced Fluid.........................................................................................................................................
& Diluent PVT
1225
Well Equipment.........................................................................................................................................
Data
1226
Inflow Performance
.........................................................................................................................................
Data
1227
Diluent Injection.........................................................................................................................................
Data
1227
Step by .........................................................................................................................................................
step procedure
1227
PROSPER Well.........................................................................................................................................
model set-up
1227
Calculating
.........................................................................................................................................................
Sensitivites
1238
Tutorial 31: ..........................................................................................................................................................
Modelling Multiphase Pum p w ith PROSPER
1242
Statement
.........................................................................................................................................................
of the Problem
1242
Model Set
.........................................................................................................................................................
Up
1243

Contents

XX

Calculating
.........................................................................................................................................................
Sensitivies
1249
Tutorial 32: ..........................................................................................................................................................
Trouble-shooting a gas lifted w ell
1253
Statement
.........................................................................................................................................................
Of The Problem
1253
Input Data
......................................................................................................................................................... 1254
PROSPER w ell.........................................................................................................................................
model
1254
Well test results
.........................................................................................................................................
for Quicklook
1254
Gas Lift Valves.........................................................................................................................................
Data
1255
Step by .........................................................................................................................................................
Step Procedure
1255
Tutorial 33: ..........................................................................................................................................................
Trouble-shooting an ESP-lifted w ell
1267
Statement
.........................................................................................................................................................
Of The Problem
1267
Well Test.........................................................................................................................................................
Data
1268
Strategy......................................................................................................................................................... 1268
Phase 1: Build .........................................................................................................................................
a PROSPER model
1268
Phase 2: Collect
.........................................................................................................................................
and analyse w ell test data
1268
Phase 3: Analyse
.........................................................................................................................................
and match test to w ell model
1270
Phase 4: Use model
.........................................................................................................................................
to run w hat-if scenarios
1274
Tutorial 34: ..........................................................................................................................................................
Trouble-shooting an HSP-lifted w ell
1278
Statement
.........................................................................................................................................................
Of The Problem
1278
Well Test.........................................................................................................................................................
Data
1278
Strategy......................................................................................................................................................... 1279
Phase 1: Build .........................................................................................................................................
a PROSPER model
1279
Phase 2: Collect
.........................................................................................................................................
and analyse w ell test data
1279
Phase 3: Analyse
.........................................................................................................................................
and match test to w ell model
1280
Tutorial 35: ..........................................................................................................................................................
Trouble-shooting a SRP-lifted w ell
1287
Tutorial 36: ..........................................................................................................................................................
Flow assurance calculations
1288
Statement
.........................................................................................................................................................
Of The Problem
1289
Input Data
......................................................................................................................................................... 1289
Step by .........................................................................................................................................................
step procedure
1296
Tutorial 37: ..........................................................................................................................................................
Pipeline Only Modelling & m atching
1317
Statement
.........................................................................................................................................................
Of The Problem
1318
Input Data
......................................................................................................................................................... 1318
Fluid PVT data ......................................................................................................................................... 1318
Pipeline Data ......................................................................................................................................... 1318
Flow test results
......................................................................................................................................... 1319
Step by .........................................................................................................................................................
step procedure
1320
PROSPER Model
.........................................................................................................................................
Setup
1320
Pipe Performance
.........................................................................................................................................
Matching
1329
Sensitivity runs......................................................................................................................................... 1336
Tutorial 38: ..........................................................................................................................................................
Full enthalpy balance tutorial
1342
Statement
.........................................................................................................................................................
Of The Problem
1342
Input Data
......................................................................................................................................................... 1343
PVT Data
......................................................................................................................................... 1343
Equipment Data......................................................................................................................................... 1343
Deviation Survey
................................................................................................................................... 1343
Surface Equipment
................................................................................................................................... 1343
Dow nhole Equipment
................................................................................................................................... 1344
Temperature Data
................................................................................................................................... 1344
Drilling and Completion
...................................................................................................................................
Data
1344
Lithology
................................................................................................................................... 1345
Databases for...................................................................................................................................
thermal properties
1345
Reservoir Data......................................................................................................................................... 1345
Step by .........................................................................................................................................................
Step procedure
1346
PROSPER Model
.........................................................................................................................................
Setup
1346
System Calculation
......................................................................................................................................... 1360

January, 2010

PROSPER Manual

XXI

PROSPER
Tutorial 39: ..........................................................................................................................................................
Im proved Approxim ation
1363
Statement
.........................................................................................................................................................
Of The Problem
1363
Input Data
......................................................................................................................................................... 1364
PVT Data
......................................................................................................................................... 1364
Equipment Data......................................................................................................................................... 1364
Deviation Survey
................................................................................................................................... 1364
Surface Equipment
................................................................................................................................... 1364
Dow nhole Equipment
................................................................................................................................... 1364
Temperature Data
................................................................................................................................... 1365
Reservoir Data......................................................................................................................................... 1365
Step by .........................................................................................................................................................
Step procedure
1366
PROSPER Model
.........................................................................................................................................
Setup
1366
System Calculation
......................................................................................................................................... 1376
Tutorial 40: ..........................................................................................................................................................
SPOT tutorial
1379
Statement
.........................................................................................................................................................
Of The Problem
1379
PVT Input
.........................................................................................................................................................
Data
1380
System Equipment
.........................................................................................................................................................
Input Data
1380
Deviation survey
......................................................................................................................................... 1380
Surface Equipment
......................................................................................................................................... 1380
Dow n Hole Equipment
......................................................................................................................................... 1380
Static Geothermal
.........................................................................................................................................
Gradient
1381
Average Heat Capacities
......................................................................................................................................... 1381
Reservoir
.........................................................................................................................................................
Input Data
1381
Step by .........................................................................................................................................................
Step
1384
System Options......................................................................................................................................... 1384
PVT data Input......................................................................................................................................... 1385
Saving the PROSPER
.........................................................................................................................................
file
1386
System Equipment
.........................................................................................................................................
Description
1386
Deviation Survey
................................................................................................................................... 1387
Surface Equipment
................................................................................................................................... 1388
Dow n Hole Equipment
................................................................................................................................... 1389
Geothermal gradient
................................................................................................................................... 1390
Average Heat...................................................................................................................................
Capacities
1391
Equipment Summary
................................................................................................................................... 1392
Saving the PROSPER
...................................................................................................................................
file
1394
Inflow Performance
.........................................................................................................................................
Relation (IPR)
1394
Estimation of the
.........................................................................................................................................
w ell flow rate
1408
Comparison of .........................................................................................................................................
different Gun Systems
1412
Inspection of SPOT
.........................................................................................................................................
results at log- scale
1416
Tutorial 41: ..........................................................................................................................................................
Multi-Zones Com pletion using m ultilayer IPR
1426
Statement
.........................................................................................................................................................
of the problem
1426
Input Data
......................................................................................................................................................... 1427
Modelling.........................................................................................................................................................
Strategy
1429
Step by .........................................................................................................................................................
Step Procedure
1429
Tutorial 42: ..........................................................................................................................................................
Multi-Zones Com pletion using m ultilateral IPR
1444
Statement
.........................................................................................................................................................
of the problem
1444
Input Data
......................................................................................................................................................... 1444
Modelling.........................................................................................................................................................
Strategy
1446
Step by .........................................................................................................................................................
Step Procedure
1447
Tutorial 43: ..........................................................................................................................................................
Jet Pum p Design
1478
Statement
.........................................................................................................................................................
Of the Problem
1479
Input Data
......................................................................................................................................................... 1479
Jet Pump.........................................................................................................................................................
Design Strategy
1481
Step by .........................................................................................................................................................
Step Procedure to design a jet pump
1481

Contents

XXII

Tutorial 44: ..........................................................................................................................................................


Black oil Condensate Model Validation in PROSPER
1495

January, 2010

PROSPER Manual

Chapter

Technical Overview

Technical Overview
This technical overview contains a summary list of the major technical capabilities of
PROSPER. The capabilities can be divided in the following disciplines:
Fluid modelling (PVT)
Inflow (IPR) and sand control options
Well bore and pipeline hydraulics (VLP)
Artificial lift options
Flow assurance and advanced thermal options
What's New
Examples Guide

1.1

Fluid modelling options


PROSPER offers both existing fluid modelling options.
Fluid can be modelled with the traditional "black oil" approach or a fully
compositional approach.
PROSPER offers black oil models for:
dry and wet gas
oil and water (heavy oil, "black oil", volatile oils, ...)
retrograde condensate
For all types of fluids, the user can:
use existing black oil correlations
calibrate and validate lab measurements against black oil correlations
use PVT look-up tables over the expected operating pressure and temperature
conditions.
Beside the black oil models, the two majors Equation Of State models used in the oil
industry (Peng-Robinson and Soave Redlich Kwong) are implemented in PROSPER
allowing fully compositional modelling.
Users can embed their own proprietary EOS models into PROSPER via Dynamic Link
Library. The format of the DLL can be provided at request.
Hydrate and wax calculations can be performed with compositional fluid models.
When using black oil models, hydrate curves can be imported from any other
application like PVTp, the thermodynamics package developed by Petroleum Experts.
There is a flag that can be activated whenever calculated operating conditions falls
1990-2010 Petroleum Experts Limited

PROSPER

within the hydrates formation region.


PROSPER can model steam injection and steam production. A steam table calculator is
available.
Further options in PROSPER are:
Non-Newtonian fluids,
DLL for proprietary fluid viscosity model for Non-Newtonian fluids
Emulsion models
Back to Overview

PROSPER Manual

January, 2010

Technical Overview

1.2

Inflows and Sand Control options


More than two dozens of inflow / combination of inflow models exist in PROSPER that
can be selected for different configurations:

straight open or cased hole


slanted well
partially perforated well
horizontal well (with and without friction loss)
horizontal well with transverse vertical fracture
multi-zone completions for stacked reservoirs with possible cross-flow and
pressure loss between the zones
multi-lateral well and smart well
well of any geometry like snaky or U-shaped wells
Hydraulically fractured well
Well in dual-porosity reservoirs (naturally fractured)
water and gas injection wells
water injector with thermally induced fractures
External entry with User-entered IPR look-up tables

Various skin models are currently available:


Locke Skin model
MacLeod Skin model
Karakas & Tariq
Cinco-Ley and Martig-Bronz (I & II)
Wong-Clifford
SkinAide (Elf)
SPOT (Shell)
A DLL template exists that allow User to import proprietary IPR and skin models
into PROSPER.
The following sand control options are available in PROSPER:
Gravel Pack
Pre-Packed screen,
Wire-wrapped screen and
Slotted liners
Further inflow-related models available in PROSPER are:
Mobility correction using relative permeability
Vogel correction
Permeability reduction due to rock compaction
Maximum drawdown before onset of sand failure
Advanced perforation modelling capabilities with integrated tubing / casing
and gun system databases
1990-2010 Petroleum Experts Limited

PROSPER

Gas coning with matching


analytical coning model for water, gas and gas + water for horizontal wells
(see horizontal well with dP friction)
Back to Overview

PROSPER Manual

January, 2010

Technical Overview

1.3

Well bore and Pipeline hydraulics


Nearly two dozens of multiphase correlations are available to the PROSPER user. The
flexible architecture of the software gives any User the opportunity to add any number of
proprietary multiphase correlations via DLL. The format of the DLL can be provided at
request.
Internal research have led to the development of a series of very successful multiphase
correlations that have become benchmark in the industry today. In particular when
compared to actual measurements, the Petroleum Experts 2 correlation has given
excellent results in a wide range of situations: vertical well, horizontal well, deviated well,
large diameter well,oil wells, gas and retrograde condensate wells, ..
When calculating the pressure drop in a well bore or a pipeline, PROSPER offers the
option to switch from one starting multiphase correlation to another one depending upon
the well or pipe inclination.
PROSPER can handle any combination of flow paths: annular flow only, tubular flow only,
simultaneous annular and tubular flow, sequences of tubular and annular flow or
sequences of mixed flow and tubular or annular flow.
Back to Overview

1990-2010 Petroleum Experts Limited

1.4

PROSPER

Artificial lift systems


The following artificial lift options are available in PROSPER:
Continuous gas lift
Intermittent gas lift
Coiled Tubing gas lift
Electrical Submersible Pumps (ESP)
Hydraulic Downhole Pumps (HSP) with Commingled Annular Supply
Hydraulic Downhole Pumps (HSP) with Commingled Tubing Supply
Hydraulic Downhole Pumps (HSP) with Closed Loop Supply
Progressive Cavity Pumps (PCP) with Sucker Rod Drive
Progressive Cavity Pumps (PCP) with Down Hole Motor Drive
Diluent Injection (Annular Injection - Tubing Production)
Diluent Injection (Tubing Injection - Annular Production)
Jet Pump (Annular Injection - Tubing Production)
Jet Pump (Tubing Injection - Annular Production)
Multiphase Pumps (Framo Pumps)
Back to Overview

PROSPER Manual

January, 2010

Technical Overview

1.5

Flow assurance
Advanced thermal models and miscellaneous options are available in PROSPER for flow
assurance features studies.

1.5.1 Advanced Thermal Models

For advanced thermal modelling, the user can select the Enthalpy balance model or the
improved approximation.
The enthalpy balance is a rigorous thermal model that accounts for convection, radiation
and conduction. Joule-Thompson effects are accounted for.
Another advanced thermal model is the "improved approximation" which is also a full
enthalpy balance model with the following difference when compared with the enthalpy
balance:
In the improved approximation, the heat term is calculated with a variable User-entered
overall heat transfer coefficient whereas the heat transfer coefficient in the full enthalpy
balance model is calculated internally.

1.5.2 General Flow Assurance Features


Beside the advanced thermal models, the following options are available in PROSPER
for flow assurance studies:
hydrate and wax appearance prediction models
Solid Transportation models
Erosional velocity calculation with clean fluid or sand laden fluid
Liquid loading calculations
Pigging calculation: pigged slug length, pigged slug volume, pigged slug
production time and pigged slug residency time
Taitel-Dukler flow regime map along pipeline length with severe-slugging
region (with and without Barnea criteria)
Detailed output for slug and bubble calculations: mean slug length, mean
bubble length, slug frequency, Slug and bubble surge factor, ...
Back to Overview

1990-2010 Petroleum Experts Limited

1.6

PROSPER

What's New
This is a list of enhancements to Prosper for each new Version
released.
Version 11.5
This is a summary of the main additions that have been incorporated into the
PROSPER program since the 2010 official release.
Improved CO2 modeling
PVT Modeling

Condensed Water Vapour with Retrograde Condensate


Condensed water vapour can be modeled with gas retrograde
condensate fluid
HSP
Addition of Pump Speed Method (Entered or Calculated) in
Quicklook, Gradient and VLP calculations. It is now possible to
use the program to calculate the pump/turbine speed in order
to operate the pump at the highest efficiency
ESP pump database
Complete CENTRILIFT Pump Database implemented

Artificial Lift

Gas lift Quicklook


Added the possibility to enter DeRating parameters for
Thornhill/Craver to correct the dP through the orifice for
actual performance
ESP VLP/IPR matching
The VLP/IPR matching for ESP allows to enter the pump
intake and discharge pressures as inputs. These data can
then be passed over to the Quicklook for detailed analysis of
the pump performance
Reset results
An option to erase the results of any calculation previously
performed has been added

Calculations

PROSPER Manual

Gradient Summary Chart


In the Tubing Correlation and Pipeline Correlation Comparison
a Summary section allows to user to compare the pressure
drops and the components of the pressure drops of the
selected multiphase flow correlations and mechanistic
models

January, 2010

Technical Overview

10

Solids Plot
Critical Transport velocities plot is now available after running
any calculation by accessing the Options button
Export option in PVT section
In the main PVT section an export facility has been added to
allow the used to export input (Input Data, Match data tables,
Tables) and output (correlation parameters,m PVT
calculations)
Export/Import

Export/Import option in IPR External Entry


The External Entry IPR can be exported/imported from the
IPR section
Clip to Copy and Paste data in PVT section
The Clip buttons in the PVT Match Data and Tables sections
allow now to copy and paste data from/to the Clipboard to
facilitate data import/export
Improved IPR Validation Error Messages
More information are reported when a validation error is
triggered

Program Interface

IPR test data enhancement


In the IPR plot Test Data it is now possible to enter a date
stamp and a comment for each entered test
File Overwrite check
Possibility to switch on/off a confirmation message when an
existing file is overwritten

OpenServer

New OS Commands:
PROSPER.PVT.IMPORT
Import PVTP file in
PVT Tables or Match sections
PROSPER.ANL.VMT.VLPIPR
Perform the VLP/IPR
Matching VLP/IPR Command
PROSPER.ANL.VMT.ADJUSTCALC
Adjust Calculate PROSPER.ANL.VMT.ADJUSTCALC(i) - for test i (if i=0 then
does all tests)
PROSPER.ANL.VMT.ADJUSTPI
Adjust PI PROSPER.ANL.VMT.ADJUSTPI(i) - for test i (if i=0 then does
all tests)
PROSPER.ANL.VMT.ADJUSTPRES Adjust Pres PROSPER.ANL.VMT.ADJUSTPRES(i) - for test i (if i=0 then
does all tests)
PROSPER.ANL.VMT.ADJUSTRESET
Reset Adjust
Data & Results - PROSPER.ANL.VMT.ADJUSTRESET(type,
i) - for test i (if i=0 then does all tests) type=1 Reset Amended
1990-2010 Petroleum Experts Limited

11

PROSPER

PI =2 Reset Amended PRES =3 Calculated FBHP =4 Heat


Transfer Coefficient =5 Calculated Results =6 Reset ALL
PROSPER.MENU.FILE.OPEN
Menu
Command - File Open
PROSPER.MENU.FILE.SAVEAS
Menu
Command - File Save As
PROSPER.MENU.ANL.RESET
Menu
Command - Calculation - Reset Results
Miscellaneous

Improved OLGAS licensing

Version 11.0
This is a summary of the main additions that have been incorporated into the
PROSPER program since the 2009 official release.

Inflow

SPOT(Shell Perforation Optimisation Tool) is an IPR calculator


developed originally by Shell.
Its main unique features are: Modelling of different perforating guns selected from a guns
database covering all the major vendors.
Corrects gun test data such as DoP (Depth of
penetrationG and EHD (Entry Hole Diameter) to reservoir
conditions.
Log data can be used to model vertical differences in
reservoir parameters such as permeability, porosity and
rock strength.
Model to predict sanding.
Several invasion models.
Models reperforation jobs/workovers.
This has been implemented in PROSPER as a new IPR model.
The correction of test DoP and EHD to reservoir conditions is
also available for existing PROSPER IPR models.
Sand Control
Previously the only option for sand control in Prosper was Gravel
Pack. The following options have now been added
Pre Packed Screen
Wire Wrapped Screen
Slotted Liner
Both the Darcy and Non-Darcy effects are modelled for the
screen/liner and any material between the formation and screen/
liner
Sand Production (Failure)
Sand Production can be caused by increasing stress near the
well bore resulting from reservoir depletion. The economic

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January, 2010

Technical Overview

12

impact of the result is significant both in terms of completion


costs (implementing sand control) and the number of
development wells (because of the lower productivity associated
with sand control). Prediction of the maximum possible
drawdown before sand production can therefore be important in
field development.
The aim of this model is to calculate the drawdown at which
sand production can be expected. Stress can be estimated
either
From depth and reservoir pressure
From a specified stress
From specified stress gradients and depths
From assumptions if no stress data available
Inflow MultiLayer Models
Automatic transfer of model from Prosper to GAP
Pseudo Pressure table per layer for Gas/Condensate models
Increases accuracy in cases when layer PVT properties
are significantly different
Ability to sensitize on Layer PVT properties in System
calculation

Sensitivity

Following new variables are available :


Perforating Gun (SPOT)
Tubing Description
Casing Description
Injection Fluid Temperature
Multi Layer PVT Parameters
Sensitivity Data Export
Sensitivity Generate Options

Databases

Perforating Gun Database


Provided by Shell as part of SPOT
Updated and verified by PE in conjunction with the
manufacturers
1) Baker
2) DYNA
3) ETA
4) Halliburton
5) Schlumberger
6) Owen
7) INNICOR
8) Titan
9) GeoDynamics
10) CCP
Tubing Database
Available for the following manufacturers
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PROSPER

1) Benoit Machine
2) FiberGlass Systems
3) Grant Prideco
4) Halliburton Energy Services
5) Hunting Energy Services
6) JFE Steel
7) Metal One Corp
8) Tenaris Hydril
9) TPS Technitube Rohrenwerke
10) VAM
Casing Database
Available for the following manufacturers
1) Centron International Inc.
2) Dalmine Spa
3) Equivalent S.A.
4) FiberGlass Systems
5) Frank's International
6) GB Connections
7) Grant Prideco (Atlas Bradford)
8) HSC Corp
9) Hunting Energy Services
10) Hydril
11) JFE Steel / Hunting Oilfield
12) Mannesmann
13) Nippon Steel Corp
14) NKK Corp
15) Sidera S.A.I.C.
16) Smith FiberGlass products Inc.
17) Star FiberGlass Systems
18) Tenaris
19) TPS Technitube Rohrenwerke
20) Tubular FiberGlass Corp
21) VAM
22) XL Systems Inc.
Pipe Schedule
Access to the tubing and casing database will also be available from
the equipment date entry screens
Rigorous modelling of CO2 Injection when combined with
PVT
Section

PROSPER Manual

EoS
Lumping-DeLumping large compositions
Paired large and small(lumped) compositions with same
phase behaviour and surface properties
Sour Gas Modelling
Originally created to model CO2 rich compositions.

January, 2010

Technical Overview

14

Now improved and extended to other similar mixtures CO2,

VLP / IPR
Matching

Lift
Curves

H2S, C1 etc
Egbogah Viscosity Correlation
Bergman-Sutton Viscosity Correlation
Al Marhoun Correlation for Pb, Rs, Bo and Viscosity
Injection of Non-Newtonian Fluids (Polymers etc)
Interpolation warnings for Bg

Estimated Heat Transfer Coefficient options


We can now transfer the estimated U value (or average of
estimated U values) directly into the geothermal gradient
Estimation of Reservoir Parameters from Match Point data
Many users have used the VLP/IPR Matching section and its
easy access to the Inflow section to adjust reservoir
parameters in order to find a solution that corresponded to the
measured data in the VLP Match record. Thus they were able
to track changes in Reservoir Pressure and P.I. Improvements
in IPM6 meant that this process had become slightly more long
winded. This can now be done automatically in Prosper in
IPM7
o Estimation of Reservoir Pressure
o Estimation of PI from (Only if IPR PI method selected)
Multi Variable SYSTEM & VLP commands
Mass and Molar Rate Entry
Independent of separation process
Mass Rates available for Black Oil & EOS models
Molar Rate only for EOS
Eclipse
Generation of files compatible with E300
Molecular weight & Water Molar Fraction as sensitivity
variables
Intermittent Gas Lift Design
Spacing Line Design Methodology
Stability Criteria for Gas Lift
Lift Gas Gradient available on gradient calculation screens
Valve Performance Clearinghouse
VPC in Gas Lift Design & QuickLook
VPC Options in Preferences
Hydraulic Submersible Pump
Improved sensitivity modelling
Automatic step size reduction.
Electrical Submersible Pump
Addition of complete Centrilift Pump & Motor catalogue
Automatic step size reduction.
SRP
Calculation of Stroke Size from Liquid Rate improved

Artificial
Lift

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PROSPER

Improved error reporting & database export.

OpenServer

New OS Commands
ANL.SYM.CALC
Perform the System Sensitivity
Calculation (Multi Variables)
ANL.SYM.GENRATES Generate Rates for the System
Sensitivity Calculation (Multi Variables)
ANL.SYM.EXPORT
Export Lift Curves Generated by the
System Sensitivity Command (Multi Variables)
ANL.VLM.CALC
Perform the VLP (Multi Variable)
Sensitivity Command
ANL.VLM.GENRATES Generate Rates for the VLP (Multi
Variable) Sensitivity Command
ANL.VLM.EXPORT
Export Lift Curves Generated by the
VLP (Multi Variable) Sensitivity Command
ANL.GLI.CALC
Perform the Intermittent Gas lift
Design
New OS Functions
ANL.NODES.MSD
Returns The Measured Depth Of The
ith Node
(PROSPER.ANL.NODES.MSD[i])
ANL.NODES.TVD
Returns The True Vertical Depth Of
The ith Node (PROSPER.ANL.NODES.TVD[i])
HSP.SETTURB
Set the Design HSP Turbine for a
given Turbine,Blade setting PROSPER.HSP.SETTURB
(Turbine,Blade))
Evaluation Button on Open Server Screen

Miscellaneous

WHPtoBHP to include surface equipment


Hydro3P flow correlation updated
Hydro Choke Model updated
Improved handling of OLGAS licences
Improved Flow Correlation Information
Plots in Deviation Survey
Plotting Improvements
Tubing and Pipe drawings Improved
Free Format number option

Version 10.0
This is a summary of the main additions that have been incorporated into the
PROSPER program since the 2007 official release.
Steam Model in PVT to enable modelling of Steam Injector Wells
Additional Artificial Lift Method to enable the design and modelling of wells produced using Sucker

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January, 2010

Technical Overview

16

Rod Pumps
The Enthalpy Balance Temperature Model now has the same calculation options as the Improved
Approximation Temperature Model (including Choke Performance calculations)
Allow Solution Node at first node for system calculation in Improved Approximation/Enthalpy
Balance models.
ESP modelling (not Design) available for Improved Approximation and Enthalpy Balance
temperature models
Target GOR calculator and extended options
Improvements in phase behaviour calculation for compositions rich in sour gases (CO2 and H2S)
Increase size of PVT Match tables.
Add Impurities to Retrograde Condensate Black Oil model.
Improved error handling and reporting
Calculate the flow velocity across the completion as a function of open perforations, frac pack
properties and formation properties. (Casing Velocity (Vc) & Screen Velocity (Vs) calculated in
Gravel Pack Section)
Add Beta Factor in the gravel pack pressure drop prediction. (Calculated or Entered) (See Gravel
Pack)
IPR Sensitivity Calculations now available from IPR Section.
Pressure dependent permeability
IPR Test Points - this section has now been rewritten and enhanced to separate it from the multirate test point input data. Test points are now displayed on all relevant screens/plots
It is now possible to change the port size and recalculate output parameters in the GasLift Design
Calculation Screen
Enable de-rating of Thornhill-Craver flow rates in GasLift Design
Real GasLift Valve Response Modelling
Add IPR button to GasLift Design screens to enable easy modification of Inflow model during
GasLift Design
Allow Choke Performance calculations in the Prosper Enthalpy Balance Model
Addition of a Choke Performance Plot in the Choke Performance section.
New lift curve formats are available for CMG reservoir simulators IMEX and GEM.
Generate for GAP has been enhanced for Naturally flowing and ESP wells to allow up to ten
manifold pressures as input
OLGA 2-phase and 3-phase correlations are now available directly from Petroleum Experts. Please
contact us for details of cost and installation.
Data Entry for Temperature Gradients in Enthalpy Balance model was been rewritten, including the
addition of the Geothermal Gradient to the model.
Injected Fluid Temperature is now available as a sensitivity variable
Heat Transfer Coefficients as sensitivity variables
Ability to put in reservoir pressure in VLP/IPR matching screen that corresponds with each test.
Add "date" field to well test table so the Match Point Comment column can be used for actual
comments.
VLP MAtching for ESPs
QuickLook from VLP/IPR Matching
IPR/VLP plot - include well test date info for test point info entered
Make left hand intersection (for gas coning) available. (This is already automatically done if
coning flag is set)
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PROSPER

Preferences Section
It is now possible to display the Users Comments on the main screen instead of the Program and
Contact details.
User preference to allow the user to set the file name and path displayed/hidden.
The User can specify default roughness for tubings and pipelines.
New OpenServer Generate Rate commands for INF, SYS, SY4, VL3 & VL4
New OpenServer Commands PROSPER.ANL.JET.DESIGN
New OpenServer Function to detect Matched PVT (PROSPER.PVT.MATCHED)
Open server command that would be equivalent to clicking on the Clear button in the sensitivity
variables section.
OS command to implement API RP43 Calculation ( calculate perforation length & diameter)
Open-server variables and command to enter a MD in the deviation survey section, and calculate its
corresponding TVD.
OS Command to do Deviation Survey Filtering
Reset, transfer and calculate angle OS command for Deviation Survey Filter
Implement PROSPER.ANL.SPD.CAL(v1,v2,v3) and PROSPER.ANL.SP4.CALC(v1,v2,v3,v4)
Addition of

Sensitivity Summary Export in the 4 Variable System Sensitivity Analysis

Section.
Allow the entry of up to 2 Gauge Depths to VLP calculation screen. Pressures are then calculated
at these depths and displayed and reported. The calculated pressures are also included in exported
TPD files for integration into IFM
New variable available "Gas Fraction At Pump Intake" in ESP design calculations screen
Remove MacLeod as an option for Horizontal Well Models
Warn user if a lift Curve table contains invalid variables for any particular given format. (Warning is
at file creation time)
Increase size of PVT Match Tables
Add Impurities to Retrograde Condensate Section (Black Oil PVT Model only)

Version 9.0
This note is a summary of the main additions that have been incorporated
into the PROSPER program since the 2005 official release.
PVT Enhancements
Equation of State
The objective of the following improvements is to enhance the compositional modelling
capabilities of Prosper:
PVT modelling with EoS available for Injector wells
Enhanced Optimisation
Common EoS options throughout IPM Suite
Path dependent variables (volumetric properties like GOR, FVF, CGR) can be
calculated using three different methods leading to standard conditions:

Straight flash to stock tank conditions

Flash through a train of up to 10 separators

Using individual separator stage or full plant K-values


Enhanced plots of generated fluid properties
PROSPER Manual

January, 2010

Technical Overview

18

FVF calculations with Volume Shift validated for mass balance

Inflow Enhancements

Modified Isochronal IPR model


This IPR model utilises the modified isochronal well test, which consists of repeated shut-in
periods of equal duration as the flowing periods. The IPR model is based on the back-pressure
equation.

Modelling perforation diameter and length varying rock hardness


The API RP43 can be used to calculate the perforations characteristics

Inflow calculation Improvements


Display calculated inflow model PI on the IPR plots
Use of the Perforation Efficiency in all the skin models
Determines the number of open perforations. It is applied to shot density in a similar
manner to gravel pack calculations
On-screen Help with gravel pack data for given gravel sizes
Enabled appropriate Inflow models for given well configuration
Coning Calculation - the length interval has been decreased
Inflow Calculation - the GOR can be entered and sensitised upon
Outflow Enhancements

Gas Condensate Plots


Oil as well as Gas can be plotted on the X-axis

Lift Curves Improvements


Export Options saved to file
More data in comments
User configurable data added to file

System Calculation
4 Variable System Command is available
Export Lift Curves option is available

VLP Matching procedure has been improved

Simultaneous injection of Oil and Water


Flow Modelling Enhancements

Pipeline Calculations
Slug Characteristics
Surge factors for gas and liquid in the bubble and slug are calculated to describe the
slug characteristics of the flow
Pigging Calculations
Calculations to determine the pigging characteristics of the flow
Modelling Pressure and temperature drops across fittings
dP and dT can be calculated for a very wide variety of fittings by using equivalent
lengths. Tabulated L/D values for each fitting type are used to calculate an appropriate K Value for
each different type of fitting and configuration
Artificial Lift Enhancements

Jet Pumps
Modelling of existing Jet Pump installations

PVT modelling of the Power Fluid

Possibility to store the pump models in the Artificial Lift Database

Exporting lift curves to simulators


Design of new Jet Pump installations

Diluent Injection
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PROSPER

Modelling of Diluent injection in the wellbore

PVT modelling of the Injection Fluid

Possibility to sensitise on injection depth and rate


FRAMO Pumps
Modelling of Multiphase pipeline booster pumps

Wizards
This feature guides the User in setting up models and performing certain tasks following a predefined sequence.
A few wizard examples are available when installing PROSPER. These examples are step-by-step
guides to build typical models, like naturally flowing wells, ESP, etc.
However, the User can create his own wizards to performed given tasks. This option is particularly
useful when repetitive calculations are to be performed on well models.
The Wizard is based on a VB script. The script consists of a series of VB commands using
OpenServer strings to set the values of the input parameters or to call up the appropriate data entry
screen , perform calculations, and retrieve or plot results.

OpenServer Enhancements

New Commands
The following capabilities have been implemented:

PVT Match and Match All

4 Variable System Calculation command

Estimate U Value in VLP /IPR Matching Command

Export of lift curves from VLP and System calculations

HSP design - System Calculation command

Perform Coiled Tubing and Jet Pump Design

Menu commands to open the input, calculation and plot screens

Evaluation Dialog
This option can be used to test OpenServer Commands without building VB applications. The
basic OS actions (DoSet, DoGet and DoCmd) can also be used to quickly initialise and resetting the
data

Open Server Help


Command List
Variable List
Function List

Miscellaneous Enhancements

Deviation Survey Filter


This feature allow to enter up to 1000 points from deviation survey tables and determines a
minimum number of deviation points that best fits them

Calculate Torque for ESP wells


The Shaft Torque is calculates during the phase of ESP design

Version 8.0
This note is a summary of the main additions that have been incorporated
into the PROSPER program since the 2001 official release.
PROSPER Manual

January, 2010

Technical Overview

20

Online PROSPER in GAP

PROSPER flow modelling is now available in GAP.


It can be used to model pipelines and wells.
It can be used directly as an online calculator or offline to generate lift curves (to speed GAP
network calculations)

Lift Curves
Data stored in GAP
Data stored in external PROSPER file.

PROSPER online
Data stored in GAP
Can be imported from an existing PROSPER file

Calculation Detail
Calculations can be viewed with the precision and detail of PROSPER Gradient screen

Implicit access to all flow and fluid modelling technology in PROSPER


Advanced Flow Correlations (e.g... Petroleum Experts, GRE, Hydro 3 Phase)
Flow Correlation Matching
Choke Modelling
Fluid modelling and matching (especially Condensate)
Enthalpy Balance calculations for rigorous pressure and temperature modelling. Implicitly
includes Joule-Thomson effects
Artificial Lift options
Gas Lift (Standard and Coiled Tubing)
Electrical Submersible Pumps (ESPs)
Progressive Cavity Pumps (PCPs)
PVT Enhancements
Equation Of State
Goal for these improvements is complete compatibility to ensure that results obtained in
PVTP can be reproduced exactly.

Omega A, Omega B can be entered

Choice of Peng-Robinson or Soave-Redlich-Kwong

Parameter Estimation (Fill In Table)

New Composition Export to PVTP

Improved Composition Import from PVTP (including Reservoir Temperature)

True Critical Point calculation included as part of Phase Envelope Calculation.


This helps speed improvements due to quicker phase detection.

Improve calculation speed without compromising results


Optimise - None - 2 - 3 times faster } Raw PVT
Optimise - Low
- 10 - 20 times faster } Calculation
Optimise - Medium - 30 - 80 times faster } Speed Improvement
PROSPER Example System Sensitivity on 3 tubing sizes
Original - 3+ hours
None - 95 minutes
Low
- 12 minutes
Medium - 2 minutes 40 seconds

Allow more calculation flexibility for Equation of State models


Target GOR
User enters initial composition
Target GORs are entered as sensitivity variables
Program iterates from original composition to a composition with specified GOR
New composition saved as a result for display and/or reporting

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PROSPER

Black Oil

PVT Lookup Tables


Increased size
(Number of Temperature Tables (10 -> 50 )
Number of Pressure Entries ( 15 -> 100 )
Generate Option
PVT properties for all phases are available in table
User responsibility to ensure material balance is preserved
Standard Conditions Warning
User is notified when there is no entry in the table at standard conditions.
Common cause of problems due to interpolation errors.
Convergence Pressure Method removed.
EoS model improvements (and faster computers) make this redundant

Flow Modelling Enhancements


Norsk Hydro Three Phase Correlation (Hydro3P)
Solves the steady state momentum equations for three-phase gas/oil/water pipe flow computing
pressure drop, water and oil hold-up and oil droplet fraction in the gas. Also models oil-in-water
phase and water-in-oil phase. Initial comparisons very favourable. Reasonably fast and very
robust. Works for a wide range of conditions for all fluid types. Very fast for two-phase system.
Much slower for three-phase systems.
Modified Turner Equation For Liquid Loading
Used to determine unstable flow regions in Gas or Condensate wells with liquid production. Has
been found to be not necessarily reliable. The original Turner Constant was 20.4. It has been
found (using Petroleum Experts 4) that 2.04 gives much more reliable results in a wide range of
examples. This constant can be changed by the user.
Erosional Velocity Calculations With Sand Production
Implementation of a ConocoPhillips paper (An Alternative to API14E Erosional Velocity Limits for
Sand Laden Fluids) which challenges API14E (the industry standard) on the basis that it can be
very conservative for clean service and is not applicable for conditions where corrosion or sand
are present. It proposes a simple alternative approach that has been verified by a comparison
with several multi-phase flow loop tests that cover a broad range of liquid-gas ratios and sand
concentrations.
Step Size
This feature allows the user to specify the default step size used in Flow Modelling calculations
Artificial Lift Enhancements

Rewrite database
One database for all artificial lift types
Completely redesigned interface

Booster Pumps
ESPs in pipeline.

Implement Progressive Cavity Pumps (PCPs)

HSP & PCP Lift Curves for GAP

Gaslift
Allow injection in pipeline (above wellhead)
Allow a valve at the design depth of injection (as well as an orifice as at present)
Gaslift Adjustments
Provides additional calculations for testing gas lift designs under operating conditions.
Surface casing pressures when restarting production are presented in addition to input
PROSPER Manual

January, 2010

Technical Overview

22

parameters needed for setting up automatic well controllers


Coiled Tubing Gaslift
Can already be achieved in PROSPER using annular flow but requires manual set up by user
New input options to make problem set-up automatic
Description via ID and Thickness makes sensitivity analysis more flexible

Enthalpy Balance Model Enhancements

Convection in mud between casings


Selectable the the user

Sea Velocity gradients


As an addition to the Sea Temperature Gradient

Correlation Comparison
Implemented for both Tubing and PipeLine

Extra variables in gradient display


Enthalpy (gas, oil, water)
Conductivity (gas, oil, water)
Specific Heat Capacity (gas, oil, water)

Fix outside casing temperature at time t=0


Diffusivity equation only valid for t > 0.5 days

Casing Conductivity user selectable


Previously was a fixed value
Inflow Performance Enhancements

Simple MultiLayer
Increased number of Layers ( from 5 to 50)

MultiLayer With dP Loss


New Layer Models
Fractured Well
Horizontal Well
Increased number of layers (from 20 to 50 layers)
Gas and Condensate Implemented

Improved IPR DLL


Add a skin model to internal reservoir model
Proper validation of user data
Access to internal model data
Ability to deny access to unauthorised users
Non-Newtonian Fluid Modelling

New Model
Implement Model based on drilling fluid models developed by Total. This will enable foams in
heavy oils to be modelled more accurately. However, it should be noted that this model does
not estimate the apparent viscosity of the emulsion with water. Research on another program
(REVEAL) is ongoing on this subject.
Calculate Equivalent Apparent Viscosity
Oil and Gas viscosities both set equal to Apparent Viscosity
Implemented in reservoir by calculating an equivalent pipe radius

User DLL
User DLL option allows user to test internal models within PROSPER via the usual DLL
interface.
Will allow the user to model viscosity of all phases (if required)
Benefits of testing and implementing engineering technology and research without having to
design and maintain the testbed

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PROSPER

Import DLL

Allows user to import from any file (binary or ascii) if they know the precise format.

Can be used for legacy applications with proprietary format.

Import from a report output of another application

Can be done without any input from Petroleum Experts (avoids confidentiality conflicts)

Integrates seamlessly with File Open option.

User file type just becomes another available file type to read

Can be used in batch mode to convert many files and automatically creates PROSPER input
files

Uses OpenServer strings to push the data from user DLL to PROSPER.
Choke

DLL Improvements
Allow more user data per DLL
Saving and recalling user data to file
Redesign Choke Performance screen to allow use with user defined choke DLL

Lift Curves

Additional Formats
ChevronTexaco CHEARS
ExxonMobil
EMPOWER

VIP Format Update


Previously if one specified GOR then rates were Oil and if one specified GLR rates where
Liquid
Now, it is possible to mix and match Gas Fraction Types and Rate Types

General Point
Please keep us informed of changes in format - we like to respond as quickly as possible to
keep users up-to-date
Documentation of lift curve format should be as comprehensive as possible. Quite often, the
only documentation is an example file. It can be quite difficult to extrapolate from one
example to a complete solution. The following points are quite useful to note.
Specify all possible Gas Fraction Types (GOR, GLR OGR etc)
Specify all possible Water Fraction Types (WC, WGR, WOR etc)
Rate Types ( Oil, Liquid Gas)
Artificial lift types (don't forget pumps)
All fluid Types (oil, gas and condensate)
Unit types for all variables and unit sets as well (Field, SI, LAB)
Producers and Injectors
Variable Combinations - what is valid and what is invalid
Left Hand Intersection in SYSTEM Calculation
Normally VLP/IPR intersections that occur when the tubing pressures are declining (on the LHS) are
considered to represent unstable flow and are usually ignored.
When Gas Coning occurs however the GOR is changing constantly for different rates and it is
possible to have two solutions and for the LHS intersection to represent stable flow
Add option to allow user to select which intersection to use
Miscellaneous

Units Popup
Right-clicking on units field on screen shows user all available units for the variable and its
current selection and allows the user to change this current selection.

Extended and Improved Data Validation

MultiLateral - set end points for curve calculations

OpenServer - NEWFILE & SHUTDOWN commands


PROSPER Manual

January, 2010

Technical Overview

24

Export - data formatting improvements


Plot Legend - data content improvements

Version 7.5
This note is a summary of the main additions that have been incorporated
into the PROSPER program since the 2000 official release.
Make Prosper more accessible to other IPM Tools
Much work has been done restructuring PROSPER so that all the single-well technology and
engineering can be readily utilised by other programs in the IPM suite.The results of this radical
restructuring are not obvious or available at present but will be incorporated in the next versions of
GAP and MBAL
Model Annulus and Tubing Production
A model has been Implemented for production through the tubing and annulus at the same time and
also a variable flow path i.e. fluid can flow in either the tubing or the annulus or both and this can vary
in different segments of the well
Vlp/Ipr Matching Improvements
Ability to perform a Correlation Comparison for each test point. Data is automatically transferred from
the test point straight to the Correlation Comparison screens.
VLP/IPR plot has been enhanced to provide a VLP curve for each test point for a selection of flow
correlations.
Estimating U values in VLP/IPR matching section from entered Tubing Head Pressures in the Rough
Approximation Temperature Model
Pipe Matching Improvements
Ability to perform a Pipeline Correlation Comparison for each test point. Data is automatically
transferred from the test point straight to the Pipeline Correlation Comparison screens.
Multi-Lateral - Improvements Model
Calculation Dialog Screen Improvements.
Multi Layer (Layer-by Layer ) response calculated and plotted.
PVT Section
Water Vapour Condensation Correlation for Gas Wells
Water Viscosity Variation with Pressure
Boiling Temperature column in EOS model.
Parachor column in EOS model (for Surface Tension Calculations).
Editable EOS Component Name instead of number
Miscellaneous
New variables displayed in Gradient Calculations.
Oil Viscosity
Water Viscosity
Liquid Density
Total mass Flow Rate
Oil mass Flow Rate
Gas Mass Flow Rate
Water Mass Flow Rate
Oil Formation Volume Factor
Gas Formation Volume Factor
Water Formation Volume Factor
Water Holdup
Slip Water Velocity
Superficial Water Velocity
Cumulative Liquid Volume
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PROSPER

Cumulative Water Volume


Cumulative Oil Volume
Cumulative Gas Volume
Cumulative Liquid Holdup
Cumulative Water Holdup
Tubing Flow Rate
Annulus Flow Rate
New layout options in Gradient Calculations
Depth Calculator in Equipment Deviation Survey screen
Improved errror checking in IPR section subDialog screens
Improvments in annulus configuration management (Enthalpy Balance)
Improvements in Drilling section error reporting
Improvements to TPD file generation for ESP wells
File List - browser for viewing /summarising PROSPER files.
Standing correction to Vogel in IPR calculations.

Version 7.0
This note is a summary of the main additions that have been incorporated
into the PROSPER program since the 1999 official release.
32-bit
Improved memory management.
Long File and Directory name.
Results Management.
Implementaion of Open Server
Open Data/Function Server implemented the same as GAP and MBAL
MultiLateral
Model has been enhanced and extended
Models all fluid types (oil, Gas and Retrograde Condensate)
Models Producers and Injectors
Can be used in conjuction with artificially lifted wells (Gaslift, ESP and HSP)
Enthalpy Balance Temperature Prediction
Complete rewrite of enthalpy balance temperature prediction method to allow more flexibility and
accuracy.
Account for air and sea velocities.
Improved Completion fluid handling.
Can specify cement and casing conductivity
Account for temperature gradient in the sea.
Improved Rough Approximation Temperature Model
Specify heat transfer coefficient by depth and pipe section
Define a temperature gradient for the sea
Can make use of Joule-Thomson coefficient
Constrained Calculation with Enthalpy Balance
Determine pressure and temperature profile for the entire well from the wellhead pressure and bottom
hole temperature
Thermal Fracturing
Model the combined effects of temperature, stress and fluid mechanics to predict the inflow behaviour
of injection wells
New Correlation (Petroleum Experts 4)
PROSPER Manual

January, 2010

Technical Overview

26

Advanced mechanistic model for any angled wells (including dowhill flow) suitable for any fluid
(including Retrograde Condensate)
Solids Transport
Predicting maximum grain size that can be transported. Based on a model from the BP MUltiphase
Design Manual
Hydrates Flagging
User entered table describing pressure-temperature regions where hydrates formation is likely. The
program will then highlight areas with a potential for Hydrates Formation.
Miscellaneous
User can specify default Units System (on Preferences Screen).

Version 6.0
This note is a summary of the main additions that have been incorporated
into the PROSPER program since the 1998 official release.
INFLOW
New Interface
Implemented for all fluids.
Completely redesigned to ease user input and to integrate with the external, user-written IPR model
enhancement (see below)
MultiLateral/MultiLayer Inflow Model
Implemented for all fluids.
Based on a model produced by BP Amoco Ltd.
Deviated Well Model
Implemented for all fluids.
Based on a model produced by Wong and Clifford (BP)
Dual Porosity Model
Implemented for all fluids.
Assumptions: For naturally fractured reservoirs where the matrix (formation) porosity is greater than
the fracture porosity and the matrix permeability is much smaller than the fracture permeabilty, but
not negligible.
Source: See References
Horizontal Well with Transverse Vertical Fracture(s) Model
Implemented for all fluids.
Assumptions
1. Circular fractures.
2. Well goes through centre i.e. no shape factor implemented.
3. Fractures are equally spaced - so if there is just one it is in the centre.
Source: See References
User IPR Model DLL
Allows the user to develop their own inflow model(s) and implement it within PROSPER in a similar
fashion to flow correlations. The user-developed model can encompass every element of an inflow
description including the reservoir model and every component of the skin or can simply be any
particular element. Please contact us for details on how to implement this for the specific application
Dietz Shape Factor Calculator
Implemented for 'Darcy-like' models in all fluids.
Assumptions: Calculation is for vertical wells rectangular reservoirs.
Source: See References
Gas Coning
Implemented for oil. Modifies solution GOR by multiplying it by a weighting factor greater than 1,
which is a positive function of the liquid rate. The output is a total, or produced, GOR. This model
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PROSPER

has been implemented with the facility of matching/tuning to real test data
Assumptions: High permeability reservoirs.
Source: See References.
EQUIPMENT
More Pipeline nodes
Reverse x,y coordinate system for pipeline data entry
Rate Multiplier Per Node
Option to "disable" Surface Equipment

FLOW MODELLING
Complex Terrain Flow Correlation
Slug modelling
Correlation Threshold Angles
Erosional Velocity (C Factor) calculation.
Flow Regime Plots
More detailed data displayed during Gradient calculations
Phase Densities, inter-phase IFTs, slug and bubble properties
ARTIFICIAL LIFT
Hydraulic Drive Downhole Pumps (or HSPs)
Design
System Sensitivity and Lift Curve Generation
QuickLook diagnostic
Pump and Turbine Database management
MISCELLANEOUS
Preferences
All options relating to the customisation of an individual installation of the program have been
gathered together in one location.
This option can be found on the File menu and has four sections (tabs)for ease of use. These are
Screen
File
Plot
User Applications
Welcome Screen
This screen is displayed immediately the program is started and is destroyed as soon as the main
screen appears. There can be a significant time difference in some cases between these two events
and this screen will assure the user that the prgram has indeed started. The reason for the time
difference could be any of the following
1) Program Installation - The program could be on a remote network drive and network traffic would
affect access time.
2) Software Key - a network installation could slow access to the key is the network is busy.
3) Last file loaded - if one automatically reloads the last file on program startup,then the file size and
location(remote network) could make a difference
New import format for PVTP file
The new format exported from the PVTP program includes more details (Volume Shift flag and the
separators included in the analysis.)
Screen Design
Redesign of many data screens. More consistency between data screens, navigation, and flexibility
of screen size (see Preferences-> Screen)
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Version 5.1
This note is a summary of the main additions that have been incorporated
into the PROSPER program since the 1997 official release.
Changes to EOS model
The method of calculating GOR and FVF has been enhanced to take account of the fluids path back
to surface. Up to 5 separator stages can be defined. The fluid is flashed through any defined stages
to find the resultant gas/oil mixture in the accumulator/stock tank. If no stages are defined a single
flash to ambient conditions is performed.
WHP to BHP
Method for calculating flowing bottom hole pressure from the wellhead pressure for a large number of
points.
VLP Matching
Ability to allow or disallow the plotting of labels. Added ability to export and report from this screen.
Output more information to reports
Miscellaneous
The following bug fixes/ improvements.
Errors in files when saving long labels from downhole/surface equipment.
Sensible choice for file prefix when saving files.
Improved error checking in relative permeability screen in IPR section.
Scaling problems on status screen IPR plot when changing units have been fixed.
General updates to Status Screen
Errors transferring surface equipment details when changing from Pressure only to Pressure and
temperature prediction have been corrected.
Improved legend for Gaslift Design Plot
Improved legends for plots generally for consistency.
Improved handling of multi rate input data in IPR section.
Load correlation DLLs automatically from run directory.
Fixed errors in PVT matching reports
Fixed errors for water injectors reporting marginal amount of oil
Improved depth error checking in equipment section
Fixed bug in gradient calculation section (not setting Top Node Pressure and Rate correctly)
Insert a check for Choke Model selected when reading files.
Fixed EOS calculation initialisation problems.
Added feature to output 4 variable MBV (lift curve ) files
ESPs - allow user to select location of database files
Sensitivity analysis - improved error checking in variable selection
Status screen error for PVT Condensate display (wrong unit for CGR/WGR)
System Plot - wrong label for Gas Rate has been corrected.
IPR - improved calculation of combined Total GOR for multi layer IPRs
Gray Correlation - advise of unsuitability for use in Pressure and Temperature predictions
PVT Matching - ability to transfer data from Tables and import data from PVT Program
PVT Tables - ability to import data from Matching Section.

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PROSPER

Version 5.0
This note is a summary of the main additions that have been incorporated
into the PROSPER program since the 1996 official release.
Report Generator
The reporting interface gives complete control over how the reports are formatted and what
information is utilised to make up the report. This is facilitated by the use of report templates which
can be edited to suit the users's own requirements. One can choose to use the default report
templates provided with the system or can choose to create its own slightly different versions of these
reports. The selected templates can then be used to generate the actual reports which can be sent to
a variety of places (printer, file or screen).
Flexible Importing
This facility is designed to let the user import tabular data from a wide variety of files and databases
via ODBC. A filter 'template' is configured visually and can be saved to disk for future use. It can also
be distributed easily to other users.
User Choke Model DLL
Allows the user to develop their own choke model and implement it within PROSPER in a similar
fashion to flow correlations
New Choke Model (from ELF)
A model based on Perkin's (SPE 206333) approach along with discharge coefficients determined by
the author (Stephane Rastoin of ELF Aquitaine at TUALP)
Pipe Correlation Comparison
A technique for comparing pipeline flow correlations against observed data similar to the existing
Correlation Comparison for tubing correlations
QuickLook for ESP
A diagnostic technique for analysing ESP lifted systems to determine if the pump is performing as
expected and to trouble shoot for potential problems
Inipath
A option to allow users to run PROSPER from one network copy whilst maintaining their own
configurations in private copies of PROSPER.INI
New Gaslift Design Options
New Emulsion Viscosity Modelling Options
Generate TPD files for GAP
Extended lift curve format to allow modelling of ESP systems in GAP
Expanded EOS Import Format
Allows user to import all the data that is normally generated by Petroleum Experts EOS model. The
file format is flexible to allow for multiple compositions and the results obtained for each composition.
This allows the possibility in the future to generate sensitivities for several compositions. (e.g. EOSbased lift curves)

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Gradient Test Data


Allows output of consistent test data on all gradient plots in PROSPER
ESP Database Handling Improved
Database information regarding current pump, motor and cable in use is stored on file to enable
distribution of files easily between users
Water Injector As Specific Well Type
Allows easy setup an minimal PVT data entry to handle this well type.
Variable Solution Node
Allow solution node at sandface, wellhead or manifold
Injection Model For Temperature Improved (Rough Approximation Model)
Improved Equipment Data Entry
Many problems for users are caused by incorrect entry of equipment data. Improving error detection
in this area helps to reduce support requirements and improves usability of the program
Pipeline Calculation Only
Simplify setup (especially for equipment) in order to model pipeline flow
New Tubing Correlation (Petroleum Experts 3)
Plot Annotations

Version 4.5
This note is a summary of the main additions that have been incorporated in
PROSPER since the May 1995 release.
Black Oil PVT
Added new Pressure-Volume-Temperature Correlations for Gulf of Mexico Crude Oils due to
Petrosky et al (SPE26644)
Added new Viscosity Correlations for Gulf of Mexico Crude Oils due to Petrosky et al (
SPE29268)
Allow modelling of emulsion viscosity corrections for OIL-WATER mixtures.
Improved matching for heavy oils.

Equation of State PVT from external DLL


Added a new interface to give user's the ability to program their own equation of state PVT
model and link it to PROSPER.
FLASH.DLL routines updated to closely follow PVT Package calculations. This has resulted
in improved viscosity, liquid densities and phase detection. Stability has improved for low molecular
weight liquids and gas.

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PROSPER

ESP's
Emulsion PVT applied to ESP head, power (and consequently) efficiency corrections.
Intake gas fraction sensitivity plot (Dunbar plot).
Tubing automatically terminated at pump depth.
Database report improved.

Inflow Performance
Multi-layer - Upgraded for injection wells.
GAP and MBAL links. IPR points are transferred directly to GAP or saved in a file for MBAL.
SkinAide - new IPR model from ELF

Gaslift Design
Optional checks for rate conformance with IPR during design.
Expanded design options and additional logic for valve closing pressures.
Improved dome pressure temperature correction above 1200 psi.
Design plot shows unloading fluid gradients, actual surface injection pressure and production
rates.
Database report improved.

File handling
Significant reduction in all file sizes due to implementation of file compression techniques.
Improved error handling in low space (disk nearly full) situations.
Speed up file reading/writing..

Error Checking
Improved the checking of equipment entry

Units
Revised to include validation option on main Units screen.
New options added to allow user selection of precision of display,

Reports
Screen reporting more flexible
Font handling problems (with regards to font size) fixed. Printer fonts are now entered as
point sizes instead of relative size units. This avoids the need to adjust printer font sizes when
changing printers
Batch
Automatic Batch generation of tubing curves(VLP) and inflow curves(IPR) via improved
interface with GAP

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Technical Overview

32

ProdMan ( Production Manager)


Provision of visual field modelling with automatic access to PROSPER and capability for
batch mode operation for certain calculations.
(GAP without the modelling and optimisation features)

Calculation / Generate for GAP


Rate logic improved for high rate producers and injectors.

Calculation / System
User selection of sensitivity values on plots.

Calculation / Gradient
Plots can now be made for the entire system including both well and pipeline. Extended
range of plot variables available.
Miscellaneous
Plot results in multirate IPR's.
Reset buttons in sensitivity variable selection screen
Screen appearance has been improved to improve layout and readability.
IPR MultiLayer report
Separate units available for Anisotropy, PumpWearFactor, TimeToSurface and Volume
Allow selection of curves to plot in VLP
Store and report Depth Of Injection in gradient sensitivty analysis
Fluid Flow Correlation Parameters report added
Last file loading option
Previous files loading option.

Version 4.0
This note is a summary of the main additions that have been incorporated in
PROSPER since the May 1994 release.
General
UNIX versions have been shipped for HP 9000 and IBM RISC. Other platforms can be
supported on request.
New program installation procedure build program icon and group automatically.
Stackable keys now supported.

Black Oil PVT


Black oil PVT now handles 100% CO2. (Accuracy verified against measured data)
Composition estimation from Black Oil properties. Estimated composition now used for
calculation of thermodynamic properties (enthalpy, entropy) for choke calculations etc. This improves
the accuracy of the Enthalpy Balance temperature predictions for high GOR cases.
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PROSPER

Black oil PVT lookup table file import available.

EOS PVT
EOS PVT input screen editing improved. Now allows input of up to 30 pseudocomponents.
Critical volume is now passed between PVTP and PROSPER. This improves PROSPER
viscosity calculations for some fluids. For old files, Vcrit is estimated using a correlation as before.
EOS algorithms improved and run faster.
EOS oil density now used instead of Standing and Katz.

System I Equipment
Sketches of both surface and downhole equipment can be drawn from the summary screen.
Surface equipment geometry can be optionally entered as TVD, Length or X,Y co-ordinates.

Inflow Performance
Relative permeability can be optionally used in oil IPR calculations. PROSPER allows entry
relative permeability curves and the water cut at a test rate. PROSPER now calculates IPR
sensitivities for water cut.
Fractured well IPR improved for both short and long flowing times.
Horizontal well - friction dP. This major development allows modelling of horizontal well
accounting for friction loss, gravel packs for oil, gas and condensate.
Multi-layer - Layer dP. A network algorithm is used to solve multi layer IPR while accounting
for pressure differences between layers. Available for oil now, gas and condensate in Summer 95.

Matching
IPR matching facility added. Allows IPR to be compared to matched test pressures. This is
a useful graphical means to find reservoir pressures and to examine changes in well condition and
quality control the well model.
Match data screen re-worked to allow cut and paste to/from windows clipboard. Match data
comment field added.

Calculation / Inflow
A new Inflow section has been added. This enables sensitivities for IPR variables to be
quickly calculated without the need to calculate the VLP also (System calculation).
The range of sensitivity variables has been expanded with completion design in mind.
User selected rates can be now be Generated if required. This is useful for IPR sensitvities
when Automatic rates are determined by the AOF for the base case. Sensitivity variables values can
be Generated also.

Calculation / System
The range of outputs displayed expanded to include wellhead temperature, pressure loss
components, gas injection depth.

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Technical Overview

34

Calculation / Gradient
Plots can now be made for the entire system including both well and pipeline. Extended
range of plot variables available.
Range of sensitivity variables expanded.

Calculation / VLP
Lift curve variables are sorted and filtered so that only valid sensitivity variable are considered.
Number of VLP table entries increased from 1296 to 10,000
Increased range of VLP variables and simulator formats supported. (COMP3 VIP & MORE)
For oil wells, VLP can be calculated in terms of gas rates
VLP algorithms improved for very high GOR.
Additional VLP correlations - Petroleum Experts 2 (improved loading rate calculations) and
Duns and Ros Original.

Calculation / Choke
General purpose choke tool can find: flow rate, pressure drop or choke size. Calculation
based on thermodynamic principles, not empirical correlations.

Calculation / Generate for GAP


Now active even if PROSPER has not been called from GAP. This allows an engineer to
work with PROSPER independently of GAP.
For naturally flowing wells, 5 generate pressures can be input and calculated.
Generates performance curves for both injection and flowing wells.

Design / Gaslift design


Design logic has been improved and greater flexibility in design methods is provided.
Fixed mandrel depth design selects the best location for unloading valves from a list of preset mandrel depths.

Design / ESP design


Current (1992) motor characteristics for REDA motors included in database.
ESP Inc. motor and pump data included in database

1.7

Examples Guide
This chapter contains a collection of tutorials designed to help jump-start the use of
PROSPER. The tutorials are grouped by subjects:
Integrated well bore models
Basic Tutorials for naturally flowing wells,
Sand control tutorials
Compositional modelling tutorials
Well test matching tutorials
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PROSPER

Artificial lift design tutorials


Tutorials about trouble-shooting artificially lifted wells
Tutorials on pipeline modeling and flow assurance studies.
Tutorials on special topics

Integrated well bore models


Tutorial
00

Description
Integrated oil well model

Reference File
T00_IntegratedOilWell.OUT

Basic tutorials for naturally flowing wells


Tutorial
01
02
03
04
05
07
08
09
10
11

Description
Reference File
Modelling a dry and wet gas producer T01_DryAndWetGasWell.Out
T02_SimpleOilWell.OUT
Modelling a naturally flowing oil well
Modelling an oil well with black oil PVTT03_OilWellPVTMatching.OUT
matching
T04_HorizontalOilWell.out
Modelling an horizontal oil well
Modelling a multilateral dry gas producer T05_MultilateralGasWell.Out
T07_SlantedOilWell.Out
Modelling a slanted oil well
Modelling a gas well with connected T08_GasWellwithSurfacePipeline.
Out
pipeline
T09_WaterInjectionWell.OUT
Modelling a water injection well
T10_GasInjectionWell.OUT
Modelling a gas injection well
T11_SteamInjectionWell.OUT
Modelling a steam injection well

Sand Control tutorials


Tutorial
12
13
14
15
16

Description
Modelling an oil well with gravel-pack
Modelling a frac and pack well
Modelling a well with pre-packed screen

Reference File

T12_GravelPackedOilWell.OUT
T13_Frac&PackedOilWell.OUT
T14_OilWellwithPrePackedScreen.out
T15_OilWellwithslottedLiner.OUT
Modelling a well with slotted liners
Modelling a well with wire-wrapped T16_OilWellwithWireWrappedScre
ens.out
screens

Compositional modelling tutorials


Tutorial
17
18

PROSPER Manual

Description
Reference File
Fully
compositional
retrograde T17_CompostionalCondensateWell.
Out
condensate well
T18_CompostionalCO2Injector.Out
Fully compositional CO2 injection well

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36

Well test matching tutorials


Tutorial
19
20
21

Description
Matching a gas well test
Matching a naturally flowing oil well test
Matching a water injection well test

22

Matching a gas injection well test

Reference File
T19_MatchingAGasWellTest.OUT
T20_MatchingAnOilWellTest.OUT
T21_MatchingAWaterInjectionWellT
est.OUT
T22_MatchingAGasInjectionWellTes
t.OUT

Artificial lift design tutorials


Tutorial
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
43

Description
Continuous Gas lift design
Intermittent Gas Lift Design

Reference File

T23_ContinuousGasLiftDesign.OUT
T24_IntermittentGasLiftDesign.
OUT
T25_CoiledTubingGasLiftDesign.
Coiled Tubing Gas lift Design
OUT
Design of an ESP system for an oilT26_ESPDesign.OUT

producer
Design of an HSP system for an oilT27_HSPDesign.OUT
producer
Design of a Sucker Rod Pump for an oilT28_SuckerRodPumpDesign.OUT
producer
Design of a PCP lift system for an oilT29_PCPDesign.OUT
producer
T30_DiluentInjection.OUT
Diluent Injection tutorial
Multiphase pump in a pipe connected to a T31_MultiphasePumpOnseabed.
OUT
single well
Design of a Jet Pump system for an oilT43_JETPUMP.OUT
producer

Tutorials about trouble-shooting artificially lifted wells


Tutorial
32
33
34
35

Description
Troubleshooting a gas lifted well
Trouble-shooting an ESP-lifted well
Trouble-shooting an HSP-lifted well
Trouble-shooting a sucker rod lifted well

Reference File
T32_GasLiftQuickLook.OUT
T33_ESPQuicklook.OUT
T34_HSPQuicklook.OUT
No reference file

Pipeline and flow assurance study tutorials


Tutorial
36

Description
General flow assurance features

Reference File
T36_FlowAssurance.OUT
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PROSPER

37
38
39

Pipeline performance matching


Full enthalpy balance example
Improved approximation tutorial

T37_PipelineMatching.OUT
T38_EnthalpyBalance.OUT
T39_ImprovedApproximation.OUT

Special topics
Tutorial
40
41
42

Description
Reference File
T40_SPOT.OUT
SPOT example
Multi-layer model with dP loss between the T41_MultilayerOil.Out
zones
Multilateral IPR for well penetrating
T42_MultiLateralInMultipleReservo
different zones
irs.OUT

44

PROSPER Manual

Validation of the black oil PVT model for T44_CONDVALID.OUT


gas retrograde condensate producer

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Chapter

39

PROSPER

User Guide
This user guide is subdivided in the following sections:
Introduction
File management
Data input - General
PVT data input
Equipment data input
IPR Data Input
Artificial Lift Data Input
Matching menu
Calculation Menu
Design menu
Output
Units
Wizard and
Help

2.1

Introduction
Welcome to PROSPER, Petroleum Experts Limited's advanced PROduction and S
ystems PERformance analysis software. PROSPER can assist the production or
reservoir engineer to predict tubing and pipeline hydraulics and temperatures with
accuracy and speed. PROSPER's powerful sensitivity calculation features enable
existing designs to be optimised and the effects of future changes in system
parameters to be assessed.
By separately modelling each component of the producing well system, then allowing
the User to verify each model subsystem by performance matching, PROSPER ensures
that the calculations are as accurate as possible. Once a system model has been tuned
to real field data, PROSPER can be confidently used to model the well in different
scenarios and to make forward predictions of reservoir pressure based on surface
production data.

2.1.1 Using PROSPER


These are the main features available in PROSPER:
1. PROSPER is a fundamental element in the Integrated Production Model (IPM)
as defined by Petroleum Experts, linking to GAP, the production network
optimisation program for gathering system modelling and MBAL, the reservoir
engineering and modelling tool, for making fully integrated total system modelling
and production forecasting.

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40

2. The PVT section in PROSPER can compute fluid properties using standard black
oil correlations. The black oil correlations can be modified to better fit measured
lab data. PROSPER allows detailed PVT data in the form of tables to be imported
for use in the calculations. A third option is to use the Equation of State method.
This option also allows the User to enter the equation of state model parameters
and uses the standard Peng-Robinson EOS model to generate properties given
a multi-stage separator scheme. With this option the Users can also import all
PVT data in the form of tables, which could have been generated using their own
proprietary EOS models.
3. The tool can be used to model reservoir inflow performance (IPR) for single layer,
multi-layered, or multilateral wells with complex and highly deviated completions,
optimising all aspects of a completion design including perforation details and
gravel packing.
4. It can be used to accurately predict both pressure and temperature profiles in
producing wells, injection wells, across chokes and along risers and flow lines.
5. The sensitivity calculations capabilities allow the engineer to model and easily
optimise tubing configuration, choke and surface flow line performance.
6. It can be used to design, optimise and troubleshoot the following artificial lift
systems: gas lifted, coiled tubing, ESP, PCP, HSP (hydraulic pump), Jet pump
and Sucker Rod pump equipped wells.
7. Its choke calculator can be used to predict flow rates given the choke size, or the
choke size for a specified production rate and of course, the pressure drop
across a known choke at a specified rate. It can also be used to generate choke
performance curves.
8. The multiphase flow correlations implemented can be adjusted to match
measured field data to generate vertical lift performance curves (VLP) for use in
simulators and network models.
9. The tool can utilise externally programmed dynamic link libraries (DLL) for
multiphase flow correlations, Equation of State (EOS) PVT calculations, choke
calculations, Inflow (IPR) models, HSP Gas De-Rating models and proprietary
viscosity models (both Newtonian and Non-Newtonian) .
10. The tool can be used in a matching or predictive mode. Matching of real data is
available in the PVT, IPR, Gradient matching and VLP matching sections.

In matching mode, real data can be entered and matched using non-linear
regression methods to create custom correlations that fit the input data.
In predictive mode, the correlations created can be used to make
estimates of future well performance.

11. PROSPER can be used to model complex (topographically) and extensive (in
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PROSPER

length) surface pipelines. Complex steady state slug analysis can also be
performed by taking into account slug build up and decay due to pipeline
topography, giving an indication of expected slug length and frequency. Pigging
calculations are also available
12. Black Oil PVT tables can be imported directly into PROSPER. The black oil
tables can be generated by Petroleum Experts PVTP thermodynamics analysis
program or from from any third-party application, provided it has the right format
(*.PTB file). Equally compositional model can also be directly imported as *.
PRP file.
13. A flexible and fully customisable units system is implemented in PROSPER. Data
may be input using one set of units and output using a second set of units.
Validation limits and display resolution can be independently set for each
variable type.
14. It has the utility for flagging of potential hydrate formation, if the User chooses this
in the options. The additional input required for this calculation is the hydration
formation tables as a part of the black oil PVT description. The hydrate and wax
models are readily available if the fluid model in PROSPER is compositional.
Note that one can also use Petroleum Experts PVTP thermodynamics analysis
program to predict waxes and hydrates appearance conditions. A compositional
PROSPER model or PVTP can be used to generate hydrate formation tables.
15. The following situations can be modelled:
Fluid Type:
Oil and Water (Black oil or Equation of State PVT)
Dry and Wet Gas (Black oil or Equation of State PVT)
Retrograde Condensate (Black Oil or Equation of State PVT)
Emulsion viscosity can be optionally applied for any combination of inflow,
tubing and ESPs or HSPs.
Separation mode: Single or Two Stage separation or Multistage (for
Compositional model)
Modelling of non-Newtonian fluids for oil wells
Modelling of Condensed Water Vapour for gas wells
Well Flow Configuration:
Tubing or Annular flow or Tubing + Annular flow
Producer or Injector
Artificial Lift Method:
Naturally flowing well
Gas lifted well (continuous and intermittent)
Electric submersible pump (ESP)
Hydraulic drive downhole pump (HSP)
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42

Progressive Cavity Pumps


Jet Pumps
Gas Lift with Coiled Tubing
Injection of Diluents
Multiphase Pumps
Sucker Rod Pumps

Prediction Type:
Pressure Only
Pressure and Temperature Offshore
Pressure and Temperature on Land
Temperature Model:
Enthalpy Balance with or without steam
Rough Approximation
Improved Approximation with or without steam
Completion:
Cased Hole
Open Hole
Sand control:
Gravel Pack
Pre-packed screen
Wire wrapped screen
Slotted liner
Sand failure
Reservoir:
Single Well
Multi-lateral Well in a Multi-layered Reservoir
Gas Coning (Rate dependent GOR calculator)

2.1.2 PROSPER and Systems Analysis


PROSPER can help E&P companies to maximise their production earnings by
providing the engineering means to critically analyse the performance of individual
producing or injecting well. Each well system component that contributes to overall
performance is separately modelled: Fluid Properties, Inflow performance, pressure
drop in the tubing and pressure losses in the surface gathering system are individually
evaluated, analysed, validated and calibrated against recorded performance data
whenever possible.
Well potential and producing pressure losses are both dependent on fluid (PVT)
properties. The accuracy of systems analysis calculations is therefore dependent on
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PROSPER

the accuracy of the fluid properties model (i.e. PVT). The pressure drop in a pipeline or
wellbore is the summation of 3 components:
Gravity head
Friction loss
Acceleration
i.e.

Dptotal = Dpgravity + Dp friction + Dpacceleration

The gravity component is due to the density of the fluid mixture at each point in the
system and is a complex function of the relative velocity of the phases present.
PROSPER makes a flash computation at each calculation step to determine the
proportion of oil, water and gas present. The no-slip density is then calculated using the
proportions of each phase and the predicted density at each pressure and temperature
step.
Industry standard 2-phase correlations are then applied to determine the increase in
apparent fluid density due to the higher vertical velocity of gas compared to oil and
water (slippage). The gravity head loss is proportional to the fluid density corrected for
slip. The slip correction to be applied depends on the flow regime, fluid velocity etc. The
need for an accurate PVT description for predicting the gravity head loss become
obvious.
Friction losses are controlled by fluid viscosity and geometric factors (pipe diameter
and roughness). In the majority of oilfield applications, (i.e. large elevation difference
between inlet and outlet with liquids present) the gravitational component normally
accounts for around 90% of the overall head loss. Therefore, the total pressure drop
function may often not be particularly sensitive to the value of the friction loss coefficient.
The acceleration component is usually small except in systems involving significant fluid
expansion. However, it is accounted for in all PROSPER calculations.
Historically, systems analysis software has lumped all flowing pressure loss terms
together and allowed the User to match real data by adjusting the roughness coefficient
of the friction loss term. This will certainly achieve a match for a particular rate, but
cannot be expected to achieve a match over a significant range of rates due to the
different dependencies of the gravity and friction loss terms on liquid velocity.
The recommended engineering approach when modelling wells and / or pipelines
response with PROSPER is to first construct a robust PVT model for the fluid. The
process consists when possible in entering laboratory PVT data and adjusting the black
oil correlation model to fit the measured data while respecting the fluid thermodynamics.
This approach consistently improve the accuracy of forward prediction.
In essence, an accurate PVT model confines any uncertainty in the gravity loss term
to the slip correction only.
In the VLP matching phase, PROSPER divides the total pressure loss into friction and
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gravity components and uses a non-linear regression technique to separately optimise


the value of each component. Not only does the matching process result in a more
accurate model, it will quickly highlight inconsistencies in either the PVT or equipment
description.
Provided sufficiently accurate field data is available, robust PVT, IPR and VLP models
can be achieved by validating and calibrating the models against actual performance.
Each model component is separately validated, therefore dependency on other
components of the well model is eliminated. Understanding potential deterioration in
well performance is simplified with such a consistent process that ultimately help reduce
the number of unknowns.

2.1.2.1 About PROSPER


PROSPER can predict either Pressure Only or Pressure and Temperature. The
Pressure Only option makes PROSPER a "Systems Analysis" package in the
traditional sense. In Pressure Only mode, the well temperature profile must be
inputted by the User. Temperature data is normally recorded whenever a pressure
survey is made, as the temperature is required to correct the downhole pressure
readings. This type of calculation is fast and sufficiently accurate for the majority of
pressure loss calculation purposes.
The Pressure and Temperature calculation option will generate both temperature and
pressure profiles.
Three temperature models are provided.
The Rough
Approximation model utilises a User-input overall heat transfer coefficient. It
determines the steady state temperature profile from the mass flow rates of oil, water
and gas before commencing the pressure loss calculations. This method runs quickly,
but unless calibrated using measured temperature data, it is not accurate.
The Enthalpy Balance model calculates the heat transfer coefficients at each
calculation step by considering heat flow and enthalpy changes. The Joule Thompson
effect, convection and radiation are modelled. These calculations require considerably
more input data than for pressure only calculations and must commence from a known
temperature and pressure (the sand face for producers, or wellhead for injectors).
Computation times are longer than for the Rough Approximation option, but this
method is predictive and gives accurate results over a wide range of conditions.
The Enthalpy Balance model is completely transient and can be used to study
temperature changes over time.
Temperature prediction is useful for generating temperature profiles in:

long pipelines transporting Retrograde Condensate.


subsea wells with long flowlines
high pressure/temperature exploration wells
predicting temperature/pressure profiles for flow assurance studies: prediction of
wax/hydrate deposits

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The production riser is properly accounted for by PROSPER. The User-input riser
geometry determines the heat loss coefficients calculated by the program between the
seabed and wellhead.
The Improved Approximation is a full Enthalpy Balance model, with the difference that
the heat exchange coefficient is not calculated but defined by the User along the
completion. Like the Enthalpy Balance model, the Joule Thompson effect is accounted
for.
PROSPER is also able to predict condensate liquid drop out using either black oil or
compositional models.
PROSPER uses a "Smart Menu" system. Only data relevant to a particular problem
need to be entered.
The flow chart below gives an outline of the calculation steps required to carry out a
simple systems analysis using PROSPER.

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2.1.3 Examples
To help illustrate the power of PROSPER, examples are provided with the program.
We suggest to run through them to become familiar with the program and its various
options.
The example guide provide the User with tutorials covering various dexterity and
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engineering topics showing how to build, match and use a well model.
All the example files related are in the folder ~\samples\PROSPER , where Petroleum
Experts software in installed. The location of this directory depends on where the
program has been installed.
Examples Guide

2.2

File Management
This section describes the menus, options and procedures used in PROSPER to create
new files and open or save existing files. The Units system and how to define printer
settings are also outlined. The menus described in this section are the PROSPER File
menu and Units menu.
The File menu provides additional options such as defining the default data directory,
as well as the facility to establish links to other programs running under Windows.
PROSPER will (optionally) open the last file accessed when it starts. PROSPER also
displays a file status screen that shows the application options selected in summary
format: input PVT and IPR data, the equipment type summary and the analysis output.
To protect the work, good practice is to save the file on a regular basis. This simple
procedure could potentially prevent hours of input and analysis being lost.

2.2.1 PROSPER Files


PROSPER uses a flexible file structure that enables data to be easily exchanged
between files and other application programs. In PROSPER information is grouped into
the following categories:
PVT Data
Analysis Data

System Input Data


Output Data

and saved into the following types of data file:

2.2.1.1 PVT Data (*.PVT)


File containing the well fluid data, PVT match data and any PVT tables entered under
the PVT menu.
It is possible to save PVT files separately under different names, and use them with
other input, analysis and output files in PROSPER. This feature is useful when analysing
a number of wells from the same producing pool.
The .PVT file can be also imported/exported in/from MBAL models.

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2.2.1.2 Input Data (*.SIN)


The *.SIN file contain all the options selected under the Options menu, in addition to the
well IPR and equipment data entered under the System menu. When an input file is
opened or saved, the program automatically opens and saves a .PVT file with the same
name.
2.2.1.3 Analysis Data (*.ANL)
This *.ANL file contains all the information from the *.SIN file aloind with all the sensitivity
input data for the calculations selected under the Analysis menu. When an analysis file
is opened and saved, the program automatically opens and saves a .PVT & .SIN file
with the same name. GAP manipulates .ANL files to batch calculate well lift curves.
2.2.1.4 Output Data (*.OUT)
This file contains all the inputs and all the results of the calculations. When an output file
is saved, then program automatically saves a .PVT, .SIN & .ANL file of the same name.
The *.OUT file can be seen as the master PROSPER file.
PROSPER files are ranked by their order of input, which essentially reflects the way data
should be entered into the program, that is from the LEFT to the RIGHT of the PROSPER
menu. It is possible to note that the order of files also corresponds to the options on the
menu bar as one is navigating through the program.
The file hierarchy does not prevent the User from creating and combining any number of
input and output data files. Until the User becomes familiar with the program, we
recommend to work with *.OUT files. This can avoid confusion as the program will
automatically open and save the required data files to run a complete analysis cycle.
More experienced users can take advantage of the flexible file structure to combine the
data files from different wells. This "sharing" of data is useful in areas where wells have
similar fluid properties or reservoir IPR's. If disk space is a concern, the data contained
in a .ANL file together with its complementary .PVT and .SIN files can be used to recreate a given set of calculation outputs, therefore avoiding the need to always save
large .OUT files on disk.
For example, if one wants to run an analysis with the PVT data of Well 1, the input data
(*.SIN) data of Well 2, and the analysis data of Well 3, the following steps can be
followed to achieve that:

Open Well 2.SIN

Recall Well 1.PVT under the PVT menu.

Under the Options menu, select the processing options.

Modify the data files if necessary.

Next, select the Save As command and save the data under a new file
name.

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2.2.1.5 Creating a New File


While working with PROSPER, new input or output data files can be created at any time.
To create a new file, from the File menu simply choose the New command. This
command does not actually create a new and separate file, but re-initialises the
program input/output data.
2.2.1.6 Opening an Existing File
Existing data files can be opened quickly and easily at any time during the current
working session. To open a file, from the File menu choose the Open option. It is
possible to select one of the following file types:
Input Data (. SIN)
Input and Analysis Data (. ANL)
Input, Analysis and Output Data (. OUT)
by using the Files of Type dropdown box.
The file open dialog is exactly the same as in any Windows program.

2.2.1.7 Saving a File


When files are opened in PROSPER, the program copies the selected file into the
computer's memory. Any changes to the file are made to the copy in memory. In the
event of a power failure or computer crash, these changes would be completely lost. To
prevent this, we recommend to save the data on a regular basis and especially before
quitting the program.
The Save command stores all the changes made in the active file. By default, the Save
command saves a file under its original name and to the drive and directory last
selected. A prompt will be displayed to select one of the following file types:
Input Data (.SIN)
Automatically saves the input file and corresponding .PVT file.
Input and Analysis Data (.ANL)
Automatically saves the analysis data and corresponding .SIN & .PVT data
files.
Input, Analysis and Output Data (.OUT)
Automatically saves the output results and corresponding .SIN, .PVT & .ANL
files if a file of the same name exists in the selected directory, the file is
overwritten. To avoid overwriting an existing file, use the Save As command
and enter a different file name.
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2.2.1.8 Copying a File


The Save As command allows to make more than one copy or version of an existing
file.
This command is the same as in any other program running under Windows and allows
to save the PROSPER model in any of the file formats (.SIN, .ANL, .OUT).

2.2.2 Preferences
The Preferences screen is used to customise the program to the particular
requirements. Click Preferences from the File menu to customise PROSPER. Click on
the appropriate tab at the top of the data entry section in order to change the option
require. The various tabs are described below:
2.2.2.1 Main Screen

This tab is used to customise the appearance of the PROSPER main screen and all data
entry (dialog) screens.

Dialog Font

This changes the font type and size used to display all data entry
screens. This may be useful to make all dialogs smaller in case of a
low-resolution screen or larger to improve readability in case of a highresolution screen. Use the Reset button to reset the dialog screen font
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to its default value.


Status
Screen

Selecting On the screen status information will be continuously


displayed and updated during the program usage. Selecting Off the
screen status information screen will not be displayed (apart from
whenever a new file is opened).

Font Height

If the font height is modified then an attempt is made to scale the font
so that all information displayed in each panel on the status screen will
be visible. This will vary depending on the relative size of the program
window to the total screen. If the font height is not modified then some
information may not be displayed as the size of the program window is
varied.

Screen Font Use this option to change the font type and size used to display
information on the status (front) screen of the program.
Label Colour Change the colour used to display labels on the status screen
Text Colour

Change the colour used to display text on the status screen

Background Change the colour used for the background of the status screen
Box Colour

Change the colour used for the background of each panel on the status
screen

Box Shadow Change the colour used for the 3D shadow effect on the status screen
panels
Box
Highlight

Change the colour used for the 3D-highlight effect on the status screen
panels

FileName
Option

Options to display the file name in the main program toolbar. It is


possible to visualise the file name with/without the complete path, or a
certain number of characters ot not visualise it at all. The changes will
have effect as soon as a file is loaded

Length of
FileName

Active only if the FileName Option Compact Path/File to Specified


Length is selected

Analysis
Summary
Columns

This option changes the way the Analysis Summary is displayed in the
PROSPER main screen

For all of the above Colour options the Choose button to the right will bring up a dialog
screen to select an appropriate colour.

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2.2.2.2 File

Use this tab to customise various options relating to file management.


Default Data The directory where data files are normally stored. Use the Browse
Directory
buttons to browse for the appropriate directories.
Default Data This option determines the directory that is used as the default in file
Directory
dialog. The choices are either to always use the default data directory
(see above) or to use the directory of the last file opened or saved.
Choice
Reload Last
Specifies whether the last file that the User was working with should be
File On Start
automatically reloaded on program start up.
Up
Number of
File Names
Saved

Specifies the number of previously used files that are to be displayed


on the file menu.

Location of
Import Files

Use this option to specify the default location of the Import files

Import File
Directory
Choice

Use this option to define the directory that will be pointed every time
the file Import function is selected

Location of
Use this option to specify the default location of the Import Filter
Import Filters
Location of
Report
Output Files

Use this option to specify the default location of output files from the
reporting subsystem.
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Location of
UserCreated
Report Files

Use this option to specify the default location of user-created report


templates from the reporting subsystem

Confirm
Switches (on or off) the message that appears at the end of any
Calculations calculation function.
Switches (on or off) file compression for PROSPER files (OUT, ANL,
File
Compressio SIN, PVT). Default is off. File reading and writing is slower with
compression on, but less disk space is used by the file. The user
n
needs to decide the trade-off between speed and disk space.
File
Overwrite

This option switches on/off a confirmation message whenever saving


and overwriting an existing file

2.2.2.3 Plot

Use this tab to set defaults for all aspects of the plot.
Always Use Each time a plot is done default values will be used rather than the last
Plot Defaults selected values for each particular plot type
X
Grid
Number of gaps between grid lines on X-axis. (Range 1-20)
Blocks

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Y
Grid
Number of gaps between grid lines on Y-axis. (Range 1-20)
Blocks
Plot Labels

Shows or hides the plot labels.

Plot Scales

Shows or hides the plot scales

Plot Legend

Shows or hides the plot legend. If the legend is hidden, the body of the
plot will expand to fill the whole window.

Scaling
Method

Endpoint or rounded. Endpoint means the scales are taken from


the exact extremities of the data being plotted. Rounded means that
ranges are chosen to surround the data but with whole numbers
ensured for the end points and the gridline intervals.

Grid
Type

Line

Selects from dotted lines, dashed lines, solid lines or tick marks.

Mouse
Readout

Switches the mouse cursor position readout no or off.

Date
Title

Selects to append the current data and time to the plot title or not

Stamp

Line
Thickness

To select the thickness of plotted lines

Vertical Font Selects the default font for all vertical text (Y-axis)
Horizontal
Font

Selects the default font for all horizontal text

Default
Colours

Sets the default colour scheme for the plot

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2.2.2.4 User Applications

This tab allows to add up to four of the Users favourite or most-often used Windows
applications to the PROSPER menu. Although PROSPER has a very flexible reporting
system the User may wish to use a spreadsheet (such as EXCEL), a word processor
(such as WORD) and a presentation package (such as Power Point) to build
presentation quality reports using PROSPER output in a slick and efficient manner.
Any output (plots and reports) produced by PROSPER is automatically copied to the
Clipboard. From there it can easily be pasted into one of the above-mentioned
applications using one simple keystroke. Using the power and flexibility of the chosen
application, high quality reports and presentations can be easily prepared.
All plots can be saved in Windows Metafile format. These can be easily read by a
word processing package or presentation graphics package and give the maximum
flexibility for user customisation.
All reports can be saved in TSV (Tab Separated Variable) format using the Export
facility that means they will automatically be tabulated when read into the favourite
spreadsheet.
Enter a description and a command line for each application to be added to the
PROSPER menu.
The description is the data that appears on the menu.
The command line is the full path name of the program to execute.

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Use the Browse buttons to browse for the application require. Use the Clear buttons
to initialise the appropriate application information.
2.2.2.5 Limits
The Preferences Screen is used to customise PROSPER
to your particular
requirements. Click on the appropriate tab at the top of the data entry section in order to
change the option you require.
Done

Click on this button to save you changes.

Cancel

Click on this button to discard changes made on all tabs in the


current edit session..

Help

Click on this button to view this screen.

This tab allows you to specify Limiting Values for the following options.

For IPR Generation


Maximum AOF for OIL
Maximum AOF for GAS
Maximum
AOF
CONDENSATE

for

RETROGRADE

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For Performance Curve Generation


Minimum GLR Injected for GAP Performance
Curves
For VLP Generation
You can control the display of large VLP values in SYSTEM and VLP calculations.
Twice
Reservoir VLP Pressure is only displayed is
VLP
Pressure Pressure
less than twice the reservoir pressure
Display Limit
Unlimited
VLP Pressure is always displayed
For HSP System Calculations (within Design Screen)
These options are used to control the iteration that searches for a solution for the Inflow/
Outflow intersection that ensures that the Pump and Turbine power are equal.
HSP Rate Refinement Tolerance
HSP
Pump/Turbine
Tolerance

Power

HSP Power Fluid Ratio


HSP Power Fluid Divisor
HSP Iteration Limit
For Gradient Calculations
Calculation Step Length
Use
Correlation
Length

Step

User specified step length


No

Use Program defaults for correlation step


length

Yes

Use user-entered value for the step length


used by correlations in nodal analysis

No

No documentation within TPD files

Yes

TPD
files
are
documented
with
descriptions of all data. Use this option
sparingly as it increases the size of the
resultant files considerably.

For TPD Files

Document TPD Files

VLP MultiVariable Analysis


Maximum Number of Rates

PROSPER Manual

This option defines the maximum number of


rates that can be used to calculate the well
VLPs

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Number
Sensitivity Values

58

of This option defines the maximum number of


values that can be used for each sensitivity
variable

2.2.2.6 Units

This tab allows to specify the default Units Systems to use for new files.
If setting the option "Always Use Default Units" to "Yes", then the units displayed for any
file read in will always be set to the default choice, regardless of the settings in the file.
Units Database Directory: this is the location where the PROSPER Units database
(PRPUNITS.PXDB) resides.With the browse button one can alter it.
The free format number set the precision for all inputs and output data to free.

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2.2.2.7 Equipment

This option defines the default values for the Pipeline and Tubing Roughness that will be
used in the Equipment Data.
2.2.2.8 VPC
VPC stands for Valve Performance Clearinghouse.
Done

Click on this button to save the changes.

Cancel

Click on this button to discard changes made on all tabs in the current
edit session

Help

Click on this button to view this screen.

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For members of the VPC consortium, access to the VPC gas lift valve database is
established through this screen.

2.2.3 Software Key Maintenance


The Software Key command activates the Petroleum Experts Remote Utility. This
program allows the user to see what programs are currently enabled, their expiry date,
and user authorisation codes and key number - as can be seen in the screen shot
below.
This utility is also used to enter the authorisation codes that will update or activate the
software key where necessary. For reasons of security, Petroleum Experts normally
sends an inactive software device with the application program. The codes needed to
activate or update the software key are sent separately by e-mail.

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This utility is also used to update the software key and to view versions. Software keys
must be updated when new programs or modules are required or the key expiry date
changed.
Entering the Authorisation Code
To enter the authorisation codes, click the Update button. The following screen will
appear:

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Enter the codes that have been received from Petroleum Experts from left to right
beginning with the top row. The easiest way to do this is to use the Paste button to copy
the codes from the email sent by Petroleum Experts. Press Continue to activate the
codes or Cancel to quit the code update.
Updating the Software Protection Key
Access to the software automatically ceases when the license expiry date has elapsed.
The user is however, reminded several days in advance, which gives sufficient time to
contact Petroleum Experts to obtain update codes. This occurs when either:
The software license trial period has ended.
The annual software maintenance fee is due.
Software protection keys also need updating when one acquires new Petroleum
Experts software packages. The procedure for updating the software key is the same
as described above. When the appropriate screen appears, enter the codes provided from left to right beginning with the top row. Press OK to activate the codes, or Cancel
to quit the update. To view the expiry date for any of the enabled programs, click on the
software title.
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When receiving new codes, always update every key that belongs to the company.
Subsequent updates may fail if all previously issued codes have not been properly
entered into the key.
One can view the software key driver versions by clicking on the Versions button. The
following screen will appear.

2.2.4 FileList
Use this screen to search for PROSPER files anywhere in the system.
Browse a directory, then enter the Patter (file format, for example: *.OUT to load all the
PROSPER files) and then Load Files to visualise all the PROSPER files contained within
the selected directory. Information about the files will be imported as well.

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2.2.5 Evaluate OpenServer Statement


This option can be used to test the OpenServer commands and variables. In the
Evaluate OpenServer screen a field is available where to input the OS string, which can
correspond to a parameter or to a command:

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Type or Paste the OS string in the String field, then select one of basic OS commands
(DoGet, DoSet, DoCommand), if required enter the Value (valid only if using DoSet)
and click Evaluate to perform the function.
In the Returned value it is possible to read the results of the operation.
The buttons Commands, Variables and Functions will access the lists of the strings of
the commands, input/output variables and functions

PROSPER Manual

In the string lists screen it is possible to search for strings by using the Search
function

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2.2.6 User Correlations


PROSPER has been designed to accept outside calculation modules for fluid flow
correlations, Equation of State PVTP calculations, choke models (pressure loss through
restrictions), inflow performance calculations, HSP Gas Derating models, viscosity
models. Users can obtain an authoring kit from Petroleum Experts to enable the
building of a compatible Dynamic Link Library for use in PROSPER.
Before a DLL can be accessed, it must first be installed into PROSPER. This is done by
clicking File User Correlations.
Select either Flow Correlation, Equation of State Model, Choke Correlation, Inflow
Performance Model, HSP Gas DeRating Model, Viscosity Model.
PROSPER will display a list of the currently installed DLLs of the selected type. To add a
correlation, click Add and select the appropriate file from the file dialogue. Click OK
and it will be imported into PROSPER.
MODEL

EXTENSION

Flow Correlation

.COR

Equation of State PVTP Model .EOS


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Choke Correlation

.CHK

Inflow Performance Model

.RSM

HSP Gas DeRating Model

.GDR

Viscosity Model

.VSM

Information about particular correlations (name, phases and flow regimes modelled,
etc.) can be obtained by clicking the Info button. A screen similar to the following will be
displayed.

2.2.7 Printer Setup


2.2.7.1 Preparing to Print
There must be a properly installed and connected printer in order to print.

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The Printer Setup command of the File menu allows to select a printer and define its
set-up options.

2.2.7.2 Selecting and configuring a Printer


Select the correct printer from the list box provided. Only printers that have been
installed under Windows will be displayed.
The configuration of the printer follows the exact guidelines of any other software running
under Windows.

2.2.7.3 Printing Export Data


Prior to printing export data, it is always a good idea to save the data file(s). In the
unlikely event that a printer error or some other unforeseen problem occurs, this simple
procedure could prevent the work from being lost.
To print export data, select the Output menu and the Export option. Select the sections
to report on the dialogue box. The program will lead the User through a series of input
screens to set up the required report sections. From the main dialogue box, select a
destination for r data.

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The appearance of printed reports is controlled by the export data set-up options that
have been set.
Click Setup to display the following screen:

Select a suitable font and set the margins etc. that will be used for printed export data.
Only non-proportional fonts are allowed in reports to maintain vertical alignment of the
columns.

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PROSPER default font is recognised by most print set-ups. To avoid


potential printing problems, always set up the system to use a font that is
supported on the system prior to printing PROSPER export data for the
first time.

Click OK to return to the output screen. Clicking Print initiates generation of the export
data and sends it to the selected destination.
Export data can be sent to the following entities:
Printer -

the primary printer as set up under Windows.

Creates an ASCII data file and saves it. Clicking Print will display a
File dialogue box that requests a file name and destination. Enter a suitable file name (the
program automatically appends a ".PRN" extension) and click OK to save the file.
The Fixed Format option saves a file in a printer ready format that can be imported
into a DOS based word processor or text editor. Use the Tab Delimited format to
save a file suitable for importing directly into a spreadsheet such as EXCEL.
Clipboard - Clicking Print after selecting this option copies the data onto the
Windows clipboard. From the Clipboard, can view, edit and paste the data directly
into another Windows application. E.g. a word processing program. Tab delimited
data can be pasted directly into spreadsheets.
Clicking Print after selecting this option allows to view the report on the
Screen screen. Scroll through the data using the scrolling thumbs or arrows. When finished
viewing, click OK to return to the main menu.

2.2.7.4 Selecting an Exported Data to Print


It is not necessary to be in PROSPER to print a report. Provided to have previously
generated a report file (*.PRN), a report can be easily opened and imported into any
word or spreadsheet program. If the Tab Delimited option was selected, this will allow
the User to easily create tables and/or format the data using a word processor.

2.2.8 Word Processing in PROSPER


The WordPad command on the File menu gives direct access to the Windows word
processing package. This application can be used to make notes of the current
analysis for later inclusion in reports. If no alternative word processing package is
available, it is possible to use WordPad to edit, format and print the reports.

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2.2.9 Clipboard Command


The Clipboard command on the File menu gives direct access to the Windows
clipboard viewer. This feature is useful for checking data input or intermediate results
from e.g. gas lift design calculations that are written to the clipboard by PROSPER.

2.2.10 Command Buttons


The following command buttons are used in PROSPER.

All

This command button is used in the Equipment and Gas Lifted (safety
equipment) option screens. It will select all input parameters and data
points for automated editing.

Calculate Performs the various calculations on the input parameters for the
correlations selected.
Cancel

Returns to the previous screen. Any changes or modifications will be


ignored by the system.

Continues to the next input screen. Any changes to the fields will be saved
Continue and retained in memory for later calculations. A warning message will be
displayed when fields requiring input data are left blank.
Copy

To copy existing data points, select the line entries to duplicate and click
on Copy. Next, select the destination line(s) and click on Copy again.
Subsequent line entries will be not be overwritten by this operation.

Correlati
Displays
o
the results of any matching performed under the VLP/IPR Match
option.
n
s

Delete

This command button is used in the Equipment and Gas Lifted (safety
equipment) option screens. It allows to delete individual or several data
points.
To delete, select the line entries to erase and click on Delete. If one
wishes to delete all
existing line entries, click All and then Delete. The program will clear the
input screen.

Done

Returns to the previous menu. Any changes or modifications will be


retained in memory by the program.

Edit

This command button is used in the main Equipment screen. One or more
items can be modified at a time. When used with 'All', all items will be
selected for editing.

Export

Brings up the Data Export interface. This will be specific to the data on the
active window.

Help

Provides on screen help for PROSPER. For general information, press the
'ALT' and 'H' keys together in the Main menu, or the Index button under any

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help screen. Specific help screens are also available for each window.
Import

Calls up the general import interface that allows to grab data from any text
file. This button will usually be found where tabular data is to be input.

Insert

This allows to add one or several data points providing there are sufficient
entry fields. Select the line number where to add a new entry and click on I
nsert. The program will move existing line entries down to accommodate
the inserted line(s).

Main

Returns to the Main Application Menu. Any changes or modifications will


be saved and retained in memory by the program.

Match

Displays a variable screen where match data can be entered in order to


adjust existing correlations to fit real data.

Move

Allows to re-arrange data points. Select the line(s) to transfer and click on
Move. Next, select the destination line(s) and click on Move again.
Subsequent line entries will be moved down to accommodate the
transferred line(s).

Plot

Plots any calculated results and displays them on screen. Hard copies of
the screen display can be printed by selecting the Hardcopy command
button on the Plot screen.

Recall

Allows to recall an existing PVTP file. The User will be prompted for the
directory and name of the file.

Report

Calls up the reporting interface with a report that is specific to the active
window. This is generally found on windows that display the results of
calculations. It is then possible to choose to print this report. The report is
generated from a system report template.

Reset

Resets the Match parameters in order to reinstate the original textbook


correlations.

Save

Saves a current PVTP file. If this is a new data file, the User will be
prompted for a file name.

Summar Displays a summary screen of the input equipment parameters or system


units.
y
The following command buttons are used in the Plot Menu and Plot screens.

Clipboard

Sends black and white or colour copies of the screen plot to the
Windows Clipboard where it may be retrieved by a word processing
program for inclusion in reports.

Colours

Allows to define the screen display colours of plot labels, scales, grids,
etc.

Finish

Returns to the previous menu or screen.

Hardcopy

Generates black and white or colour print copies of the screen plot. It
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is automatically sent to the device selected.

2.3

Labels

Allows to label plots. All plot labels are stored in memory and saved
when Output files are generated.

Replot

Re-displays the original screen.

Scales

Allows to re-define the minimum and maximum values for the X and Y
plot axes.

Data Input - General


This section describes the PROSPER main menu and the input data required before an
analysis can be performed. Data should be entered by working through the PROSPER
menus following the logic order from left to right and top to bottom. The following menus
are described in this section:
Main menu
Options menu

2.3.1 PROSPER Main Menu


All PROSPER functions are listed as menu options. Simply select the required menu
and choose an item from the list displayed. This will activate an option or display the
relevant screen.
Problem solving with PROSPER is approached systematically by working from left to
right through the main menu. Calculation menus are activated only when the necessary
input data has been entered.
To start PROSPER, select the appropriate icon and press or double-click the program
icon. A screen similar to the following will appear:

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The menu options across the top of the screen are the PROSPER main menu options.
Each is described below.
2.3.1.1 File
The File menu is a management menu with commands that enables to open, save or
create new data files.
It is possible to use this menu to define the default data directory, printer set-ups options
and hook in external DLLs. A facility for accessing other Windows programs via
PROSPER is also provided.

2.3.1.2 Options
The Options menu is the starting point of PROSPER and the key to the program.
Use this menu to define the application and principal well features such as - prediction
method, artificial lift type and fluid type. The options selected are unique to the current
file and apply until changed by the user, or another file is recalled. These options also
determine the subsequent screens, menus and commands that are displayed.

2.3.1.3 PVT
Use the PVT menu to define well fluid properties and select fluid property correlations.
PVT correlations can be modified to match laboratory-measured data using a nonlinear regression technique. Alternatively, detailed PVT data may be entered in tables.
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2.3.1.4 System
The System menu is used to define the well's downhole and surface equipment as well
as the reservoir inflow performance.
When applicable, Gas Lift, ESP, HSP, PCP and other artificial lift methods equipment
data are entered in this menu.

2.3.1.5 Matching
The Matching menu allows comparison of field data with calculated pressure drops in
well tubing and surface piping. All available correlations can be compared to allow
selection of the model that best suits the field conditions.

2.3.1.6 Calculation
The Calculation menu provides with the relevant calculation options. Calculations to
determine well performance, pressure and temperature profiles in the wellbore, perform
sensitivity analyses, make gradient comparisons and generate lift curve tables are
available in this menu.

2.3.1.7 Design
ESP, HSP, PCP, Jet Pumps, Sucker Rod Pumps, Multiphase Pumps sizing as well as
gas lift mandrel placement and valve setting pressure calculations, coiled tubing and
diluents injection are available from the Design menu. Access to the databases that
hold gas lift valves, ESP, HSP, PCP, Jet pumps, Sucker Rod Pumps (NEW!!!)
equipment characteristics is via the Design menu also.

2.3.1.8 Output
The Output menu is used to generate reports, to export data and to plot data. Report
templates are provided and user templates can also be defined. The data used can be
input data, analysis data, results or plots. Reports can be saved in various file formats
(RTF, TXT and native) and can be displayed or sent to a printer. Export data can be
viewed on screen, sent to the Windows clipboard, sent to a printer or saved in a file.
Plots can be printed directly, saved to a report file or a Windows metafile. Selected
plots can also be sent to the clipboard where they can be retrieved by other Windowsbased programs.

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2.3.1.9 Wizard
This menu accesses the wizard area of PROSPER. This allows to Create/Edit and Run
wizards that allow the User to build and run models step-by-step guided fashion.

2.3.1.10Units
This menu is used to define the input and output units of measurement. A flexible
system of units is provided allowing to customise the internal units system.

2.3.1.11Help
Provides on-line help for PROSPER. The User can get help on specific tasks, fields or
commands. Help is also given on the keyboard and miscellaneous Windows
commands.

2.3.2 Options - Options Selection


The Options menu is used to define the characteristics of the well. The options
selected establish the input data required and the calculation options available. The
selections made apply to the current session. The data entry screens, input fields and
variables are limited to those relevant to the particular application. Input options may be
changed at any stage of the processing. New choices may require other information to
be supplied. Therefore the User is advised to ensure that all relevant input is still valid
for the new option selection.
To access the Options menu, point to the menu name and click the mouse or press
ALT+O.
The following data entry screen will appear:

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The entry screen is divided in two main sections - System options and User
information.
Under the System options section, define the well characteristics such as fluid type, well
completion, lift method, etc. These selections determine information that will be
required to enter later. The lower section of the screen comprises the header
information and comments that identify the well and will appear on the report and screen
plot titles.
Option Selection
To select an option, click on the arrow to the right of the required field. The list of
available choices will be displayed.

2.3.2.1 Fluid Description

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2.3.2.1.1 Fluid Type


Oil and Water (Black Oil Model or Compositional)
Oil and/or Water fluids
Dry and Wet Gas (Black Oil Model or Compositional)
Dry and Wet Gas is handled under the assumption that condensation occurs at
the separator. The liquid is put back into the gas as an equivalent gas quantity.
The pressure drop is therefore calculated on the basis of a single-phase gas,
unless water is present.
Retrograde Condensate (Black Oil Model or Compositional)
This fluid type accounts for the condensate drop out in the tubing.

2.3.2.1.2 Method
Black Oil
This option uses industry standard Black Oil models. Five correlations are
available for oil producers. For gas condensate systems an internally
developed model is used. These correlations can be adjusted to match
measured data using non-linear regression.
Equation of State
Reservoir fluid is modelled by pseudo components having user-specified
properties. The two equation of state models Peng-Robinson and SoaveRedlich-Kwong are available in PROSPER to predict PVT properties.
User EoS DLLs can also be linked into PROSPER.

2.3.2.1.3 Equation of State Setup


This button is active when Equation of State Method has been selected and can be
used to access all the options related to the use of the Equation of State:

EoS Model (Peng-Robinson or Soave-Redlich-Kwong)

Optimisation Mode (None, Low and Medium)

Volume Shift enable/disable

Reference Pressure and Temperature

Path to Surface and Recycle: Flash Straight to Stock Tank, Use


Separator Train, Use K values

Target GOR Method (Use Separator Fluids or Use Fluid from PSAT)

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2.3.2.1.4 Separator

Single Stage
This option is available for black oil option for following fluids:
Oil and water
Dry and Wet Gas
Two Stage
This option is available for Black oil model in case of Oil and Water fluid type only.
Separator and tank properties are entered and recombined by PROSPER.

Multi-Stage
This option is available for:
- Retrograde Condensate Black Oil model
- Equation of State Method
Up to 10 stages of separation can be modelled for compositional applications.

2.3.2.1.5 Emulsions
No or Emulsion + Pump viscosity correction
Select Emulsion + Pump viscosity correction to allow input of Emulsion
viscosity in the PVT section. This option must be selected to turn on pump
viscosity corrections.

2.3.2.1.6 Hydrates
Disable Warning or Enable Warning
Select Enable Warning to allow flagging of hydrates formation in calculation
screens. To use this feature, go to the PVT section and enter or import the
hydrates formation table.

2.3.2.1.7 Water Viscosity


Use Default Correlation or Use Pressure Corrected Correlation
When the default correlation is used, the water viscosity will be sensitive to
the water salinity and temperature. When the pressure corrected correlation
is used, the water viscosity will be sensitive to the water salinity, temperature
and pressure.

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2.3.2.1.8 Water Vapour


No Calculation or Calculate Condensed Water Vapour
This option is available for Dry and Wet Gas and Retrograde Condensate
fluid types with PVT Black Oil model. If Calculate Condensed Water Vapour
is selected, the condensation of water vapour will be taken into account when
performing pressure drop calculation.
2.3.2.1.9 Viscosity model
By default the fluid is considered Newtonian. If desired, non-Newtonian effects can be
modelled by selecting Non-Newtonian and entering in the PVT section rheologic
properties of the fluid.
2.3.2.2 Well
2.3.2.2.1 Flow Type
Tubing Flow
This option models flow through a circular cross sectional area (flow in tubing/
pipe)
Annular Flow
This option models production up the casing / tubing annulus
Tubing + Annular Flow
This option models production up the tubing, the annulus space, or tubing and
annulus simultaneously

2.3.2.2.2 Well Type


Producer
this option model production wells
Injector
This is a generic injector well. The fluid to be injected can be specified by the
User. Gas injectors can be modelled by selecting this option
Water Injector
Injection of single-phase water
CO2 Injection
The best approach to model CO2 Injection is to use an Equation Of State PVT Model
and set the Fluid Type as "Retrograde Condensate" and not "Dry And Wet Gas". The
reason behind this is that the "Dry And Wet Gas" models considers the fluid as a single
phase throughout the entire system and modifies the gas properties to account for the
condensate. The "Retrograde Condensate" model assumes multiphase flow modelling
allowing for gas and/or liquid phases to be present anywhere in the system (depending
on the prevailing pressure and temperature).

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N.B. In CO2 Injection, depending on the conditions of pressure and temperature, it is


possible to have phase changes somewhere in the system (Gas-.Liquid->Gas)
The Gray (and Modified Gray) correlation uses its own internal PVT calculator that
overrides the Prosper-calculated pvt properties and therefore this should not be used to
model CO2 Injection.

2.3.2.3 Artificial Lift


2.3.2.3.1 Method
The following artificial lift options are available when Oil is selected as a fluid type.
None
No artificial Lift selected
Gas Lift (continuous)
Three different approaches are provided. Annular gas lift is handled by
PROSPER. If the Flow Type is Annular Flow and a Gas Lift method is
selected, then PROSPER automatically
switches to model gas injection down the tubing, and production up the annulus
Options available: No Friction Loss in the Annulus, Friction Loss in the Annulus,
Safety Equipment
Electrical Submersible Pump
An ESP installation can be analysed or designed using this option
Hydraulic Drive Downhole Pump
A HSP installation can be analysed or designed using this option
Progressive Cavity Pumps
A PCP installation can be analysed or designed using this option
Coiled Tubing Gas Lift
Coiled Tubing with gas lift can be analysed or designed using this option
Diluent Injection
Injection of a given rate of diluent in the tubing can be modelled
Jet Pump
A Jet Pump installation can be analysed or designed using this option
Multiphase Pump
Framo multiphase pump can be analysed
Sucker Rod Pumps
A Sucker Rod Pump installation can be analysed and designed
Gas Lift (Intermittent)
PROSPER can be used to design and model the performance of wells with
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intermittent gas lift

2.3.2.3.2 Type
If Gas Lift is the chosen method, then the following types are available.
No Friction Loss In Annulus
It is the classic approach for the annulus gas gradient. The pressure drop
due to friction in the annulus is ignored and the gas gradient is determined by
the top casing pressure and the temperature profile.
Friction Loss In Annulus
The pressure drop due to friction in the annulus is taken into account, but the
top casing pressure is assumed constant. If this option is selected the tubing
equipment screens will automatically change and require tubing OD and
casing ID data to be entered.
Safety Equipment
Surface delivery lines, chokes, the gas lift injection string and safety valves in
the annulus are taken into account. Top casing pressures will change with
injection rate.
If Hydraulic Drive Downhole Pump is the chosen method, then the following types
are available.
Commingled Annular Supply
The power fluid for the turbine is supplied via the annulus and returns to
surface, commingled with the produced fluid via the tubing.
Commingled Tubing Supply
The power fluid for the turbine is supplied via the tubing and returns to
surface, commingled with the produced fluid via the annulus.
Closed Loop Supply
The power fluid for the turbine is supplied via the outer annulus and returns to
surface via the inner annulus. The reservoir fluid is produced through the
tubing. There is no commingling of produced and power fluids.
If Progressive Cavity Pump is the chosen method, then the following types are
available.
Sucker Rod Drive
The program will assume to have a surface drive head from which require
rods in order to move the rotor across the pump.
Downhole motor drive
The program assumes to have a downhole motor instead of surface drive
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motor.
If Coiled Tubing Gas Lift is the chosen method, then the following types are available.
No Friction Loss in Coiled Tubing
Friction losses along the coiled tubing are neglected.
Friction Loss in Coiled Tubing
Friction losses along the coiled tubing are accounted for.
If Diluent Injection is the chosen method, then the following types are available:
Tubing Injection-Annular Production
The power fluid is injected in the tubing and the production flows through the
annulus
Annular Injection-Tubing Production
The power fluid is injected in the annulus and the production flows through the
tubing
If Jet Pump is the chosen method, then the following types are available:
Tubing Injection-Annular Production
The power fluid is injected in the tubing and the production flows through the
annulus
Annular Injection-Tubing Production
The power fluid is injected in the annulus and the production flows through the
tubing
If Multiphase Pump is the chosen method, then the following types are available:
Framo Pumps

2.3.2.4 Calculation Type


2.3.2.4.1 Predict
The program is capable of predicting either pressure only or pressure and temperature
changes simultaneously.
Pressure Only
If this option is selected, the flowing temperature profile must be entered.
This calculation option is fast and can provide accurate pressure profiles,
however, it does not account for changes of temperature due to variation of
operating conditions.
Pressure and Temperature (On Land and Offshore)
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This option will calculate both pressure and temperature profiles using the
method specified in Temperature Model.

2.3.2.4.2 Model
Three models for temperature calculations are available:

Rough Approximation
Calculates the heat loss from the well to the surroundings using an overall
heat transfer coefficient, the temperature difference between the fluids
and the surrounding formation and the average heat capacity of the well
fluids. The geothermal gradient entry screen is used to input formation
temperatures (e.g. from logging runs) at measured depth points. A
minimum of the surface and first node temperatures are required.
Temperatures entered should be the extrapolated static temperatures,
and should not be confused with the entry of measured flowing
temperatures required for the Predicting pressure only case.
The Rough Approximation temperature model requires calibration using
measured temperature data. It is not accurate in a predictive mode.

Enthalpy Balance
This rigorous thermodynamic model considers heat transfer by
conduction, radiation, and forced and free convection. Heat transfer
coefficients are calculated using values held in a user-definable database.
The temperature prediction calculations are transient, allowing
sensitivities against flowing time to be run. This temperature model
requires considerably more input data and computation time for either
Predicting Pressure Only or the Rough Approximation temperature model.
The production riser is properly taken into account. Therefore the heat
loss prediction between the seabed and wellhead will be accurate. Due
to increased computation times, we recommend that this option be used
only when temperature prediction rather than pressure loss is the required
result (for e.g. process calculations and material selection).
The Enthalpy Balance temperature model is capable of accurate flowing
temperature prediction for a wide range of conditions.
The temperature prediction is useful for generating temperature profiles
in:
long pipelines
subsea wells
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high pressure/temperature exploration wells


predicting temperature/pressure profiles to help predict wax/
hydrate deposits.
These models also account for Joule-Thompson Effects.
The temperature calculation must commence from a known condition.
This is usually the reservoir pressure and temperature.
As a
consequence, calculating from a downstream node (unknown
temperature) to an upstream node (known temperature) is not meaningful
Improved Approximation
As the Enthalpy Balance model, this is also a full enthalpy balance
pressure and temperature prediction model, with the difference that the
term of the enthalpy balance concerning the heat exchange with the
surroundings (which includes free and forced convection, conduction and
radiation) is simplified by a heat loss term characterised by an overall
heat exchange coefficient.
For this reason data related to the completion hardware and thermal
properties are not necessary.
Like any enthalpy balance model, Joule-Thomson Effect is also accounted
for.
These characteristics make this model particularly useful when an
accurate calculation of temperature is sought for and only a few data on
the completion are available.
The geothermal gradient entry screen is used to input formation
temperatures (e.g. from logging runs) at measured depth points. A
temperature gradient in the sea can be entered for offshore applications.
A minimum of the surface and first node temperatures are required.
Temperatures entered should be the extrapolated static temperatures,
and should not be confused with the entry of measured flowing
temperatures required for the Predicting pressure only case.
The Improved Approximation temperature model requires calibration
using measured temperature data. It is not accurate in a predictive mode.

2.3.2.4.3 Calculation
Full System
Calculations for pipelines, tubing and reservoir
Pipeline Only
Calculations for pipelines only

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2.3.2.4.4 Output
Show calculating Data
During a calculation it displays the calculated values
Hide calculating Data
Select Hide to speed up calculations by not updating calculation screen displays.
This will automatically be set to Hide when run from GAP

2.3.2.5 Steam Calculation


NEW!!!
When the fluid type is set to Oil & Water and one of the enthalpy balance models
(Improved Approximation or Enthalpy Balance) is selected, the option to enable/disable
the steam calculations is available.
No Steam Calculations
Allow Steam Calculations

2.3.2.6 Well Completion


2.3.2.6.1 Type
Cased Hole or Open Hole
This selection determines the appropriate IPR Completion models to use. In
particular Cased Hole enables the availability of Skin models to calculate the
skin factor, whilst Open Hole disables the availability of Skin models.

2.3.2.6.2 Sand Control


Five options are currently available:
None

Gravel Pack

Pre-Packed Screen

Wire Wrapped Screen

Slotted liners

2.3.2.7 Reservoir
2.3.2.7.1 Type

Single Branch
This option allows to model single branch IPRs. The IPR screen comes with
various standard inflow models from which the user selects one.
Multilateral Well
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Enables the Multilateral IPR model. For the multi-lateral selection, the IPR screen
requires detailed drawing of the downhole completion.

2.3.2.7.2 Gas Coning


Yes or No
Rate dependant GOR will be modelled and calculated when Yes is selected.
This option is only available for Single Branch type wells.

2.3.2.8 User Information and Comments


These fields are optional. The details entered here provide the User information that
identifies the well model in the screen plots and printed reports. The Comments area is
used to enter free format text describing the details of the analysis. A Date stamp
feature is provided to mark either the comment text or the header data for future
reference.
We recommend that comments be used to summarise any assumptions made in the
analysis. Whenever an existing model is modified, appending a summary of changes
and a date stamp will greatly assist current and future users working with the file. This
information can be displayed on the main PROSPER screen by selecting the appropriate
option in the Preferences Section (Main Screen Tab - Status screen option).

2.3.3 Options - Perforating Gun DataBase


Under | Options | Perforating Database, a database for perforating guns is accessible.
The gun database initially originates from SPOT (Shell Perforating Optimisation Tool)
and permission was granted for its implementation into PROSPER.

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Like other databases in PROSPER, the user can add, delete and amend the inputs in the
gun database. A filter allows to select guns by:
- vendors,
- Gun OD
- Gun types
- Minimum restriction and
- Tolerance.
The following section was taken from the SPOT help file and is published with
permission from Shell:
The gun database contains API 19-B1 and API RP 43 Section I Data for perforating
guns available from:

Baker Hughes Incorporated (Baker)

Schlumberger (SLB)

Halliburton/ Jet Research Centre (Hall/JRC)


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Dynawell (DYNA)

Innicor Subsurface Technologies (INNICOR)

Owen Oil Tools (Owen)

Explosivos Technologicos Argentinos (ETA)

GEODynamics (GEODynamics)

Titan (TITAN)

Companies were provided with an opportunity to adjust/ update data in the SPOT Gun
Database. It is recommended that Users cross check all critical information with the
appropriate perforating manufacturer/ service company before a gun type/ completion
method is selected.
Sections I to IV of API 19-B are summarised below:

Section I - firing a fully-loaded gun section under ambient conditions into a


standard casing and cement target;

Section II - firing a single charge under pressurized conditions into a stressed


rock sample;

Section III - firing a single charge into a metal target at elevated temperature;

Section IV - firing a single charge into a stressed rock sample under simulated
wellbore and reservoir conditions, then measuring the flow performance of the
perforated sample relative to its performance prior to shooting;

Section V2 - measuring the amount of debris retained within a fired fully-loaded


gun section in order to calculate how much debris will be introduced into the
wellbore per foot of gun;

It should be noted that API RP43 preceded API RP19B. The American Petroleum
Institute (API) Perforating Subcommittee adopted API RP19B during November of
2000, and state that API 19B is the only document that API recognizes as valid in this
program. As API 19B data is not available for all gun systems, API RP43 data has also
been included in the database (data sources are clearly marked). Although API RP43 is
not officially valid, Section 1 testing for both API RP43 and API 19B is based on
concrete targets.
As concrete is not representative of reservoir rock, API 19-B and API-RP 43 Section 1
data is converted to downhole conditions in SPOT using Shell proprietary correlations
(based on laboratory research). Although these correlations should provide a
reasonable estimate of perforation characteristics in reservoir rock under downhole
conditions, a better estimate of perforation performance can be obtained by conducting

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reservoir specific Section II (firing a single charge under pressurized conditions into a
stressed rock sample) and/or Section IV tests (firing a single charge into a stressed
rock sample under simulated wellbore and reservoir conditions, then measuring the flow
performance of the perforated sample relative to its performance prior to shooting). If
Section II or Section IV data is available, it can be entered into the SPOT Vendor
Database under the Section II/Section IV Data heading.
If the concrete strength during the API RP 19B or API RP43 test is not recorded in the
Gun Database, in accordance with the minimum allowable strength specified in API RP
19B, a briquette strength of 5000psi is assumed in SPOT calculations.
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
__
1. API Recommended Practice 19-B, Recommended Practice for the Evaluation
of Well Perforators, 1st Edition, 28 Sep 2001
2. To be introduced in the next revision of RP 19-B, a draft of which is with API for
review at the time of writing.

2.3.4 Options - Tubing DataBase


Under | Options | Tubing Database, a comprehensive tubing data base is available in
PROSPER:

The database is also accessible from the down hole equipment screen so that the user
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can select any tubing from the database directly to be used for the description of the
down hole equipment.

2.3.5 Options - Casing DataBase


Under | Options | Casing Database, a comprehensive casing database is available in
PROSPER:

The database lists casing manufacturer, type, specification, seal, Casing OD, casing
weight, Casing ID and wall thickness.
The database can be accessed from the down hole equipment input screen. From the
down hole equipment screen, the user can select any casing available in the database
and use it directly for the description of the well bore.

2.3.6 Options - Pipe Schedule


Under | Options | Pipe Schedule, a comprehensive pipe database is available in
PROSPER:

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The database lists nominal pipe size, pipe OD, Iron Pipe Size, Steel schedule number,
wall thickness and pipe internal diameter.
The pipe database can be accessed from the surface equipment input screen. From
the surface equipment input screen, the user can select any pipe available in the
database and use it directly for the description of surface pipes.

2.4

PVT Data Input

2.4.1 Introduction
To predict pressure and temperature changes from the reservoir, along the well bore
and flow line tubular, it is necessary to accurately predict fluid properties as a function of
pressure and temperature. The User must enter data that fully describes the fluid
properties or enables the program to calculate them. There are four possible
approaches:
- Correlations: Where only basic PVT data is available, the program uses traditional
black oil correlations, such as Glaso, Beal, Petrosky etc. A unique black oil model is
available for condensates and details of this can be found later in this guide as well as
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the PROSPER manual.


- Matching: Where both basic fluid data and some PVT laboratory measurements are
available, the program can modify the black oil correlations to best-fit the measured
data using a non-linear regression technique.
- Tables: Where detailed PVT laboratory data is provided, PROSPER uses this data
instead of the calculated properties. This data is entered in table format (PVT tables),
and can be supplied either manually or imported from an outside source. So called
black oil tables can be generated from an EOS model and then be imported and used
in PROSPER.
- Compositional: Where the full Equation of State description of the fluid is available
and all the PVT can be obtained from a Peng-Robinson or a Soave Redlich Kwong
description of the fluid phase behaviour.
Note with regards to the PVT definitions:
Use of Tables: Tables are usually generated using one fluid composition which
implies a single GOR for the fluid. This will therefore not provide the right fluid
description when we have injection of hydrocarbons in the reservoir or when
the reservoir pressure drops below the bubble/dew point.
Use of EOS: The equations of state are models that need to be matched to
measured lab data (PVT lab report). Care has to be taken in order to make sure
that the EOS has been matched and is applicable for the range of Pressures
and Temperatures to be investigated.
The program also allows fluid properties to be calculated and plotted for specified
pressure and temperature ranges. The PVT menu has three options - Report, Input and
Export. Select Report to inspect previously entered data, Export to save data to a text
file, or Input to set up a new problem or edit an existing one.
Recommended Steps
Only Limited PVT Data Available (Minimum required for correlations)
Enter data as requested on PVT input data screen and select correlations
that are known to best fit the region or oil type.
Limited PVT Data and Laboratory Measured Data Available
Enter the basic black oil data requested in the PVT input data screen.
Enter PVT laboratory data in the Match Data data menu. The laboratory PVT
data and the fluid properties entered on the data input screen must be
consistent. Flash Data must be used. Up to 5 tables of laboratory
measurements made at different temperatures may be entered. Use the T
ables buttons to switch between tables. Click OK to return to the PVT input
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screen.
At this point it is possible to Calculate PVT properties using a correlation
and Plot the calculated and match data to see how closely the non-optimised
correlation fits.
Select Regression, then Match All. A non-linear regression will be
performed to best fit each correlation to the measured lab data. Once the
calculation is finished, select Parameters and identify the correlation that
best fits the measured data. This correlation should then be selected and this
modified correlation will be used in all further calculations of fluid property
data. The fit parameters are the multiplier and shift applied to the correlation
in order to fit the lab data. If the correlation were a perfect fit to the match
data, Parameter 1 would be set to 1.0 and Parameter 2 would be zero.
In order to see how well the tuned correlations fit the data, on the regression
screen there is plot utility, which will plot the variable values from the matched
correlations, and the data entered simultaneously, to allow the User to see
how good the fit is. Select Plot to display both the calculated and measured
PVT data. Select the Variables option on the plot menu bar to choose the
fluid property data to display.

2.4.2 Black Oil - Oil and Water


2.4.2.1 Input Data
Select the PVT Input option from the main menu to display the following PVT Input data
screen:

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Enter the required data in the fields provided. Movement from one box to another can
be done using the TAB key. Next, select a Pb, Rs and Bo correlation and a viscosity
correlation to use then click OK.

Enter the oil solution GOR. This should not include free gas production. For
gas production in wells producing injection or gas cap gas the solution GOR
should still be entered. The balance of free gas production is accounted for
elsewhere.

Mole Percent CO2, N2 and H2S refers to the separator gas stream composition.
CO2 Injection

When an "Oil and Water" model is used to describe the fluid, the viscosity
correlation used by default for gas viscosity calculations is the Lee
correlation.

For some details about the input parameters, refer to the Glossary (Appendix E).

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2.4.2.2 Tables
In PROSPER the PVT data can also be entered as tables by clicking Tables from the
main PVT input screen. Up to fifty separate tables may be entered, each at a different
temperature. The program will use the data from the tables in all further calculations
provided the Use Tables option has been selected on the input data screen. This
option should be used only when extensive table data is available for a range of
temperatures.

Rather than entering the values by hand, PROSPER can read in tables of Black Oil PVT
properties. To do this, click the Import button from the Tables screen, and PROSPER will
prompt for the name of an ASCII file containing the PVT data. Petroleum Experts
PVT Package PVTp can be used to calculate and export Black Oil PVT tables. An
example of the PVT Table import file format is given in Appendix D.
Alternatively, data can be passed directly from Excel on a table-only basis using the
Clip button. The Clip button will paste the copied data from Excel into the selected PVT
table.

PROSPER interpolates the entered table data and if the entered data is
incomplete i.e., one table containing only a single row of values will result in
interpolation errors.

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Importing Data from Text Files.


Clip
This option allows to import and export data from/to the Clipboard or export the tables to
Printer, Screen, etc.

2.4.2.3 Match Data


Click the Match Data button and enter PVT laboratory measured data to match to as
shown on the example screen below:

Since gas evolution in the tubing is a constant composition process, Flash data, not
differential liberation data should be used for matching. For each match data table,
enter the temperature and bubble point, then enter pressure versus gas oil ratio, oil FVF
and oil viscosity. Where data is incomplete or not available, leave the field blank. Use
the GOR and FVF at bubble point plus the viscosity if available. Enter only the minimum
number of points to ensure a good match.

Where only differential liberation PVT data is available, a PVT simulation


program like Petroleum Experts' PVT package PVTp can be used to
calculate the flash properties using a model that has been matched to the lab
data.

Better results for sparse laboratory PVT data sets are usually obtained using
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correlations matched to the available lab data rather than using a PVT table lookup.
Clip
This option allows to import and export data from/to the Clipboard or export the tables to
Printer, Screen, etc.

2.4.2.4 Regression
This option is used to perform the non-linear regression, which adjusts the correlations
to best-fit laboratory measured PVT data. The non-linear regression matching
technique can be used on up to five PVT match tables, each with a different
temperature. The following PVT properties can be used as match variables:
Pb
Bubble point pressure.
GOR
Gas oil ratio versus pressure.
Oil FVF
Oil formation volume factor versus pressure.
Oil viscosity Oil viscosity versus pressure.
It is not necessary to match on all properties for all applications. In cases where the
PVT data is incomplete or of poor quality, better results can often be obtained by
matching on the best characterised parameters only. However, because bubble point
can be difficult to accurately predict from correlations, it is recommended that, where
possible, it is used as a match parameter. The minimum data required to perform a
regression match is the bubble point and GOR.

The form of the correlations for FVF is different above and below the bubble
point. If the FVF at bubble point is not available, the regression may not
achieve good results. When matching the oil FVF, always enter data at the
bubble point. Do not enter many match points only use the minimum number
to define the shape of the correlation curves. In most cases, only data at the
bubble point is required.

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2.4.2.4.1 Match
From the Regression screen, individual correlations can be matched to selected
measured PVT data by:
Selecting the correlations
Selecting the fluid properties to match to
Clicking Match

2.4.2.4.1.1 Match All

All correlations can be matched to all the fluid property data in one keystroke by
selecting the Match All command button.

2.4.2.4.1.2 Parameters

Having performed the matching process, the match parameters are displayed by
clicking the Parameters button. The non-linear regression technique applies a multiplier
- Parameter 1, and a shift - Parameter 2 to the correlations. The standard deviation is
also displayed, which represents the overall closeness of fit. The lower the standard
deviation, the better the fit. The best overall model is the one that has Parameter 1
closest to unity.
The Parameters button displays the PVT correlations parameters screen. This shows
the match parameters and the standard deviation for each matched correlation. Use
these statistics to select the best correlation for the data set and conditions pertaining to
the application. A plot should be made (refer calculation and plot sections) and a visual
check of the fit quality performed before making the final correlation selection. The
match parameters can be reset i.e. returned to the un-matched state by selecting the
reset option. The following is an example of a correlation parameters screen:

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The standard correlations do not always accurately model the FVF above bubble point
(especially for heavy or waxy oils). Additional match parameters (Parameter 3 and 4)
have been introduced to allow the FVF to be independently tuned below (P1 and P2)
and above (P3 and P4) the bubble point.
In all circumstances, always enter match data at the bubble point to ensure that no
discontinuities occur.

2.4.2.5 Correlations
This options displays the match parameters and standard deviations for each matched
correlation. See the Match section for a more detailed explanation.

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2.4.2.6 Calculate
In order to make a plot or listing of fluid property data, PROSPER must first calculate the
values over a specified range of temperatures and pressures. Using the calculated
data points, plots of fluid properties versus temperature or pressure can be generated.
The following is an example of the PVT Calculations screen. If the correlations have
been matched, then the fluid properties will be calculated using the modified
correlations.

The calculation procedure is optional and used only to generate fluid property
data for display and quality control purposes. During the computation of a
pressure traverse, PROSPER calculates fluid properties at each pressure and
temperature step or node as required by the application.

2.4.2.6.1 Calculating PVT Data


The Calculate button access the PVT calculator, which can be used to perform
calculation of PVT properties with varying Pressure and Temperature.

To generate tables and plots of PVT data:


Select Correlations (use the best matched one)
Select Automatic generation of Data Points
Enter the temperature range and number of steps
Enter the pressure range and number of steps
Click OK
Click Calculate to compute PVT data for the entire range of pressures and
temperatures required by the modelling application. The following calculation
screen will be displayed:

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The PVT section can be used as a convenient calculator by entering User selected data
points, then entering specific temperatures and pressures to calculate fluid properties.

2.4.2.6.2 Displaying the Calculated Data on the screen


The calculated data is displayed on the screen as default. Options to choose the
calculated variables to be displayed are available by using Layout button in the PVT
Calculation Results screen. Selecting Layout displays the list of all calculated variables
that can be selected to customise viewing.

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2.4.2.6.3 Plotting the Calculated Data


The calculated data can be displayed on a plot. The variables, which are plotted, are
defined under the Variables option on the plot. After performing a PVT calculation click
Plot from the PVT calculation screen. Display the selected results by following this
procedure:
Click Variables.
Select Pressure for the X-axis.
Select GOR for the Y-axis.
Click OK to display a plot showing both the calculated values and the measured
values similar to the following:

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Carefully examine the PVT plots for consistency with the match data. If necessary,
select a different correlation and repeat the PVT calculations until satisfactory results
have been obtained.

2.4.2.6.4 Saving PVT tables from Calculated Data


The calculated data can be saved in the form of .ptb files by the button Save PTB
provided at top of the calculation results screen.
There is also the possibility of transferring the displayed calculation to the Tables by
pressing on the Tables button.

2.4.2.7 Save the PVT Data


This option allows a PVT data set to be saved under a separate name. A dialogue box
will appear prompting to name the PVT file. The PVT extension is automatically
provided by the program. If this step is omitted, the program will automatically save the
(matched) PVT data in a .PVT file with the same name as the input (.SIN) file.
2.4.2.8 Open
This option allows a previously saved PVT data set to be recalled into the open file. A
dialogue box will appear prompting to select a PVT file. If this step is carried out after
recalling a .SIN file, this will overwrite the PVT data from the original file.

For multi-well projects, set up matched PVT models for each producing area
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first. This will save time and reduce the potential for error by recalling the
relevant PVT data into each well file.

2.4.2.9 Composition
In the PVT Input Data screen, click the Composition button, and PROSPER will use the
PVT properties (Oil Gravity, GOR) to estimate the composition of the reservoir fluid.
The estimated composition is used internally by PROSPER to calculate thermodynamic
properties needed in the choke and enthalpy balance temperature models. The
following is an example of an estimated Black Oil composition:

Click BI Coefficients and PROSPER will display the Binary Interaction coefficients to be
used in an EOS description of the fluid. An example BI Coefficients display is shown
below:

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Estimation of reservoir fluid composition is available for Oil and Retrograde


Condensate fluids.

2.4.2.10Emulsions
If Options | Emulsions is selected PROSPER allows selection of the emulsion
occurrence in the system from the PVT input dialogue. This tells PROSPER where the
viscosity corrections will take place during calculation
The Flowline Emulsion Data button opens the Emulsion Data entry screen.
Water cut can be entered at this point that will then be used to calculate the emulsion
viscosity in the PVT calculation section.
2.4.2.10.1 Emulsions
PROSPER can model the effect of Oil/Water emulsions on mixture viscosity for Black Oil
PVT systems. The behaviour of emulsions in producing well equipment is not well
understood. Emulsion PVT in PROSPER provides a means to assess possible effects
of increased emulsion viscosity by curve fitting experimentally determined data. It must
be emphasised that the method is empirical and does not represent any rigorous model
of emulsion behaviour.
In the laboratory, stable emulsions can be prepared from many crude oil / water
systems. Emulsion samples discovered in surface separation equipment do not
necessarily imply that emulsions are present in the well. Field experience shows that
the effect of emulsions is usually less than predicted by laboratory tests. Emulsion PVT
should be used with caution and only when it is certain that emulsions are present and it
is necessary to evaluate their effect on calculated pressures.

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To enable emulsion PVT in PROSPER, the Emulsion option must first be selected on the
Options screen. Emulsion viscosity will replace the mixture viscosity for selected
elements of the production system. Experimental or empirical emulsion viscosity data
can be entered and curve-fitted using non-linear regression. The fitted curve is used to
optionally replace the oil/water mixture viscosity in IPR, VLP and pump calculations.
When selected, emulsion viscosity for the User-entered value of water cut will be
substituted for the fluid mixture viscosity.
Drop down the Emulsion box and select from the following:
No viscosity corrections
Turns off emulsion viscosity corrections
Everywhere
Emulsion viscosity for IPR, VLP and pump if present
Tubing and Pipe
Emulsion viscosity for casing, tubing and pump if present
Pump only
Emulsion viscosity for pump only
Pump and Above
Emulsion viscosity in pump and tubing above pump
Tubing + Pipe (not pump)
Emulsion viscosity in tubing and pipe only
The selection of system elements affected by emulsion can be changed at a later time

Even if No Emulsion Corrections has been selected on the PVT screen,


pump viscosity corrections will be applied whenever Options Emulsions is
selected. Produced fluid viscosity, not emulsion viscosity, will then be used for
corrections.

To set up the emulsion model, select Emulsion Everywhere, (otherwise emulsion


viscosity will not be active for the PVT calculations) then click the Emulsion Data button
and the following screen will be displayed.

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The screen is divided into 3 sections:


Emulsion Data

Experimental data for matching

Experimental Parameters

Experimental base conditions

Match Parameters

Results of regression

The pressure and temperature that correspond to the experimental conditions are
entered in Experimental Parameters. This enables PROSPER to correct the emulsion
viscosity for temperature and pressure.

Emulsions Everywhere must be selected before plotting the emulsion


viscosity curve. The emulsion viscosity entered for zero water cut should be
compatible with the 100% oil viscosity at the experimental temperature and
pressure.

Emulsion viscosity is modelled as a function of water cut in 3 stages:


Sharp increase at low water cut
Plateau with a constant maximum viscosity for intermediate water cuts
Tail that declines to the viscosity of water after the plateau
The parameters Left and Right Water Cut for Maximum Viscosity define the maximum
plateau region. To calculate emulsion viscosity:
Enter pairs of water cut and emulsion viscosity data points in the Emulsion
Data table.
Enter the Experimental Parameters
Click the Match button.
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When the regression has stopped, click Plot to display the matched mixture viscosity:

Match data is plotted as crosses, whereas the calculated viscosity is shown as a solid
line.
When Emulsions Everywhere have been selected, the calculated Oil Viscosity in the
PVT section will be replaced by the emulsion viscosity for the value of Water Cut
entered.

2.4.2.11Non-Newtonian Fluid
PROSPER can model the effect of non-Newtonian fluids.
The implementation of the model is based on drilling fluid models developed by
TotalFinaElf.
A fluid whose viscosity is not constant at all shear rates and does not behave like a
Newtonian fluid would fall into this category. This will enable foams in heavy oils to be
modelled more accurately. Most drilling fluids are non-Newtonian.

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To enter the required non-Newtonian fluid viscosity data, select Rheological Parameters
from the PVT Input Data screen:

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The model is based on the Herschel-Bulkley shear model:

where:
= Shear Stress
0 = Yield Stress
K = Consistency Index
= Shear Rate
n = Shear Thinning Index
For further details about how the viscosity model is used to determine the apparent
viscosity, please refer to the Help on-line of PROSPER.
2.4.2.12Power Fluid Data
If one of the following Artificial Lift Methods have been selected: HSP (Hydraulic
Submersible Pump), Diluent Injection or Jet Pump, then additional details of the power
fluid must be supplied to estimate the fluid properties.
There are two choices for power fluid type:

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Water (not available for Diluent Injection)


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Other Fluid

If Water is selected, then the only other data required is the salinity of the power fluid.
The program will then estimate fluid properties using the normal water PVT model.
If Other Fluid is selected, then tables of fluid properties need to be entered that
PROSPER will use for interpolation. The program will never extrapolate so please ensure
that the table data covers the expected ranges of pressures and temperatures. Click the
Properties button and the following screen will be displayed.

Tables of data for up to 10 temperatures may be entered. Please ensure that the tables
span the expected range of conditions that will be encountered.

The Generate feature allows to automatically calculate the tables using the
PVT model in the main screen.
If a PVT model is available for the power fluid, the suggestion is the following:
1. Enter in the PVT main screen the fluid black oil properties
2. Use Generate to create the tables modelling the power fluid
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3. Enter in the main screen the black oil parameters for the produced fluid

2.4.2.13Hydrates Formation table


If the Hydrates | Enable Warning option has been selected in the main program
Options, then a hydrate pressure temperature look-up table must be entered.
Click the Hydrates button and the following entry screen will be displayed.

Enter here the hydrate formation phase envelope conditions.


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Up to one hundred data points may be entered. Please ensure that the table spans
within the expected range of conditions that will be encountered.

2.4.3 Black Oil - Dry And Wet Gas


All the condensate drop out is assumed to occur at the separator. Free water
production in the tubing is considered. For pressure drop calculations, an equivalent
gas rate is used which allows for the condensate by ensuring that a mass balance is
observed.

2.4.3.1 Input Data


When Dry and Wet Gas is selected as the PVT option, the following Input data screen
is displayed:

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The bottom-right part of the screen will only appear when the option Calculate
Condensate Water Vapour is selected in the Options | Water Viscosity section. If
this option is selected, the effects of condensation of water vapour on the pressure drop
calculation in the tubing / pipeline will be taken into account.
This model applies to most gas wells. The condensate production is included in the gas
stream as an increase in density - the flow remains single-phase gas plus free water if
present. The Separator Pressure is used to estimate the GE (Gas Equivalent Rate).
The separator temperature is assumed to be the same as the top node temperature. If
there is significant hydrocarbon liquid drop out in the tubing, a retrograde condensate
model should be used.
The Separator Pressure is used to calculate

The Gray VLP correlation has an internal PVT routine that models the effect of
liquid dropout in the tubing. This overrides the Dry and Wet gas PVT.

Produced gas is generally saturated with water at reservoir pressure and


temperature. Some water of condensation always drops out at the separator.
This water has a minimal effect on calculated bottom hole pressures. The
WGR considers free water production at the sandface.

Please refer to the PVT Matching Data section. Matching operations are
carried out as for oil PVT.

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2.4.4 Black Oil - Retrograde Condensate


The PROSPER Retrograde condensate (Black Oil) model has been developed in house
by Petroleum Experts. This model predicts liquid drop out taking place in the tubing.
The reservoir gas gravity is determined using the principle of mass balance for an
equivalent density of the oil.
Unlike bubble point systems (oil), the black oil condensate model should not be
matched against lab or simulated PVT data. This is because the black oil model for
condensate in PROSPER uses a mathematical model based upon mass balance and
matching could throw the model out of bounds.
The equations used are given in Appendix B.
2.4.4.1 Input Data
When Retrograde Condensate (Black oil) PVT is selected the following input data
screen is displayed:

Enter the required data.


Note:
If tank GOR and tank gas gravity is unknown, they can be left at 0. The unmeasured tank
gas rate should be estimated using a suitable correlation and added to the separator
gas. For such cases, the total produced GOR should be entered under separator GOR.
Condensate gravity is at standard conditions.

If the separator pressure is above dew point, then there can be no liquid
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production. When the dew point is unknown, set it to the reservoir pressure.
PROSPER handles conflicting input data by dropping the separator pressure to
atmospheric, and increasing the separator gas gravity as required accounting
for the liquid production indicated by the Separator GOR. The mass balance
is respected at all times.

The black oil condensate model must not be matched as previously done for
oils. This is because the black oil model for condensate in PROSPER uses a
mathematical model and matching could throw the model out of bounds.

2.4.4.2 Calculations
Fluid property data can be calculated for a specified range of temperatures and
pressures. If the correlations have been matched, then the matched correlations will be
used for the calculations. Plots of fluid properties versus temperature or pressure can
be generated.

The calculated PVT property values should be compared to constant


composition expansion (CCE) data, as this process best describes the
evolution of the fluid in the tubing.

2.4.5 Export
NEW!!!
The Export button enables the user to export input data, correlation parameters, Match
Data, Tables and Calculation results from the PVT main section.

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2.4.6 Equation Of State - All Fluids


This PVT option allows PROSPER to calculate the vapour fraction and fluid physical
properties using an equation of state (EOS) description for the reservoir fluid.
Peng-Robinson and Soave Redlich Kwong EOS models are available in PROSPER,
also User EOS PVT modules can also be linked to PROSPER. The PVT calculation
method is identical for all reservoir fluid types (i.e. oil and water, condensate or gas).
The fluid type selected will affect the choice of IPR and VLP models as well as the
range of available sensitivity variables.
Equations of State were developed to give a mathematical relationship between
pressure, volume and temperature. They were originally put forward as a method of
interpreting the non-ideal nature of many pure substances. With time, this role has been
extended successfully to predicting the properties of simple and complex mixtures.
The equations used in PROSPER are derived from Van der Waals Equation and in
common with it represent the total pressure as a summation of an attractive and a
repulsive element:
P total = P repulsive - P attractive
The classic Van der Waals equation describes this relationship as

where b represents the hard-sphere volume of the molecules and a the intermolecular
attraction.

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The two cubic Equations of State which are available in PROSPER are:
1) Peng-Robinson (PR)EoS:

and,
2) Soave-Redlich-Kwong(SRK)EoS:

All cubic Equations of State can be rewritten as a function of the compressibility factor Z
e.g. the Peng Robinson equation becomes:

and for SRK


where

and

The PVT calculation method is identical for all reservoir fluid types i.e., oil and water,
condensate or gas.
The choice of fluid type affects the choice of IPR and VLP models as well as the range
of available sensitivity variables.
A Note about using the EOS option
PROSPER can handle pressure drop calculations using EOS PVT in two distinct ways:

PROSPER Manual

It can calculate fluid properties at each calculation step from the EOS explicitly.
This option eliminates any potential interpolation errors, as the EOS is used to
calculate fluid properties at the exact node pressure and temperature. The
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additional computing overhead required by this method increases calculation


times.

If PVT tables have been generated using the EoS, selecting the Interpolated from
Generated Tables option instructs PROSPER to look up and interpolate the
tables. The tables must be calculated over a sufficient number of points that
cover the entire range of pressures and temperatures to reduce interpolation
errors. For problems that require it, the Use Tables option allows an EOS fluid
description to be used without significantly increasing computation times.
PROSPER will determine whether the reservoir fluid is an oil or a gas
condensate within the EOS PVT calculations. Since the VLP correlations are
approached differently depending on whether a gas or oil is being produced,
when running calculations, if the fluid type recognised during the calculations is
different to the fluid type specified in the main program Options screen, the
program will display a warning message

2.4.6.1 EOS Model Setup


The EOS fluid mode options must be consistent with the entered compositional data for
PROSPER to calculate.

The EoS options can now be set up by selecting EoS Setup:


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The following main EOS options can be pre-set:


EoS Model
Select one of the available EoS equations: Peng-Robinson or Soave-RedlichKwong.

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Optimisation Mode
Over the past few years, our PVT experts have been working on ways to speed up the
calculation of properties from an EOS model. Speed is one of the main issues with fully
compositional models and the options in this field will define the speed of calculations.
The objective of this option is to speed up the calculations without penalising the
accuracy the results. The Medium mode is the fastest (up to 80 times)
Volume Shift
Option to enable/disable the use of Volume Shift in the EoS.

Path to Surface
This Option specifies the path the fluid follows down to standard condition.
This is essential when calculating volumetric properties like FVF or GOR, which are
path dependent. The amount of gas and liquid resulting from the calculations will be
different depending on the path the fluid will take to standard conditions. These are the
available options:

Flash Straight to Stock Tank

Use Separator Train

Use K values
The Use K Values option is an addition to the compositional modelling that
allows modelling the process based on K-values (equilibrium ratios). This can
allow process calculations from systems more complex than separation to be
represented as Pseudo separators and can be obtained from process
simulators.
To import the K values select Import KValues:

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K-values can be entered by hand or also generated in PVTp by performing a simple


separator experiment, and then exported to PROSPER.

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These options should reflect the EOS available for the fluid (from PVTP
for example) and the process (path) the fluid follows to standard
conditions (which will affect the volumes and quality of the resulting
fluid)

Target GOR Method


A single composition will only provide a single value of GOR through a defined
separator train. There are applications when other GOR values are required e.g. in the
production of lift curves. This calculation takes the gas and oil derived from the fluid and
recombines them until it reaches the target value.
There are two methods available to the user. The difference between them lies in the
source of the gas and liquid to be mixed.
Use Separator fluids
uses the dead oil and accumulated separator gas to create the mixture
Use fluid from PSAT
finds the saturation pressure of the fluid. The program then flashes just below
PSAT to obtain an oil and gas composition. These are mixed to achieve the target
GOR. It should be
noted that this retricts any target that can be found to the
RS of the oil below PSAT and the GOR of the equivalent gas. Although more
restricted, this mixture better reflects the case of an oil entraining gas cap gas
etc.

2.4.6.2 EOS PVT Input Data


A sample EOS PVT input screen is shown below:

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The EOS fluid model is activated via the Options Summary screen where the various
EOS options can be selected. The Options can also be changed from the EoS main
screen by selecting Change.
This screen requires input of pseudo component concentrations and properties (critical
temperature, pressure and volume, acentric factor, molecular weight and specific
gravity). Up to 30 pseudo components can be entered. Entry of Critical Volume,
Volume Shift, Boiling Point Temperature and Parachor are optional.
Use of regressed critical volume data will improve the quality of calculated liquid
viscosities. Where critical volume data is unavailable, PROSPER uses a correlation to
estimate the values. The Parachor is used for surface tension calculation. Binary
interaction components are entered on a screen similar to that shown below by clicking
on the BI coeffs button from the EOS input screen.

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After entering the interaction coefficients, click OK to return to the input screen. Then
click Generate to display a screen requesting the range of pressures and temperatures
and the number of pressure and temperature steps to calculate.

2.4.6.2.1 Importing Matched EoS


The EoS model can also be imported by using the ImportPRP feature.
The .PRP file contains all the information necessary to the EoS: EoS parameters, BI
Coefficients, Options, Separator train, etc., and can be generated using Petroleum
Experts' PVTP.

2.4.6.3 Using the EoS

2.4.6.3.1 Generate PVT properties


The fluid properties can be generated using the EoS in different ways:

Calculated directly from the EoS

Interpolate the properties from Tables generated by the EoS itself

The first option is the most accurate, though the slowest.


Choose the desired option from the menu available in the left bottom of the EoS
window.
Performing CCE calculations
Calculate the PVT fluid properties using the EOS directly by clicking Generate.

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Enter the range of temperatures and pressures and Calculate | Calculate.

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Display the results by clicking Plot

Properties
Click the Properties button and the program will determine the equivalent black oil
properties by flashing the fluid to atmospheric (i.e. standard) conditions using the

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separator scheme entered in the main screen.

Production rates entered in PROSPER when using EOS PVT assume the
produced fluid is flashed through the user-entered separator train.

The EOS option in PROSPER is not intended to be used as a fully featured


PVT package. For the initial compositional calibration of the fluid, it is
recommended to use a specialized program such as Petroleum Experts
PVTP.

The Gray VLP correlations internal PVT will override the EOS PVT.

2.4.6.3.2 Phase Envelope


Generating the Phase Envelope
The phase envelope can be displayed by selecting the Phase Envelope button.
In this section the Phase Envelope can be calculated:

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The Plot button displays the calculated Envelope:

PROSPER will automatically calculate the Cricondentherm, Cricondenbar and where


applicable, the critical point.
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The EOS input screen allows pseudo component data to be imported directly from data
files such as those generated by Petroleum Experts' PVT package PVTp or other
programs. Simply click Import and select the appropriate file from the dialogue box.
Once fluid properties have been generated, they can be saved in a .PVT file by clicking
the Save button and entering a file name when prompted.
Calculate Hydrate...Wax
This utility allows to calculate the Hydrate formation curve, along with the wax occurrence
temperature.
The Hydrate formation curve and wax formation temperature plot will be displayed along
with the phase envelope.
2.4.6.3.3 Target GOR
This feature allows to calculate the recombined fluid composition characterised by a
GOR different to the Original Composition GOR:

Enter the new GOR in the Target GOR field and then Calculate, and the program will use
the Target GOR method defined in the main EoS options in order to determine the new
composition.
The Calculated composition is reported in the Calculated column.

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Equipment Data Input


This section describes the menu option used to define the well's hardware, deviation
survey and flowing temperature profile. The program requests only the data required by
the Options that have been selected.
The data required for temperature prediction depends on the temperature model used.
For the Rough Approximation and Improved Approximation, there is little additional
data required. For the rigorous Enthalpy Balance temperature model, it is necessary
to completely define the well environment, including all casing strings, cement tops,
formation lithology etc.
A Note about Depth References.

Depths in PROSPER for downhole and surface equipment are referenced to zero
on the deviation survey screen. Calculated pressures are then referenced to the
Xmas tree (if no surface equipment has been entered) or Manifold (if surface
equipment has been entered). Therefore, when PROSPER well models are
combined in a field-wide system model, the depth references that were used in
the individual PROSPER models are not important. In the field model, however,
the depth of each well's Top Node must be known with respect to a common
reference.

For subsea systems, any depth reference (e.g. sea level, drill floor, ground level)
can be used. If ground level is used, then a tied back well would have a negative
wellhead elevation. To minimise the potential for errors in correcting the depths, it
is recommended to use the same reference as used for the deviation survey data.

2.5.1 Predicting Pressure Only


When predicting Pressure only, click System Equipment to display the following input
screen:

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To start data entry for a new application, click All Edit. PROSPER will then display all
the relevant input screens in sequence.
If data has already been entered, clicking the Summary command button will display a
summary of the current equipment.
To go back and edit one particular equipment item, click on the button beside the
appropriate item.
Data can be entered for the surface equipment and then include or exclude it
temporarily from any calculation by setting the Disable Surface Equipment choice box
at the bottom of the screen to Yes.

2.5.1.1 Deviation Survey


From the well deviation survey, select a few depth points that mark significant changes
in deviation. Enter pairs of data points for measured depth (MD) and the corresponding
true vertical depth (TVD). Up to 18 pairs of data points can be entered.
The editing buttons Cut, Copy, Paste, Insert and Delete operate on data records that
have been selected by clicking on their row number button(s). All records can be
simultaneously selected by clicking the All button. Use the Import button to import data
from a wide variety of sources.

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There is a Measured Depth to True Vertical Depth (and the reverse is true) at the
bottom.
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If the user wishes to find the TVD at a given MD, just enter the MD value in the
relevant space and select Calculate. If the User wishes to find the MD at a given
TVD, just enter the TVD value in the relevant space and select Calculate
Once depths have been entered, plot the well profile by selecting Plot. A plot similar to
the one below will be displayed:

The reference depth used by PROSPER for all calculations is zero in the
Deviation Survey table. The Deviation Survey table is interpolated to determine
the difference in TVD between any two well nodes. MD and TVD data must be at
least as deep as the bottomhole tubing depth; PROSPER will not calculate
beyond the last depth in the table.

Deviation Survey data entry is required also for vertical wells - enter 0,0 for the
surface reference and an MD the same as the TVD of the intake node. The
deviation survey has to start with 0 measured depth and 0 TVD. Due to this
reason, the reference depth (where TVD = 0) has to be at or above the wellhead.

For a sub-sea well (with or without pipeline), if the reference depth is selected in
such a way that it is above the wellhead (at the mean sea level for instance), we
can actually assume an imaginary vertical path in the deviation survey table down
to the wellhead. We do not need to include the pipeline measured depth in the
deviation survey. The deviation survey describes the deviation of the downhole
equipment only.

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Horizontal wells with deviation angles greater than 90 degrees from vertical can
be entered. PROSPER will issue a warning that the TVD of one node is less than
the previous one, but well profile plots and calculations will proceed as normal.

For Horizontal wells the deviation survey may be entered only up to the heel of the
well, as the well from the heel all the way up to the to is a part of the inflow
description.

2.5.1.1.1 Filter
When more than 18 points are available, the Filter allows a determined number of
points (up to 18) that best-fit the entered points (see figure below).

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In the Raw Data table (figure above) enter the data from the survey.
It is possible to copy the table by selecting the first row (click on the number
1) and Paste from the Clipboard
These are the function buttons:
Calculate Angle
Reset
Filter
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Calculates the angle of deviation from the vertical


Deletes the entered data
Calculates a number of points which fit the deviation table
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entered on the left. Check the fitting by hitting on Plot. If this is not
ok, change some parameters (like for example the
angle step)
Transfers the calculated points to the main Deviation Survey

When selecting Filter, the program will fit up to 18 points in order to reproduce the well
trajectory previously imported:

The Plot function allows to quality check the fitting. In the plot the well entered trajectory
(in red) is plotted along with the fitted points (in green):
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2.5.1.2 Surface Equipment


The Surface Equipment screen is used to enter surface flowline, choke and pipe fitting
data as shown below:

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Fittings have been added to the surface equipment section of PROSPER to account for
the various pressure losses associated with pipe fittings throughout a given system:

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PROSPER defines surface equipment as the pipe work between the production manifold
and the upstream side of the wellhead choke. The production manifold is regarded by
PROSPER as presenting a constant back-pressure, regardless of flow rate. If systems
analysis is to be performed relative to the wellhead, (i.e. gathering system pressure
losses are neglected) then no surface equipment input is required.
The surface equipment model can be described using the following 2 elements:
Pipe
Choke
The manifold is set as the first equipment type automatically by PROSPER. Surface
equipment geometry can be entered either as pairs of X, Y co-ordinates relative to the
manifold or the Xmas Tree, Reverse X, Y (Y co-ordinates deeper than the reference
depth are negative) or TVD of the upstream end and the length of the pipe segment.
The difference in TVD between the ends of a pipe segment is used to calculate gravity
head losses. The internal diameter (ID), roughness and pipe length entered determine
the friction pressure loss. The flowing temperatures for each upstream node must also
be entered when calculation option Pressure only is selected.
The Rate Multiplier column enables simulation of the pressure drop due to several
identical wells being connected to a production manifold via a common surface flow
line. The fluid velocity in the flowline is multiplied by the value entered increasing the
frictional pressure losses. For most applications it should be left at its default value of 1.
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As an example, the pressure drop in a flowline connected to 3 identical wells


could be modelled using a pipeline rate multiplier of 3. 2 parallel flowlines
having identical dimensions can be modelled by entering the actual
dimensions for one pipe and a pipeline rate multiplier of 0.5. It is also
possible to vary the rate multiplier along the pipeline to simulate varying
sections of dual pipelines for example.

The editing buttons Cut, Copy, Paste, Insert and Delete operate on data records that
have been selected by clicking on their row number button(s). All records can be
simultaneously selected by clicking the All button. Use the Import button to import data
from a wide variety of sources. Up to 200 pipe segments can be entered, enabling the
user to model very long pipelines.

PROSPER multi-phase choke pressure loss correlation accounts for both critical and
sub-critical flow. We would recommend the use of the ELF Choke correlation that it
similar to the Petroleum Experts method and is more robust in extreme conditions.

Ensure that the length of each pipe segment is equal to or greater than the
difference in TVD between its ends.
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The downhole and surface equipment entries must describe a continuous


system. The TVD and temperature of the upstream end of the last pipeline
segment should be equal to the Xmas tree TVD and temperature. In X,Y coordinates, the Y co-ordinate of the last pipe segment must be the same
elevation as the wellhead TVD. (i.e. same magnitude, but opposite sign)
To check that the surface equipment description is accurate, click Plot to display a plot
of the pipe elevation as follows:

2.5.1.3 Downhole Equipment


The Downhole Equipment screen enables the downhole tubing string data to be
entered.

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The Downhole Equipment screen will change automatically depending on the options
selected in the Options menu screen. For example, if Annular Flow has been selected,
the tubing screen will require Casing I.D. and Tubing O.D. to be entered.
The tubing string can be modelled using the following element types:

Tubing
SSSV
Restriction
Casing

PROSPER automatically inserts the Xmas tree as the first downhole equipment item.
To describe the tubing string, work from the shallowest depth downwards, entering the
bottom depth of changes in tubing diameter, ID and roughness factor.

An SSSV is considered to have no length, and is modelled as a sharp-edged


orifice inserted between adjacent tubing string elements. A restriction is
handled identically to an SSSV. The pressure loss calculations in PROSPER
account for choking as sonic flow velocity is approached.

Casing is treated the same as tubing for pressure drop calculations. Downhole
equipment details should be entered down to the producing interval being analysed.
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The deepest depth entries for the tubing, deviation survey and temperature should be
consistent.

Below the uppermost producing perforation, the flow profile (as measured by
a production logging tool) depends on layer productivity etc. The uppermost
producing perforation is the deepest point in the well passing 100% of the
production. Below this point, the calculated frictional pressure gradient may
be over-estimated in high rate wells having small I.D. completions.

To select tubing string elements to build up the tubing string description, click on the list
box arrows to the right of the item fields and select the equipment from the drop-down
list. The editing buttons Cut, Copy, Paste, Insert and Delete operate on data records
that have been selected by clicking on their row number button(s). All records can be
simultaneously selected by clicking the All button. Use the Import button to import data
from a wide variety of sources. Up to 18 tubing string elements can be input. For
complex completions, simplify the data entry by entering only the major elements that
dominate the overall tubing pressure drop.
The Rate Multiplier column enables simulation of the pressure drop due to intermittent
sections of dual completion. The fluid velocity in the tubing is multiplied by the value
entered - thereby increasing the frictional pressure losses. For standard single tubing
completions it should be left at its default value of 1.
2.5.1.4 Temperature Survey
This screen enables entry of the flowing temperature profile of the well. If no bottom
hole flowing pressure survey data is available, the static reservoir temperature at the
mid-point of perforations and the wellhead flowing temperature can be used. A
minimum of two depth / temperature points is required.

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The editing buttons Cut, Copy, Paste, Insert and Delete operate on data records that
have been selected by clicking on their row number button(s). All records can be
simultaneously selected by clicking the All button. Use the Import button to import data
from a wide variety of sources.

PROSPER interpolates temperatures from the survey data for depths within the
table limits, and uses linear extrapolation elsewhere. To eliminate potential
errors, ensure that a temperature is entered for the deepest node depth. It is
recommended that the maximum temperature survey depth, deviation survey
depth and intake node depths are all consistent.

2.5.1.5 Pipe Schedule and Equipment


In the Surface Equipment or in the Downhole Equipment section it is possible to import
as pipe, tubing and casing ID values from databases containing pipeline, tubing and
casing data.
In the Surface Equipment section this is achieved by selecting the Pipe Schedule
button:
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In the Surface Equipment section this is achieved by selecting the Equipment button:

These are the steps to import the equipment ID:


1. Select the Type of equipment from the screen - for example, Tubing - as shown
below:

2. Select the row corresponding to the piece of equipment and select the Equipment
button (if in the Surface Equipment section, select Pipe Schedule) and select the
database (in this case Tubing Database)
3. Select the equipment to use from the database

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Then Copy and Done


4. The program will show a dialog with at the bottom an option on the way forward.

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For example, selecting Copy ID and OD to Selected Records, then Done will pass the
values to the equipment screen:

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2.5.2 Predicting Pressure and Temperature


The Equipment data entry screens vary depending on the Temperature model selected
in the main program Options.
2.5.2.1 Rough Approximation
Equipment entry for the Rough Approximation temperature model varies little from the
Predicting Pressure Only option. Click on SystemEquipment to display the following
input screen:

To start data entry for a new application, click All Edit. PROSPER will then display all
the relevant input screens in sequence. If data has already been entered, clicking the S
ummary command button will display a schematic summary of the current equipment.
To go back and edit one particular equipment item, click on the button beside the
appropriate item. Data can be entered for the surface equipment and then include or
exclude it temporarily from any calculation by using the Disable Surface Equipment
choice box at the bottom of the screen.
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2.5.2.1.1 Deviation Survey


Enter data as per Pressure Only case.

2.5.2.1.2 Surface Equipment


Surface Equipment is the same as for Predicting Pressure Only except for the
requirement to enter the temperature of the pipe surroundings and an overall heat
transfer coefficient.

The heat transfer coefficient should not be confused with the pipe thermal conductivity.
The overall heat transfer coefficient accounts for the heat flow through the production
tubing, annulus and insulation (if present) to the surroundings. Heat transfer by forced
and free convection, conduction and radiation must all be accounted for in the value of
the overall heat transfer coefficient. In PROSPER, the overall heat transfer coefficient is
referenced to the pipe inside diameter.

2.5.2.1.3 Downhole Equipment


The Downhole Equipment is the same as for Predicting Pressure Only. The casing
between the producing perforations and the tubing shoe is considered to be part of the
Downhole Equipment for the Rough Approximation temperature option. Therefore the
casing details should be entered in the Downhole Equipment. Please refer to Predicting
Pressure Only section for more details.
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2.5.2.1.4 Geothermal Gradient


This is where the Rough Approximation temperature model differs most from the
Pressure Only case. PROSPER requires the formation temperature profile to be entered
on this screen:

Enter static formation temperatures from e.g. extrapolation of temperatures


recorded on logging runs - NOT flowing well bore temperatures.

As for surface equipment, enter an overall heat transfer coefficient that describes the
resistance to heat flow by all mechanisms (convection, radiation and conduction) from
the well to its surroundings. The Enthalpy Balance temperature model is a convenient
way to determine average heat transfer coefficients. The heat transfer area is
referenced to the pipe inside diameter.
2.5.2.1.5 Average Heat Capacities
To edit Average Heat Capacities, click its check box then click Edit to display the
following dialogue:
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Enter values that correspond to average conditions in the well. Note that for oil, and
especially gas that Cp values are strong functions of both temperature and pressure.

The default values will often give reasonable results in moderate GOR oil wells.
However, actual Cp values for oil and gas may vary significantly. Do not rely on
the defaults - obtain good estimates of Cp, or use the Enthalpy Balance
method where accurate temperature prediction are achieved.

2.5.2.2 Enthalpy Balance


To commence data entry for a new application, click All / Edit. PROSPER will then
display all the input screens in sequence. If data has already been entered, clicking the
Summary command button will display a summary of the current equipment. To go back
and edit one particular equipment item, click the button on the left of the appropriate
item.

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2.5.2.2.1 Deviation Survey


Enter data as per Pressure Only case.

2.5.2.2.2 Surface Equipment


An example of the surface equipment screen is shown below:

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To calculate heat losses, additional data such as outside diameter, material type and
insulation (if used) are required to be input. The surface equipment model can utilise
the following equipment types:

Line pipe
Coated pipeline
Flexible tubes
User selected
Choke

To allow for pipe bends, etc., enter an equivalent length/diameter. The choke
calculation handles both sub-critical and critical flow. The program will calculate the
temperature drop across the choke. Descriptive labels for each element can be
entered in the Label field if desired. Labels appear on reports and calculation screens.
Surface equipment geometry can be optionally entered as TVD of the upstream end of
the pipe segment and length or as X, Y (from the manifold or the Xmas Tree) coordinate pairs. Refer to Section 6.1.2 above for more details.
The Rate Multiplier column enables simulation of the pressure drop due to several wells
being connected to a production manifold via a common surface flow line. The fluid
velocity in the flowline is multiplied by the value entered - thereby increasing the frictional
pressure losses. For most applications it should be left at its default value of 1. As an
example, the pressure drop in a flowline connected to 3 identical wells could be
modelled using a pipeline rate multiplier of 3. 2 parallel flowlines having identical
dimensions can be modelled by entering the actual dimensions for one pipe and a
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pipeline rate multiplier of 0.5. It is also possible to vary the rate multiplier along the
pipeline to simulate varying sections of dual pipelines for example.
The editing buttons Cut, Copy, Paste, Insert and Delete operate on data records that
have been selected by clicking on their row number button(s). All records can be
simultaneously selected by clicking the All button. Use the Import button to import data
from a wide variety of sources. Up to 200 pipe segments can be entered, enabling the
user to model very long pipelines.
Pipe insulation (e.g. concrete, foam or bitumen) can be modelled. To define the pipe
insulation click the Enter button to display the following screen:

Select the required insulation type from the drop-down list, then enter the thickness.
Enter the insulation beginning with the innermost layer. PROSPER uses the thermal
properties in its database to calculate the thermal conductivity of the composite
insulation. Click OK to return to the surface equipment screen. Different insulations can
be entered for each section of the flowline as required. The calculated composite
thermal conductivity is referenced to the pipe inside diameter. Pipes can be laid on the
surface (burial depth = 0) or buried. The diagram below shows the burial depth
geometry.
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The burial depth is the distance between the soil surface and the bottom of the pipe
(including insulation, if present). The pipe is partially buried if the burial depth < O.D. of
the insulated pipe.

Ensure that the flowline pipe geometry is consistent with the pipe burial depth.
If necessary, insert another node and change the burial depth for e.g. the
riser.

The soil conductivity around buried surface pipes is taken from the Thermal
Properties database for the shallowest rock type entered in the Litho logy
screen. In previous PROSPER releases, the soil conductivity was fixed at 3.5
W/m/K.

2.5.2.2.3 Downhole Equipment


The downhole equipment section is used to describe the production tubing, SSSV and
restrictions. The following equipment items are available:

Mild steel tubing


Plastic coated tubing
Stainless steel (either 13% or 25% chromium)
SSSV
Restrictions

The thermal properties database for downhole equipment elements can be edited or
added to if required. Pressure and temperature changes across subsurface safety
valves and restrictions (nipples) are correctly modelled. The following is an example of
a downhole equipment data input screen:
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For the Enthalpy Balance temperature model the casing dimensions and material type
are entered under Drilling and Completion, so the downhole equipment description is
required only for the tubing string.
To select tubing string elements to build up the tubing string description, click on the list
box arrows to the right of the item fields and make the appropriate selection from the
drop-down list. The editing buttons Cut, Copy, Paste, Insert and Delete operate on data
records that have been selected by clicking on their row number button(s). All records
can be simultaneously selected by clicking the All button. Use the Import button to import
data from a wide variety of sources. Up to 18 tubing string elements can be input. For
complex completions, simplify the data entry by entering only the major elements that
dominate the overall tubing pressure drop.
The Rate Multiplier column enables simulation of the pressure drop due to intermittent
sections of dual completions. The fluid velocity in the tubing is multiplied by the value
entered - thereby increasing the frictional pressure losses. For standard single tubing
completions it should be left at its default value of 1.

2.5.2.2.4 Temperature Data


The Temperature Data section is required for the calculations of heat loss for surface
flow lines and wellbore. Data must be entered according to the screen shown below
depending on whether prediction is being done offshore or on land.
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in the Temperature Data screen enter the temperature gradient in the formation (just like
in the Geothermal Gradient section for Rough Approximation), and the temperature
profile in the sea, along with the sea velocity.
If the surface equipment is exposed to air, the data concerning to the air temperature,
humidity and velocity will be accounted for the temperature calculation

2.5.2.2.5 Drilling and Completion


This data is used to calculate the heat transfer coefficients down hole. If the offshore
option has been selected, the marine riser parameters must be entered in this section.
Entries must be from TOP to BOTTOM. Thus, the riser will be the first entry.
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The screen below shows an offshore well with a 30" OD riser run to a seabed depth of
400 ft. The well also has a 7" OD liner run to 14000 ft with the liner top set at 11000 ft.

The completion fluid Liquid and Gas properties can have a significant effect on the heat
loss through the annulus. If pressure is maintained on the annulus, the mud weight used
should be modified to reflect the actual annulus pressure at the packer depth. If the well
is being gas lifted, the program assumes that the annulus is full of gas down to the
injection point.
The editing buttons Cut, Copy, Paste, Insert and Delete operate on data records that
have been selected by clicking on their row number button(s). All records can be
simultaneously selected by clicking the All button. Use the Import button to import data
from a wide variety of sources.

Ensure the Tubing OD is less than the Casing ID.

For complex completions fluids, select the appropriate Customised Options from the
main Drilling and Completions section. Completion fluid property data will be
entered via look-up table data. The figure below shows the data required when
selecting the Completion Fluid Gas Type | Customised option from the drilling and
completions section.

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Five temperature dependent tables of properties can be entered. Please ensure that
the table will span the expected range of pressure- temperature conditions. The
program will not extrapolate outside the range of the input table. Use the Import button to
import data from a wide variety of sources.

2.5.2.2.6 Lithology
The program contains a database of thermal properties for various rock types including
Sandstone, Shale, Limestone, Dolomite, Halite and others. The thermal properties
database can be edited and added to as required. If detailed lithology data is available
it should be entered in the screen as shown below. If no data is available, use shale
from surface to total depth.

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The reservoir temperature and pressure should be entered for the production reference
depth. The formation temperature gradient is interpolated between the reservoir and
surface environment temperatures.
The editing buttons Cut, Copy, Paste, Insert and Delete operate on data records that
have been selected by clicking on their row number button(s). All records can be
simultaneously selected by clicking the All button. Use the Import button to import data
from a wide variety of sources.

Thermal properties for buried pipelines are taken from the shallowest
formation type entered in the Lithology screen.

2.5.2.2.7 Databases
This optional feature is used to access the thermal properties databases for editing or
addition of user-defined materials. Select Databases and click Edit and the following
selection screen will be displayed:

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Enter appropriate values for the Conductivity of cement and casing.


Depending on the selection, PROSPER expects input of thermal conductivity, emissivity,
specific heat capacity, specific gravity or density. An example of the Insulation Types
database screen is shown below:

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Check that the units are correct prior to entering the thermal properties.

Edited values remain in memory and become part of a particular well model file when
the file is saved. To permanently save edited values or new user-defined entries for use
in other projects click the Save button to keep them in the database. The Reset button
is used to return all entries to their default values.

2.5.2.3 Improved Approximation


Equipment entry for the Improved Approximation temperature model varies little from
the Rough Approximation option. Click on System Equipment to display the following
input screen:

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To start data entry for a new application, click All Edit. PROSPER will then display all the
relevant input screens in sequence. If data has already been entered, clicking the S
ummary command button will display a summary of the current equipment. To go back
and edit one particular equipment item, click on the button beside the appropriate item.
Data can be entered for the surface equipment and then include or exclude it
temporarily from any calculation by using the Disable Surface Equipment choice box
at the bottom of the Equipment Data screen.

2.5.2.3.1 Deviation Survey


Enter data as per Pressure Only case.

2.5.2.3.2 Surface Equipment


Surface Equipment is the same as for Predicting Pressure Only except for the
requirement to enter the overall heat transfer coefficient an the surrounding temperature.

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The heat transfer coefficient can be specified for each pipe segment and should not be
confused with the pipe thermal conductivity.
The heat transfer coefficient accounts for the heat flow through the production tubing,
annulus and insulation (if present) to the surroundings. Heat transfer by forced and free
convection, conduction and radiation must all be accounted for in the value of the overall
heat transfer coefficient. In PROSPER, the overall heat transfer coefficient is referenced
to the pipe inside diameter.
2.5.2.3.3 Downhole Equipment
The Downhole Equipment is the same as for Predicting Pressure Only.
2.5.2.3.4 Temperature Data
PROSPER requires the formation temperature profile together with the heat transfer
coefficient to be entered on this screen:

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Enter static formation temperatures from e.g. extrapolation of temperatures


recorded on logging runs - NOT flowing well bore temperatures.

As for surface equipment, enter an overall heat transfer coefficient that describes the
resistance to heat flow by all mechanisms (convection, radiation and conduction) from
the well to its surroundings. This value can vary throughout the formation. The Enthalpy
Balance temperature model is a convenient way to determine average heat transfer
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coefficients. The heat transfer area is referenced to the pipe inside diameter.

2.6

IPR Data Input


This section describes how PROSPER defines the reservoir inflow performance. The
following table lists the Inflow Performance options:
IPR
Method

Oil &
Water

Dry &
Wet Gas

Retrograde
Condensate

Back Pressure

C and n

Composite

Darcy

Dual Porosity

External Entry

Fetkovich

Forchheimer

Forchheimer with Pseudo - Pressure

Multirate Forchheimer with Pseudo Pressure

Horizontal well - No Flow Boundaries

Horizontal well - Constant Pressure


upper boundary

Horizontal well - dP friction

Horizontal well - transverse vertical


fractures

Hydraulically fractured

Jones

Multi-lateral

Multi-layer

Multi-layer - dP Loss

Multi-rate C and n
Multi-rate Fetkovich

Multi-rate Jones

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Modified Isochronal IPR

Petroleum Experts

P.I. Entry

SkinAide

Thermally Induced Fracture


(injection only)

Transient

Vogel

SPOT

2.6.1 IPR Single Well Data


The data for inflow performance models is entered using a single master screen. All the
sub-screens relevant to a set of model choices are accessible through clicking on
buttons on the main screen and on a tabbed interface in a data input screen. This
means that data for different models are entered concurrently and can be compared
before selecting the Calculate option. The generic features of the single well data entry
screen are used in the multilateral interface for data entry to those network items with
sufficiently large data structures (namely tubing, completion and reservoir).
Click System Inflow Performance in the main menu and the main data entry screen will
appear.
2.6.1.1 The Main Data Entry Screen
The screen consists of three parts.
1. Section Buttons. At the top right of the dialog screen are two buttons, labelled
Select Model and Input Data. These allow switching between screens that control
model selection and detailed data input. The former also contains data pertaining to
all models (such as reservoir pressure and temperature), and the latter manages the
data input specific to the chosen model. The selection buttons have the same
function in the multilateral data entry screens.
2. Action Buttons. To the left of the section buttons is a set of buttons that perform
various actions such as Calculate. Only the left-most group appears in the
multilateral data entry screens.
3. Model Selection Screen. The child screen is the area below the action and section
buttons and contains either the model selection or the data input screens. The same
occurs in the multilateral interface, although the actual model selection and data
input screens are different.
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2.6.1.2 Section Buttons


As well as switching between the model selection and data input screens the section
buttons also indicate the validation status of the screens. The selection of one screen or
the other is shown by the indentation of the button for that screen and the validity of the
data is flagged by the colour. Green means that all the required data are entered and
within the numerical range for the units chosen; where appropriate, extra consistency
checks have also been carried out. Red implies that either there is insufficient data
entered or it is out of range/inconsistent. In addition, if no models at all are selected the
Select Model and Input Data buttons are marked invalid. Also, if not enough models
are selected the Select Model button is marked invalid (e.g. a reservoir but no skin
model).
2.6.1.3 Action Buttons

Done

This button exits the screen after saving and validating all the data
pertaining to the chosen models. If the data are not valid an option of
remaining in the IPR edit screen and reviewing the validation errors that are
listed in a validation error dialog is provided. This also occurs after the
validation in the Calculate, Transfer Data and Save Results button
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commands. If the IPR section is exited with invalid data left in the input then
all calculation options using IPR data and models are disabled.
Cancel
This exits the screen and restores the data to its state at the start of the
main edit session
Validate Checks the data on the current child screen for validity. If the data are not
valid, the validation dialog will appear with diagnostic messages
Reset
This replaces the data of the current child screen with the data that was
current when the screen was entered
Help
This displays information relevant to the current child screen
Calculate Saves and validates all the data pertaining to the chosen models (e.g.
Darcy reservoir model and Enter Skin By Hand) then runs the correct
calculation routine if the data are valid. On successful completion of the
calculation the results are automatically plotted
Plot
Will produce a plot screen appropriate to the current reservoir model (for
example, a Darcy plot) and plot the data from the last Calculate command
Report
Enters the PROSPER Reporting System. The report produced will depend
on the current model choices
Export
Can export current data (input and results) to the printer, a file, the clipboard
or the screen
Test Data Allows to enter the test data (rate vs Bottom Hole Pressure, a date stamp
and a comment) that will be then displayed in the IPR plot
Sensitivity Allows to perform sensitivities on the various parameters affecting the IPR
Transfer
Data

Save
Results
GAP

PROSPER Manual

Saves and validates all the current data before opening a standard File
Save As dialog that provides an opportunity to save the data to file in
MBAL input format (.MIP).
If PROSPER has been opened from a session in GAP then the data are
posted to GAP instead. The transfer button does not prompt for creation of
a .MIP file.
This option is only enabled when PROSPER is run from GAP. On a
successful validation options to either over-write the current file or to save
the PROSPER file using File Save As options are provided
This option is only enabled when PROSPER is run from GAP. It shuts down
the IPR screen and minimises PROSPER, thus bringing GAP to the forefront

Note that the Save and Validate sequence carried out by several of the
action button commands does not actually save to file but transfers data
from the context of the IPR data screen to the PROSPER data structure in
memory. Hence, files should regularly be saved to avoid losing work due to
power failures or crashes.

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2.6.1.4 Model Selection Screen


An example of the model selection screen for the Oil and Water fluid choice can be
seen in the screen dump of the main data screen.
This part of the IPR input screen controls the choice of almost all the tabbed dialogs that
will be seen in the subsequent data input screen.
There are four major selections done in this screen. These are:

Selection of Reservoir Inflow Model


For each fluid various single well IPR models available are listed and the User
makes a selection.

Selection of mechanical/geometrical skin


The User has the option of entering the skin by hand or using one of the analytical
models to model the completion skin.

Selection of deviation / partial penetration skin


There are two skin models and these become available if a analytical skin model
of mechanical / geometric skin calculation has been used.

Reservoir input
The User also specifies the pressure, temperature, producing GOR and water cut
at this screen.

Relative permeability.
This option can be set to Yes or No in case of oils. If set to Yes, the User has the
option of defining a set of relative permeability curves, which will be used to
change productivity of the system with changing water cut.

The gravel pack selection and the type of completion (cased or open hole) are
chosen from the main Options screen (in the PROSPER main menu) but some
reservoir models have internal gravel pack data entries instead.

In case gas coning option has been selected in main options, for oils the
coning button is displayed to allow the activation of a dialog screen in which
parameters for the calculation of rate-dependent GOR's can be entered

If the fluid is a gas or a condensate the format of the screen is very similar; only the
reservoir and other model input selections vary for example, in gas systems, we have
CGR and WGR instead of GOR and WC.
The choice of reservoir models governs which subsidiary models (principally skin) are
enabled. Thus, horizontal well models do not require a deviation skin data entry and
some of the more complex reservoir models (e.g. multi-layer with dP friction loss)
contain their own skin and gravel pack models.
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2.6.1.5 Data Input Screen


The data input screen contains a set of data entry tabbed dialogs that become available
depending on the selected IPR model.
Only one dialog is displayed at any one time, corresponding to the tab
selected as shown in the figure below

The tabs are labelled as follows:

Reservoir Model
Mech/Geom Skin
Dev/PP Skin
Gravel Pack
Relative Perm
Viscosity
The tabs are coloured according to the validity of the data on the
corresponding dialogs.

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If the tab is green, then the data are valid for the current system set-up.

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If it is red, then the data are invalid or empty.

If the tab is grey, then this tab is not applicable to the current reservoir
model (or model selection) and so is inaccessible.

The various screens, accessible by the bottom tabs comprise the dialog
screens, where the input parameters for the selection are entered. Laid in the
area below the Section and Action buttons. in case of the model selection
screen it is mainly occupied with ways of choosing models, namely three list
boxes, a drop-down list box and a push button.

For example figure above a Darcy reservoir model dialog encapsulated in the data
input screen contained in the main entry screen.
The Reservoir Model tab is marked invalid (due to the unlikely reservoir
thickness of 1 feet).

The Dev/PP Skin tab and relative permeability tabs are marked disabled. In this
case it is because the Enter Skin By Hand option is selected which is assumed
to contain the deviation and partial penetration information. In the latter case
relative permeability is simply not selected (see figure above, showing the model
selection screen).

Notes on Data Validation:

On each of the IPR Input screens there is a validate button. Pressing this
button invokes a checking routine which flags for the any invalid entries.

Notes on Data Entry in IPR section


In all the IPR input screens, for various options, the data may be required to be entered
in one of the following ways:

Entering a value against a blank field


Pressing a push button, which takes us further into another screen, where actual
data required is entered as indicated against Dietz calculator on the screenshot
above reported.
Using a drop-down list.
Some models require data entered for multiple layers (e.g. multi-layer and
multi-layer with dP friction loss) and/or multiple completion zones (e.g.
horizontal well with dP friction loss and Wong-Clifford deviation/partial
penetration skin model).
In dialogs with grid entry it is also possible to select, copy, cut and paste
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blocks of the table, using mouse drag operations and the buttons provided on
the screen.
As the data in a table are typically interdependent some
consistency validation checks are carried out in addition to the range
validation.

2.6.2 IPR Models for Oil and Water Wells


The IPR model chosen depends upon the available data and the type of inflow
sensitivities to be performed. Some of the main highlights are

There are twenty inflow options, including the multi-lateral method described
in Section 7.8, are available.
The average reservoir pressure and reservoir temperature must be entered
for all inflow performance models, except for multi-rate models.
From the Multi-rate models the average reservoir pressure can be back
calculated.
If test data is available it can be entered and plotted against the calculated
inflow.
Well skin can be either directly entered or calculated using the Locke,
Macleod or Karakas and Tariq methods for a mechanical/geometrical skin,
and the Cinco/Martin-Bronz or Wong-Clifford methods for a deviation/partial
penetration skin.
Relative permeability curves are optionally used together with fluid viscosities
(from PVT) to calculate the total fluid mobility for a given water cut. The
calculated IPR can be matched to measured data and used to calculate IPR
pressures for any rate and water cut. Relative permeability can be applied to
all oil IPR models in PROSPER.
Frictional pressure losses between multiple producing zones are accounted
for in the Horizontal Well - friction dP and Multi layer - friction dP. A network
algorithm determines the production from each zone while accounting for
flowing pressure losses to find the total well production.
These models can be combined with gravel pack and relative permeability
models if the option is enabled (the former in the Options screen from the
PROSPER main menu and the latter from the IPR main data entry screen).

Once a specific model is chosen and data entered for it, after which an IPR can be
calculated using the Calculate button. The following sections list various inflow models
that are available for oil wells.
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2.6.2.1 P.I. Entry


A straight-line inflow model is used above the bubble point based on the equation
shown below. The Vogel empirical solution is used below the bubble point, the test point
being the rate calculated using the following equation at bottom hole pressure equal to
bubble point. The User input productivity index (PI) is used to calculate the IPR. The IPR
rates are always Liquid Rates. Hence the PI refers to Liquid Rate.

Q = J ( Pr - Pb )
Where J is the Productivity Index, expressed as STB/(day psi).
2.6.2.2 Vogel
The program uses the straight-line inflow relationship above the bubble point and the
Vogel empirical solution below the bubble point. A single flowing bottom hole pressure
and surface test rate is used to calculate the IPR, below the bubble point. From this IPR
the rate and bubble point pressure are used to evaluate the PI for the straight-line part of
the inflow above the bubble point.
When calculating IPR sensitivities for reservoir pressure, PROSPER retains the correct
well productivity. Otherwise, changing the reservoir pressure changes the Vogel well
productivity.
Pwf
Pwf
Q
= 1 - 0.2
- 0.8
Qmax
Pr
Pr

2.6.2.3 Composite
This is an extension of the Vogel inflow solution (Petrobras method) that accounts for
water cut.
Vogel essentially decreases the inflow below bubble point because of gas formation.
However, if the water cut is higher the inflow potential will increase and approach a
straight-line IPR due to single-phase flow. The composite model captures this by using
the following formulation.
A test flow rate, flowing bottomhole pressure and water cut are required to be entered.

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2.6.2.4 Darcy
The program uses the Darcy inflow equation above the bubble point and the Vogel
solution below the bubble point. Required input is:
Reservoir permeability (total permeability at the prevailing water cut and GOR)
Reservoir thickness (thickness of producing reservoir rock, i.e. vertical thickness of
net pay interval)
Drainage area
Well bore radius
Dietz shape factor (to account for the shape of the drainage area)
2.6.2.5 Fetkovich
The Fetkovich equation for oil is a modified form of the Darcy equation, which allows for
two phase flow below the bubble point. The Fetkovich equation can be expressed as:
2

Q = J ( Pr - Pb ) + J ' ( Pr - Pwf )

Enter the same inputs as for the Darcy example plus the relative permeability for oil.
Skin can be entered either by hand or calculated using Locke's, Macleod's or the
Karakas and Tariq method.

2.6.2.6 Multi-rate Fetkovich


This method uses a non-linear regression to fit the Fetkovich model for up to 10 test
points. The model is expressed as:
Q = C (( Pr2 - Pwf2 ) / 1000) n

The fit values of C and n are posted on the IPR plot. If the reservoir pressure is not
available, the program will calculate it. For producing wells, enter a reservoir pressure
lower than the measured flowing bottomhole pressures. The program will dismiss the
reservoir pressure that has been entered and calculate it. For injection wells, input a
reservoir pressure higher than the test pressures entered. The program will then
calculate the reservoir pressure.

2.6.2.7 Jones
The Jones equation for oil is a modified form of the Darcy equation, which allows for
both Darcy and non-Darcy pressure drops. The Jones equation can be expressed in
the form:
( Pr - Pwf ) = aQ 2 + bQ
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Where "a" and "b" are calculated from reservoir properties or can be determined from a
multi-rate test. The same data as for the Darcy model plus the perforated interval is
required. Skin can be directly entered or calculated using the available methods.

2.6.2.8 Multi-rate Jones


This method uses a non-linear regression to fit for up to 10 test points for the Jones
model.
i.e.
( Pr - Pwf ) = aQ 2 + bQ

If reservoir pressure is to be calculated see Multi-rate Fetkovich above.

2.6.2.9 Transient
This IPR method takes into account the change of deliverability with time. This method
can be particularly important for tight reservoirs. Both the Darcy and Jones equations
assume that the well has reached pseudo-steady state flow conditions. In tight
reservoirs, the transient equation can be used to determine the inflow performance as a
function of flowing time. Once the flowing time is long enough for pseudo-steady state
flow to develop within the drainage radius, the Darcy inflow model is then used. Enter
the same data as the Darcy example plus:
Porosity
Time

(Enter the reservoir porosity)


(Time in days, must be greater than 0.5 days)

The transient IPR equation is:

Time is the flowing time since the last reservoir pressure equalisation up to the time of
the analysis. If the flowing time exceeds , the deliverability is evaluated using , which is
equivalent to using the pseudo-steady state Darcy model.
The Transient IPR model in PROSPER is designed to
check whether the production is in the transient state or semi-steady state.
If it is in the transient state, then the IPR will be calculated using the equation
mentioned above.
If the production has already reached the semi-steady state conditions, then the
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IPR will be calculated using the semi-steady state inflow equation


The units used in the above transient IPR equation are oilfield units:
Q => stb/d
P => psig
Mju => cp
FVF => rb/stb
k => mD
t => hours
ct => 1/psi
h, rw => ft
2.6.2.10Hydraulically Fractured Well
The hydraulically fractured well inflow model can be used to run sensitivities on hydraulic
fracture designs. The model is transient and is particularly useful in determining the
transient deliverability of a well after stimulation.

Gravel packs can be combined with the hydraulically fractured well IPR to
model Frac-Packed wells

Required data input is:

Reservoir permeability
(Total permeability)
Formation thickness
(Thickness of producing reservoir rock)
Drainage area
Well bore radius
Dietz shape factor
(Depends on the shape of the drainage area)
Time
(Inflow is transient in early time)
Fracture height
Fracture half length
Dimensionless fracture conductivity

2.6.2.11Horizontal Well - No Flow Boundaries


This steady-state inflow model is based on the work of Kuchuk and Goode. It assumes
that the horizontal well is draining a closed rectangular drainage volume that is bounded
by sealing surfaces. The well can be placed anywhere within the drainage region. The
pressure drop along the well bore itself is not taken into account. This model may not
be suitable for long horizontal sections drilled in high productivity reservoirs. Horizontal
well - friction dP IPR should be used in such cases. Enter:

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The definitions of symbols for various parameters to PROSPER horizontal well

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model are as per this manual and not necessarily on basis of the reference
paper.
Reservoir permeability
(Total permeability at prevailing water cut)
(Thickness of producing reservoir rock h
Reservoir thickness
)
Well bore radius
Horizontal anisotropy
(Ratio of Ky/Kx where Kx is permeability in the direction of the
horizontal well and Ky is the permeability perpendicular to the horizontal well)
Vertical anisotropy
(Ratio of Kz/Ky where Kz is the vertical permeability)
(Horizontal section L)
Length of well
Length
of
drainage
area
(Reservoir dimension parallel to well Lx

)
Width of drainage area
(Reservoir dimension perpendicular to well Ly)
Distance
from
length
edge to centre of well
(

Xw)
(
Distance from width edge to centre of well
Yw)
(
Distance from bottom of reservoir to centre of well
Zw)
A sketch outlining the main geometric parameters is shown below:

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2.6.2.12Horizontal Well - Constant Pressure Upper Boundary


The reservoir geometry is the same as for the No Flow Boundaries case, except for a
constant pressure upper boundary. The pressure drop along the well bore itself is not
taken into account. This model requires the same input data as the Horizontal Well Bounded Reservoir model above. The plots below compares PROSPER calculated
IPR values with those obtained by Kuchuk and Goode for a well in the centre of a
4000 by 4000 square reservoir.

PROSPER Horizontal Well IPR


vs Fine Grid Simulation
35
Anisotropy
30
0.01
0.1

25

h = 50'
zw = 25'
rw = 0.25'
kh = 50 md
vis = 1 cp

P.I. (BOPD/psi)

1.0
20

Simulator - Lines
PROSPER - Symbols

15
4000'

4000'

10

0
0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.5

L1/2/Lx

2.6.2.13Multi-Layer Inflow
The multi-layer inflow model allows up to 50 discrete reservoir layers to be entered as
shown in the following example input screen:

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Each layer can have different reservoir pressures, inflow models and fluid properties.
The oil gravity, GOR and water cut may be entered for each layer. The produced fluid
properties in the well bore are determined from the summation of the individual layer
contributions. The summation accounts for cross flow between layers having different
pressures. Each layer can be gravel packed if desired. Both Injectors and Producers
can be modelled. For cases where the zones are separated by significant depth or
friction pressure losses are significant, the Multi-layer - dP Loss network IPR model
should be used.

If PVT matching has been used in the PVT section, it is assumed that it was
performed on the commingled layer fluids. The fit parameters generated will
be applied to all PVT calculations for all layers in determining the combined
inflow performance.

To use the Multi-Layer IPR, enter the reservoir temperature then click Input Data to enter
the tab-controlled screen, and then click on the Reservoir Model tab button. For each
layer, select the inflow model from: Darcy, Multi-rate Jones, or PI Entry methods then
enter the layer PVT properties, average pressures, thickness and skins. For each layer,
click the Layer Data button and enter the information required by the inflow model.

To facilitate rapid comparison of flow rates using different completion options,


select a Null IPR type for a layer i.e., from the Layer Model drop-down
dialogue box select the blank (no text) option. This effectively turns the layer
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off. To return it to production, re-select the original IPR type, and the layer
parameters etc. will be re-instated when the IPR is re-calculated.

The Multi-Layer IPR solves the combined contribution from each producing
layer at the intake node. This effectively places each layer at the same depth.
The reservoir pressure entered for each layer should therefore be referenced
to the intake node depth.

2.6.2.14External Entry
This option allows an externally generated IPR data set to be imported or directly
entered. Up to five tables can be entered to allow sensitivities to be calculated on any
arbitrary set of variables. For example, IPRs for a range of reservoir pressures
calculated by a simulator could be input using this option.
An example of an external entry IPR input screen is shown below:

External IPR tables can also be imported from ASCII files. The file format is given in
Appendix D of the PROSPER User Guide.
Curve Label and Units
These fields allow the user to identify the curves with a label and units. Note that label
and units will appear only in the Sensitivity calculation in the list of sensitivity variables,
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where one can interpolate among the entered curves.

Import/Export
It is possible to import or export the IPR tables for the External Entry IPR
2.6.2.15Horizontal well - dP Friction Loss in Wellbore
To adequately model horizontal well inflow in high permeability reservoirs, it is
necessary to account for pressure loss along the horizontal section. PROSPER divides
the horizontal section into 20 sections and a network algorithm solves for zone
production and well bore pressure. Pressure loss between zones is accounted for. The
Horizontal well - dP Friction input screen is shown below:

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The reservoir parameters entered in the upper section of the screen determine the
overall well productivity using the selected model. The zone parameters are used by the
network algorithm to re-scale the overall productivity on a zone-by-zone basis. A
description of the input parameters follows:
Reservoir Parameters
Horizontal Well Model
(Model used for overall well productivity)
Reservoir permeability
(Total permeability at prevailing water cut)
Reservoir thickness
(Thickness of producing reservoir rock h)
Well bore radius
(Radius of open hole rw)
Horizontal anisotropy
(Ratio of Ky/Kx where Kx is permeability in the direction of the horizontal well and Ky
is the permeability perpendicular to the horizontal well)
Vertical anisotropy
(Ratio of Kz/Ky where Kz is the vertical permeability)
Length of well
(Horizontal section L)
Length of drainage area
(Reservoir dimension parallel to well Lx)
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Width of drainage area


(Reservoir dimension perpendicular to well Ly)
Distance from length edge to centre of well
Xw)
Distance from width edge to centre of well
Yw)
Distance from bottom of reservoir to centre of well
Zw)

(
(
(

The horizontal well models available are:


Kuckuk and Goode (bounded and constant pressure boundary)
Babu & Odeh
Goode / Wilkinson partial completion (bounded and constant pressure boundary)
The reservoir parameters are entered as for the original infinite conductivity (no
pressure loss) horizontal well model.

Geometric definitions vary between published horizontal well inflow models.


Ensure that geometric parameters entered in PROSPER are consistent with
the above definitions. Refer to the Horizontal Well IPR sketch for details.

Zone Parameters
Data for up to 20 zones can be entered. The required inputs are as follows:

Zone Type
(Blank, Perforated or Open Hole)
Skin method
(Enter by Hand, or Karakas & Tariq for perforated zones)
Gravel Pack
(Yes or No)
Zone Length
(Length of zone along the well)
Zone Permeability (Average permeability at the prevailing water cut)
Flowing Radius
(Internal radius of the completion tubing)
Zone Roughness (Roughness for zone friction calculation)

These parameters describe the local permeability and the flow path along the well bore.
Click the Zone Data button to enter details such as skin and perforation parameters. If
the Skin Method is Enter by Hand, the skin and open hole radius are required. If
Karakas & Tariq is selected, then enter the perforation details as in Section 7.4.1 and
PROSPER will estimate the zone skin. If the zone is to be gravel packed, this data is
entered under Zone Data.

To allow comparison of the IPR with and without friction losses, setting the
zone roughness to zero turns off the friction pressure drop calculation entirely
rather than calculating friction for a smooth pipe

Coning Calculations in Horizontal wells


The Ben Dikken and Chaperon correlations prediction of critical coning rates for gas,
water or gas and water have been implemented. From the Horizontal well - dP Friction
data entry screen click Coning to display the Coning Calculations screen:
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Enter a production rate and porosity then select the required coning calculation method.
Click Calculate to find the critical rate and time to breakthrough for the rate entered.
The pressure along the well bore for the specified rate is calculated and displayed by
clicking Plot.

The production contribution from each zone can be displayed as:


Rate per Unit Length
Percentage production
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Cumulative percentage production


An example of a rate per unit length plot is shown below:

The Horizontal Well - friction dP IPR models the pressure at the heel of the
well as a function of pressure. The intake node is therefore the heel of the
well. The heel should be the last node entered in System Equipment and
Deviation Survey tables - it is not necessary to enter details of the horizontal
producing section except in the IPR.

2.6.2.16Multi-Layer - dP Loss in Wellbore


The Multi-Layer dP Loss in Wellbore model can be used to model the production from
multi-layered reservoir systems where pressure losses in the wellbore are significant.
PROSPER iterates until the production from each zone and the well pressures converge
at the solution rate.
The effect of pressure drop between zones and cross flow is accounted for.
example of a Multi-Layer - dP Loss input screen is shown below:

An

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This screen allows for the entry of up to 50 layers. To enter PVT, IPR data (permeability,
test rates etc. depending on the IPR model selected) and layer skin, click the
appropriate button to display the input screen. The depth entered for TOP is the depth
for which the IPR is to be evaluated. This is normally the same as the deepest depth
entered in System Equipment, but it can be set to surface or other value.
The input data required are:

Layer Type
Measured Depth
True Vertical Depth
Layer Pressure
Layer Flowing Radius

(Either Blank, Perforated or Open Hole)


(Measured depth of the bottom of layer n)
(TVD of the bottom of layer n)
(Pressure at the bottom of layer n)
(Well radius for calculating inter layer pressure drops)
The layer flowing radius is the radius of the pipe connecting
the layers i.e., 0.5 x tubing I.D. The wellbore radius (rw) is the radius of the drill bit.

Layer IPR Model


Layer Skin Model
Layer Gravel Pack
Layer PVT Data
Layer Parameters
Layer Skin

(Select from Darcy, Multi-rate Jones, P.I. Entry)


(Enter by Hand or Karakas & Tariq)
(Yes or No)
(GOR, Oil and Gas Gravity plus Water Cut)
(Relevant parameters for the selected IPR model)
(Relevant parameters for the selected IPR model)

The IPR at surface can be calculated by entering the surface elevation for TOP depth
and a blank zone from surface to the shallowest producing zone. Use blank zones with
appropriate reduced I.D. to simulate the effect of sliding sleeves and flow controls in a
multi-zone completion. Click Calculate and the IPR for each layer and the summation
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will be calculated and displayed on a plot as follows:

To list the layer production in detail, click Results and scroll through the layer results one
by one. An example results screen is shown below:

Scroll from the selection menu to view the results for each of the layers.
Gravel pack and well skin etc. can be seen by scrolling to the right of the results table.
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Negative layer production rates indicate cross-flow into the layer.

If a zero roughness is entered, then inter-layer pressure drops are not


computed. The layer pressures are then equivalent to a potential referred to
the depth of the TOP layer. The calculations are then equivalent to the simpler
Multi-Layer IPR without dP model.

The multilayer option is now available for dry gas and gas condensate model

2.6.2.17SkinAide
The Elf inflow and skin calculation method is incorporated in PROSPER. API perforation
characteristics can be used to estimate perforation damage given casing and formation
properties. A detailed description of SkinAide is given in Section 7.7.
2.6.2.18Dual Porosity
This model is useful for naturally fractured reservoirs where the matrix (formation)
porosity is greater than the fracture porosity and the matrix permeability is much smaller
than the fracture permeability, but not negligible. It requires the entry of the following
parameters: fracture permeability, reservoir thickness, drainage area, well-bore radius,
porosity, time, storativity ratio and interporosity coefficient. The latter two parameters
are defined as follows:
1. Storativity ratio, w = ff cf / ( ff cf + fm cm)
where ff is the fracture porosity, cf is the fracture compressibility, fm is the matrix
porosity and cm is the matrix compressibility.
2. Interporosity, l = a km rew^2 /kf
where a is a shape factor (see Warren, J.E. and Root, P.J.: "The Behaviour of Naturally
Fractured Reservoirs.", SPE 426, SPEJ (Sept. 1963), 245-255.), km is matrix
permeability, rew^2 is effective well radius squared and kf is fracture permeability.
2.6.2.19Horizontal Well with Transverse Vertical Fractures
The horizontal well with transverse vertical fractures is based on a model proposed by T.
M. Herge and Leif Larsen in the SPE paper 28845. The model is based on a
relationship between the effective wellbore radius, fracture conductivity, fracture size,
wellbore radius and number of fractures; the correlation also calculates the distance
between fractures.

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Once the effective wellbore radius is determined the model calculates the well
productivity the same way the horizontal well with no-flow-boundaries is calculated.
This is for use with wells that are stimulated with one or more transverse vertical
fractures. It is assumed that the fractures are circular, the well goes through their centre
and they are evenly spaced. If there is one fracture it is in the middle of the well. The
data to be entered are the same as those for a horizontal well, along with the fracture
half-length and its dimensionless conductivity.
The following points describe the method of performing the calculations.

The fracture half length, fracture conductivity, and number of fractures are used to
calculate an equivalent wellbore radius. This calculation is based on the
technique developed by Hegre and Larsen (SPE 28845)

The effective wellbore radius is then used in the Horizontal Well No Flow
Boundary model to compute the IPR of the well.

For the Horizontal Well - Transverse Vertical Fracture model, in some cases where the
equivalent wellbore radius approaches or exceeds the input reservoir thickness, the well
is effectively located on the edge or outside the defined drainage area leading to
reduction in AOF with increasing vertical anisotropy.
2.6.2.20Thermally Induced Fracture Model
2.6.2.20.1 Overview
This IPR model is enabled when Well Type Injector is set in the main program Options.
The algorithm follows the framework outlined in: SPE 30777, Thermally Induced
Fractures: A Field-Proven Analytical Model.
SPE Reservoir Evaluation &
Engineering, February 1998. J-L. Detienne, Max Creusot, Nicolas Kessler, Bernard
Sahuquet and J-L. Bergerot. Information was also assembled from SPE 7964 (radial
reservoir temperature profile) and SPE 11332 (coefficient for thermo-elastic stress
equation). Note that the temperature profile derivation uses the same basis as the work
of de Lauwerier referred to in SPE 30777.
SPE 7964: Analytical Definition of the Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient, A. B.
Zolotukhin.
SPE 11332: The Effect of Thermo-elastic Stresses on Injection Well Fracturing, T.K.
Perkins and J.A. Gonzalez.
This model is concerned with the thermo-mechanical effects induced by injecting cold
water into a hot reservoir. The method first tests whether a calculated Pwf rises above
the reservoir stress around the well bore. If this occurs then a fracture is assumed to
propagate and the Pwf at the fracture tip is equated to the reservoir stress (i.e.
equilibrium) by iterating on the fracture length. The fractures effect is incorporated in a
skin term, and two stress effects are considered; a thermo-elastic one (varies with
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injection temperature) and a poro-elastic one (varies with Pwf). The stress at the
wellbore is calculated by adding these effects to the initial reservoir stress. The Pwf is
calculated using varying fluid and geometric properties (inner and outer radii) and a
Darcy-like model in three circular zones. The first (inner) is water that is still cool, the
second is water that has warmed up, and the third (outer) is the original reservoir.
The IPR calculated by this model consists, therefore, of two different zones with a breakpoint where the fracturing occurs. See the following figure.

The model is not valid for uncontrolled hydraulic fracturing where the fracture length may
be several hundred feet. The fracture should not extend beyond the so-called cooled
injection zone, the extent of which is calculated using the temperature profile referred to
above.

2.6.2.20.2 Data Entry


The Thermally Induced Fracture model reservoir data screen is split into two tabbed
screens, one handling 'Injecitivity Index' parameters, and one handling 'Thermomechanical' parameters. Also, it is required to enter the injected fluid temperature in the
model selection screen.
PVT parameter
Injected Fluid Temperature
Injectivity Index Parameters
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Reservoir permeability
(Total permeability)
Formation thickness
(Thickness of producing formations)
Drainage area
DIETZ shape factor
(Depends on the shape of the drainage area).
Wellbore radius
Porosity
(Enter the reservoir porosity)
Time
(Time in days, must be greater than 0.5 days)
Mean Historical Injection Rate
Thermo-mechanical Parameters
Initial Reservoir Stress
Sweep Efficiency
Injected Fluid Specific Heat Capacity
Overall Reservoir Conductivity
Overall Reservoir Specific Heat Capacity
Overall Reservoir Density
Top and Bottom Surroundings Conductivity
Top and Bottom Surroundings Specific Heat Capacity
Top and Bottom Surroundings Density
Reservoir Thermal Expansion (thermo-elastic correlating coefficient, relates
temperature perturbation to stress perturbation)
Biot's Constant (poro-elastic correlating coefficient, relates pressure perturbation
to stress perturbation)
Poisson's Ratio
Reservoir Young's Modulus

2.6.2.21Relative Permeability Curves


Relative permeability curves are optionally used together with fluid viscosities (from
PVT) to calculate the total fluid mobility for a given water cut. The calculated IPR can be
matched to measured data and used to calculate IPR pressures for any rate and water
cut
Relative Permeability Calculation Details
If you have selected the Correction for Vogel option on the main IPR screen then the
modelling is extended to include Gas Relative Permeability Curves. The calculated
IPR can be matched to measured data and used to calculate IPR pressures for any rate,
water cut and GOR
Relative permeability can be applied to all oil IPR models in PROSPER.
The relative permeability for oil and water is a function of the reservoir water saturation.
If the relative permeability curves have been defined, the total mobility (oil, water and
gas) can be determined. This enables the producing drawdown (IPR) to be calculated
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as a function of both water cut and production rate.


Enter the following data for both oil and water (and optionally Gas):
Residual
Saturation

Parameter indicating the minimum saturation above the related


phase becomes mobile

Endpoint Relative
Permeability

Maximum relative permeability

Corey Exponent

Parameter defining the slope of the relative permeability curve.


A Corey exponent of 1.0 defines straight line relative
permeability curves. Values greater than 1 give a concave
upwards curve i.e. delayed water breakthrough.
Corey
exponents less than 1 define a concave downwards relative
permeability curve i.e. early water breakthrough.

Water cut during


test

Matching measured and calculated IPR pressures establishes


the well productivity for the prevailing water cut. To allow
PROSPER to re-calculate the IPR for other water cuts, the water
cut during test is used to determine the reference water
saturation for the test conditions.

GOR during test


(optional)

Matching measured and calculated IPR pressures establishes


the well productivity for the prevailing GOR. To allow PROSPER
to re-calculate the IPR for other GORs, the GOR during test is
used to determine the reference gas saturation for the test
conditions.

To enter lab relative permeabilities, click Test Data. Enter your test data and click OK to
display the plot again. If necessary, adjust the values of Corey Exponents for oil and
water until PROSPER's calculated relative permeability curves fit the measured data
points.
Having entered and verified the relative permeability data, click Finish to quit the plot,
then OK to return to the IPR screen.
When relative permeability is being used, water cuts for both the test data and that
used to calculate the IPR curve are required. The water cut during test value will be
carried over from the relative permeability input screen. The water cut for calculation
value can be subsequently changed to see the effect on the calculated IPR. The same
will apply for GOR if you have selected the Correction for Vogel option.
2.6.2.21.1 Test Data
To enter lab relative permeabilities, enter your test data and click Done to display the
plot again. If necessary, adjust the values of Corey Exponents for oil and water until
PROSPER's calculated relative permeability curves fit the measured data points.
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2.6.2.21.2 Plot
Relative permeability curves are optionally used together with fluid viscosities (from
PVT) to calculate the total fluid mobility for a given water cut. The calculated IPR can be
matched to measured data and used to calculate IPR pressures for any rate and water
cut. Relative permeability can be applied to all oil IPR models in PROSPER.
The relative permeability for oil and water is a function of the reservoir water saturation.
If the relative permeability curves have been defined, the total mobility (oil, water and
gas) can be determined. This enables the producing drawdown (IPR) to be calculated
as a function of both water cut and production rate.
The following options are common to all plots
Finish

Close plot and return to the previous screen.

Main

Close plot and return to the main PROSPER screen.

Annotate

Add annotations to your plot.

Scales

Rescale your plot. You will need to enter new minimum and maximum
values for the X and Y axes.

Labels

Change the plot labels

Replot

Redraw the plot, using the original settings. Use this after you have
zoomed the plot.

Output

Use this option to generate a printer, plotter or file copy of your plot, or
to transfer it to the clipboard.

Colours

This option enables you to change the colours of the plot background,
outline, axes and plot lines and/or labels to generate a screen display
more to your liking. Once you have made your selection, make sure
you use the Save option to save your selection.

Options

Use this option to change plotting defaults such as number of grids per
axis, grid line types, scaling methods etc.

Help

View this Help screen

If you wish to view a particular section of your graph more closely, you can magnify or
zoom in on any portion of the plot. To magnify, first place the plot cross-hair cursor over
the area of interest. Next , press down the mouse left hand button and keep the button
depressed. A rectangle will appear which you can "stretch" or drag over the area you
want to magnify. Release the mouse button and you will automatically zoom in on the
area inside the rectangle.
When selecting the area to magnify, first place the cross-hair cursor on any outside
corner of the box you wish to draw, drag the mouse in the diagonally opposite direction.
When the magnifying rectangle is large enough, release the mouse button.
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2.6.2.21.3 Relative Permeability Calculation Details


Relative Permeability Calculation Details
Oil and Water Only
The process is as follows:Use the test water cut and the PVT model to calculate the downhole fractional flow
Fw.
Calculate the water and oil saturations that give the Fw. Note we set Sg=0 as the
IPR is already corrected for gas with the Vogel correction.
Calculate the relative oil and water permeabilities using the relative permeability
curves and the oil and water saturations.
Calculate a test mobility from
Mt = Kro/(oBo) + Krw/(wBw)
The water and oil viscosities are calculated from the test reservoir pressures and the
PVT. We should actually use the absolute oil and water relative permeabilities but since
the only use of the total mobility is when divided by another mobility, the final results will
be correct.
Whenever an IPR calculation is done:Calculate the PVT properties using the current reservoir pressure and the PVT
model.
Calculate the downhole fractional flow from the current water cut.
Calculate the water and oil saturations that give the Fw. Note we set Sg=0 as the
IPR is already corrected for gas with the Vogel correction.
Get the relative permeabilities for oil and water from the relative permeability
curves.
Calculate the current mobility M as shown above.
Modify the PI using:PI = PIi * M/Mt
In the above method we do not take into account the reduction in oil mobility due to any
increase in the gas saturation. When calculating the Sw and So for a particular Fw we
set Sg=0.0.
Oil, Water and Gas
If you wish to take the effect of increasing gas saturation into account then select the
Correct Vogel for GOR option. You will also be required to enter a Test GOR - this is
a produced GOR. The process will now be as follows:Use the test water cut, test GOR and the PVT model to calculate the downhole
fractional flows Fw and Fg.
Calculate the gas, water and oil saturations that satisfy the Fw, Fg and
So+Sw+Sg=1.0.
Calculate the relative oil and water permeabilities using the relative permeability
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curves and the oil, gas and water saturations.


Calculate a test mobility from:Mt = Kro/(oBo) + Krw/(wBw)
The water and oil viscosities are calculated from the test reservoir pressures and the
PVT. We should actually use the absolute oil and water relative permeabilities but since
the only use of the total mobility is when divided by another mobility, the final results will
be correct.
Whenever an IPR calculation is done:Calculate the PVT properties using the current reservoir pressure and the PVT
model.
Calculate the downhole fractional flows Fw and Fg from the current water cut and
produced GOR.
Calculate the gas, water and oil saturations that satisfy the Fw, Fg and
So+Sw+Sg=1.0.
Get the relative permeabilities for oil and water from the relative permeability
curves and the oil, gas and water saturations.
Calculate the current mobility M as shown above.
Modify the PI using:PI = PIi * M/Mt
2.6.2.22Coning Calculation
In addition to the coning model implemented for the Horizontal Well with dP Friction
Loss model, a gas coning option can be chosen from the Options screen in the main
menu. This applies to all oil IPR models. It modifies the solution GOR by multiplying it
by a weighting factor greater than 1, which is a positive function of the liquid rate. The
output is a total, or produced, GOR. The model implemented was originally developed
for high permeability reservoirs (see Urbanczyk, C.H, and Wattenbarger, R.A.,
"Optimization of Well Rates under Gas Coning Conditions.", SPE Advanced
Technology Series, Vol. 2, No. 2, April 1994).
The following data are required to calculate the total GOR from a rate:

Reservoir permeability
Perforation height (vertical distance from perforation top to bottom)
Vertical anisotropy
Vertical distance from perforation top to gas-oil contact
Three correlating parameters: F1, F3 and an exponent

If the gas coning is enabled then a Coning button appears on the model selection dialog
screen. Clicking on this brings up a dialog that allows the correlating parameters to be
tuned. There is an automatic matching facility, which calculates F3 from the other data
and a (rate, GOR) coordinate. Also, the GOR can be calculated from different rates
whilst in this screen in order to verify the parameters.

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It is recommended that this model be calibrated against measure rate versus


produced GOR data before using it as a predictive tool.

2.6.3 IPR for Gas and Retrograde Condensate


Sixteen inflow options are available, including a multi-lateral inflow model. The choice
depends upon the information available and the type of sensitivities that will be done. If
multi-rate test data is available, the modelled IPR can be matched to the measured
data.
As for oil, Gas inflow models are divided between design and production applications.
Calculated IPR models can be used to estimate productivity for different completion
options. Other models are available for estimating productivity from measured flowing
pressures.
The average reservoir pressure and reservoir temperature must be entered for all inflow
performance models, however both the Multi-rate C and n and Multi-rate Jones models
can be used to calculate the reservoir pressure from production test data.

2.6.3.1 Jones
The Jones equation for gas is a modified form of the Darcy equation, which allows for
both laminar and non-Darcy flow pressure drops. The Jones equation can be
expressed in the form:

PR2 - Pw2f = a Q 2 + b Q
Where "a" and "b" are calculated from reservoir properties or can be determined from a
multi-rate test. Required data entry is:
Reservoir permeability
(Total permeability)
Formation thickness
(Thickness of producing reservoir rock)
Drainage area
Wellbore radius
Dietz shape factor
(Depends on the shape of the drainage area)

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The Jones IPR model is discouraged to use with high reservoir pressures as
the assumption of the model is to keep 1 / Z constant at pressures
>2400psig.

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2.6.3.2 Forchheimer
The Forchheimer equation expresses the inflow performance in terms of a laminar and
a non-Darcy pressure drop coefficients expressed as:

PR2 - Pw2f = a Q 2 + b Q
The "a" and "b" factors are input parameters for the Forchheimer IPR model.
2.6.3.3 Back Pressure
In this form of the back pressure equation:

Q = C (PR2 - Pw2f ) n
C is determined from the reservoir pressure and reservoir properties. Required input
data are:
Reservoir permeability
(Total permeability)
Formation thickness
(Thickness of producing reservoir rock)
Drainage area
Wellbore radius
(Open hole radius)
Dietz shape factor
(Depends on the shape of the drainage area)
Exponent n
(Between 0.5 and 1)

2.6.3.4 C and n
This is the common form of the back pressure equation:

Q = C (PR2 - Pw2f ) n
C and n can be determined from a plot of: Q versus (Pr2-Pwf2) on log-log paper. n is
the inverse of the slope and varies between 1 for Darcy flow to 0.5 for completely nonDarcy flow. This option allows direct entry of C and n.

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2.6.3.5 Multi-rate C and n


Up to 10 test points can be entered and they will be fitted to the C and n back pressure
equation for gas:

Q = C (PR2 - Pw2f ) n
The fit values of C and n are posted on the IPR plot and listed in the IPR report.
If the Reservoir Pressure defined in the IPR section is less than the highest value of the
bottom hole pressure for the test points, then PROSPER will automatically calculate the
reservoir pressure. For example, if there are three Well test data points defined for the
IPR model as follows,

then if the reservoir pressure defined is less than 4036 psig, PROSPER w ill recalculate the reservoir pressure. If the
reservoir pressure is greater than the highest FBHP specified, then the Multirate C & n model is designed to recalculate the C
and n parameters so that the IPR w ill pass through the test data points and the reservoir pressure specified.

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It is advised to enter more than one test point. Using a single data point can
generate a non-representative IPR profile.

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2.6.3.6 Multi-rate Jones


Up to 10 test points can be entered and they will be fitted to the Jones equation for gas
expressed as:
The fit values of a and b are posted on the IPR plot and listed in the IPR report. The
multi-rate Jones IPR is a convenient way to determine a and b from well tests. These
values can be entered in the Forcheimer IPR for calculating IPR sensitivities.
The program will automatically calculate the reservoir pressure if it is not available. For
producing wells, input a reservoir pressure lower than the measured pressures. The
program will dismiss the reservoir pressure entered and calculate one. For injection
wells, input a reservoir pressure higher than one of the pressures entered. The program
will calculate the reservoir pressure.

Note for injection wells. If flow test data for a producer has been fitted, the well
will have the correct IPR if it is then converted to an injector.

2.6.3.7 External Entry


Refer to External Entry for Oil.

2.6.3.8 Petroleum Experts


The Petroleum Experts inflow option uses a multi-phase pseudo pressure function to
model the reduction in well productivity resulting from increasing liquid saturation in
condensate wells. It assumes that no condensate banking occurs and that all the
condensate that drops out is produced. Transient effects on P.I. are accounted for.

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The following data is required to be entered:


Reservoir permeability
(Either total, or effective permeability at connate water saturation)
Formation thickness
(Thickness of producing reservoir rock)
Drainage area
Dietz shape factor
(Depends on the shape of the drainage area)
Wellbore radius
(Open hole well radius)
Perforated interval
TVD of the height of perforations for the well
Porosity
(Average over producing section)
Time
(Refer to Transient IPR for Oil - Section 7.2.9)
Connate water saturation
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(Used in relative permeability calcs. - see below)


Permeability entered
(Either total or effective at Swc)
Non-Darcy coefficient
(Enter by hand or PROSPER can calculate it)
The non-Darcy coefficient can be entered from a well test where available or calculated
using a correlation.
The following diagram illustrates how PROSPER treats total and effective permeability in
the Petroleum Experts IPR model:
Petroleum Experts IPR
Relative Permeability Method

Relative Permeability

Krl
1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0

Krg when effective permeability is entered

Krg'

Krg when total permeability is entered

Slc
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Liquid Saturation

The mass flow rate of each phase is directly proportional to its mobility (k/m), Krs can
be determined using PVT and the surface production rates. This technique is used to
determine the reduction in productivity as a function of the produced liquid ratios. The
derivation of the technique and details of the equations used are given in Appendix B.

2.6.3.9 Hydraulically Fractured Well


Please refer to Hydraulically Fractured IPR model in the Oil IPR section. Additional
input data for gas and condensate applications are connate water saturation, a nonDarcy flow factor and either relative permeability to gas or total permeability.
2.6.3.10Horizontal Well - No-Flow Boundaries
Please refer to Horizontal Wells in OIL IPR section. Additional input data for gas and
condensate applications are connate water saturation, a non-Darcy flow factor and
either relative permeability to gas or total permeability.

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2.6.3.11Multi-layer Inflow
The multi-layer inflow model allows up to 50 discrete reservoir layers to be entered each
with different reservoir pressures, inflow models and fluid properties. Each layer can be
gravel packed if desired. Both Injectors and Producers can be modelled.
The gas gravity, CGR and WGR must be entered for each layer. The produced fluid in
the well bore is equivalent to the summation of the individual layer contributions. Refer
to Multi-layer Inflow for Oil for more details.
2.6.3.12Horizontal Well - dP Friction Loss in Wellbore
Refer to Horizontal Well - dP Friction for Oil. For Gas, PROSPER uses the Petroleum
Experts IPR method for steady-state flow. The Reservoir porosity and connate water
saturation are required to be input in addition to the parameters described in the
Horizontal Well- dP friction loss model in the Oil IPR section.

2.6.3.13Dual Porosity
Please refer to the Dual Porosity model in the IPR for Oil section. Additional input data
for gas and condensate applications are connate water saturation, a non-Darcy flow
factor and either relative permeability to gas or total permeability.

2.6.3.14Horizontal Well with Transverse Vertical Fractures


Please refer to Horizontal Well with Transverse Vertical Fractures in the IPR for Oil
section. Additional input data for gas and condensate applications are connate water
saturation, a non-Darcy flow factor and either relative permeability to gas or total
permeability.

2.6.3.15Multi-Layer - dP Loss in Wellbore


The Multi-Layer dP Loss in Wellbore model can be used to model the production from
multi-layered gas reservoir systems.
Refer to the Multi-Layer dP Loss model for oil wells for further details.
2.6.3.16Modified Isochronal Inflow Model
A type of deliverability test conducted in gas wells to generate a stabilized gas
deliverability curve (IPR). This test overcomes the limitation of the isochronal test, which
requires long shut-in times to reach the average reservoir pressure.
In the modified isochronal test, the shut-in periods are of equal duration, as are the
flowing periods. The final shut-in pressure before the beginning of the new flow is used
as an approximation of the average reservoir pressure. The same procedure is typically
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repeated four times. A stabilized point (pseudosteady state) is usually obtained at the
end of the test.
Modified isochronal tests are commonly used in gas wells, because they require less
time and money to produce results comparable to the isochronal test. This IPR model is
based on standard Back Pressure Model

The flow at any selected rate should be continued long enough for the reservoir to
approach steady-state (stabilized) conditions. The time to reach stabilized conditions is
called the readjustment time. For wells with wide well spacing (large drainage radius
values), low permeabilities, or high gas compressibilities (low reservoir pressures),
large readjustment times can be expected. In cases where the readjustment time
exceeds the duration of each test, the test data can be corrected to isochronal
conditions and then to stabilized conditions as described below.
When a well is tested from an initial steady state shut-in condition, the increase in
drainage radius with time is not dependent upon the rate. Therefore, separate flow tests
conducted for the same length of time will reach the same drainage radius.
When a well is not shut-in between tests until steady state is reached, successive tests
will indicate values of (P2res P2wf) which are too large because of the increasing
drainage radius. For the general case, a table of correction factors to be applied to (P2
2
res P wf) to obtain an isochronal performance curve from conventional performance
data can be calculated as follows:
Flow Correlation Factors
The back pressure equation coefficients C and 'n' are obtained by non-linear
regression using the isochronally corrected data. 'n', the reciprocal of the slope of this
line, is constrained to a value between 0.5 and 1.
Although 'n' is constant, the coefficient 'C' is not the same at stabilized flow conditions
as it is at isochronal conditions. It is calculated using the same technique as before,
regressing on C and keeping n constant, after adjusting the isochronal (P2res - P2wf)
values to stabilized conditions using a variation of the following equation.

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The time to stabilisation is calculated as follows:

2.6.3.17Forchheimer with Pseudo Pressure


This IPR model is based on the Forcheimer IPR using pseudo-pressure function instead
of pressure:

where the pseudo-pressure function Y is defined as:

a and b are the input parameters for the IPR model.


NOTE: The a and b parameters for the pseudo pressure Forcheimer IPR are not the
same as the a and b parameters used in the pressure squared Forcheimer IPR.
2.6.3.18Multirate Forchheimer with Pseudo Pressure
This IPR is based on the Forchheimer IPR with pseudo-pressure (refer to previous
section):

The a and b parameters are here determined by means of multi-rate tests data.
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2.6.4 Skin Models


PROSPER divides the total skin into two parts. These are:

Mechanical / Geometric Skin.


Deviation / Partial Penetration

The skin values could be either:

Entered by Hand
Calculated Using Models.

2.6.4.1 Mechanical/Geometrical Skin


Enter Skin by Hand
If a reliable skin value is available from transient well testing, then this value should be
directly entered by selecting the "Enter by hand" option.

It is assumed that this value will contain deviation and partial penetration
information.
In case the entered skin is only mechanical skin, there is an option of enabling
the Wong and Clifford model for deviation and partial penetration in the input
screen for the skin itself.

Skin Evaluation using Models


PROSPER provides 3 methods of estimating a mechanical/geometrical skin factor
using input parameters such as perforation geometry, depth of damage etc.
The skin estimation models provided in PROSPER are those of:
Locke
McLeod
Karakas and Tariq
The required input parameters are often difficult to accurately define, therefore the
absolute value of the calculated skin often cannot be precisely predicted. The power of
these techniques is their ability to assess the relative importance of completion options
on the overall value of well skin.
The Elf SkinAide inflow method can also be used to estimate skin pressure drops for
cased- and open-hole completions with and without gravel packs.

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PROSPER can also be used to estimate the value of the skin pressure drop across the
completion and the proportion of the total pressure drop attributable to the various
completion elements.
Karakas and Tariq has been found to give good results in many field applications. The
following input data are required:
Reservoir permeability
(Effective permeability at connate water saturation)
Perforation diameter
(Entry hole diameter)
Shots per foot
Perforation length
(Effective perf. length in formation)
Damaged zone thickness
(Thickness of invasion)
Damaged zone permeability
(Permeability in invaded zone)
Crushed zone thickness
(Crushing associated with perforation)
Crushed zone permeability
(Reduced permeability near perf. tunnel)
Shot phasing
Vertical permeability
Wellbore radius
(Enter the open hole radius, not casing I.D.)
An example of the input data for the Karakas and Tariq method is shown below:

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A sketch outlining the main geometric variables is shown in the figure below.

Enter the requested data and, having entered some reservoir model data, press Cal
culate to display an IPR plot. The plot shows the pressure drop resulting from the total
skin as well a breakdown of the individual factors contributing to the total skin as per the
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following example. The individual factors to be plotted can be chosen from the V
ariables menu option of the plot window.

This plot is useful to assess the efficiency of a particular perforating program by allowing
the User to instantly assess the completion pressure loss resulting from different
perforation options. For gravel packed wells, the value of skin posted on the plot does
not include the gravel pack skin. Click Results on the IPR plot screen to display the
breakdown of dP's resulting from each completion element.
Enhancement to the skin modelling options in PROSPER is the ability to apply the API
RP43 to determine the actual length and diameter of perforations (figure below).

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Note on Skin:
Locke's technique is valid for shots per foot of 1,2,4,6,8,10,12,and 16.

2.6.4.2 Deviation/Partial Penetration Skin


In PROSPER three models are available to model the Deviation and Partial
Penetration Skin:
Cinco / Martin-Bronz
Wong-Clifford
Cinco (2) / Martin-Bronz
The Cinco / Martin-Bronz requires the following data:
Deviation angle of well
Partial penetration fraction
Formation vertical permeability
The Cinco / Martin-Bronz is based on two correlations. The Deviation Skin is calculated
using the Cinco's method, whereas the Partial Penetration skin is calculated using the
Martin-Bronz method.
The Cinco / Martin-Bronz model does not consider the anisotropy in the reservoir, that
is, it considers the reservoir as isotropic. The Vertical Permeability entered in the
Deviation and Partial Penetration Skin is only used for calculating the Partial
Penetration.
This model is based on a correlation. The validity of this extends to wells up to 65
degrees. For a higher deviation well the Wong Clifford Model should be used
The Wong-Clifford model can compute a skin for multiple completions. The WongClifford model does not have a separate calculation for the deviation & partial
penetration skin - it is a point source solution that calculates a skin that combines all of
the skin effects in one value. This total skin is placed in the Deviation skin column and
the partial penetration skin is set to zero.
This model requires the following data entered:
1. Reservoir parameters:
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Formation vertical thickness


Well-bore radius
Drainage area
Dietz shape factor
Formation vertical permeability ratio
Local vertical permeability ratio
Horizontal distance from well to reservoir edge
Depth of top of reservoir

2. Completion parameters the following for each completion:


Completion start measured depth
Completion end measured depth
Completion start true depth
Completion end true depth
The Cinco (2) / Martin-Bronz model is similar to the Cinco / Martin - Bronz model. The
difference between the two models is that the Cinco (2) / Martin-Bronz model also
considers the anisotropy in the reservoir. The vertical permeability entered in the
Deviation and Partial Penetration screen is used to calculate the Deviation Skin.

2.6.5 Sand Options


In PROSPER, there are two sections related to modelling Sand Failure and the
equipments used to prevent failed sand from being produced through the wellbore.
These are as described below.
2.6.5.1 Sand Failure
The Sand Failure Option can be accessed from the IPR section of the PROSPER
model.

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Accessing this section will allow for the calculating the Maximum Drawdown at which the
sand is expected to fail. The input data for the three available options are self
explanatory.

The Sand Failure model implemented is a proprietary model received from BP. As
such the formulations for this model cannot be disclosed.
There is also a 'Solids' model available in the tool REVEAL. This Solids model
implemented in REVEAL looks at the sand failure with changes in all three principal
stress directions. Further information on the Sand model implemented in REVEAL is
described in the REVEAL User Guide. This section describes the Sand Failure model
used in REVEAL along with the requisite references and equations. The REVEAL User
Guide can be accessed from Start | Programs | Petroleum Experts IPM7 | User Guides |
REVEAL.

2.6.5.2 Sand Control Options


PROSPER offers different sand control options that can be selected under | Options |
Options | Well completion | Sand Control:

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The following sand control options are available:


- Gravel Pack,
- Pre-Packed screen,
- Wire-wrapped screen and
- Slotted Liner

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2.6.5.2.1 Gravel Packed Completion


PROSPER can model openhole gravel pack as well as cased hole gravel pack.
PROSPER models gravel packed completions as a concentric cylinder having a User
specified permeability connected to the well bore via perforations of specified diameter.
By sensitising on perforation spacing and diameter, the effect of pressure drop due to
flow concentration on well performance can be investigated. Likewise, the effect of
varying gravel length (i.e. the thickness of gravel between the OD of the screen and the
ID of the original open hole) on skin can be evaluated. A sample gravel pack data input
screen for a cased hole is shown below:

The following data input is required:


Gravel pack permeability
(Enter the in-site permeability for the gravel)
Perforation diameter
(Diameter of perforation tunnel)
Shots per foot
Gravel pack length
(Distance from the screen O.D. to the sandface)
Perforation interval
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(This affects the flow velocity in the perforations only)


Perforation efficiency
(Proportion of perforations that are open and effective)
Beta (Turbulence)
(Select if the Non-Darcy factor is Calculated or Entered)
Method
(Single Phase or Multiphase)

The Multi Phase Method consists of using phase-weighted fluid properties


during gravel pack pressure drop calculations. This option is only active in
case of Oil fluid type.
The Single Phase method is the classic method which utilises the main fluid
type properties (i.e. Oil properties in case of oil fluid).

On the right side of the screen a table shows typical permeability data for different types
of gravels.
The pressure drop across a gravel pack is computed using a summation of a Darcy and
a non-Darcy component. For a cased oil well, the pressure drop due to the gravel pack
(dPgravel) is calculated using the Jones IPR equation:

dPGRAVELPACK = a Q 2 + b Q
Where:
a = The non-Darcy term,
Q = The total liquid rate and
b = The Darcy term
Intermediate calculations are required prior to computing the dPgravel value and
consider the following variables:
Kg
= Gravel Pack Permeability

= 1.47E7/Kg^0.55
PerfDi = Perforation Diameter
SPF
= Shots per ft
PRFINT = Perforation Interval
AOTF
o

= Area Open To Flow = (PerfDi/24)2SPF*PRFINT


= Oil Viscosity in cp

Bo

= oil FVF

= Oil Density

= Gravel pack length

The Darcy (B-term) and the non-Darcy (A-term) are calculated

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a-Term = 9.08E-13* *Bo2* o *L/12/AOTF2


b-term = o *Bo*L/12/(1.127E-3*Kg*AOTF).
This dP may then be transformed into skin using an appropriate relationship.
The main geometric parameters are shown on the following sketch:

Skin can be calculated using one of the methods described in Section 7.3 or directly
entered. Note that partial completion skin is included in the total well skin, and is not
affected by adjusting the gravel pack completion parameters. The total well skin as
measured by a well test prior to gravel packing should be entered. Click Calculate
when finished entering data and an IPR plot similar to that below will be presented (the
plotting of the individual dP components can be chosen from the Variables menu in the
plot window):

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The contribution of the gravel pack to the total skin pressure drop can be readily seen
on the IPR plot. The value of skin posted on the IPR plot does not include the gravel
pack skin. Click Results on the IPR plot screen to display the breakdown of dP's
resulting from each completion element. Sensitivities can be calculated on factors such
as gravel pack thickness, shots per foot etc. to evaluate the effectiveness of gravel pack
designs. Gravel packed completions are also available in the Multi-layer IPR model.
The PROSPER gravel pack model allows for non-Darcy (i.e. dP proportional to rate
squared) effects within the gravel pack and the resulting rate dependent skin. Lift
curves for gravel packed wells generated using PROSPER can be calculated from the
sandface, through the completion, and back to the production manifold. This more
correctly models the IPR as compared to simply imposing an additional skin to allow for
the gravel pack pressure loss as is done in many reservoir simulators.

Gravel packs can be combined with the Hydraulically Fractured Well IPR to
model Frac-Pack completions.

A summary of the main IPR equations is given in Appendix B.

2.6.5.2.2 Pre-Packed Screen completion


Pre-packed screens can be modeled in PROSPER. For this, the option "Pre-packed
Screen" should first be selected under | Options | Options:
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The description of the sand control type is made under | System | Inflow Performance |
Input Data | Sand Control:

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The following inputs are required to describe a pre-packed screen completion:


- Screen inner radius,
- Screen outer radius,
- Screen inner and outer Permeability,
- Screen inner and outer Turbulence.
The IPR curve is generated with | Calculate:

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In order to visualize the rate-dependent skin associated with the pre-packed screen,
one selects | Results and all the calculation results are listed in detail:

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2.6.5.2.3 Wire-Wrapped Screen Completion


Wire wrapped screens can be modeled in PROSPER. For this, the option "Wire
Wrapped Screen" should first be selected under | Options | Options:

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The description of the sand control type is made under | System | Inflow Performance |
Input Data | Sand Control:

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The following inputs are required to describe a pre-packed screen completion:


- Screen outer radius,
- Screen outside Permeability,
- Screen outside Turbulence.
The IPR curve is generated with | Calculate:

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In order to visualize the rate-dependent skin associated with the wire packed screen,
one selects | Results and all the calculation results are listed in detail:

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2.6.5.2.4 Slotted Liner Completion


PROSPER can model wells completed with slotted liners. To model a slotted liner
completion with PROSPER, one first need to activate this feature under | Options |
Options | Sand Control: Slotted Liner:

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The description of the sand control type is made under | System | Inflow Performance |
Input Data | Sand Control:

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The input data required to model the slotted line completion are:
- Liner Inner Radius,
- Liner Outer Radius,
- Slot height
- Slot width
- Slot density
- Screen Outer Radius (optional)
- Outer Permeability and
- Outside turbulence (optional).
The IPR curve is generated with | Calculate:

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In order to visualize the rate-dependent skin associated with the slotted liner completion,
one selects | Results and all the calculation results are listed in detail:

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2.6.6 Other IPR-related features

2.6.6.1 Gravel Pack Completion Velocities


In the IPR results (accessible from the Plot view, Results menu) the velocity at the
Casing (Vc) is available, along with the Gravel Pack A and B factors:

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The gravel pack velocities have been incorporated in Version 6 of the IPM Suite of
tools.
Vc is the velocity of the fluid at the entry point of the casing.
It is calculated by dividing the flow rate of the fluid with the area of flow at the casing.
These velocity calculations were implemented at the request of clients who require
these velocities for gravel pack design.

2.6.7 Viscosity Modelling


This screen is activated only when the fluid option Non-Newtonian fluid is selected.

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Enter in this screen the required parameters:


Wellbore radius

Radius of the hole, corresponding to the drill bit size

Drainage Area

Area of the drainage region

Reservoir Thickness

Vertical thickness of producing interval

Reservoir porosity

Porosity

Connate
Saturation

Connate water saturation

Water

These parameters are used to determine an equivalent flowing radius that will be used
by the program to estimate the pressure drop due to the friction in the reservoir.
The dP friction will take in account of the fluid apparent viscosity (which is velocity dependent) calculated by the Non-Newtonian viscosity model.

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2.6.8 Compaction Permeability Reduction


The Compaction Permeability Reduction option is an analytical model to estimate the
change of Reservoir Permeability due to reservoir compaction effects.
The correction is carried out by means of a correction factor that will be then applied to
the permeability

where:
Corr = Permeability Correction Factor (Multiplier)
Cf = Rock Compressibility
PR = Current Reservoir Pressure
PRi = Initial Reservoir Pressure
N = Compaction Model Exponent
This option can be enabled in the main IPR section:

The option will activate a new TAB screen in the Input Data section where the basic
model inputs are required:

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The input data required by the model are:


Initial
Pressure

Reservoir

Reservoir
Compressibility
Compaction
Exponent

Initial reservoir pressure


Reservoir Rock Compressibility

Model

Exponent (see definition above)

2.6.9 Injection Wells


Irrespective of the inflow model used, Injection well IPR calculations are complicated by
a number of factors as compared to producers:
Injected fluid temperature at the sandface is a function of surface temperature,
injection rate history and well configuration.
Relative permeability to injected fluid is required.
Injectivity changes with time as the fluid bank is pushed back away from the well.
Fracturing (mechanical or thermally induced) often occurs.
Adequate results for injection well IPR can be obtained by reducing the reservoir
temperature on the IPR input screen to near the estimated sandface injection
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temperature. The Enthalpy Balance temperature model can be used to estimate


injected fluid temperatures. PROSPER uses the reservoir pressure and temperature to
estimate fluid PVT properties in IPR calculations.
Most of the IPR pressure drop occurs near to the well. With this in mind, use an
effective permeability appropriate to the given conditions. For empirical inflow models
such as Vogel and Multi-Rate methods, the effect of cold injection fluid viscosity is
accounted for in the pressure points. Changing the reservoir temperature will have no
effect in these cases.

2.6.10 SkinAide
The SkinAide inflow method has been developed by Elf Aquamarine and
acknowledgement is given for its inclusion in PROSPER. The following description is
based on information provided by Elf.
2.6.10.1SkinAide Theoretical Background
Consider the case of a partially penetrating, deviated well, cased and perforated and
equipped with a gravel pack. The total pressure drop around such a well corresponds
to the pressure difference between:
- an equipotential surface at the external limit of the reservoir drainage area, and
- another equipotential surface corresponding to the screen.
This total pressure drop is due to a number of features. Moving downstream from the
external limit of the drainage area towards the well:
- the position of the producing interval with respect to the reservoir geometry (due
to partial penetration and deviation).
- the damaged zone.
- interference between the different perforations.
- the crushed zone surrounding the perforation tunnels.
- gravel in the perforation tunnels.
- gravel in the annulus between the screen and the casing.
Pressure drops between equipotential surfaces can be added to one another, and the
conceptual model corresponds to an attempt to simplify the problem by finding
equipotential surfaces.

2.6.10.1.1 Position of the producing interval with respect to reservoir geometry


The pressure drop due to the position of the producing interval with respect to the
reservoir geometry can be considered to be independent of the pressure drop
surrounding the well completion in so far as one can imagine an equipotential cylindrical
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surface with, say, a 2 m radius, separating the two regions.

This pressure drop is calculated in SkinAide using a reservoir engineering correlation.

2.6.10.1.2 Interference between perforations and the damaged zone


Moving downstream, the next feature encountered is the interference between
perforations and the damaged zone. If the perforation tunnel emerges from the
damaged zone, the damaged zone has much less influence than if the perforation
remains entirely within the damaged zone.

The pressure drop due to interference between perforations and the damaged zone is
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calculated using the Karakas and Tariq correlation.

2.6.10.1.3 The Crushed Zone


The downstream limit of the previous feature is the crushed zone. The outside surface of
the crushed zone, and the inner surface of the perforation tunnel are both assumed to be
equipotentials. As a result flow in both the crushed-only and the crushed-and-damaged
zones is radial.

Pressure drops in the crushed zone can be calculated analytically.

2.6.10.1.4 Perforation tunnel which penetrates the formation


The next feature downstream is flow in that part of the perforation tunnel which
penetrates the formation. We use the flux into the tunnel previously calculated for radial
flow in the crushed zone to calculate the flow profile along the tunnel :

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This situation can be solved analytically.

2.6.10.1.5 Perforation tunnel through the casing and cement


Moving yet further downstream, two equipotentials can be drawn, one at the external
surface of the cement, the other on the inside of the casing:

This linear flow can be solved analytically.

2.6.10.1.6 Annulus between Casing and Screen


The last feature is the region between the equipotential at the opening of the perforation
tunnel in the casing, and the screen.

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An approximate analytical solution has been found for flow in this region.
2.6.10.1.7 Hemispherical Flow Model
The conventional linear perforation model assumes that the surface of the perforation
tunnel is an equipotential surface. This assumption breaks down when permeability of
gravel in the tunnel becomes sufficiently low. When permeability in the tunnel becomes
sufficiently small, flow in the reservoir approaches hemispherical flow towards the
perforation mouth.

Flow takes place


- in the reservoir beyond the crushed and the damaged zones
- in the damaged zone
- in the crushed-and-damaged zone
- in the perforation tunnel itself.
Analytical solutions to hemispherical flow have been developed to represent this model,
which can be considered to be an upper bound to the conventional linear perforation
model.

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2.6.10.2Using SkinAide
When the SkinAide IPR model is selected, the following IPR Input screen is presented:

Select the required options for the Flow and Skin models plus Perforation Data. The
options are listed below:

2.6.10.2.1 Flow Model


Steady State - corresponds to a constant flux at the outer reservoir boundary. The
inflow at the external boundary is equal to the well flow rate. This boundary condition
corresponds to pressure maintenance by natural (aquifer influx, gas cap drive) or
artificial (gas or water injection). The steady state productivity equation is:
Semi Steady State - corresponds to no-flow at the outer reservoir boundary. This
boundary condition corresponds to reservoir depletion with no pressure
maintenance. The radial flow Productivity Index equation for semi-steady state is:
These equations differ only in the constant 3/4 vs 1/2 for steady state flow. These radial
flow equations can be generalised for other drainage geometries.

Pe, the static reservoir pressure is the average pressure in the well
drainage area, not the pressure at the external boundary. Pe is used in
the Productivity Index equation:
The reservoir pressure should be entered at the same reference datum
as the intake node depth.

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2.6.10.2.2 Skin Model


Linear Flow - Skin pressure drop is calculated assuming that flow is predominantly
linear towards the well. This is the normal situation for a well completed across most
of the reservoir.
Hemispherical Flow - Skin pressure drop is calculated assuming a hemispherical
flow geometry. This situation occurs for single perforations or wells having extreme
partial completion effects.
Flow Giving Minimum dP - Skin pressure drop is calculated assuming flow is always
along the path of lowest resistance. (i.e. between linear and hemispherical flow)

2.6.10.2.3 Perforation Data


In-Situ Geometry Entered - The dimension of the actual perforations in the reservoir
are entered.
API Test Data Edition 4 - API perforation gun data are entered and SkinAide
estimates the downhole perforation geometry.
API Test Data Edition 5 - API perforation gun data are entered and SkinAide
estimates the downhole perforation geometry. This option utilises more recently
defined gun test specifications.
Having selected the required options, SkinAide requires data entry in the following
categories:
Geometry
(Reservoir dimensions)
Petrophysics
(Reservoir permeability etc.)
Damaged Zone
(Damaged zone properties)
Cased Hole
(casing dimensions)
Crushed Zone
(Crushed zone properties)
Perforations
(Gun and perforation geometry)
Gravel Pack
(Only for Gravel Packed wells)

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The data required can vary according to the options selected. Click each data entry
button in turn and enter the data as follows:

2.6.10.2.4 Geometry
Reservoir Thickness - Enter the thickness normal to the bedding plane in dipping
reservoirs. When thin shales are distributed throughout a heterogeneous reservoir,
use the net sand thickness.

Completed Interval - Enter the perforated interval as measured along the wellbore.

Distance to Top of Completion - This parameter affects partial completion skin and is
measured along the wellbore. If gross sand thickness is used for reservoir thickness,
enter the actual distance to the top perforation (dimension h1 in the above sketch).
When using net sand, restrict the distance to net sand intervals.
Drainage Area - Area drained by the subject well
Dietz Shape Factor - Allows for drainage area shape and well placement.

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Hole Diameter - Open hole drilled diameter. Use bit size or caliper measured size
where applicable. Perforation length, damage depth are measured beyond the hole
diameter.
Deviation - Average angle between the well axis and vertical.

2.6.10.2.5 Petrophysics
Horizontal Permeability - Reservoir permeability measured parallel to the cap rock
(along the bedding plane).

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Vertical Permeability - Reservoir permeability measured perpendicular to the


horizontal permeability in the vicinity of the completed interval. Used to determine
anisotropy ratio near the perforations. Values can be taken from core analysis.

Vertical Permeability for Geometrical Skin - Reservoir permeability for the bulk
reservoir measured perpendicular to the horizontal permeability. Determines the
anisotropy ratio between the completed interval and the remainder of the reservoir.

Porosity - Used in the high velocity flow coefficient correlation:


Where:
k
Reservoir horizontal permeability
f
Reservoir porosity
a,b,c
Constants
Correlations are used to estimate the values used in the high velocity flow
equation. Field specific correlations can be prepared from well test analysis.

Turbulence coefficient a - multiplier for the overall turbulence coefficient.


Dimensions are reciprocal distance.

Permeability exponent b - Permeability raised to this power. Default is -1.33. Note,


the exponent value entered corresponds to permeability in millidarcies regardless of
the current unit set.

Porosity exponent c - Porosity raised to this power. Default is 0.0. Note the
exponent value assumes the porosity is a fraction, regardless of the current unit set.

High velocity flow pressure drops arise from acceleration and deceleration of reservoir
fluids as they pass through pore throats as in the following diagram:

2.6.10.2.6 Damaged Zone


The damaged zone is modelled as an annulus surrounding the wellbore in which
permeability and porosity have been impaired during the drilling and completion
process. The depth of damage is measured beyond the drilled hole.

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In anisotropic reservoirs, formation damage is deeper in the low permeability direction


than the high permeability. An elliptic damaged zone forms in such cases. SkinAide
assumes a circular damaged zone irrespective of reservoir anisotropy.

Damaged Zone Thickness - Since damaged zone skin is controlled by the ratio of
perforation tunnel length to damaged zone depth, enter a damage zone depth that
respects this relationship.

Damaged Zone Permeability - Determines the ratio of damaged zone to reservoir


permeability. Estimating the true value is not straightforward, however, the
undamaged reservoir permeability could be used as a starting point.

Damaged Zone Porosity - Porosity to be used in the high velocity flow coefficient
correlation.

2.6.10.2.7 Cased Hole


The casing dimensions are used to correct the API perforation length for field
conditions. The casing I.D. is calculated from the O.D. and casing weight.

External Casing Diameter - Enter nominal casing diameter opposite the completed
interval.

Casing Weight - Enter nominal casing weight per unit length opposite the completed
interval.

2.6.10.2.8 Crushed Zone


Shaped charge perforating creates a cavity filled by charge debris and surrounded by a
zone of reservoir rock that has been altered by the high pressure / high temperature jet.
Charge debris is removed by perforation washing or underbalanced perforating - the
crushed zone remains. SkinAide recognises separate properties for the crushed zone
in the undisturbed reservoir and damaged zone.

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Most of the high velocity flow pressure loss occurs in the crushed zone and is added to
the loss in the reservoir. Note that if a zero crushed zone thickness is entered, no high
flow velocity pressure drops are calculated.

Crushed Zone Thickness - Thickness of perforation altered zone. The default value
is 0.5 inches.

Crushed Zone Permeability - Reduced permeability for crushed zone within the
virgin reservoir.

Crushed Zone Porosity - Porosity in the crushed zone for estimation of high
pressure flow losses.

Crushed + Damaged Zone Permeability - Permeability for the crushed zone within
the damaged zone.

Crushed + Damaged Zone Porosity - Porosity for the crushed zone within the
damaged zone.
Permeability in the crushed and damaged zone is introduced by the ratio:
Rcrushed and damaged = Crushed and damaged zone (horizontal)
permeability / undisturbed formation (horizontal) permeability.
The same anisotropy ratio opposite the completion interval as applies to the
undisturbed formation is used for the crushed and damaged zone permeability.
It is suggested that the crushed and damaged zone permeability ratio should be
the product:
Rcrushed and damaged = RdamagedRcrushed only.
Where the ratio for the damaged zone:
Rdamaged = damaged (horizontal) permeability / undisturbed formation
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(horizontal)

permeability

and the crushed-only zone:


Rcrushed only = only crushed zone (horizontal) permeability / undisturbed
formation (horizontal) permeability.

2.6.10.2.9 Perforations
The perforation data input depends on the option selected. If In-Situ Geometry is
selected, the actual perforation sizes are required. Alternatively, API test data can be
entered for a particular gun, and SkinAide will estimate the perforation geometry
considering completion and reservoir variables such as compressive strength and
casing size.
Common Perforation Parameters

Perforation Efficiency - The number of producing perforations is the product of


perforation efficiency, shot density and the length of the completed interval.
Perforation efficiency is used to account for ineffective perforations such as those
shot into shaly beds. If gross sand is used to define reservoir geometry, the
maximum perforation efficiency should be the ratio of net/gross reservoir sand. If net
sand is used, the perforation efficiency does not need to be further modified.

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Shot Density - Nominal shots per foot for the selected perforating gun.

Gun Phasing - Angle between two adjacent perforating charges.


interference between perforation tunnels.

Angle Between Vertical Plane and Perforations - For anisotropic reservoirs, the
angle between the perforation tunnels and the direction of maximum permeability
influences productivity. When 0 or 180 guns are selected, perforations are all
aligned with the low side of the hole. For other gun phasings, SkinAide assumes an
angle of 45.

Affects

In-Situ Geometry Entered

Tunnel Length - Length of effective perforation in the reservoir formation i.e. beyond
the cement sheath.

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Tunnel Diameter - Diameter of effective perforation in the reservoir formation.

Cavity Entrance Diameter - Not active - use Tunnel Diameter. SkinAide presently
uses a cylindrical model for perforations. Future versions will allow a cone-shaped
perforation geometry.

Cavity Tip Diameter - Not active - use Tunnel Diameter. SkinAide presently uses a
cylindrical model for perforations. Future versions will allow a cone-shaped
perforation geometry.

API Test DataThe correction from test data to In-Situ conditions is influenced by the API
test series selected. The form of data input is identical for both options.

API RP 43/2 Total Target Penetration - Length of perforation in Berea sandstone


target. If RP 43/2 data is unavailable, use 2/3 of API RP43/1 cement target TTP.

API RP 43/1 Entry Hole Diameter - Entry hole diameter for steel / cement target
test. Note that the steel quality changes between Editions 4 and 5 of the API test
specifications. Ensure the relevant data is entered.

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Gun diameter - Gun diameter is used to correct API perforation test results for
stand-off.

Reservoir Uniaxial Compressive Strength - Compressive strength is used to


calculate in-situ perforation dimensions. Typical values of reservoir uniaxial
compressive strength are given in the following table:

Lithology

Reservoir

Uniaxial

Compressive
(psi)

Strength
(bar)

Loose sand

150

10

Sand which crumbles by hand

750

50

Sandstone from which sand grains can be peeled


by hand

1500

100

Well cemented sandstone

3750

250

Well cemented limestone

3750

250

Rock Density - Enter apparent In-Situ rock density as measured by a density log,
not the density of the minerals (e.g. Quartz) that comprise the formation grains.
Casing Elastic Limit - Used for correction of API data to In-situ perforation
dimensions. The elastic limit in thousands of psi corresponds to the pipe steel
quality. e.g. N80 casing has an elastic limit stress of 80,000 psi.
Reservoir Stress - Used for correction of API data to In-situ perforation dimensions.
Stress is assumed to be Isotropic. Generally the minimum effective stress (frac
gradient) is suitable.

Gravel Packs in SkinAideWhen the Gravel Pack option has been selected, additional
data entry is required to describe the pack geometry and properties. Separate gravel
properties can be entered for the annular gravel pack and the sand in the perforation
tunnels. This allows mixing of formation and pack sand to be simulated.

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Screen Outside Diameter - The space between the screen O.D. and the drilled hole
diameter is occupied by gravel.

Annulus Gravel Permeability - Permeability of gravel in the space between the


screen and the open hole. Gravel size is specified in terms of mesh size. e.g. 20/40
mesh gravel will pass a sieve with 1/20 inch holes, but not pass a 1/40 inch sieve.
Average laboratory measured permeability values for various gravel sizes are given
in the following table:

Gravel

Mesh

Type
Ottawa Sand

Carbolite

Isopac

Lab
Permeability
(Darcies)

12/20

500

20/40

150

30/50

90

40/60

60

50/70

30

20/40

350

16/20

500

20/40

110

Annulus Gravel Porosity - Used in calculation of high velocity flow coefficient in the
gravel pack.

Tunnel Gravel Permeability - Used to reduce the permeability of sand in the


perforation tunnels due to mixing of formation and gravel pack sand.

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Tunnel Gravel Porosity - Used to reduce the porosity of sand in the perforation
tunnels.

The inflow and skin pressure drop are computed by clicking the Calculate button once
all the relevant input data have been entered and Plot to display the results. To evaluate
the contribution of individual completion components in the inflow performance, click
Variables and select the parameters to display as in the following screen example:

Select the required variables by clicking their check boxes. Click Done to display the
results:

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Skin Components
The conceptual models used to calculate the total skin factor include :
- a contribution due to the position of the producing interval with respect to
reservoir geometry, called geometric skin Sgeometric
- contributions due to pressure losses close to the actual wellbore, beginning with
the pressure loss due to the damaged zone and ending with pressure loss in the
casing/screen annulus for gravel packed wells. This contribution to the total skin
is called the completion skin Scompletion.
The total skin is the sum of the two components
Stotal =Sgeometric + Scompletion
The contribution Scompletion to the total skin is particularly convenient when using
reservoir engineering equations. However Scompletion does not necessarily reflect the
quality of the completion itself. Indeed, imagine two wells with identical completions,
producing reservoirs with identical properties, the thickness of one reservoir is double
that of the other:

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Scompletion = a k h DPcompletion / ( Q m B )
Since DPcompletion is identical but reservoir thickness h differs by a factor 2, applying
the above relation leads to values of Scompletion, which differ, by a factor 2.
Mechanical skins are defined so as to reflect the quality of well completion. In the
formula for mechanical skins, the vertical reservoir thickness h is replaced by the length
of the producing interval (measured along the wellbore) hp :
Smechanical = a k hp DPskin / ( Q m B )
where, for oil wells,
a
k
hp

SI
depends on units
2p
permeability
m2
length of the completed interval m

DPskin DPreal well - DPidealized well


Q
flowrate (standard conditions)
m
viscosity (reservoir conditions)
B
fluid formation volume factor

US
7.07 10-3
mD
ft

French
0.0536
mD
m

Pa

psi

bar

m3/s
Pa.s
v/v

bpd
cP
v/v

m3/d
cP
v/v

Total and mechanical skins are related by the simple formula :


Smechanical / hp = Scompletion / h

2.6.11 SPOT: Shell Perforating Optimisation Tool


The SPOT inflow method has been developed by Shell and permission is given for its
inclusion in PROSPER. The following description is based on information provided by
Shell.
2.6.11.1Introduction to SPOT
SPOT (Shell Perforating Optimisation Tool) is a module that enables engineers to
predict and compare perforation charge performance, assisting selection of the optimal
perforating gun. It should be highlighted that SPOT is not a perforating charge sales
tool; the purpose of SPOT is to allow Users to easily assess and compare performance
of different completion techniques. Perforating charge performance is calculated using:

Charge properties

Reservoir rock properties (field average or log scale properties)

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Fluid properties

Drilling mud invasion models

SPOT can be used to analyze different completion types including; openhole,


conventional case and perforated, open hole perforated, and casing conveyed
perforated. Thus, a User can identify if perforating is the correct technique for their
application, and if not, pursue alternative technologies, including, but not limited to
barefoot completions, stimulation, underbalanced drilling and propellants.
SPOT is a powerful model that gives the User the ability to directly compare perforation
charge performance in reservoir rock on a log scale. It takes into account perforation
depth of penetration, entrance hole diameter, shot density and drilling mud invasion.
SPOT is intended to demonstrate that perforation charges often dont pass the mudinvaded zone and that correct mud design is vital in these cases (particularly in low
permeability reservoirs).
In PROSPER, the output from SPOT, an Inflow Performance Relationship (IPR) curve,
can be directly combined with any Vertical Lift Performance (VLP) correlation to predict
the well performance under various operating conditions: well head flowing pressure,
water cut, GOR and so on..
Here is a list of the peculiar acronyms used in the SPOT inflow module along with their
meaning:
API

American Petroleum Institute

AOF

Absolute Open Flow

CBL

Cement Bond Log

CFD

Computational Fluid Dynamics

EoH

Entrance Hole Diameter

DoP

Depth of Penetration

FDC

Formation Density Compensated

GUI

Graphical User Interface

IPR

Inflow Performance Relationship

NWEVS

Near Wellbore Effective Vertical Stress

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Recommended practice like API RP XX

OB

OverBalanced

SPOT

Shell Perforation Optimisation Tool

TWC

Thick Walled Cylinder

UCS

Unconfined Compressive Strength

WIQI

Well Inflow Quality Index

258

2.6.11.2Gun System databases


The gun database contains API 19-B1 and API RP 43 Section I Data for perforating
guns available from:
Baker Hughes Incorporated (Baker)
Schlumberger (SLB)
Halliburton/ Jet Research Centre (Hall/JRC)
Dynawell (DYNA)
Innicor Subsurface Technologies (INNICOR)
Owen Oil Tools (Owen)
Explosivos Technologicos Argentinos (ETA)
GEODynamics (GEODynamics)
Titan (TITAN)
Companies were provided with an opportunity to adjust/ update data in the SPOT Gun
Database. It is recommended that Users cross check all critical information with the
appropriate perforating manufacturer/ service company before a gun type/ completion
method is selected.
Sections I to IV of API 19-B are summarised below:
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Section I - firing a fully-loaded gun section under ambient conditions into a


standard casing and cement target;
Section II - firing a single charge under pressurized conditions into a stressed
rock sample;
Section III - firing a single charge into a metal target at elevated temperature;
Section IV - firing a single charge into a stressed rock sample under simulated
wellbore and reservoir conditions, then measuring the flow performance of the
perforated sample relative to its performance prior to shooting;
Section V2 - measuring the amount of debris retained within a fired fully-loaded
gun section in order to calculate how much debris will be introduced into the
wellbore per foot of gun;
A report containing lists of all data can be automatically generated in SPOT by using
Data followed by Reporting selected from the Toolbar.
It should be noted that API RP43 preceded API RP19B. The American Petroleum
Institute (API) Perforating Subcommittee adopted API RP19B during November of
2000, and state that API 19B is the only document that API recognizes as valid in this
program. As API 19B data is not available for all gun systems, API RP43 data has
also been included in the database (data sources are clearly marked). Although API
RP43 is not officially valid, Section 1 testing for both API RP43 and API 19B is based
on concrete targets.
As concrete is not representative of reservoir rock, API 19-B and API-RP 43 Section 1
data is converted to downhole conditions in SPOT using Shell proprietary correlations
(based on laboratory research). Although these correlations should provide a
reasonable estimate of perforation characteristics in reservoir rock under downhole
conditions, a better estimate of perforation performance can be obtained by
conducting reservoir specific Section II (firing a single charge under pressurized
conditions into a stressed rock sample) and/or Section IV tests (firing a single charge
into a stressed rock sample under simulated wellbore and reservoir conditions, then
measuring the flow performance of the perforated sample relative to its performance
prior to shooting). If Section II or Section IV data is available, it can be entered into the
SPOT Vendor Database under the Section II/Section IV Data heading.
If the concrete strength during the API RP 19B or API RP43 test is not recorded in the
Gun Database, in accordance with the minimum allowable strength specified in API
RP 19B, a briquette strength of 5000psi is assumed in SPOT calculations.
1. API Recommended Practice 19-B, Recommended Practice for the
Evaluation of Well Perforators, 1st Edition, 28 Sep 2001

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2. To be introduced in the next revision of RP 19-B, a draft of which is with


API for review at the time of writing.

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All the guns available in SPOT as well as corresponding information is displayed here.
Note that Normalised gun data displays Section 1 results that have been converted to
5000psi pressure (rather than ambient conditions).
Companies were provided with an opportunity to adjust/ update the data in the SPOT
Gun Database. It is recommended that the User cross checks critical information with
the appropriate perforating manufacturer/ service company before a gun type/
completion method is selected.
It should be noted that API RP43 preceded API RP19B. The American Petroleum
Institute (API) Perforating Subcommittee adopted API RP19B during November of
2000, and state that API 19B is the only document that API recognizes as valid in this
program. As API 19B data is not available for all gun systems, API RP43 data has also
been included in the database (data sources are clearly marked). Although API RP43 is
not officially valid, Section 1 testing for both API RP43 and API 19B is based on
concrete targets.
As concrete is not representative of rock, API 19-B and API-RP 43 Section 1 data is
converted to downhole conditions in SPOT using Shell proprietary correlations (based
on laboratory research). Although these correlations should provide a reasonable
estimate of perforation characteristics in reservoir rock under downhole conditions, a
better estimate of perforation performance can be obtained by conducting reservoir
specific Section II (firing a single charge under pressurized conditions into a stressed
rock sample) and/or Section IV tests (firing a single charge into a stressed rock sample
under simulated wellbore and reservoir conditions, then measuring the flow
performance of the perforated sample relative to its performance prior to shooting). If
Section II or Section IV data is available, it can be entered into the SPOT under the
Section II/Section IV Data heading.
The following data must be entered under the Section II/Section IV Data heading:
Basic gun information e.g. gun type, gun size and vendor name
Deep Penetrating/ Big Hole: the type of gun must be selected and if the gun is
classified as a deep penetrating or big hole charge. This information should be
available in the Gun Database. Generally, a deep penetrating gun will have an
entrance hole less than or equal to 0.5in.
Depth of penetration: the perforating depth of penetration measured from the inside of
the casing or tubing to the end of the perforation tunnel (Reference: API RP19B,
Recommended Practice for Evaluation of Well Perforators, 2001).
Entrance hole diameter: the diameter of the hole through the casing
Test sample compressive rock strength (UCS)
Effective stress: the net effective stress applied on the sample in a Section IV test or
3000psi for a Section II test (Reference: API RP19B, Recommended Practice for
Evaluation of Well Perforators, 2001). If a pseudo Section II test was conducted at
atmospheric conditions the effective stress would be zero.
Casing material: Select between J55, L80, P105 or P110. If a different material was
used in the test, pick the material with the closest hardness. i.e.:

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J55

L80

P105

P110

Brinell Hardness

180

230

275

320

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Fluid fill type: This is the fluid fill in the pore spaces of the rock sample. According to
API RP19B, Recommended Practice for Evaluation of Well Perforators, 2001, the
pore fluid should be sodium chloride brine solution (3% by weight). This function
allows you to conduct a pseudo Section II or Section IV test with gas filled core to
represent a gas reservoir and input the result in SPOT. Note that the well bore fluid is
always assumed to be liquid.
Standoff during test: This is the distance from the outside of the perforating charge
case to the inside of the casing. According to API RP19B, Recommended Practice
for Evaluation of Well Perforators, 2001, the standoff should normally be 0.5in.
Core Sample Size: Select between 4in and 7in core sample used in the Section II or
Section IV test. If neither a 4in or 7in core sample was used in the laboratory tests, the
User should select the core size closest to these bounds. This information is used in
the Synthetic Effective stress Correlation selected on the Options screen).
It should be highlighted that flow data obtained from Section IV test is not used in the
SPOT inflow performance calculation. The Core Flow Efficiency (CFE) ratio can
however be used as a qualitative check and for charge/charge comparisons.
The User also has the ability to enter additional gun systems in the Gun Database by
clicking the "Add" button..
Gun selection from the Vendor Database can be made according to:
Vendor
The type of gun i.e. wireline, tubing conveyed
Gun OD
Clearances:
o Enter the minimum restriction.
o Restriction Tolerance.
o Click "Update" which will only display guns with an OD less than the minimum
restriction minus the tolerance.
o Click "Clear" to remove the above filtering.

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2.6.11.2.1 Gun

This dialog is used to examine a single gun from the guns database. It is displayed in
different situations:Editing/entering a new gun in the database:
If you have the API 19B or 43 test for a new gun which is not in the default database, the
gun can be added by the user. In this case the dialog is used to enter or edit the
information from the test sheet.
Viewing details for a selected gun:
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This dialog is also used to display the details of the gun that the user has selected for
the SPOT calculations. Click the "Select Gun from Database" button to pick a gun from
the guns database. In this case most of the fields are disabled as they are read only.
The only two fields in the "Gun Details" that are enabled are Shot Density and Gun
Phasing. These two values are specified in the API 19B and 43 test. However some
guns can be configured to different values to those used in the test. In this case we allow
the user to modify them from the values in the test. Warning : although we allow these
values to be modified this is strictly incorrect as the shot density and phasing have an
effect on the Lp. The section 2/4 data is also enabled as this may be modified by the
user.
See the Gun Database help for specific information on the data.

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2.6.11.2.2 Spot Perforation Calculations

This dialog allows the user to select a gun from the PROSPER gun database and
correct the test Lp and EHD to in-situ conditions using the Shell SPOT corrections.
These are the same calculations as used in the full SPOT IPR but this calculation is for a
single set of conditions e.g. UCS, permeability. The Lp and EHD can then be
transferred to the PROSPER IPR data and used in calculation of skin.
Input Data:
This is a description of the in-situ data required by the SPOT Lp and EHD correction.

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Lp Correlation Type

API19B Section 1- API 19B Section II or IV Conventional Correlations- these


correlations assume that effective stress applied in a Section II or Section IV test
setup reaches the centre of the sample. The correlation should also be used for a
Section 1 test (no effective stress applied)

API 19B Section 1- API 19B Section II or IV Synthetic Rock Correlations- these
correlations are based on Shell laboratory tests in which it is believed that effective
stress applied in a Section II or Section IV type test setup does not reach the centre of
the
core sample. These adjustments are made to reflect the fact that the
perforation depth of penetration under effective stress measured at surface in
conventional Section II and IV setups is not the perforation depth that would be
expected downhole under the
same effective stress condition. It should be
highlighted that effective stress applied using a triaxial test approach is believed to be
valid and as such the API 19B Section 1- API 19B Section 2 conventional
correlations option should be selected.

It should be highlighted that effective stress applied using a triaxial test approach is
believed to be valid and as such the API 19B Section 1- API 19B Section 2
conventional correlations option should be selected.
Casing OD
Casing Weight
Casing Grade
API 19B/43 tests are performed through a casing defined in the test data. So if if a
much thicker casing is used then it will decrease the Lp as more of the gun energy is
lost perforating the casing. Or if a thinner casing is used then the Lp will be higher.
These data should refer to the casing at the depth of the perforation.
If a different casing grade was used in the test, pick the material with the closest
hardness. i.e.:
Material
J55
L80
P105
P110
Mean Brinell Hardness 180
230
275
320
Layer Fluid - For producers this is fixed by the type of the producer. For injectors this
should be set to the fluid in the rock that is being perforated.
Rock Type - The rock type to be used in the perforation calculation must be selected.
(carbonate or sandstone). This will affect the perforation depth of penetration
calculation. It should be highlighted that SPOT does not take karsts and fractures into
account when modeling inflow performance of carbonates. This may result in unrealistic
flow results.
Use Downhole Standoff - Select "Yes" if you wish to enter a gun standoff. Otherwise
select "No" in which case the gun is assumed to be centralized.
Downhole Standoff - If "Use Downhole Standoff" is set to "Yes" enter the value to be
used.
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Well Radius - Wellbore hole radius


Effective Stress Data:
In-situ effective stress is one of the key numbers in the correction of Lp and EHD in the
SPOT algorithm. This section of the dialog allows entry of data to calculate the effective
stress or to enter the value directly.
Mean Sea Level wrt Origin, Sea Bed Depth wrt Origin - Used to calculate the effect
of sea on in-situ effective stress (enter zero if on-shore).
Depth - Measured depth of the perforation.
Overburden Pressure Gradient - This pressure gradient is used to calculate the
overburden pressure and subsequently the Near Wellbore Effective Vertical Stress
(NWEVS). The NWEVS is used in perforation depth of penetration calculations. A
common overburden pressure gradient (i.e.lithostatic pressure gradient) is 1psi/ft.
Reservoir Pressure - Average current reservoir pressure.
Enter Effective Stress, Effective Stress - To enter the value of effective stress
directly, select "Enter Effective Stress" and enter the "Effective Stress".
Gun Data:
This section of the dialog shows the data relating to the selected gun. See Guns
Database for information on this data. Click the "Select Gun" button to pick a gun from
the guns database.
Section 2/4 Gun Data:
If section 2 or 4 gun test data is available, tick this box and enter the data. See Guns
Database for information on this data.
Calculated Data:
Click the "Calculate" button to calculate the actual Lp and EHD. If you wish to use these
values, click the "Transfer" button to copy these calculated values to the IPR data.
Note that the calculated casing ID is also shown. This is calculated from the casing OD
and density.
2.6.11.3SPOT: Model inputs
In order to use the SPOT inflow model, select | System | Inflow Performance and select |
SPOT from the list of the available Reservoir Models in PROSPER:

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In order to fully describe the SPOT reservoir model, select | Input Data at the top right
corner of the screen to access the various tabs (below listed from left to right) required
to enter the model inputs:
- Options
- Layers
- Log Data
- Completion Data

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2.6.11.3.1 SPOT: Model inputs - Options

Lp Correlation Type:

API19B Section 1- API 19B Section II or IV Conventional Correlations- these


correlations assume that effective stress applied in a Section II or Section IV test
setup reaches the centre of the sample. The correlation should also be used for a
Section 1 test (no effective stress applied)

API 19B Section 1- API 19B Section II or IV Synthetic Rock Correlations- these
correlations are based on Shell laboratory tests in which it is believed that effective
stress applied in a Section II or Section IV type test setup does not reach the centre of
the
core sample. These adjustments are made to reflect the fact that the

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perforation depth of penetration under effective stress measured at surface in


conventional Section II and IV setups is not the perforation depth that would be
expected downhole under the
same effective stress condition. It should be
highlighted that effective stress applied using a triaxial test approach is believed to be
valid and as such the API 19B Section 1- API 19B Section 2 conventional
correlations option should be selected.
It should be highlighted that effective stress applied using a triaxial test approach is
believed to be valid and as such the API 19B Section 1- API 19B Section 2
conventional correlations option should be selected.

Calculate Non-Darcy Skin:

Yes: a quadratic is used to account for high velocity flow

No: the quadratic (non-Darcy skin) term is not taken into account.

The only option for gas/condensate wells is Yes.


Activity:
The user has two choices:
New well: the well is being perforated for the first time or

Workover / Re-perforation: an already perforated and producing well needs to


be re-perforated.

Well type:
The well type can be:

Vertical

Deviated (up to 75 degrees deviation)

Horizontal (above 75 degrees deviation)

Inflow Equation:
For vertical or deviated wells the user has 2 IPR choices:
Vogel: SPOT uses a straight line inflow relationship above the bubble point and the
Vogel relationship below the bubble point to account for two phase flow. This equation
is based on an empirical relationship developed by Vogel using numerical
simulations.
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Fetkovitch: the Fetkovich IPR model also accounts for two phase flow below the
bubble point. It was developed to improve Vogels correlation.
For horizontal wells the user has 4 IPR choices: Economides-Joshi: This model has been adopted from Economides (1990) and
Joshi (1988). It assumes the well is located in the center of the drainage volume. The
method is not appropriate for partially cased and perforated or partially openhole
perforated horizontal wells.
Borisov: This simple equation was developed by Borisov (1964) and has been found
to provide good results in many simple cases. The method is not appropriate for
partially cased and perforated or partially openhole perforated horizontal wells.
Babu-Odeh: This method treats a horizontal well as a vertical well turned sideways.
Despite being a simple concept, it has received wide acceptance. The method is not
appropriate for partially cased and perforated or openhole perforated horizontal wells.
Goode-Wilkinson: The method was adopted from Goode and Wilkinson. It is the only
horizontal well model in SPOT that can be used to calculate performance of a partially
cased and perforated horizontal well. The model also assumes that the horizontal well
has been drilled in a rectangular drainage area that is twice as long as it is thick (I.e.
reservoir length>>reservoir height). The method is not appropriate for partially
openhole perforated horizontal wells.
Note that Non Darcy skin effects are currently NOT considered in SPOT for horizontal
gas wells.

Log Data Input:


SPOT requires log data with porosity, permeability, UCS and TWC. However if not all
these types are available then the missing data can be calculated from correlations.
Also if other data such as FDC, shear & compressional sonic is available then it can be
used to calculate the required data.
In this combo-box, select the variables that you have available as log data. You will then
be able to enter them in the log data tab.
If no log data is available then select "None Available". The user will then be able to
generate log data with constant values in the log data tab.
Perforating Method:
For a new well there are two options: Single run perforating - Running in and perforating
One perforating gun is run into the well and fired. This is as per standard perforating
practices.
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Double run perforating - Running in and perforating, then running in again and
perforating using the same gun
An interval is perforated twice using the same gun. That is, the gun is run into the well
and fired, pulled out of the hole and the same gun is rerun into the well and fired.
SPOT takes into account the probability that old and new perforations will overlie
(assuming the perforating guns are not oriented).
For a workover/reperforation: Single run perforating - Running in and perforating
One perforating gun is run into the well and fired. This is as per standard perforating
practices.
Double run perforating Running in and perforating, then running in again and
perforating using the same gun
An interval is perforated twice using the same gun. That is, the gun is run into the well
and fired, pulled out of the hole and the same gun is rerun into the well and fired.
SPOT takes into account the probability that old and new perforations will overlie,
assuming the guns are not oriented.
For a double perforating run, SPOT will assume the same degree of mud invasion for
the first and second perforating run.
Re-perforating - You are re-perforating over existing perforations (old holes) that are
contributing to production
If this option is selected the User must fill out the Reperforating box in the Reservoir
layers screen. The User is presented with a drop down box that includes the following
options

New holes only- i.e. model the contribution from only the new perforation holes

New and Old holes- i.e. model the contribution from the new and old perforation
holes

Old holes only- i.e. model the contribution from only the old perforation holes.
Note that according to the option selected here, the User must also tick the
appropriate perforated interval in the Log Data screen

SPOT takes into account the probability that old and new perforations will overlie
assuming guns are not oriented. As calculated reperforation results are qualitative, the
User should match/adjust these results using field data.
For a reperforation calculation, SPOT will assume the same degree of mud invasion for
the old and new perforating run.
In SPOT mud invasion is assumed to have a permanent effect on reservoir performance
that does not improve over time. Thus, when reperforating an existing zone or
perforating a new zone in an old well, SPOT will assume mud invasion properties do not
alter over time (i.e. the existing zone will contain the same amount and degree of mud
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invasion as the new zone). In reality, if a mud has been ideally designed, it is likely the
effect of mud invasion will reduce over time. SPOT recognizes the fact that most of the
drilling muds used in practice are not ideal. Despite this, if the User wishes to alter the
mud invasion properties for new and old perforating zones within a well, the Enter Mud
Invasion Log option should be selected. This will give the User the ability to specify
certain mud properties for different zones.

(Mud) Invasion method:


There are 4 methods available to capture the mud invasion:
1. "Calculate invasion"
This option will allow the User to calculate mud invasion using one of four options
developed by Shell. The model requires the following inputs:

Drilling fluid weight / density,

Total drilling time: This is the total drilling time (including downtime during drilling
of the well) which is used to calculate an equivalent rate of penetration.
Drilling downtime: This is downtime/well suspension time after the well has been

drilled i.e. the time that the total wellbore was exposed to drilling mud. Note that the
model accounts for equilibrium filtrate invasion through the filter cake.
2. "Enter Mud Invasion Log"
The User should enter a mud invasion petrophysical log. This is the most
accurate method of predicting mud invasion depth in a well.
Typically, a mud invasion log can be calculated using deep and shallow resistivity
data; resistivity data can provide a good indication of mud invasion depth and if
drilling filtrate has dissipated away from the near wellbore region (which is likely
for high permeability reservoirs). As mud invasion depth calculations are
resistivity tool dependant, the appropriate calculation method should be obtained
from the tool vendor or obtained from a Petrophysicist or Log Analyst.
In order to use this option, Log data Input must be selected as Yes and data
entered into the Log data screen. This option can also be used if conventional
petrophysical log data is not available but the User still wishes to import a footby-foot description of mud invasion depth.
The effective permeability in the invasion zone must also be specified using the
Invasion tab on the Reservoir Layers screen (two invasion zone permeability
options are available- use of return permeability data or predicted return
permeability factors). Invasion should be entered for each individual layer if a
multi-layer reservoir is modeled.

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3. "Enter discrete Invasion depth"


The User should input a discrete mud invasion depth based on field knowledge,
information from deep and shallow resistivity petrophysical logs and/or well tests.
If this option is selected, the effective permeability in the invasion zone as well as
the discrete invasion depth should be specified using the Invasion tab on the
Reservoir Layers screen (two invasion zone permeability options are availableuse of return permeability data or predicted return permeability factors). Invasion
should be entered for each individual layer if a multi-layer reservoir is modeled.
4. "No Invasion"
In this case, the SPOT module will assume no mud invasion.

Sanding model:
There 2 choices: "None" and the "QinetiQ model".
The "None" option will not calculate any possible production of failed sand.
The "QinetiQ model" is an analytical model that calculates if failed sand will be
produced from a vertical or horizontal perforation:

For vertical perforations a suspension model is assumed in which solid particles


are maintained within the fluid

For horizontal perforations a conservative traction model is used in which sand


particles do not enter the fluid but move by rolling and sliding. This transport
mechanism requires the least energy for initiation.

Currently SPOT assumes:

in vertical wells, the horizontal perforation model is used

in deviated and horizontal wells both the horizontal and vertical transportation
models are used. If either model results in sand production SPOT will identify that
sand will be produced. The User should enter the perforation angle for the
perforation type of interest.

This model can also be used as a debris transport model. Thus, it can be used to model
debris flow if the debris diameter is entered (rather than the sand particle size
distribution diameter) and if the density of the debris is entered (rather than the sand
density).
Model limitations include:

The model is not valid for mud or clay

The model does not account for random fluctuations in velocity due to turbulence
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that may, in reality, enable movement of particles even when no sand transport is
indicated.

The model assumes that the fluid of interest is the reservoir fluid (not the
completion fluid or drilling mud).

A perforation angle cutoff of 45 degrees is used to distinguish between


horizontal and vertical perforations

Validity is limited to rw/(perforation length+rw)<0.95. Beyond this, the equations


will be operating beyond the intended range

The following input parameters are required:

Particle diameter: average expected particle diameter from sieve or laser


particle size analysis

Density sand: the density of the sand grains

Perforation angle: defines the horizontal/vertical orientation of the perforation.


The perforation angle is measured relative to the horizontal axis. i.e. perforation
angle of a horizontal perforation equals 0 degrees. For vertical perforations the
model assumes that the perforation is oriented downwards. It is assumed that if
the perforation angle is oriented upwards (with an angle of 35 degrees-90
degrees from horizontal), the crushed zone material will fall out of the perforation
tunnel.

Roughness perforation wall: the roughness of the perforation. A suggested value


is one standard deviation greater than the average particle size to account for
the presence of loose fines and crushed material, which will roughen the
perforation tunnel.

It should be highlighted that the QinetiQ Sanding Model does not predict perforation
tunnel failure. It only predicts if sand production will occur assuming that failure has
already occurred. I.e. perforation tunnel cleanup.

Crushed zone Model:


The user has two models to choose from:

Entered

QinetiQ Test Results

If the entered crushed zone model is selected, the user needs to input:
o

Permeability (impairment) factor, which represents the ratio of the crushed zone
permeability to the virgin reservoir permeability and

o
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The QinetiQ Test Results" option will use a default crushed zone permeability
relationship which defines the thickness of the crushed zone and the crushed zone
permeability damage factor based on laboratory experiments using big hole charges.

Lower Completion Type:


If the well completion type has been set to "Cased Hole" in the System Summary then
the only option is "Cased and Perforated".
If the well completion type has been set to "Open Hole" in the System Summary then
there are two choices:

Open Hole

Open Hole Perforated

Pressure Transform:
This option is only required for gas/condensate wells. It refers to the pressure transform
used in the IPR calculations.
Pressure Squared
Pseudo Pressure
Use Downhole Standoff:
Select "Yes" if you wish to enter a gun standoff. Otherwise select "No" in which case the
gun is assumed to be centralized.
Enter Gun per Layer:
Select "Yes" if you wish to select a different gun for each layer in the reservoir.
Select "No" if the same gun is to be used for the whole reservoir.
Use SPOT IPR Extensions:
Select "No" if you wish to use the same assumptions as other PROSPER IPR models.
Select "Yes" if you wish to use the same assumption as the original SPOT program
from Shell.

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2.6.11.3.2 SPOT: Model inputs - Layers

This tab is used: to enter some basic data such as well radius
to split up the reservoir into layers and enter data per layer.
select a gun
It is not necessary to enter multiple layers but at least one layer must be entered. Only
one layer is allowed for horizontal wells.
Basic Data:

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Well Radius - Wellbore hole radius


Drainage Radius - Reservoir radius over which the well can drain/ inject reservoir
fluids. In general, the drainage radius for tight formations is small, while the drainage
radius for highly permeable formations is large. For the Joshi Economides and Borisov
horizontal well methods the equivalent horizontal drainage radius should be entered into
SPOT. That is, if the user nominates a drainage area, the shape of that drainage area is
either elliptic or rectangular with two half circles at both ends. Radius of a circle with an
equivalent area calculated and it is called the equivalent horizontal drainage radius.
Note that drainage radius does not need to be defined in the Babu Odeh or Goode
Wilkinson horizontal well method.
Mean Sea Level wrt Origin, Sea Bed Depth wrt Origin - Used to calculate the effect
of sea on in-situ effective stress (enter zero if on-shore).
Perforation Efficiency - In the past perforation efficiency was often a very low number
such as 0.2, 0.3. This was to take into account the much lower Lp than the gun test value
caused by the difference in test and in-situ conditions. Since the Lp is corrected to insitu conditions by the SPOT calculations one would normally use a much larger
perforation efficiency e.g. 0.8.
If a gun is selected per layer then this will appear as a per layer value in the layers grid
rather than the basic data.
Additional Reservoir Height - This information will only be required for a vertical or
deviated openhole or openhole perforated well. It defines the distance between the
bottom of the openhole well and the bottom of the reservoir layer (i.e. the bottom-most
reservoir layer in a multilayer reservoir). For example, if the openhole well fully
penetrates the reservoir (as depicted below) the additional reservoir height will equal
zero.

If the openhole well does not penetrate the Bottom Reservoir Layer, the distance
between the bottom of the well and the Bottom Reservoir Layer must be defined using
the additional reservoir height box.

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In an openhole vertical or deviated well the top of the producing well section will be
defined by the bottom of the casing on the Completion Details screen. Thus the bottom
of the casing and the additional reservoir height will define the producing well length in
an openhole vertical or deviated well.
Select Gun:
If gun per layer has not been selected, click this button to select a gun from the guns
database.
Select Old Gun:
If gun per layer has not been selected and the user has chosen to reperforate existing
perforations, click this button to enter details of the gun used to create existing
perforations.
Layer Data:
Top MD - For all vertical and deviated wells this is the top of the specific reservoir layer
to be analysed, defined in terms of measured depth. Thus:
Bottom MD - Top MD = reservoir height for a vertical cased and perforated well.
Top MD must be used in conjunction with Additional Reservoir Height and Bottom
Well MD to define the reservoir height for an openhole or openhole perforated well.
Bottom MD - For vertical and deviated cased and perforated wells this is the bottom of
the reservoir layer to be analysed. Thus:
Bottom MD Top MD= reservoir height
Well length is defined by the perforated interval on the Log Data screen.
This is depicted below.
Cased and perforated vertical well:

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Layer Pressure - Average current layer pressure.


Under Balance Pressure - The total of static underbalance and dynamic
underbalance when the interval was perforated. This value is used to illustrate on the
Analysis Screen if the crushed zone around the perforation tunnel is likely to be removed
and to facilitate comparison of the desired underbalance to industry models.
Note:
SPOT does not automatically adjust perforation crushed zone properties according to
the specified underbalance value. A specific modelling package should be used for
this purpose.
Underbalance pressure can be static or dynamic or a total of static and dynamic
If a negative value is entered, SPOT assumes an overbalance has been applied.
The use of vertical effective stress (rather than horizontal effective stress) to determine
crushed zone removal is theoretically only valid for certain perforation orientations.
Overburden Pressure Gradient - This pressure gradient is used to calculate the
overburden pressure and subsequently the Near Wellbore Effective Vertical Stress
(NWEVS). The NWEVS is used in perforation depth of penetration calculations. A
common overburden pressure gradient (i.e.lithostatic pressure gradient) is 1psi/ft.
Water saturation - The total water saturation in the reservoir. This value is used to
predict the effect of associated water production on well productivity.
Relative Permeability - Click this button to enter the relative permeability curves for
oil&water (for oil wells) or gas&water (for gas/condensate wells) as Corey data.
Reperforating Options - If the User has selected to reperforate existing perforations,
they can chose whether the calculation is based on new & old holes, new holes only
or old holes only.
Invasion Data - If you have chosen Invasion model to be "Calculate Invasion" or "Enter
Discrete Invasion Depth", click this button to enter details of the invasion data.

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Bottom HoleTemperature - Enter the average reservoir temperature over the


perforated interval of the layer.
Kv/Kh - The ratio of vertical to horizontal permeability. The ratio must be less than or
equal to 2.
m - If permeability information is unavailable, the User will need to enter a coefficient to
describe a porosity/permeability relationship. M is the gradient of the porosity/
permeability relationship
c - If permeability information is unavailable, the User will need to enter a coefficient to
describe a porosity/permeability relationship. C is the y-axis intercept of the porosity/
permeability relationship.
Downhole Rock Type - The rock type to be used in the perforation calculation must be
selected.(carbonate or sandstone). This will affect the perforation depth of penetration
calculation. It should be highlighted that SPOT does not take karsts and fractures into
account when modeling inflow performance of carbonates. This may result in unrealistic
flow results.
Reservoir Height - This defines the distance between the top and bottom reservoir
layer in which the horizontal well has been drilled. For the Economides Joshi and
Borisov horizontal methods, it is assumed that the well is positioned in the mid point of
the layer. The Babu-Odeh and Goode Wilkinson methods allow the height of the
reservoir to be specified relative to the well position.
The Economides Joshi, Borisov, Babu Odeh and Goode Wilkinson horizontal methods
allow the following type of horizontal well situation to be analysed:

The Babu Odeh and Goode Wilkinson horizontal methods allow the following type of
horizontal well situation to be analysed:

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Xwell - The distance to the well mid point in the direction of reservoir length. This
parameter only needs to be defined for the Babu Odeh and Goode Wilkinson
calculation methods
Ywell - The distance to the well mid point in the direction of reservoir width. This
parameter only needs to be defined for the Babu Odeh and Goode Wilkinson
calculation methods.
Zwell - The distance to the well mid point in the direction of reservoir height. This
parameter only needs to be defined for the Babu Odeh and Goode Wilkinson
calculation methods.
Reservoir Length - Length of the reservoir defined for Babu Odeh and Goode
Wilkinson methods.
Reservoir Width - Width of the box reservoir defined for Babu Odeh and Goode
Wilkinson methods.
2.6.11.3.2.1 SPOT: Model inputs - Rel Perm Data

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The User must select Corey Function in the Reservoir Layer screen.
End points (residual saturations and corresponding relative permeabilities) as well as
Corey Exponents must be specified. A brief explanation of these terms is provided
below:
Relative permeability: Permeability of one phase in the presence of another
phase
Residual saturation: The irreducible saturation remaining in the pore space
when another phase flows through the reservoir rock
End point relative permeability: The permeability corresponding to the residual
saturation of the other phase/phases
Corey exponent: An exponent that describes the shape of the relative
permeability curve between endpoint saturations
For example, in the below graph:
Residual water saturation=0.2 (20%)
Residual oil saturation= 0.2 (20%) i.e. 1-0.8
Oil relative permeability end point at the residual water saturation of 20%= 0.8
Water relative permeability end point at the residual oil saturation of 20%= 0.3
If water saturation is less than or equal to 20% then it can be assumed that only
oil is flowing in the reservoir
If oil saturation is less than or equal to 20% then it can be assumed that only
water is flowing in the reservoir

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General rules to be used when specifying relative permeability values are provided
below (ideally, Corey Exponents would be obtained from laboratory experiments):
End point relative permeability <1
Residual saturations 0-1 (i.e.0-100%)
Recommended Corey Exponent for Gas/Oil Drainage
In order to estimate a Corey Exponent, the wettability of the reservoir must first be
determined.
Wettability describes the preference for fluid to adhere to the surface of the reservoir
rock (i.e., in water wet rocks water preferentially adheres to the rock surface,
conversely, in oil wet rocks oil preferentially adheres to the rock surface). In general,
most reservoirs are classified as being intermediate wet.
Guidelines for Wettability Determination:

Swi

WaterWet
>20 to 25% or more

Oil-Wet
<15%, usually 10%

kro=krw

@ Sw >50%

@ Sw< 50%

krw at Sorw

< 0.3

> 0.5

Approximate Corey Exponents vs. Wettability

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Wettability

Corey Exponent for kro (no)

Corey Exponent for krw (nw)

Water Wet
Intermediate Wet
Oil Wet

2 to 4
3 to 6
6 to 8

5 to 8
3 to 5
2 to 3

Recommended Corey Exponents for Gas Production (an imbibition process)


Curve
Water relative permeability curve
Gas relative permeability curve

Corey Exponent
5 to 8
2 to 4

Note: This assumes that the reservoir is water wet


Curve

Corey Exponent

Gas relative permeability curve

2 to 4

The User can easily view the generated relative permeability curve by clicking Plot
Curves in the Corey Function data screen.
Relative permeability assumptions used in SPOT are outlined below:
-Oil production- oil, water and solution gas are assumed to be the only phases
present
-Gas production- gas and water are assumed to be the only phases present
-Water production- water is assumed to be the only phase present
-Water injection into an aquifer- water is assumed to be the only phase present
-Water injection into oil reservoir- water and residual oil are assumed to be the only
phases present
-Gas injection into a gas cap- gas and irreducible water are assumed to be the only
phases present
-Gas injection into an oil reservoir- gas, oil and irreducible water are assumed to be
the only phases present
Thus, it is important that the User selects the correct reservoir type on the Corey
Function screen for injection. That is:
-For water injection if injecting in oil leg is not ticked, SPOT assumes that water is
being injected into a water aquifer
-For gas injection if injecting in oil leg is not ticked, SPOT assumes that gas is
being injected into a gas cap.

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2.6.11.3.2.2 SPOT: Model inputs - Mud Invasion

SPOT contains four mud invasion data entry options on the New well data and Reperforation data screens:
1. No Invasion: The SPOT calculation assumes no mud invasion.
2. Enter discrete invasion depth: The User should input a discrete mud
invasion depth based on field knowledge, information from deep and shallow
resistivity petrophysical logs and/or well tests.
If this option is selected, the effective permeability in the invasion zone as well as
the discrete invasion depth should be specified using the Invasion tab on the
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Reservoir Layers screen (two invasion zone permeability options are


available- use of return permeability data or predicted return permeability
factors). Invasion should be entered for each individual layer if a multi-layer
reservoir is modeled.
3. Enter mud invasion log: The User should enter a mud invasion
petrophysical log. This is the most accurate method of predicting mud invasion
depth in a well.
Typically, a mud invasion log can be calculated using deep and shallow
resistivity data; resistivity data can provide a good indication of mud invasion
depth and if drilling filtrate has dissipated away from the near wellbore region
(which is likely for high permeability reservoirs). As mud invasion depth
calculations are resistivity tool dependant, the appropriate calculation method
should be obtained from the tool vendor or obtained from a Petrophysicist or
Log Analyst.
In order to use this option, Log data available? must be selected as Yes
and data entered into the Log data screen. This option can also be used if
conventional petrophysical log data is not available but the User still wishes to
import a foot-by-foot description of mud invasion depth.
The effective permeability in the invasion zone must also be specified using the
Invasion tab on the Reservoir Layers screen (two invasion zone
permeability options are available- use of return permeability data or predicted
return permeability factors). Invasion should be entered for each individual layer
if a multi-layer reservoir is modeled.
4. "Calculate invasion": This option will allow the User to calculate mud invasion
using one of four options developed by Hans Vans Velzen (Royal Dutch Shell)
and the Shell Perforating Global Delivery Team. If mud invasion is to be
calculated in SPOT, the User must input:
o Total drilling time: This is the total drilling time (including downtime during
drilling of the well) which is used to calcuate an equivalent rate of penetration.
o Downtime: This is downtime/well suspension time after the well has been
drilled i.e. the time that the total wellbore was exposed to drilling mud. Note
that the model accounts for equilibrium filtrate invasion through the filtercake.
Calculation specifics and the effective permeability in the invasion zone must
also be specified using the Invasion tab on the Reservoir Layers screen
(two invasion zone permeability options are available- use of return permeability
data or predicted return permeability factors). Invasion should be entered for
each individual layer if a multi-layer reservoir is modeled. The four calculation
methods available on that screen are:
o Ability to estimate mud/ filtrate invasion if fluid loss data from laboratory
experiments were recorded as a function of time. Common experiments
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include measuring High Temperature High Pressure filtration behavior (under


static conditions using a ceramic disk with appropriately sized pores) and
Core Flood tests.
o Ability to estimate mud/ filtrate invasion if only the total fluid loss volume from
laboratory experiments was recorded. Common experiments include
measuring High Temperature High Pressure filtration behavior (under static
conditions using a ceramic disk with appropriately sized pores) and Core
Flood tests.
o Ability to estimate mud invasion if no test data is available-Option 1
o d) Ability to estimate mud invasion if no test data is available- Option 2. In
many circumstances, a User will only have information available for this
calculation. It should be highlighted that this method is only valid within the
following ranges: mud weights of 1sg to 1.8sg, brine densities of 1.05sg to
1.25sg for oil based mud and 1sg to 1.25sg for water based mud. This will
provide a very similar answer to Option 1. The difference between Option 1
and Option 2 is the data input requirements.
Mud Invasion Model- Background Information
The SPOT mud invasion model is appropriate for the following scenarios:
Oil based and water based drilling muds
Oil production wells
Gas injection and production wells
Water injection and production wells
Sandstone and carbonate reservoirs
Vertical, deviated and horizontal wells
Different completion types including cased and perforated wells, openhole
completions and openhole perforated wells.
The model assumes the drilling mud has been correctly designed and that appropriate
laboratory tests have been undertaken (tests may include, but not be limited to return
permeability, filtercake pop off and core flood). Correct mud design is especially
important as:
In general, deep mud filtrate invasion depths depend on filtercake thickness and
permeability. 1. Filtercake permeability depends on the solid size used to create
a filtercake. 2. Filtercake thickness depends on the tendency to be eroded under
specific conditions (based on initial thickness and mud flow/ dynamic filtration
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effects). Thus, if drilling mud solid particles are not correctly sized, the formation
will experience deeper mud filtrate invasion. The SPOT mud model assumes
that all drilling mud solids have been optimally sized.
Return permeability tests can be used to define the permanent permeability
reduction due to mud filtrate and solids invasion. It should be highlighted that
solids invasion should be negligible if a mud has been correctly designed.
Filtercake pop off/ flow back tests can be used to define the differential pressure
required for filtercake removal. Note that residual solids at the surface of the
wellbore will have a much larger impact on return permeability than filtrate
invasion so it is important to ensure the filtercake has been removed (Francis,
1997, SPE Paper 38182). If a drilling mud has been properly designed, the
filtercake should easily lift off and no residual solids should remain at the surface
of the wellbore.
It should also be highlighted that the mud calculation model in SPOT can only be used
to obtain a first pass estimate of mud invasion depth. If the depth of penetration of the
perforating gun and mud invasion depth is similar, more detailed studies and/or
laboratory testing should be undertaken. Such studies can account for additional
factors such as dynamic filtration effects. An example of such a study using a fine scale
3D reservoir simulator is described by Suryanarayana et. al in SPE Paper 95861.
Users should always conduct an After Action Review to compare the mud invasion
depth predicted by the model to that in the actual well (e.g. mud invasion depths in the
well can be measured using deep and shallow resistivity logs). This information will
assist design and interpretation of mud invasion depths in adjoining fields/wells. It
would be appreciated if results of any such comparison are sent to Petroleum Experts
for future improvement of the SPOT mud invasion model.
Some recognized limitations of the SPOT mud invasion model include:
It is possible to generate inconsistent skin and flow results when using high 'mud
filtrate zone' factors. If this occurs we recommend increasing the filtrate factor to
100percent or reducing the filtrate factor below 50percent. A model to rectify this
problem will be avaliable in the next version of SPOT. The correct behaviour is
that flow reduces (and skins increase) as mud invasion depth increases.
It assumes the mud has been correctly designed including sizing of mud solids.
Athough it can be applied to oil, gas and water flow, the model assumes piston
like displacement of filtrate. This is in general valid for gas wells, however, may
not be appropriate for oil wells. If the viscosity of the filtrate is lower than the
viscosity of the reservoir fluid, fingering may occur, resulting in much higher
invasion depths than predicted by the SPOT model. In order to correctly model
this effect, multiphase flow effects must be taken into account.
It is a static model and neglects dynamic effects such as filter cake erosion.
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Dynamic effects (constant removal and relayering of the filtercake) may be


significant in horizontal wells during the drilling and completion process.
A constant mud filtrate damage permeability is assumed in the mud invasion
zone. There are varying opinions in the industry if the mud invasion zone should
be modeled with a constant or varying permeability. The assumption in SPOT is
that permeability of the filtrate invasion zone is not depth dependant. The
alternate belief is that permeability should vary within the mud invaded zone from
a low value (closest to the wellbore) to virgin reservoir permeability (at the edge
of the invasion zone), reference: SPE 95861.
The following analysis assumes that the filtrate invasion into the reservoir has a
permanent effect on well productivity, which does not improve over time. The
degree of permanent reservoir permeability reduction due to filtrate and solids
invasion is captured in SPOT in the specification of invaded reservoir
permeability (Ks and Kl- permeability of the solids and liquid invaded zones
respectively). Thus it is very important that these values are reasonable and if
possible, return permeability testing has been undertaken (return permeability
tests demonstrate the difference in pre and post mud invaded permeability i.e.
the amount of permanent mud damage). To obtain realistic return permeability
results, the test should be continued until a constant flow rate is achieved and the
drawdown pressure used in the laboratory should be representative of the
maximum pressure experienced in the field (this pressure must be downscaled
for core-reservoir size effects). In addition, test conditions like temperature,
overbalance pressure and pore sizes of the disk and/or the permeability of the
core plug sample, should be comparable with field conditions. If specific,
remedial attempts are undertaken to remove mud damage, the effect of these
processes should be included in the final estimate of return permeability.
Equivalent Circulating Density (ECD) effects during mud circulation are ignored.
ECD effects may increase the differential pressure across the formation during
filtercake formation and filtrate invasion.
Formation composition (e.g. clay presence, mineralogy) is ignored.
Mud Invasion Model Input Requirements
Input data for calculating mud invasion, specifying a discrete mud invasion depth or a
mud invasion log is specified under the New Well/Reperforation screen:
Once an option is selected, additional mud invasion data must be entered on the
Reservoir Layers screen, Invasion Data.
Irrespective of the option selected on the New Well/Reperforation screen (except for
the No invasion option), the effective permeability in the mud filtrate and mud
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filtercake invaded zones must be specified. Two options are available for specifying
the effective permeability of the invaded zone:
1. Input return permeability from core tests. This option should be selected if return
permeability laboratory testing was undertaken. Simplistically, the test involves
measuring the initial permeability of the sample at irreducible water saturation,
dynamically exposing the core to drilling mud so a filter cake forms, statically
exposing the filter cake to drilling fluid, cleaning up the sample using drawdown
and finally, measuring the return permeability of the core sample. The damaging
effect of the drilling mud is quantified by the difference between the initial and
final permeability of the core sample.
To use this option, the following inputs are required:
Fluid loss at end of test= total mud fluid loss
Cross sectional area= cross sectional area of core sample
Fractional porosity of core sample= average porosity of core sample
Length of core plug sample=length along the axis of the core sample
Swi of core sample= irreducible water saturation of core sample
Kreturn= return permeability of the core sample after conducting the laboratory
test (%)
Kinitial= initial permeability of the core sample i.e. 100% by definition
This information is used to determine a linear fluid invasion depth, and thus the
effective permeability of the fluid invaded zone.
2. Input factor for permeability in mud invaded zone: If return permeability
laboratory testing was not undertaken, the effective permeability if the solid and
filtrate invaded zones must be estimated. This is inputted into SPOT is the form
of mud invasion zone permeability factors, Ks and Kl,:
Ks = factor to describe the final permeability of the solid invasion zone following
mud invasion
Kl = factor to describe the final permeability of the filtrate invasion zone following
mud invasion
Suggested values based on research by Hans Van Velzen (Royal Dutch Shell) are as
follows:
Kl (OBM) = 52% Kl(WBM) =62%
(90% probability that the invaded zone permeability will be greater than this)
Kl (OBM) = 89% Kl(WBM) =91%
(50% probability that the invaded zone permeability will be greater than this)
Ks(OBM & WBM)= 5%

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Research suggests that a cut-off may exist for mud invasion damage depending
on initial permeability(i.e. high permeability reservoirs are not greatly affected by
mud invasion). The mud invasion model used in SPOT accounts for irreducible
water saturation and, as such, a permeability cutoff is not recommended for
gas reservoirs. However, a permeability cutoff could be applied to oil
reservoirs.
Alternate work by Francis (1997) suggests: Ks (OBM & WBM)= 0.1%
(Reference: Francis, 1997, Dominating Effect Controlling the Extent of Drilling
Induced Formation Damage, SPE Paper 38182)
If the drilling mud is inappropriate or has been poorly designed, permeability in
the mud invaded zone may be very low due to pore plugging by solids, fluid/ fluid
and fluid/ rock interactions, changes in saturation, phase blockage, clay swelling
in the formation, wettability alterations and in situ emulsification and/or
precipitation. The mud invasion model in SPOT does not explicitly consider
these factors.
In addition, the User must enter an irreducible water saturation or irreducible gas
saturation value. This is the irreducible fluid saturation of the reservoir interval.
If Enter Discrete Invasion Depth was selected in the New Well/Reperforation
screen, a value should be entered into the Discrete invasion depth box on this
Invasion Data screen. This option will assume a constant invasion depth over the entire
reservoir interval.
If Calculate invasion was selected in the New Well/Reperforation screen, one of the
following four mud invasion depth calculation options should be selected:
1. Fluid loss vs time
2. Total fluid loss time and volume
3. No fluid loss data-option 1
4. No fluid loss data- option 2
Most accurate calculation method is Option 1, followed by Options 2, 3 and 4.
However the option that requires the least data and thus is most easily applied by the
User is Option 4. In many circumstances (especially for high permeability gas and oil
reservoirs), the User will only have data available for Option 4.
1. Fluid loss vs time
This option should be selected if core flood tests and/or HTHP-fluid-loss-tests
(using a ceramic disk) were conducted and if fluid loss behaviour during the
duration of the test is avaliable. It will predict the amount of spurt loss as well as
the external filter cake build-up process (excessive spurt loss will occur if the
drilling fluid is not properly designed, in this case the drilling fluid should be
redesigned). The User will need to enter additional data in the Fluid loss data
screen:
o Area of lab sample= cross sectional area of ceramic disk or core sample
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o Differential pressure applied across the lab sample= differential pressure


applied across ceramic disk or core sample during the mud invasion test
o The User will also need to enter Time and Fluid Loss data into the table. A
minimum of two data sets is required. If more than two data sets are entered,
SPOT will input a best fit line through the data. Reasonable values for t1 and t
2 are 300s and 1800s or the end time of the static filtration period
respectively.

2. Total fluid loss time and volume


This option should be selected if core flood tests and/or HTHP-fluid-loss-tests
(using a ceramic disk) were conducted and if only the total fluid loss volume was
recorded at the conclusion of the test. SPOT thus assumes that no spurt loss has
occurred during the test (there should be minimal spurt loss if a drilling fluid has
been optmally designed). As a consequence the solids invasion depth cannot
be predicted and only the liquid invasion can be estimated. If the User is
interested in spurt loss effects, they should obtain appropriate measurements
using laboratory tests.
The User will need to enter additional data in the Fluid loss data screen:
o Area of lab sample= cross sectional area of ceramic disk or core sample
o Differential pressure applied across the lab sample= differential pressure
applied across ceramic disk or core sample during the mud invasion test
o Total lab sample exposure time= time that the ceramic disk or core sample
was exposed to drilling mud
o Total fluid loss through the lab sample= total amount of drilling fluid lost
through the lab sample during all testing stages (the volume should
correspond to the total lab sample exposure time specified)

3. No fluid loss data-option 1


If no fluid loss data is available, empirical equations are used. This method
assumes no spurt loss has occurred and that:
o Fractional porosity of filtercake (fcake) [-] = 0.05
o Permeability of filtercake (Kcake ) [m2] = 80E-21 for OBMs
o Permeability of filtercake (Kcake ) [m2] = 160E-21 for WBMs

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As these values are highly approximate, it is recommended that mud testing is


undertaken to allow one of the more accurate methods (Option 1 or 2 above) to
be used to estimate mud invasion depths.
The User will need to enter additional data in the Drilling mud properties
screen:
o Oil based mud or water based mud. If Oil based mud is not selected, SPOT
will assume the use of water based mud
o Viscosity of drilling fluid filtrate
o Density of drilling fluid filtrate, if you have an OBM this will be the density of the
oil phase in the mud, if you have a WBM this will be the density of the water
phase in the mud
o Mass fraction of solids in the drilling fluid, if you have an OBM, this will be the
mass fraction of solids and water i.e. mass fraction= [((%oil+%water+%
solids)*drilling weight)-(%oil*densityoil)]/( (%oil+%water+%solids)*drilling
weight), if you have a WBM, this will be the mass fraction of solids only i.e.
mass fraction= [((%oil+%water+%solids)*drilling weight)-(%oil*densityoil)-(%
water*densitywater)]/( (%oil+%water+%solids)*drilling weight)
o Density of solids in the drilling fluid, if you have an OBM, this will be the
density of solids and water i.e. density= [((%oil+%water+%solids)
*drillingweight)-(%oil*densityoil)]/ (%water+%solids), if you have a WBM, this
will be the density of solids only i.e. [((%oil+%water+%solids)*drilling weight)(%oil*densityoil)-(%water*densitywater)] / (%solids)
4. No fluid loss data- option 2
This method assumes no spurt loss has occurred. It should give a very similar
result to Option 3 (it is based on similar empirical correlations). It should be
highlighted that this method is only valid within the following ranges: mud weights
of 1sg to 1.8sg, brine densities of 1.05sg to 1.25sg for oil based mud and 1sg to
1.25sg for water based mud. The method will also not work for some low weight
water based muds (with brine densities between 1sg and 1.25sg).
The User will need to enter additional data in the Drilling mud properties
screen:
o Oil based mud or water based mud. If Oil based mud is not selected, SPOT
will assume the use of water based mud
o Brine density
o If an oil based mud, is the oil water ratio closer to 80/20 or 75/25
o Is the mud barite weighted or calcium carbonate weighted?

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o Drilling fluid weight


In addition to selecting one of the four above options, the irreducible fluid saturations
must be specified. Depending on the reservoir fluid, the following parameters may be
required:
a. Irreducible water saturation
b. Irreducible gas saturation
c. Irreducible oil saturation
SPOT will always assume that the mud invasion zone is measured from the wellbore
radius. That is:
in a cased and perforated well, invasion depth is measured from the wellbore
radius (or if caliper data is entered, the effective wellbore radius)
in an openhole well the invasion depth is measured from the wellbore radius (or
if calliper data is entered, the effective wellbore radius)
in an underreamed gravel packed well the invasion depth is measured from the
underreamed wellbore radius (or if caliper data is entered, the effective wellbore
radius)

2.6.11.3.2.3 SPOT: Model inputs - Old Gun

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SPOT takes into account the probability that old and new perforations will overlie
assuming guns are not oriented. It is assumed that there is a negligible effect of the few
shots which may overlay. As calculated reperforation results are qualitative, the User
should match/adjust these results using field data.
If the option of Old holes only or New and Old holes is selected, the User will be required
to input the following data on the Reservoir Layer screen for the existing holes:
Most of the required information can be obtained from the Vendor Database:
Gun size
Shot density
Gun phasing
DoP Section 1: the depth of penetration measured during the API RP19B Section 1
test
Entrance hole diameter
Perforation efficiency: perforation efficiency is the number of holes that are
contributing to production. E.g. 80% efficiency would mean that 8 out of 10 holes are
contributing to production as 2 hole are blocked due to debris, perforation collapse
etc. Rough rules of thumb for perforation efficiency are:
o 80% for a current perforation gun in a vertical well.
o 50% for vertical perforations in a horizontal well (the gun sitting on the low side of
the hole will prevent tunnel cleanup)
o 80% efficiency for casing conveyed perforating
o 80% efficiency for casing conveyed perforating
o <80% efficiency if a large dynamic or static drawdown is applied to consolidated
sand (i.e. tunnel collapse is not a concern)
o 50% for old perforation guns (greater than or equal to 20 years old)
o 50% for very tight reservoir
Deep Penetrating/ Big Hole: the type of gun must be selected and if the gun is
classified as a deep penetrating or big hole charge. In general, a deep penetrating
gun will have an entrance hole less than or equal to 0.5in.
Standoff during test: This is the distance from the outside of the perforating charge
case to the inside of the casing that applies to the specified Section 1 DoP value
provided above.
Downhole standoff: This is the distance from the outside of the perforating charge
case to the inside of the casing when the gun was originally fired in the well.
Casing material: Select between J55, L80, P105 or P110. If a different material was
used in the test, pick the material with the closest hardness. i.e.:
Material
J55
L80
P105
P110
Mean Brinell Hardness 180
230
275
320

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2.6.11.3.3 SPOT: Model inputs - Log Data

The Shell PGDT recommends that the following set of log data is inputted in SPOT to
improve perforation and inflow performance predictions (i.e. answer YES to Log data
available?):
Porosity
Permeability
Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS)
Thick Walled Cylinder Strength (TWC)
If UCS and TWC data is not available, the following information should be entered:
Formation Density Compensated (FDC)
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Compressional Sonic
Shear Sonic
Petrophysical data should be entered on a typical data acquisition scale (i.e. 0.5-1ft).
Additional data that may also be entered in the Log data screen is listed below (these
are not used in the SPOT calculations):
Gamma-ray: to identify different formation types e.g. sand, shale, coal
Resistivity: to identify hydrocarbon intervals
Cement Bond Log (CBL): to identify poorly cemented zones
Caliper: the caliper diameter should be entered. This will be used to identify washed
out and slumped zones. Any caliper data entered in SPOT will be used to define the
wellbore radius in inflow performance calculations
Net/Non Net reservoir: to identify net pay or sand zones
The best method to get log data into PROSPER is to first import it into Excel and
preprocess it to the format of the log data tab. Then copy and paste it into PROSPER.
Once all the data has been entered, click the "Fill-in" button to calculate any columns
that were not entered (these are shown in blue).
Perforation Zones
The tick box in the "Perforated" column allows each row to be perforated or not. If the
perforated tick box is blue and disabled then it means the log row depth does not
intersect any of the entered layers so it can not produce/inject.
Obviously it can be time-consuming to tick or untick each log row as there may be
thousands or rows. So there are several methods to make this process easier:Multiple Selection:
Select a number of rows by clicking and dragging over the rows. Then right click on the
selected rows and select either "Perforated - On" or "Perforated - Off" to tick or untick
the Perforated tick box for all the selected rows.
Perf by cutoff:Click this button to display a dialog that allows rows to be perforated by cutoff e.g.
perforate all rows with a permeability grater than 10 md.
Perf by depth:Click this button to display a dialog that allows rows to be perforated or not over a range
of entered depths e.g. perforate all rows between a MD of 10105 and 10674 feet.
Note that if the Goode-Wilkinson horizontal well model is not selected for a cased and
perforated analysis, the User will be unable to update the perforation interval in the Log
Data screen (the entire interval will be automatically selected as being perforated).
Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) and Thick Walled Cylinder (TWC) Data

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The User should input a UCS petrophysical log into SPOT. UCS is a very important
parameter as it affects the perforation depth of penetration. There are four options for
determining UCS:
1. Determine a UCS log for your field using petrophysical measurements (UCS is
usually a function of density and sonic logs) and match the generated UCS log to
laboratory core UCS measurements at specific depths. The complete UCS log
should be easily acquired from a Petrophysicist or Log Analyst. This is the most
accurate method of creating a UCS log as the predictive correlation will have been
match against actual field core UCS measurements. For example:
2. Determine a UCS log for your field using petrophysical measurements (UCS is
usually a function of density and sonic logs). The UCS log is NOT matched against
core data. The complete UCS log should be easily acquired from a Petrophysicist or
Log Analyst.
3. Determine a UCS log for your field using information/ data from nearby wells/fields
4. Use correlations in SPOT to estimate UCS. The following correlation types are
available in SPOT to estimate UCS under the UCS Relation column in the layer
data tab:
Sandstone Reservoirs
- Equation 1: UCS as a function of density and compressional sonic (uncertainty factor
2)
- Equation 2: UCS as a function of density and shear sonic (uncertainty factor 2)
- Equation 3: UCS as a function of porosity (valid for porosity>7%)
- Equation 4: UCS as a function of TWC (uncertainty factor of 2)
Carbonate Reservoirs
- Equation 5: UCS as a function of porosity (valid for porosity 4-37%)
- Equation 6: UCS as a function of TWC (uncertainty factor of 3)
SPOT may request more information than required by the selected UCS correlation. For
example, the User may select Porosity, Permeability, FDC and Compressional Sonic
from the Log data input drop down menu in the options tab, however if Equation 1 is
selected, only FDC and Compressional Sonic will be used to calculate UCS (porosity
and permeability values are required for other calculations in SPOT). If the User wishes
to use petrophysical log data to calculate UCS but only average values to calculate
inflow performance, they should enter petrophysical FDC and Sonic logs and constant
porosity and permeability values in the columns in the log data tab.
Although it is possible to internally calculate porosity in SPOT for oil and water wells, it is
recommended that porosity values are not calculated within SPOT and that porosity
information is always entered by the User after it has been determined by a Log Analyst/
Petrophysicist (as it can have a large effect on mud invasion depth calculations and
permeability correlations, and subsequently inflow values). To internally calculate
porosity in SPOT for an oil or water well a FDC (density) Petrophysical log and a Rock
Bulk Density value must be provided. Mud invasion effects are ignored in the SPOT
porosity calculation. SPOT does not allow the User to internally calculate porosity for
gas wells as density logs measure electronic density (which can be significantly less
than actual density in gas).
Many of these correlations are based on trend lines and as such, there is uncertainty
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surrounding each correlation. The User should assess the appropriateness of


calculated values to determine if the correlation is reasonable compared to expected
UCS ranges. A relationship should not be used if it produces negative or very large
values. If uncertainty exists regarding the UCS estimation it is recommended to conduct
a sensitivity analysis.
Indicative UCS ranges that can be used to assess the reasonableness of calculated
values are:
Unconsolidated/extremely weak
Loosely consolidated/ very weak/soft
Friable/weak
Consolidated/low strength
Hard
Medium Strength
High Strength
Extreme Strength

<130 psia
130-550 psia
550-1300 psia
1300-4500
psia
>4500 psia
4500-7200
psia
7200-17000
psia
>17000 psia

These ranges should be appropriate for both sandstones and carbonates.


After UCS values have been defined, TWC must also be defined (accurate TWC
estimation is not as important as UCS prediction in SPOT as TWC is only used to
predict perforation tunnel strength). The following correlation types are available in
SPOT to estimate TWC under the TWC Relation column:
Sandstone Reservoirs
- Equations 1 & 2: TWC as function of density and compressional sonic (uncertainty
factor 1.5-2.5)
- Equation 3: TWC as a function of density and shear sonic (uncertainty factor 1.52.5)
- Equation 4: TWC as a function of porosity - Equation 5: TWC as a function of UCS (uncertainty factor of 2)
Carbonate Reservoirs
- Equation 6: TWC as a function of porosity
- Equation 7: TWC as a function of UCS (uncertainty factor of 3)
SPOT may request more information than required by the selected TWC correlation.
For example, the User may select Porosity, Permeability, FDC and Compressional
Sonic from the Log data input drop down menu in the options tab, however if Equation
1 is selected, only FDC and Compressional Sonic will be used to calculate TWC
(porosity and permeability values are required for other calculations in SPOT). If the
User wishes to use petrophysical log data to calculate TWC but only average values to
calculate inflow performance, they should enter petrophysical FDC and Sonic logs and
constant porosity and permeability values in the columns in the log data tab.
No Log Data Available
If the "Log Data Input" in the options tab was set to "None Available" then synthetic log
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data must be generated. The screen to generate this data will be displayed
automatically the first time the log data tab is accessed. To regenerate the log data
again, click the generate button.
2.6.11.3.3.1 SPOT: Model inputs - Generate Log Data

This dialog is used to generate synthetic log data if none is available. This will create
log data with constant values entered in the average properties data.
The log depth increment should be a small number (e.g. 1 ft).
2.6.11.3.3.2 SPOT: Model inputs - Perforation Cutoff

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This dialog allows the perforated state of the log rows to be set depending on the values
of the log data.
For example, if you wish to only perforate log rows where the permeability is greater
than 10 mD, enter a value of 10 mD for the "Lower Permeability" and then click the
"Apply Cut-off" button. Log rows with a permeability greater than 10 mD will have the
"Perforated" tick box selected and any with a permeability lower than 10 mD will have
the "Perforated" tick box de-selected.
Alternatively if you wish to only perforate log rows with a UCS less than 7000 psia, enter
a value of 7000 psia for the "Upper UCS" and then click the "Apply Cut-off" button. Log
rows with a UCS less than 7000 psia will have the "Perforated" tick box selected and
any with a UCS higher than 7000 psia will have the "Perforated" tick box de-selected.
Leave fields blank if you do not want to them to be applied in the cut-off.
2.6.11.3.3.3 SPOT: Model inputs - Perforation Depth

This dialog is used to select or deselect the perforate tick box for all log rows over a
certain depth range. The depths are always MD rather than TVD.
For example, if you wish to perforate between 12050 and 12100 feet, enter "Upper
Depth" = 12050 ft and "Lower Depth" = 12100 ft. Then click the "Set Perforated" button.

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2.6.11.3.4 SPOT: Model inputs - Completion

This tab is used to enter completion details for the SPOT calculations. Only the
completion over the producing zone is required.
This data is used to correct the Lp. API 19B/43 tests are performed through a casing
defined in the test data. So if if a thicker casing is used then it will decrease the Lp as
more of the gun energy is lost perforating the casing. Or if a thinner casing is used then
the Lp will be higher.
Appropriate completion details will need to be entered for the selected option. This may
include:
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Casing diameter, type and weight


Casing drift to account for variations in diameter during manufacture. The total drift in
casing internal diameter (ID) should be entered. This is defined in SPOT as the
difference between the maximum and minimum casing ID.
Tubing diameter, type and weight
Tubing drift to account for variations in diameter during manufacture. The total drift in
tubing internal diameter (ID) should be entered. This is defined in SPOT as the
difference between the maximum and minimum tubing ID.
Minimum tubing restriction diameter: this limits the gun size that can be run using
through tubing conveyance.
Hold up depth; this is effectively the end of the well. You will not be allowed to perforate
below the hold up depth
Casing material type: select between J55, L80, P105 or P110. If a different material
was used in the test, pick the material with the closest hardness. i.e.:
Material
J55
Mean Brinell Hardness 180

L80
230

P105
275

P110
320

SPOT will always assume that the casing of a well is cemented. It cannot calculate the
effect of perforating an uncemented liner or tubing.
Multiple casing strings (2 or 3 casing strings only) can be entered into SPOT and an
adjusted perforation depth will be calculated using empirical correlations.
The holdup depth is effectively the bottom of the well. No perforations are allowed below
the holdup depth. The holdup depth is a measured depth (not TVD).

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2.6.11.3.5 SPOT: Model inputs - Gravel Pack

Gravel pack information can be entered to model an internal or external (i.e.


underreamed) gravel pack. The following options are available:
Cased and Perforated Well- internal or external gravel pack. In this scenario the internal
gravel pack represents a conventional internal gravel pack. The external gravel pack
represents where the casing has been underreamed and the perforations and
underreamed area are filled with gravel. This option assumes that all other intervals in
the well contain a traditional cased and perforated completion.
Openhole Perforated Well- internal or external gravel pack: In this scenario the internal
gravel pack represents an openhole perforated well that has been completed with a
gravel pack within it (it is extremely unlikely that this case would be selected in practice,
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but is provided here for flexibility). The external gravel pack represents where the casing
has been underreamed, the interval has been perforated and the perforations and
underreamed area are filled with gravel. This option assumes that all other intervals in
the well contain a traditional openhole perforated completion.
Openhole well- internal or external gravel pack: In this scenario the internal gravel pack
represents an openhole well that has been completed with a gravel pack within it (it is
extremely unlikely that this case would be selected in practice, but is provided here for
flexibility). The external gravel pack represents a conventional external gravel pack
where the casing has been underreamed and the underreamed area is filled with
gravel.
This option assumes that all other intervals in the well contain a traditional openhole
completion.
Gravel pack permeability: the permeability of the gravel pack can be estimated using
the following recommendation by Golan and Whitson (1991)
US Mesh Size
40/60
20/40
10/20
8/12

Approx Mean Diameter (in)


0.014
0.025
0.056
0.080

Permeability (md)
1.2E5-1.7E5
1.2E5
5E5-6.5E5
1.7E6

Top of gravel pack: the top depth of the gravel pack


Bottom of gravel pack: the bottom depth of the gravel pack
Gravel pack outer diameter: the outer diameter of the gravel pack.i.e. the under
reamed diameter in an external gravel pack, the casing ID in an internal cased and
perforated gravel pack or the wellbore diameter in an internal openhole gravel pack.
Gravel pack inner diameter: the inner diameter of the gravel pack. i.e. the diameter of
the gravel screen. Note that this value is not used in the gravel pack calculations, it is
only used in generating the SPOT Well Schematic
Calculation method: three options are presented to calculate the non Darcy flow
through the gravel pack; Golan 1 phase, Geertsma 1 phase and Geertsma 2
phase. The Golan 1 phase calculation is recommended for single phase flow. The
Geertsma 1 phase calculation is recommended for single phase flow. The
Geertsma 2 phase calculation is recommended for two phase flow.
2.6.11.4SPOT: Model Results
Enter topic text here.

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2.6.11.4.1 SPOT: Model Results - Layer Results

SPOT initially does all the calculations of corrected Lp's, skin, rates etc for each log row.
For reporting purposes it then calculates representative values for the layers for some of
these variables. For example it will use the results of the log rows belonging to each
layer to calculate an equivalent skin for the layer.
Click on the Log Results button to display the detailed results for each log row. Some of
these results are at a specific FBHP so a value needs to be entered before displaying
the log results.

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2.6.11.4.2 SPOT: Model Results - Log Results

This dialog displays the detailed results for each log row. Some of the data (such as
rates) are calculated at the FBHP that was entered in the layer results.
Notes on some of the variables are as follows:Underbalance Behrmann, Underbalance King - Recommended underbalance as
calculated by Behrmann & King.
Qo, Qw, Qg - rates from the log row at the entered FBHP
Qo Aof, Qw Aof, Qo Aof - rates from the log row if FBHP = atmospheric pressure
Qo Cum, Qw Cum, Qg Cum - the total rate from this log row plus all log rows below this
log row at entered FBHP.
Qo Cum Aof, Qw Cum Aof, Qg Cum Aof - the total rate from this log row plus all log
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rows below this log row if FBHP = atmospheric pressure.


Beyond Zone - This is ticked if the perforation is beyond the invasion zone for this log
row.
Sand Production - This is ticked if the sanding model has predicted that sand has been
produced for this log row.

2.6.12 Multi-Lateral Interface


2.6.12.1Network Interface
2.6.12.1.1 Motivation
Multilateral wells are different than single wells because they have a variable structure.
Both the number of branches and the way that they are connected is variable. Hence, a
flexible network data structure is appropriate for modelling these wells. Furthermore, to
provide a consistency with other Petroleum Experts products the interface has the same
look and feel as the one in GAP.

2.6.12.1.2 Interface Overview


The multilateral data entry screen is accessed by choosing System | Inflow Performance
from the PROSPER main menu, as with the single well IPR. However, before that the
multilateral option must be chosen in the Options screen, also accessed from the main
menu.
The User interface consists of a framework window that contains several child windows,
as well as the menu and toolbar from which commands are issued. The child windows
include the network windows that contain the system network drawing, the navigator
window that can assist in the viewing of large networks and up to three visualisation
windows, which can show the multilateral network drawn to scale from three orthogonal
points of view.

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Four main components of the interface are identified, as indicated on the diagram
above, which are described in more detail in the following sections:
1. Network window the window on which the system network is drawn.
2. Navigator window contains a full schematic that can be used to help navigation
about large systems.
3. Menu bar and toolbar. The menu bar is used for issuing commands to PROSPER and
the interface; it contains an abridged set of commands compared to a normal
application framework window because it is a subsidiary window of the main
programme. The toolbar contains menu accelerators, icons for selecting and
manipulating network nodes and links, and icons for zooming or unzooming on the
network window.
4. Visualisation screen up to three windows showing front, side and top views of the
multilateral network.

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2.6.12.1.2.1 Network Window

The network window is the main window on which the multilateral network is displayed
and manipulated. More than one network window can be displayed at one time; this
means that different views of the same system are available simultaneously, which can
be of help in editing large networks.
The system window is used to draw, edit, and view the system. The network nodes are
represented by coloured icons. The different actions that can be performed on this
window are obtained by clicking the right hand mouse button within the area of the
system window, which brings up a menu. Alternatively, the same set of actions can be
performed using the toolbar or the menu, which are described below.
Addition of Network Nodes and Links
To add an item to the system, activate the required network item type from the toolbar or
by using the right hand mouse button menu. The cursor will change to indicate that a
network item selection has been made. Click on the screen at the point to insert the
element. A network node will be created and an icon to represent it. A label dialog will
appear prompting for a name. If the element is not labelled, a default label is provided
which can be edited later using the icon right hand mouse button menu.
Only the four left most items in the toolbar (tie-point, junction, completion and tank/
reservoir) are nodes: links, the fifth item, are added differently by dragging between two
nodes. Depending on a set of connection rules, the connection will be made or not and
the correct type of link will be chosen. For example, reservoirs can only be attached to
completions and the type of link is logical; in other cases the link is a piece of tubing.
These rules are reviewed in the description of toolbar items. The network is
hierarchical and arrows drawn on the links indicate the direction of the connections
(which is normally the same direction as increasing vertical depth). Each icon is given a
characteristic colour, depending on the network item it represents. The colours and
items are: red (tie-point), green (junction), yellow (completion), blue (reservoir) and pink
(tubing).
Zoom/Unzoom
To zoom or unzoom, first select the appropriate icon from the toolbar or from the right
hand mouse menu, as described above. To zoom in on an area, hold the left hand
mouse button while sweeping the mouse cursor over the area of interest. Alternatively,
click once at a point in the system, and the programme will zoom or unzoom on that
point using a fixed scaling factor (which may be adjusted using the Preferences dialog
in the Preferences menu).
To revert to a full system view at any time, double-click the left hand mouse button at any
point in the window (except on an icon). The view will re-scale to show the whole of the
system.
Mask/Unmask
To mask or unmask, first select the appropriate icon from the toolbar or from the right
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hand mouse menu, as described above. To mask a node, click on itwith mask
selected; to unmask it click on it with unmask selected. Masking removes a node from
the calculation without removing it and its associated data from the network (which
deleting does). Masking is useful for simulating the effect of removing or adding in
completions. Note that masking a branch will have the effect of masking those below it
in the hierarchy.
Moving Items
Select the move option from the toolbar or from the right hand mouse menu. To move a
single item, place the mouse cursor above it and hold down the left mouse button while
dragging the mouse cursor to the desired new location. To move a group, select an
area as with the zoom option and then hold down the left mouse button with the mouse
cursor in the window before dragging the whole group to a new location. Items stay
selected after a group move but can be de-selected using the select option.
Deletion of Items
Select the delete icon from the toolbar or from the right hand mouse menu. Groups of
items may be deleted by group-selecting them as above, but with the delete option
chosen. NB: deletion of a node deletes the data associated with it so this option
should be used with caution. To delete a pure (non data-carrying) link re-do it.
Selection of Items
To select an item or items, first choose the select icon (black arrow) from the toolbar or
from the right hand mouse menu, the selected item will change colour. Group selections
can be achieved by first selecting the select icon then drag the left hand mouse button
over the area of interest. The select option is a toggle, so it can select or de-select
items. Group selections can be used to turn off the selection actioned by a group move.
Editing of Items
If a network item carries data it has an icon associated with it and can be edited by
double clicking on it provided that none of zoom/unzoom, move, delete or select are
chosen. Editing of network item data is covered in the section on Data Entry.
Right Hand Mouse Button Actions
Utility menus will appear when the right hand mouse button is clicked anywhere in the
system view. The normal menu appears when the button is clicked over an empty
space. It contains the commands to add and manipulate network items as well as
commands to bring up dialog screens to change fonts and icon sizes. If it is clicked
over a network icon, a shorter menu will appear with a number of network item specific
functions, such as the ability to change the icon size and label, and delete and select.
Panning
To move the view around the system, move the cursor close to the edge of the view in
the direction the system will be moved. The cursor will change to an arrow. Clicking the
left hand mouse button will move the system view by a fixed amount depending on the
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current scaling factor. To pan quickly, hold the mouse button down and, after a short
time, the pan action will 'auto-repeat'.
Popup Status Information
If no toolbar (or equivalent menu item) is chosen as the mouse is moved over the
network icons, a small window will appear and show basic status information for the
node in question. The pop-up status window allows the validity status of a network item
to be checked without entering the data entry screen. This is optional: to switch this
function off go to the Preferences screen. To select nothing, toggle the currently
selected toolbar or menu items, or choose the blank option from the drop-down list box
in the toolbar.
Changing Icon Sizes / System Fonts
These functions are also available from the right hand mouse menu. See the section on
menu details for more information.
Other Window Actions
Minimise:
Click this button to minimise the window in the multilateral main
window.
Maximise:

Click this button to maximise the window to fill the multilateral main
window.

Close:

Click this button to remove the window from the workspace.

System menu:

This contains various functions allowing the window to be


maximised, minimised, moved, etc.

2.6.12.1.2.2 The Navigator Window

This window can be used to aid in navigation about a large system. It will always consist
of a system schematic that is independent of any zooming on a system window. In
addition to the network, it contains a tracking rectangle that encloses the portion of the
system currently under view in the system window.
The tracking rectangle has two functions. If the focus is currently on a network window,
this rectangle surrounds the area of the network that that view is displaying.
Alternatively, the rectangle may be used to create new views of the network if the
navigator window is currently in focus. When the mouse is moved over the rectangle, the
cursor changes to allow resizing of the rectangle. In this way, the navigator window
facilitates creating views in areas of interest. Double-clicking the left hand mouse button
in the area will create a new system view displaying the selected area, although resized
to preserve a sensible aspect ratio.
Right Hand Mouse Button Menu
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Clicking the right hand mouse button within the navigator window will produce a utility
menu. This contains the following functions:
Navigator On Top: By default, the navigator is always on top of all system views. This
can be changed by selecting this item from the menu.
Hide Window: The navigator can be hidden using this option and, once removed, will
not appear in subsequent sessions until reopened from the Window menu. The
navigator can also be hidden by clicking on the cross button at the top right hand corner
of the window or by using the Window menu option.
New Window: Another way of producing a new view (see above).
Icon Sizes: Invokes the Icon Sizes dialog (see below).

2.6.12.1.2.3 Toolbar Details

The toolbar is located below the main menu at the top of the main window. It consists of
a row of icons (described below) which act as accelerators to the menu functions
accessed from the Tools menu or most of those called from the right hand mouse button
in the network window.
The functions of the various buttons are described below. A quick description can be
gained for a given button by holding the mouse cursor over the button for a moment. A
small yellow box with a short description will appear.
Network Item Set-up
The functionality of the network items buttons is duplicated in the drop-down list: a
selection from this list will cause the appropriate button on the toolbar to be shown as
depressed. When a network item button is selected, the cursor, when over a system
window, will be drawn to represent the current selection. Click once on the system
window to cause a new node of the required type to be created at the chosen point. A
label dialog will appear to allowing the node to be labelled; leaving the label blank
results in default node naming. This can be edited later by clicking the right hand mouse
button on the icon created.
Connections between nodes are created by choosing the Link button and holding
down the mouse left hand button whilst dragging between the nodes. There is a
connection hierarchy, which is represented by the branching of a parent branch into one
or more child branches, in the same way that the multilateral well branches out
physically. Indicate the direction of the hierarchy for junction-completion or completioncompletion connections by the order in which they are joined up.
Tie-point. This is the node for which the IPR is solved and is located at the
top of the system (in vertical depth and hierarchically). Hence, the tie-point
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can only be a start point.


Junction. The main purpose of the junction is to be a branching node. It can
only have one link into it (from a tie-point, completion or other junction) but
any number coming out.
Completion. This contains both tubing and completion information. It is
attached below a tie-point, junction or another completion. It can only have
one link into it and branches out to either a junction or another completion. It
can also be logically attached (no direction implied) to any number of
reservoirs (but at least one).
Tank/reservoir. This represents a reservoir source and is logically attached
to any number of completions (but at least one).
Link. Connecting to a junction, the link becomes a tubing node and contains
data. Going into a completion, the tubing information is in the completion
and the link is blank only indicating the hierarchical relationship between
the nodes it connects with an arrow. Finally, when connecting a completion
and a reservoir, the link is logical and not hierarchical. Note that re-doing a
link between two nodes will delete it.
2.6.12.1.2.4 Network Manipulation

Zoom in/out. When 'zoom in/out' is selected, a zoom can be achieved either
by clicking the mouse on the system window, which will zoom in/out a fixed
amount and set the centre of the view to the position clicked. If zoom in is
selected, sweeping an area with the mouse will zoom in on the area
selected. The aspect ratio will be retained when an area zoom is performed.
Mask/Unmask an item. After masking is selected specific items can be
removed from the network for calculation purposes without deleting them.
This is particularly useful for seeing the effect of removing a completion
item.
Delete a node. After this is selected, the node may be deleted by clicking on
the item in the system window. The icon automatically becomes unselected
following a deletion to prevent accidental deletion of further nodes. To
delete a pure (non data-carrying) link re-do it.
Move a node. After this is selected, a node may be moved by clicking on the
item in the system window and then, with the mouse button depressed,
dragging the item to the new position. A group of nodes may also be
selected and moved.
Select a node. After this is pressed, a node may be selected/de-selected by
clicking on the item in the system window. The item will reverse its colour to
indicate selection/de-selection.

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2.6.12.1.2.5 Menu Details

Finish
Done exits the screen but validates the multilateral structure and data first. If the
structure is not valid a warning message appears providing the opportunity to remain in
the multilateral screen. One can exit the data screen, however, the data are marked
invalid.
Cancel leaves the multilateral screen, restoring the network to its state at the start of
the edit session.
Tools
These are equivalent to items to the right of, and indeed inside, the drop-down list box in
the tool bar and have been explained above.
Analyse
This menu contains options to plot and report the IPR results in a similar way to those in
the Single Well IPR. The multi-lateral is treated as one reservoir model option, such as
the multi-layer with dP friction loss. There is also a Calculate option, which brings up the
dialog in the following figure.

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The Calculate screen gives the option of calculating one IPR point or a curve. In the
former case pressure can be calculated from a rate or rate from a pressure. In the latter
case, pressure is calculated for a range of rates up to the AOF, as with other IPR
calculations. From this screen it is possible to specify the number of IPR points
(maximum 20) and the minimum pressure to calculate to. These are to help speed up
calculations if appropriate. Results of the points for curve calculation will be reported at
the bottom section of the screen. Also, having a bearing on calculation speed is the
switch between infinite and finite conductivity modes of calculation. In the latter case the
pressure drop in the tubing is taken into account. Before carrying out the calculation, the
network structure is validated and any errors are reported in the white list box in the
middle section of the screen. If the structure is not valid the calculation is not carried out.
The Details button is used to display pressure and rate-related parameters with respect
to the measured and vertical tubing depths of each branch.
During a calculation, diagnostic information is reported to the list box. Also, a Cancel
button is placed above the Calculate button to allow stopping the calculation. The
buttons to the left of the list box perform the functions in the Analyse menu, except Help,
which brings up this section. The push button Done exits the screen.
Visualise
These items are dealt with in the section on visualisation screens.

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Preferences
The preferences dialog is gained from the Preferences item of the frame window menu.
It allows customisation of a set of User-interface variables for subsequent PROSPER
sessions. The following options are available:

Enable Flyover Status Information. If this is checked then a status box appear as
the mouse is moved over the network item icons.

Auto-repeat delay when panning. When panning, the left-hand mouse button may be
held down to auto-repeat the action. The value given in this field represents the time
(in ms) before the auto-repeat action starts from when the mouse button is clicked.

Fraction of screen to pan per click. This represents the resolution of panning.

Zoom/unzoom factor. A single click in a system window while the zoom or unzoom
icons are active results in a fixed scaling to be applied to the view, while the centre
of the view is changed to the position in which the mouse was clicked. The value
entered in this field is the fixed scaling factor, and as such should be greater than
one.

Background. The background bitmap that is displayed on the background of the


main window (by default this is a PE logo with contact information) may be changed.
Select the required bitmap by pressing the button to the right of the field. The bitmap
will only be loaded after shut down and restarting the multilateral main screen.

Output
Printer Setup - to set up the printer if not already done.
Print - prints the current child window as a hard-copy, metafile or to the clipboard,
whether a network window or a visualisation screen.
Window Menu
New Window. This creates a new system view. The new view is zoomed out to
include all the components.
Close All. Shuts down all system windows in the application.
Cascade. This reorganises the system windows into a cascade.
Tile. Tiles the system windows.
Toggle toolbar display. This will remove the toolbar if it is currently displayed, and
vice-versa. If the toolbar is not displayed, toolbar commands can be accessed via
the right hand mouse button on the system view window.
Toggle navigator display. Displays or hides the navigator window.
Below this is a list of currently active system windows. The current focus window may be
changed by clicking on one.
Help
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Brings up this information on the network interface.


Other Items
Apart from the preferences it is possible to change other aspects of the User interface:
namely font and icon sizes.
Network Fonts
Fonts used in the network drawing may be changed. To do this, select the Fonts option
from the menu obtained following a right hand mouse button click in the system window.
This will bring up a font selection dialog. Select the required font and style and press
OK. The new font will be applied to all network drawings and also to labels in the
visualisation windows.
Icon Sizes
The sizes of the icons used to represent the network nodes can be changed. Select the
Icon Sizes option from the menu obtained following a right hand mouse button click in
the system window. The following dialog will appear:

The dialog consists of a slider with a data entry field, which contains the current icon
size (this defaults to 50 out of an arbitrary 0 100 range for a new file). Change the icon
size by adjusting the slider or entering a new size in the entry field. Check the Automatic
Update box to update the system window with the new size as the slider is moved.
When the new icon size is entered, click on This View or All Views. In the latter case
the change will be applied to all network windows. In the former case, only the currently
active network view will be changed. The new icon size will not be saved; i.e. all
changes will be lost when the current file is exited.
2.6.12.1.2.6 Visualisation Screens

These screens supply three 2-D views (front, side and top) of the 3-D multilateral object.
The salient visual objects (tie-points, junctions, tubing, completions and reservoirs) are
drawn symbolically but they are spaced to scale. The screens are updated whenever a
network item is edited and has a valid data set and whenever an item is deleted or
becomes invalid. The visualisation objects are given the same colour as their
equivalent network objects (e.g. blue for reservoirs), and are identified by the same
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labels as in the network structure.


The geometry used is left-handed Cartesian. It is assumed that the positive x axis is
along the direction of zero azimuth, positive y is at 90 degrees and positive z is in the
direction of increasing depth. The front view shows the (x, z) plane, where y is
increasing going into the screen and consequently positive z corresponds to moving
down the screen and positive x corresponds to moving to the right. The side view
shows the (y, z) plane, where x increases coming out of the screen, z increases going
down the screen and y increases going to the right. The top view shows the (y, x) plane
where z is increasing going into the screen, x increases going down the screen and y
increases going to the right.
The screens are brought up using the Visualise menu. One of the three views (front,
side and top) or all of them can be activated using the appropriate menu command. If
all the views are shown then they are tiled with any active network windows. The title bar
of each view window shows the extent of the network for the plane in question. The coordinates are shown with respect to the start of a (hypothetical) straight tubing, which
enters the tie-point in the direction of zero azimuth and has measured and vertical
depths equivalent to those of the tie-points. In a similar way to the network window one
can pan across a visualisation window by moving the mouse cursor close to one of the
window edges and clicking on the left button when the panning cursor appears. The
fraction of the screen traversed and the auto-repeat delay are controlled by the same
options as in the network window (chosen from the Preferences dialog).
Right-hand Mouse Button Menu
Using the right hand mouse button on a view screen one can choose to display the coordinates of any of the visual objects. The displayed coordinates can be written over
one another, it is sometimes better to view them separately. By default, the reservoir
depths are displayed at the start of a session. The next group of functions from this
menu contains zoom, unzoom and restore. The latter option resets the scale factor and
the view origins (which can be moved by panning) to the default values. The zoom
factor is the same as that used for the network window and is set in the Preferences
dialog. Finally, the way the picture is drawn can be altered. Normally, the zooming not
only changes the extent of the drawing seen but also magnifies the objects (network
items and text) drawn. Switch off the magnify mode if zooming into a cluttered area as
this will allow more objects to fit in. Also, the network drawing is normally scaled to fit
the window, irrespective of the relative extents to the two axes. Choosing the draw to
scale option stretches the drawing in the direction with the greater physical extent (so it
no longer fits in the window).

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2.6.12.2Data Entry
2.6.12.2.1 Overview
The data associated with any network item is accessed by double-clicking on its icon
when none of the network manipulation options (zoom/unzoom, delete, move and select)
have been chosen. This brings up a screen with editable data fields in it.
Apart from the tie-point and junction data screens, the main data entry screen for each
node is similar to that of the single well main data entry screen (see Section 7.1).
However, the reservoir data input child screen does not have any tab buttons in it. The
main data screens differ from the single well case in the action buttons: only the leftmost group - Done, Cancel, Reset, Validate and Help - are available. Their function is
the same as in the single well case. Hence, the differences between the single well IPR
data entry and the similar multilateral ones lie in the model selection and data input child
screens.
Given the hierarchical nature of the network, editing a parent branch causes the starting
points (e.g. depths) of child branches to be initialised. Those data fields that are
initialised from outside a particular network item are set read-only (coloured cyan) when
the screen to edit that net item is brought up. Hence, in order to edit a net item and fill it
with valid data it is normally necessary to have edited the parent branch first. However,
it is not a requirement to edit the network in hierarchical order as any child net item can
be filled with invalid data and saved before editing its parent.
Another difference from the single well IPR is that in each screen, on the right hand side,
there is a list box containing a drawing of the network where the data carrying nodes are
sorted hierarchically, by type or alphabetically according to a right-hand mouse button
menu selection. By clicking on the line corresponding to a node the given screen is
closed and the screen belonging to the node clicked on is opened.

2.6.12.2.2 Tie-point and Junction Data


The tie-point data consist of a measured and vertical depth, with an implied azimuth of 0
. The junction data are the same but are read-only. A junction must always be
hierarchically below another network item, so its data are entered automatically from its
parent. As mentioned earlier a junction mainly forms a branching point.

2.6.12.2.3 Tubing Data


Model Selection Screen
The model selection screen for tubing has options to select horizontal and vertical
correlations, choke models, flow types (tubing or annular) and correlation threshold
details. None of the options affect the general format of the data input screen but the
flow type affects the details of the equipment tabbed dialog in the data input screen.
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Data Input Screen


There are two tabbed dialogs in this data input screen, which allow the entry of a
deviation survey and equipment descriptions. These dialogs contain tables very similar
to the ones encountered by selecting System | Equipment from the PROSPER main
menu and then the Deviation Survey and Downhole Equipment push buttons. In the
case of the deviation survey there is an additional azimuth entry.

2.6.12.2.4 Completion Data


The completion data screen represents tubing and a completion. Hence, it is a
superset of the tubing data screen and is the same except for one extra tabbed dialog
in the data input screen, for completion data. This dialog has fields in it similar to the
single well IPR Wong-Clifford model for describing a deviated completion (completion
zone start and end measured and true depths) as well as a field for entering a local
(mechanical/geometric) skin value. There is a drop-down list box in the fifth column,
which allows the skin to be calculated using the Karakas & Tariq method. The selection
of Karakas and Tariq enables the push button in the last column, which brings up an
appropriate data entry screen when clicked upon with the mouse left button. On
entering valid data and exiting that screen with Done the skin value is calculated and
entered in the skin data column.

2.6.12.2.5 Reservoir Data


Model Selection Screen
The model selection screen contains a model selection list box for selecting a Darcylike reservoir model as well as several data entry fields for entering PVT and
geometrical data used by all the models.
Data Input Screen
The data input screens contain a single sub-dialog pertaining to the model chosen.
These are similar to the equivalent models in the single well case.
Consistency Validation
Beyond the consistency enforced by the validation of individual network items as they
are edited and the automatic entry of some child branch data from parents, there are
other checks carried out on a complete structure whose nodes are individually valid:

There must be no more than one tie-point in a network; other loose items are
ignored.
The top node must be a tie-point.
All branches must end in a completion; completions must be attached to at least one
reservoir.
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Reservoirs should not overlap in depth (in the current model they are assumed to be
layers).

2.6.12.3Example of How to Set Up a Simple System


2.6.12.3.1 Introduction
The purpose of this exercise is to enter some geometrical data for the simple
multilateral in the following back of an envelope sketch and then visualise it using the V
isualise menu. It is assumed that the fluid selected is Oil and Water and the units
system is oilfield units. We will also show the procedure for running a calculation, to
which purpose some default PVT and geometric data should be entered in the reservoir
screens. The multilateral has two branches, with one branch having an azimuth of 170
with respect to the other. The zig-zag lines indicate completions and the areas between
the horizontal straight-lines are layers/reservoirs. Note that one tubing branch contains
two completions and goes through two reservoirs. This will be modelled as one
completion node and logically attached to two reservoirs. The point at (12000, 10000)
feet will serve as a tie-point.

(0, 0) = (measured depth, vertical depth)

10000 feet

(12000, 10000)
(12100, 10020)
(12200, 10020)

Kh = 100 mD

(12400, 10100)
10100 feet
Azimuth = 170 deg.
Azimuth = 0 deg.

10200 feet
Kh = 50 mD

(13000, 10210)

(13000, 10220)
(14000, 10220)

(14000, 10280)
10300 feet

Sketch of a Multi-lateral Network

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2.6.12.3.2 Place the Nodes in the Network Window


The nodes needed are one tie-point (as always), a junction (to model the branching),
two completions (although there are three zones, the data for two will be contained in
one node), and two reservoirs. Each node can be selected from one of the following:
1. Using the Tools | Add Item option in the frame window menu.
2. Clicking on the appropriate icon in the toolbar.
3. Selecting the required option from the drop-down list box in the toolbar.
4. Using the right hand mouse button menu.
Once the appropriate node addition option has been selected, click somewhere in the
blank network window to create an icon. Allow the programme to attach a default label
to the node by not entering one. Do this for all the required nodes listed above.

2.6.12.3.3 Connect the Nodes


Before doing the connections, space the nodes and arrange them in height order with
the tie-point at the top, followed by the junction, followed by the completions and put the
reservoirs at the bottom. Keep the completions and reservoirs at the same horizontal
level with C1 and R1 on the left. Now select the link option and drag the mouse cursor
(with the left button down) between the following icons in order to make the connections:
TP1-J1, J1-C1, J1-C2, C1-R1, C2-R1 and C2-R2. Note that between the tie-point and
the junction a tubing icon is drawn to indicate that this link contains tubing data. The
order of the connections J1-C1 and J2-C2 are important for the reverse would imply that
the completions were above the junction hierarchically.
2.6.12.3.4 Enter the Data
To enter data, double-click on an icon to bring up a screen.
Tie-point (TP1)
Enter 12000 feet and 10000 feet for measured and vertical depth respectively and then
click on Done.
Tubing (T1)
Make sure that Flow Type is Tubing Flow on the model selection screen and a
suitable value (0.354 ft) is entered for well-bore radius. Then leave the model selection
screen with its other defaults and enter the data input screen using the button Input Data
in the top right hand corner. In the Deviation tabbed dialog enter the three numbers:
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12100

10020

in the white boxes in row 2. Now enter the Equipment tabbed dialog by clicking on
that tab. In row 1 choose Tubing from the drop-down list box and then enter the four
numbers:
12100

0.7

0.0006

in the white boxes in row 1. Click on Done to finish.


Junction (J1)
The co-ordinates (12100, 10020) should already be entered in the junction net item.
Completions (C1 and C2)
The model selection screens should be as with T1 except a Dietz shape factor should
be entered (e.g. 31.6). The other screens should have their white spaces filled as
follows. In the equipment screens the first row drop-down list box should always be set
to Tubing.
C1 Deviation
13000
10210
14000
10280
C1 Equipment
14000
0.7
C1 Completion Info.
13000
14000

170
170

(row 2)
(row 3)

0.0006

(row 1)

10210

10280

(row 1)

C2 Deviation
12400
10100
0
(row 2)
13000
10220
0
(row 3)
14000
10220
0
(row 4)
C2 Equipment
14000
0.7
0.0006
1
(row 1)
C2 Completion Info.
12200
12400
10020
10100
13000
14000
10220
10220

1
1

(row 1)
(row 2)

Reservoirs (R1 and R2)


For both reservoirs select Darcy as the model. The edit fields for entry of the data for
this model should appear on clicking on Input Data.
In order to agree with the
specifications of the sketch enter the following data:
R1
Reservoir Top Depth:
10200 feet
Reservoir Permeability:
50 md
Reservoir Thickness:
100 feet
R2
Reservoir Top Depth:
10000 feet
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Reservoir Thickness:

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100 md
100 feet

The other fields in the model selection and data input screens (for both reservoirs)
should be entered with some reasonable numbers. For example: pressure (5000),
temperature (200), salinity (150000), water cut (15), GOR (800), gas gravity (0.9), oil
gravity (30), vertical permeability (10) and drainage area (500).

2.6.12.3.5 Visualise / Calculate


Choosing Visualise |Front should show a picture similar to the one in the sketch above.
Also, providing the data has been entered correctly, the network structure should be
valid; this can be verified by going to the screen brought up by the Analyse| Calculate
menu command and choosing one of the calculations.
Note that this exercise is not meant to represent a real case but only a reasonable set of
data that the program can process.
The comments below will describe what calculations are performed when a system
calculation needs to be performed and the Multilateral model is used.
a) PROSPER uses the already generated IPR with Analyze | Calculate | Calculate
to get the intersection between VLP and IPR first.
b) The solution FBHP from step a) is then used to refine the solution rate by
performing a single point calculation like Analyze | Calculate | Calculate |
Calculation One Point and this point uses the solution flowing bottom hole
pressure
This means that whenever a change is made, the Analyze | Calculate | Calculate
routine needs to be re-run before performing a system calculation so that an updated
IPR can be used.

2.7

Artificial Lift Data Input


This section describes how to enter the description of artificial lift equipment in a well for
calculating a systems analysis. The Design section describes how to select suitable
gas lift, ESP, HSP, PCP and jet pump equipment for new or existing wells.

2.7.1 Continuous Gas Lift Input Data


This option is available only when Gas Lift has been selected as the lift method in the
Options menu. To analyse an existing gas lifted well, the equipment details must be
entered in the Gas Lift Data section that becomes viewable after selecting gas lift from
Options. To design a new gas lift installation, skip the System Gaslift data menu and
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go directly to Design Gaslift Design (New Well). Note that the gas lift design section
has been revised to give users greater flexibility in choice of design methods.
The required input depends on the choice of casing pressure calculation method.
These are the options available that can be selected in the general options:

No Friction Loss in Annuls


No flowing pressure losses occur in the annulus. A static gas gradient in
the casing is assumed. This model should be used for the majority of gas
lift installations.

Friction Loss in Annuls


The friction pressure drop in the casing is calculated. Input of both tubing
O.D. and casing I.D. is required to define the annulus geometry.

Safety Equipment
Friction pressure losses are calculated in the surface piping, tubing/
casing annulus and an annular safety valve where fitted.

To analyse an existing installation, the gas lift details that need to be entered will
depend upon the particular gas lift method that has been selected.
Firstly select the gas lift system type on the Options menu, then enter the gaslift data by
selecting Gaslift data on the System menu.
Enter the required lift gas composition data. It is possible to model CO2 or N2 as the
injected gas. For example, to model CO2 injection enter Gaslift Gas Gravity = 1.53 and
Mole percent CO2 = 100%.
Select one of three gas lift methods available. The methods currently available are:

2.7.1.1 Fixed Depth Of Injection


When this method is selected, only the depth of injection will be asked for.

The program assumes that the casing pressure is sufficient to inject lift gas at
the specified depth to achieve the GLR Injected or the Injected Gas Rate.

The GLR injected can be subsequently overwritten with entered calculation sensitivity
variables. If the GLR injected is unknown, leave it set to zero. The GLR to inject is set
using Sensitivity variables GLR injected or Injection gas rate in the Calculation section.

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GLR/Rate ?
It is possible to select whether to use by default GLR Injected or Injected Gas Rate as
mode of gas injection.
For example, if one selects use GLR Injected as method, then the program will use by
default the value of GLR injected entered in the same screen above. If instead before
any calculation one enters the gas lift gas (as GLR injected or gas lift gas injection rate)
as sensitivity parameter, then the mode selected in the GasLift Input Data will be
overwritten.

2.7.1.2 Optimum Depth of Injection


When this method is selected enter the maximum depth of injection, the dP across the
gas lift valve and the top casing pressure and PROSPER will iterate to calculate the
optimum injection depth for changing well conditions.

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For the Gas lifted (safety equipment) option, the compressor discharge pressure is
requested instead of the casing pressure.

Use Optimum Depth of Injection to evaluate the potential increase in


production due to gas lift without the need to perform a detailed design and
spacing the unloading valves.

2.7.1.3 Valve Depth Specified


Enter the measured depth of the gas lift valves. The program automatically calculates
which valve opens for particular liquid and gas injection rates.

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If a gas lift design has already been done, or the mandrel depths have been entered for
a Gaslift QuickLook Calculation, the valve details can be copied across using the T
ransfer button.

The Casing pressure entered should be the available injection system


pressure for the current operating conditions If calculating sensitivities for a
new casing pressure operated design, always subtract the dP to close
valves for each unloading valve above the operating valve from the design
casing pressure.

2.7.1.4 Gas Lift (Safety Equipment)


For the Gas Lifted (safety equipment) option, the annular safety valve pressure losses
are calculated using the valve depth and bean diameter entered on the System Gaslift
Data screen as follows:

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The safety equipment data can be entered by accessing the Safety Equipment button in
this screen.
The details of the surface injection system are used to calculate the casing head
pressure as a function of gas injection rate and compressor output pressure. Frictional
losses in the annulus are taken into account when calculating the casing pressure at
each gas lift valve depth. The safety valve pressure loss is clearly seen on the following
gradient plot:

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2.7.1.5 Gas Lift (Allow injection in Pipe Line above wellhead)


This option implemented allows to model gas injection in a pipeline. To enable this
option, select Pipeline Only in the Options Summary and Gas Lift in the Artificial Lift
method.
To specify the position of the gas lift valve, in the surface equipment data select this
feature in the equipment type combo box , as shown below:

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And in the Gas Lift Data enter the properties of the gas and the GLR injected:

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It is possible to model CO2 or N2 as the injected gas. For Example, to model


CO2 injection enter the Gaslift Gas Gravity as 1.53 and enter Mole percent
CO2 as 100%.

2.7.2 Intermittent Gas Lift


If intermittent gas lift is selected as artificial lift method, the following input data are
required:

Surface injection pressure: this is the gas lift injection pressure at surface
Injection depth: depth of the injection valve
Gas lift gas gravity: gravity of the injected gas lift gas
Valve port size: size of the injection valve
Water Cut: water cut of the produced well stream
Tubing Liquid level: depth of the liquid in the tubing to be lifted

2.7.3 ESP Input Data


If Electrical Submersible Pump has been selected as the well lift method on the O
ptions screen, then Electric Submersible Pumps. will be active on the System input
menu. If a new ESP design is being performed, the equipment has not yet been sized,
so skip the ESP Input section entirely and move directly to Design on the main
PROSPER tool bar. For analysis and optimisation of an existing ESP installation, enter
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the data on the ESP input data screen as requested:

The Pump wear factor is used to account for deviation from the manufacturer's
published performance curves due to wear etc.

For example, entering 0.05 causes the program to scale the pump head
curves down by 5% (i.e. head is 95% of the database value).
Entering 0 causes the program to use the database curves directly.
A negative number can be entered to simulate a particular pump that
performs better than the database curve.
Note: to be able to enter negative wear factors, modify the range of validity of
the wear factor parameter in the Units section. To do that, access the menu
Units/Units and enter for the Pump Wear Factor a Minimum Validation value
equal to -1 (fraction):

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When a downhole gas separator is run, the GOR of the oil above the separator will be
lower than the produced oil GOR. Depending on the completion, the separated gas is
produced up the annulus or a separate tubing string. Both casing I.D. and tubing O.D.
are required to be input on the System Equipment Downhole Equipment.

2.7.4 HSP Input Data


If Hydraulic Drive Downhole Pump has been selected as the well lift method on the O
ptions screen, then Hydraulic Submersible Pumps will be active on the System input
menu. If a new HSP design is being done, the equipment has not yet been sized, so
skip the HSP Input section entirely and select Design from the main PROSPER tool bar.
For analysis and optimisation of an existing HSP installation, enter the data on the HSP
input data screen as requested:

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The Pump wear factor is defined as in the ESP pumps, as seen in the previous section.
Turbine speed is assumed to be the same as the Pump speed. The % Power Fluid of
Reservoir Fluid defines what fraction of the total produced liquids the power fluid
represents.

A figure of 100% means that the amount of power fluid used to drive the
turbine is the same as the amount of produced reservoir fluids.

2.7.5 Progressive Cavity Pumps


If the PCP option has been selected as the well lift method on the Options screen, then
the progressive cavity Pump option will be active on the System input menu.
If a new PCP design is being done, the equipment has not yet been sized, so skip the
PCP Input section entirely and select Design from the main PROSPER menu. For
analysis and optimisation of an existing PCP installation, enter the data on the PCP
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input data screen as requested:

In order to select the correspondent pump and rods, the pump database must be set up
first. The section devoted to the PCP design will describe how to enter the
correspondent pump and rods database.

2.7.6 Coiled Tubing Gas Lift


This option is available only when Gas Lift with coil tubing is selected as the lift method
in the Options menu.
To analyse an existing installation, enter the data in the Coiled Tubing Data section, as
shown below:

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Two lift methods are available: Specified Injection Depth and Optimum Injection Depth.
Please refer to the Gas Lift section above for further details.

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2.7.7 Diluent Injection


This technology is used to enhance the production of heavy, viscous crude oil, in some
cases making previously not producible hydrocarbon reserves economically
recoverable.
With diluent injection, the light hydrocarbon diluent reduces crude viscosity and
improves its flow characteristics.
When Diluent injection is selected as Artificial Lift Method, Diluent Injection is active in
the System menu.
The only input data required are injection rate and depth:

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2.7.8 Jet Pumps


If Jet Pump has been selected as the well lift method on the Options screen, then Jet
Pumps will be active on the System input menu. If a new Jet Pump design is being
done, the equipment has not yet been sized, so skip the Jet Pump Input section entirely
and select Design from the main PROSPER tool bar.
For analysis and optimisation of an existing Jet Pump installation, enter the data on the
input data screen as requested:

In this section the User has to select the Pump and enter specify its position and
maximum size along with injection rate and pressure.
The loss coefficients are also required. These coefficients are a measure of the energy
loss due to the friction in the above quoted sections of the pump.
The coefficients are provided by the Jet Pump manufacturers.

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2.7.9 Multiphase Pumps


When Multiphase Pump (FRAMO Pumps) has been selected as the well lift method on
the Options screen, to perform the analysis and optimisation of an existing FRAMO
Pump installation, enter the data on the input data screen as requested:

The Pump Wear Factor is defined in the same way as in the ESP pumps. Please refer
to that section for details.
Other input data are the power available, the pump configuration (single pump or pumps
in parallel) and the pump model.

2.7.10 Sucker Rod Pumps


If Sucker Rod Pump has been selected as the well lift method on the Options screen,
then Sucker Rod Pumps will be active on the System input menu.
If a new SRP design is being performed, the equipment has not yet been sized, so skip
the Sucker Rod Pumps Input section entirely and move directly to Design on the main
PROSPER tool bar.
For analysis and optimisation of an existing SRP installation, enter the data in the
System Sucker Rod Pumps input data screen as requested:

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The input data screen is directly connected to the database for the Sucker Rod Pumps.

2.8

Matching Menu
The PROSPER Matching menu is mainly used for the following objectives:
Input data and model quality control

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Fine adjustment of the model parameters to enable well models to reproduce


observed data
In case of artificial lift, system diagnostics and troubleshooting
A properly matched model is a pre-requisite for accurate performance prediction.

The Quality Control exercises like Correlation comparison are based on what is
possible according to the principles of fundamental physics.

The Matching menu offers the following calculation options:


VLP / IPR Matching
This option enables the User to tune the well bore multiphase flow correlations to fit
measured downhole pressures and rates. Up to 1000 well tests can be stored and
used for matching purposes.
Once the VLP is matched, the IPR can be adjusted to match observed rates and
pressures also.
Gradient Matching
Existing correlations can be modified using non-linear regression to best fit a gradient
survey. Comparison of the fit parameters will identify which correlation required the
least adjustment to match the measured data.

This should be used only if for a given rate more than one measurement is
available along the production string.

Pipeline Matching
The program uses actual wellhead and manifold pressures together with temperature
data points to match surface pressure drop correlations. Separate screens allow the
match parameters to be viewed and the best match selected.
Correlation Comparison
This is the primary step in quality control of measured well test data.
This option allows pressure gradient plots to be generated with different correlations to
be compared with measured gradient survey data. The comparison enables the User
to:
- Understand if the measurements make sense, that is to say, violate or not the
principles of physics
- Select the flow correlation that best fits the experimental measurement
Correlation Comparison is a fundamental step in the quality check of the model.
QuickLook
This feature is active only if an artificial lift method (Gas Lift, ESP or HSP) is selected.
It allows calculation of the pressure gradient in an artificially lifted well for a quick check
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of lift performance.
For gas lifted wells, valve opening and closing pressures are calculated to permit
troubleshooting gas lift installations.
For ESP and HSP wells, the performance of the ESP and HSP can be checked.
Correlation Parameters
The tubing and pipeline match parameters can be inspected reset or entered by hand
using this menu option. This capability is useful for troubleshooting, or to input match
parameters determined previously.
Correlation Thresholds
This option allows the User to specify a threshold angle for both tubing and pipeline
correlations at which the program will automatically change to another (specified)
correlation. This option will enable vertical risers in sub sea completions to be modelled
more accurately.

VLP Matching is not available for Enthalpy Balance temperature model


applications. For Enthalpy Balance applications requiring VLP matching, use
the Predicting Pressure Only, or the Rough/Improved Approximation
temperature model, to perform the correlation matching. Once the matching
operation has been completed, return to System and re-activate the Enthalpy
Balance option. The VLP match parameters will be carried over.

2.8.1 VLP/IPR Match and Quality Check


This feature enables the User to adjust the multiphase flow correlations to match flowing
bottom hole pressure surveys or production logging runs.
Up to 1000 pressure tests can be stored and used for matching. VLP/IPR Match allows
data to be matched over a range of rates as well as depths.

The Gas Oil Ratio is the solution GOR. If the reservoir is under-saturated, there
is no free gas production at the sand face and the GOR free should be set to
zero.
The Gas Oil Ratio can also be entered as Total GOR (Solution + Free GOR). In
this case the GOR Free can be entered as nil. The program will determine how
much gas is in solution and how much in the free phase according to the PVT.

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The required input data are:


Test Point Date and
Comment

A comment can be entered for the test. Also, each test can be
associated to a date stamp

Tubing
Pressure

Head Flowing pressure for test rate entered.

Tubing
Temperature

Head Flowing temperature at test rate. Usually has only a minor


effect.

Water Cut

Test water cut. (WGR for Gas or Condensate)

Rate

Enter either Oil or Liquid rates as selected. (Oil Wells Only)

Gauge Depth

Depth of measured pressure data point.

Gauge Pressure

Measured pressure at test flow rate.

Reservoir Pressure

Pressure of the reservoir when the test was taken. This field
will not be displayed if the IPR model in use is MultiLayer or
MultiLateral
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GOR

Solution GOR (Oil) , CGR (Gas) or Separator GOR


(Condensate)

GOR Free

Free gas production from a gas cap or injection breakthrough.


The measured total GOR during the test (including the tank
gas) must equal GOR + GOR Free. (Oil Well Only)

Gaslift Gas Rate

Rate of lift gas injection (gas lifted wells only).

Injection Depth

Depth of operating valve (gas lifted wells only) .A good bottom


hole pressure match will not be obtained if an incorrect
injection depth is used.

Operating
Frequency

ESP lifted wells only

Pump Wear Factor

ESP Lifted wells only

Pump
Pressure

Intake ESP Lifted wells only

Pump
Discharge ESP Lifted wells only
Pressure
The Test Point Date and Comment fields are provided to allow the optional entry of
notes to identify the match data set. Examples would be test date, source of pressure
data, comments on test quality etc.
This input screen has a number of features to simplify data manipulation. The selection
buttons on the left hand side are used to select data points for further editing. Hold
down the Ctrl key and click the required buttons to select multiple points. Copy copies
the selected points into memory and onto the Windows clipboard. Click the selection
button of the desired destination and click Paste to copy the data to the new location. I
nsert shifts the data down to make room for new entries. The Delete button deletes the
selected records. Data from this table can be copied to or from the Windows clipboard.
Therefore, test data can be read in from a Windows based spreadsheet by first
copying it to the clipboard, and then pasting it directly into the table.
Bad or inconsistent data points occasionally prevent the program obtaining a good
match. The Disable button causes a selected data record to be ignored in the matching
process. Disabled records are dimmed in the VLP matching screen. Disabled points
can be re-included in the matching process by first selecting the point and clicking on E
nable. By sequentially disabling suspect data points, potentially inaccurate test points
can be identified and eliminated from the match.

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If the temperature prediction method is Rough Approximation, the User can


now use the Estimate U value button to estimate the overall heat transfer
coefficient for the selected well test. The procedure is:

Click on the button to the left of the well test data that we wish to estimate
the overall heat transfer coefficient.
Click on the Estimate U value button
PROSPER will estimate the overall heat transfer coefficient that matches
the wellhead temperature of the well test.
The User can then go to the Geothermal Gradient section to change the
overall heat transfer coefficient value.

The User can now use the Correlation Comparison button to transfer the
selected well test data to the correlation comparison section. The procedure is:

348

Click on the button to the left of the well test data that we wish to perform
correlation comparison on.
Click on the Correlation Comparison button
PROSPER will bring us to the correlation comparison screen and at the
same time, populate the correlation comparison screen with the selected
well test data.

For each well test it is possible to enter a date stamp and the reservoir pressure
at the time of the test.
This feature can be used to store the actual reservoir conditions and allow the
User to get back in time and check old tests.

Accessing QuickLook
When Gas Lift, ESP, or HSP artificial lift method is in use, from the VLP/IPR
matching screen it is possible to access the QuickLook section

New!!! Adjust IPR: After matching the VLP, it is possible to solve the system
for reservoir pressure in automated fashion. The algorithm will estimate the
reservoir needed to match the well test. The user will have to make an
engineering judgment about the adequacy of the mathematical solution.

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2.8.1.1 VLP Matching


To compute the VLP match, click Match VLP to display the VLP matching screen.
Select the correlations to match or just click All to match all correlations. An example
screen is shown below:

Click the Statistics button to examine the match parameters as shown on the example
screen below:

If necessary, match parameters can be edited or directly entered on this screen. This
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should be done with extreme caution and only if previous work on similar wells has
yielded consistent match parameters or to apply match parameters for the same well in
a different PROSPER application.
PROSPER uses a non-linear regression to tune the VLP correlations to best match the
measured data. It does this by calculating a pressure traverse using a correlation and
determining the error between measured and calculated pressures. The gravity and
friction terms of the pressure loss equations are then adjusted and the process
repeated until the measured and calculated results agree within 1 psi, or 50 iterations
have been completed.
Notes on Matching Parameters
Parameter 1 is the multiplier for the gravity term in the pressure drop

correlation

Parameter 2 is the multiplier for the friction term.


If all the data are consistent, these two parameters should be within a 10%
tolerance from the unity.
If PROSPER has to adjust Parameter 1 by more than +-10%, then there is probably
an inconsistency between the fluid density predicted by the PVT model and the
field data (rates/pressures).
If PROSPER has to adjust Parameter 2 by more than +-10%, then probably the
value of the roughness entered in the equipment is incorrect.
In cases the PVT has been correctly matched, the greatest source of uncertainty in the
VLP calculation for oil wells is usually the hold-up correlation. PROSPER will attempt to
make a gravity component (Parameter 1) match by adjusting the hold-up correlation. If
a match is not obtained with a Parameter 1 more than 5% away from 1.0, the density is
adjusted. For single phase applications, no hold-up correction is possible, so any
significant deviation from 1.0 for Parameter 1 indicates a PVT problem.
If Parameter 2 requires a large correction, then it is likely that the equipment description
is in error, or the flow rates are incorrect. As the effect of a shift in the friction
component on the overall pressure loss is less than for the gravity term, a larger range in
the value of Parameter 2 is expected.
Once the matching process is complete, the match parameters will be shown alongside
each of the correlations that have been matched. Use the standard deviations and the
magnitude of corrections made to both parameters to aid the selection of matched
correlation.
Use the Correlation Comparison option of the Matching menu to compare the optimised
(matched) correlations with measured test data. To ensure that the process has been
successful, check that the matched VLP traverses plot close to the measured pressure
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data points.
VLP matching provides a logically consistent means to adjust flow
PROSPER
correlations to reproduce field measured pressures. Combined with IPR
matching, PROSPER provides the means to create a robust well model that is
capable of reproducing observed pressures and rates. This is a necessary
condition for making accurate performance predictions and optimisation studies.

2.8.1.1.1 VLP Correlation Applications


Fancher Brown is a no-slip hold-up correlation that is provided for use as a quality
control. It gives the lowest possible value of VLP since it neglects gas/liquid slip it
should always predict a pressure, which is less than the measured value. Even if it
gives a good match to the measured down hole pressures, Fancher Brown should not
be used for quantitative work. Measured data falling to the left of Fancher Brown on the
correlation comparison plot indicates a problem with fluid density (i.e. PVT) or field
pressure data. This is thus essentially, a correlation for quality control purposes.
For oil wells, Hagedorn Brown performs well for slug flow at moderate to high
production rates but well loading is poorly predicted. Hagedorn Brown should not be
used for condensates and whenever mist flow is the main flow regime. Hagedorn
Brown under predicts VLP at low rates and should not be used for predicting minimum
stable rates.
Duns and Ros Modified usually performs well in mist flow cases and should be used in
high GOR oil and condensate wells. It tends to over-predict VLP in oil wells. Despite
this, the minimum stable rate indicated by the minimum of the VLP curve is often a good
estimate.
Duns and Ros Original is the original published method, without the enhancements
applied in the primary Duns and Ros correlation. The primary Duns and Ros correlation
in PROSPER has been enhanced and optimised for use with condensates.
Petroleum Experts correlation combines the best features of existing correlations. It
uses the Gould et al flow map and the Hagedorn Brown correlation in slug flow, and
Duns and Ros for mist flow. In the transition regime, a combination of slug and mist
results is used.
Petroleum Experts 2 includes the features of the PE correlation plus original work on
predicting low-rate VLPs and well stability.
Petroleum Experts 3 includes the features of the PE2 correlation plus original work for
viscous, volatile and foamy oils.
Petroleum Experts 4 is an advanced mechanistic model for any angled wells
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(including downhill flow) suitable for any fluid (including Retrograde Condensate).
Petroleum Experts 5. The PE5 mechanistic correlation is an advancement on the PE4
mechanistic correlation. PE4 showed some instabilities (just like other mechanistic
models) that limited its use accross the board. PE5 reduces the instabilities through a
calculation that does not use flow regime maps as a starting point.
PE5 is capable of modelling any fluid type over any well or pipe trajectory. This
correlation accounts for fluid density changes for incline and decline trajectories. The
stability of the well can also be verified with the use of PE5 when calculating the gradient
traverse, allowing for liquid loading, slug frequency, etc. to be modelled.
Orkiszewski correlation often gives a good match to measured data. However, its
formulation includes a discontinuity in its calculation method. The discontinuity can
cause instability during the pressure matching process; therefore we do not encourage
its use.
Beggs and Brill is primarily a pipeline correlation. It generally over-predicts pressure
drops in vertical and deviated wells.
Gray correlation gives good results in gas wells for condensate ratios up to around 50
bbl/MMscf and high produced water ratios. Gray contains its own internal PVT model
which over-rides PROSPERs normal PVT calculations.
Hydro 3P (internal) is a mechanistic model and considers three phase flow.

For very high liquid dropout wells, use a Retrograde Condensate PVT and the
Duns and Ros correlation.

There is no universal rule for selecting the best flow correlation for a given
application. It is recommended that the Correlation Comparison always be
carried out. By inspecting the predicted flow regimes and pressure results,
the User can select the correlation that best models the physical situation.

Further details can be found in the PROSPER Help menu, under HelpFlow Correlations.
References about multiphase flow are reported in Appendix A.

2.8.1.2 IPR Matching


This feature allows the User to check the consistency of the flowing bottom hole
pressure data used in the VLP match and to adjust the IPR, if required, to match
measured data. Inconsistencies in test data resulting from e.g. changing reservoir
pressures can be easily identified.
Clicking VLP/IPR from the VLP/IPR Matching screen will display the following VLP
Matching Adjust IPR screen:
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Select the desired correlation and then click Calculate, and PROSPER will calculate the
VLP for a range of rates and pressure at the sand face for each of the active test points
that have been entered on the VLP Matching screen. Once this calculation is
completed, click Plot and the VLP/IPR plot will be displayed along with the test point:

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The errors between calculated and measured data are shown on the side of the plot. If
the test points are not consistent with the IPR model, the skin, etc. can be adjusted until
a match is obtained. To modify the data of the IPR, select IPR, which will access the
IPR input screen.

NEW!!! During the adjustment of the IPR, to modify the value of the Reservoir
Pressure, change the reservoir pressure entered in the test data screen

Inconsistent test data points will be easily identified on this plot. Clicking Finish returns
to the Adjust IPR screen. Matching both the VLP and IPR to actual test data ensures
that the PROSPER well model is capable of accurately reproducing the currently known
producing conditions.

An IPR is required when automatic rate calculation is used for VLP or system
calculations. IPR data must be present before commencing a VLP/IPR Match.

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NEW!!! In the VLP Matching - Adjust IPR screen the option to allow/disallow
Left-Hand Intersection is available. This option can be used in cases like Gas
Coning

2.8.2 Gradient Matching


This facility enables to modify the existing correlations to fit to a measured pressure
gradient survey. It can also be used, as a quality control to identify which correlation
required the least adjustment to obtain a fit. From the Matching menu, select Gradient
(traverse) matching. The following screen will appear:

The first node pressure is entered in the Input Parameters section - do not include it in
the Match Data table. The Transfer button copies the measured gradient data from the
Correlation comparison data. The same guidelines for GOR apply as for VLP/IPR
Matching. Enter the required data and click Match. The following will be displayed:

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Select the correlations to be matched by clicking on them, and then click Match to start
the matching routine. Parameter 1 is the correction factor applied to the gravity
component of pressure drop whilst Parameter 2 is the factor applied to the frictional
element of pressure drop. The match algorithm continues until the standard error is less
than 1 psi, or 50 iterations have been performed. The adjusted correlation and
measured pressures can be visually compared by clicking Plot. A graph similar to the
following is displayed:

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The match points appear as blue squares in the figure reported above.
The calculated pressure gradient can be inspected by clicking View. Click the Statistics
button to display the match parameters. Use the statistics and knowledge of well
conditions and correlation performance to guide the choice of VLP correlation. Once a
correlation has been matched, the match parameters are appended to the correlation
name for all subsequent operations. Should it be necessary to adjust or clear the match
parameters, click the Reset button for a particular correlation, or use the Reset All button
to reset all correlations to their un-matched state.

Best results are usually obtained by using VLP matching. VLP matching is
the preferred option. Gradient matching is only to be considered for
specialised artificial lift applications and where many (reliable) pressure Vs
depth data points are available.

2.8.3 Surface Pipe Matching


This option is used to match measured data with the calculated pressure drop from the
wellhead to the manifold. This option is useful only if surface equipment has been
entered in System Equipment. Select Surface pipe matching from the Matching menu
to display the following input screen:
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The User can now use the Correlation Comparison button to transfer the
selected pipeline test data to the pipeline correlation comparison section. The
procedure is:

Click on the button to the left of the pipeline test data that we wish to
perform correlation comparison on.
Click on the Correlation Comparison button
PROSPER will bring us to the pipeline correlation comparison screen
and at the same time, populate the correlation comparison screen with
the selected pipeline test data.

Enter measured manifold and tubing head pressures for a range of rates and click M
atch to enter the calculation screen. Select the correlations to match in the same
manner as for Gradient matching. All editing and calculation controls operate as
described under Gradient matching. Once the matching is complete, click OK to return
to the main menu.

If the system description has no elevation difference between the wellhead


and manifold, there can be no gravitational component of the correlated
pressure drop. Therefore, Parameter 1 cannot be optimised, so it remains at
the default value of 1.0 for such cases.

2.8.4 Correlation Comparison


This module allows a pressure gradient (traverse) to be calculated at a specified
surface rate using any of the standard correlations. Actual measured pressures can be
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input and plotted on the same graph for comparison with the pressure calculated from
the correlations. The correlations may be modified or unmodified (Matched or
Unmatched).
Click Matching / Correlation comparison to display the following data entry screen:

Note that in Correlation comparison, the first node is the wellhead only if there
is no surface equipment or it has been disabled.

Enter the surface flowing conditions at which to compare the flowing gradients
calculations for the selected Vertical Lift correlations. Select a surface equipment
correlation then click on the required Vertical Lift correlations to select a number of
them from the list. Please remember that the lowest and highest pressure drops are
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given by Fancher and Brown (no slip) and Duns and Ross Modified (highest pressure
drop in the slug flow regime) for oil wells. These can serve as quality check boundaries
for downhole measurements. Fancher Brown should never be used for actual
calculations.

Ensure that the rate type is correct for the specific application.
The value of GOR should reflect the current solution GOR and at no time
should exceed the initial solution GOR.
The GOR Free variable is used to model the effect of free gas production
from a gas cap or injection gas breakthrough. Leave GOR Free set to zero if
there is no free gas production.
The sum of GOR and GOR Free should equal the producing GOR.

Pressure data from a gradient survey can be entered versus depth in the measured
data boxes. The Transfer button copies the measured depths and pressures from the G
radient Match section.

For gas lifted wells, both the injection depth and gas lift injection rate are
required to be input.
Note that the producing GOR should not include the lift gas injection.

When the input data is complete, click on Calculate to display the calculations screen,
then press the Calculate button to compute the pressure gradient in tabular form as
shown below:

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The results of individual correlations can be examined sequentially by clicking the


arrows beside the Correlation field.
For all the correlation selected for calculations, use the scroll thumb below the results
box to access the results of calculations.
PROSPER displays the following parameters as a function of depth:

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Temperature, Pressure.
Total Pressure Gradient, Static gradient, Friction Gradient.
Flow regime, Liquid Hold up, Water Hold up, cumulative hold ups.
Slip Liquid Velocity, Superficial Liquid Velocity, Slip Gas Velocity, Superficial
Gas Velocity, Slip Water Velocity, Superficial Water Velocity.
Mixture Density, Gas density, Oil density, Water density.
Frictional Pressure Loss, Gravity Pressure Loss
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Pipe Diameter, Angle of the tubing From Vertical, calculation Node Length
Liquid Viscosity, Gas Viscosity, water viscosity, oil viscosity, Gas-Liquid IFT,
Gas-Water IFT, Gas-Oil IFT, Oil-Water IFT
C Factor and the max size of sand grain that can be transported
Cumulative volumes of phases till that depth.

A visual comparison of all selected correlations and the test data is easily made by
clicking on the Plot button. The plot can be output or saved using the standard features
of PROSPER and Windows. An example comparison plot is shown below:

This plot is a useful quality check on the PVT and field production data. The Fancher
Brown correlation does not allow for gas/liquid slippage, therefore it should always
predict a pressure that is less than the measured value. Measured data falling to the left
of Fancher Brown on the gradient comparison plot indicates a problem with fluid density
(i.e. PVT) or the field data (pressure or rate). The use of the gradient comparison plot is
recommended to help identify flow regimes and assess input data quality.
Summary Plot
From the Tubing Correlation Comparison it is possible to visualize a Summary plot

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This plot allows to compare the total dP and the components of the dp calculated by the
various correlations, as well as the difference between the correlation pressure and the
gauge pressure (Point i in the table):

Results

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This consists of a table containing the summary of all the results for all the
multiphase flow models

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Select from the drop-down menu the component of the pressure drop to
compare
Return to the previous screen.

Export This option allows the user to export selected data to Printer, File, Clipboard
or Screen.
Help

View this Help screen

2.8.5 QuickLook for Gas Lift


The QuickLook option is based on the principle of calculating well pressure traverses in
opposite directions beginning from known conditions at the surface and sand face. If
the assumptions regarding well conditions (e.g. gas injection rates and depth, water
cuts, IPR etc.) are correct, the two calculated traverses would overlay.
Troubleshooting a gas lifted well is performed by considering a range of assumptions,
until a consistent calculation model can be obtained. By varying artificial lift and
production parameters in turn, the experienced User can determine if the well is
behaving as designed, or identify potential reasons to explain the deviation from design
conditions.

2.8.5.1 Input
The gas lift QuickLook is accessed from the Matching menu. Clicking QuickLook from
the Matching menu displays the following screen:

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The surface measurements section contains two columns for data input.

For analysing a particular well at a particular flowing condition, enter data in


the Minimum column only.
For unstable wells, enter the minimum and maximum conditions to be
considered. The program will calculate using average values.

If unloading valve details have been entered, their opening and closing pressures will be
shown on the plot also.
The parameters required to be entered are:
Tubing head
pressure

Enter expected flowing pressure for the well.

Tubing head
temperature

Used only for comparison purposes.

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Liquid rate

Enter current flow rate.

Water cut

Enter current value.

Total gas rate

Enter total gas production through the separator - including


the lift gas contained in the produced well stream.

Gas injection rate

Enter current injection rate.

Casing head
pressure

Enter current surface gas injection pressure.

Orifice diameter

Enter diameter of orifice where gas is entering the string.


This diameter is used to estimate the pressure drop between
casing and tubing at the injection depth. For wells having
multiple injecting orifices at the same depth, enter an
equivalent area.

Injection depth

Enter expected depth of injection.

Vertical flow
correlation

Select the most appropriate correlation for the application.


Use a matched correlation where available.

Dome Pressure
Correction above
1200 psi

When set to Yes, the improved high-pressure dome pressure


temperature method is used.

Thornhill-Craver
DeRating

NEW!!!
This coefficient is used to scale down the maximum gas
injection rate that can be flowed through a valve or the orifice.
As the maximum gas rate is decreased, this means that to
flow the same gas rate as the original case (with no derating), larger valve or orifice should be used

To compare measured and calculated pressures to those calculated by the QuickLook,


click Downhole, and enter the pressure survey data in the following screen:

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The purpose of this section is to check that all the data is consistent. The static gradient
can also be displayed on the plot by entering two static pressure measurement points.
Downhole measurement entry is optional.

If a static pressure is entered on the downhole measurement screen, this will


be used to calculate the sand face pressure from the IPR.

For PROSPER to determine which gas lift valves should be open and closed for the
current producing conditions, the valve depths and characteristics must first be entered.
Click Valves from the QuickLook screen to display the following:

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The valve type (casing or tubing sensitive), setting depth, port size, R-value and dome
pressure at 60 F are required to calculate whether valves are open or closed. Opening
pressure etc. fields will be blank until a QuickLook calculation has been performed.
Entering the valve data for the QuickLook is optional.
As an alternative to entering them by hand, gas lift valve characteristics can be
transferred from other sections of PROSPER. Click the Transfer button on the Valves
data entry screen, and the User will be prompted to select the source of valve data.
Select either From Gas lift valves, or From Gas lift design to pick up the depths that
have been previously entered in Equipment Gaslift. After Transferring the valve depths,
select the valve type for each depth. To manually investigate the effects of changing Rvalues and dome pressures, these values may be edited or entered by hand.

2.8.5.2 Performing the QuickLook Calculation


Once the required (diagnostic) and optional (Downhole & Valves) data have been
entered, click Calculate to display the calculation screen and Calculate again to begin
the computation of the gradients. PROSPER begins by calculating from the top down,
and then repeats the calculation from the sand face up.
Select between the up pass and down pass using the buttons located beside the Case
box as in the following example:

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In the Results box, the program displays the theoretical dP across the injecting valve
together with the casing pressure theoretically required to balance the flowing tubing
pressure at the injection depth plus the dP across the orifice.
Click Plot to display the two computed gradients plus the valve opening and closing
pressures on the same graph:

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This plot enables the User to see at a glance which valves should be open or closed,
and how changes in operating pressures would impact on the valves. The results box
displays the following computed values:
Flowing BHP

From the IPR at the current flow rate.

Static BHP

Reservoir pressure input.

Tubing pressure at
valve

Fluid side pressure at injection depth.

Casing pressure at
valve

Gas side pressure at injection depth.

Temperature at valve

Interpolated for Predicting pressure only option. Can also


be calculated using the Rough Approximation
temperature option.

GOR

Calculated from production and injection rates and PVT.

GOR Free

Calculated from production and injection rates and PVT.

dP across valve

Pressure loss resulting from injection through the valve


orifice.

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Theoretical casing
pressure

Pressure at surface back calculated from the tubing


pressure at injection depth plus the dP across the
operating valve less the gas pressure traverse back to
surface.

Producing draw down

Difference in static and flowing sand face pressures.

Equivalent P.I.

When flowing above bubble point, the production rate


divided by the producing draw down.

Critical flow rate

Injection rate required for sonic velocity through the orifice.

% Critical flow rate

Actual injection rate as a fraction of the critical rate.

2.8.6 QuickLook for ESP


The ESP QuickLook principle is identical to that for gas lift wells, i.e. pressure traverses
are calculated from top to bottom and vice-versa. If the assumptions regarding well and
ESP conditions (e.g. pump frequency, wear factor, water cuts, wellhead pressure, IPR
etc.) are correct, the two calculated traverses will overlay. In addition, an energy balance
is performed across the electrical system allowing surface voltage and power to be
calculated and compared to measured data.
Historically, ESP wells have been difficult to diagnose (particularly with limited down
hole pressure data) because of uncertainties below (IPR), across (pump head) and
above (tubing hydraulics) the pump. Using the ESP QuickLook, conditions in each of
these areas can be analysed separately.

2.8.6.1 Input
The ESP QuickLook is accessed from the Matching menu. Clicking QuickLook from the
Matching menu displays the following screen:

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Select the required pump, motor and cable from the buttons at the top of the screen.
Enter well test parameters as follows:
Tubing head pressure
Liquid rate
Water Cut
Produced GOR (solution GOR plus free
gas)
Static Bottom Hole Pressure (reservoir
pressure)
Enter measured data as follows:
Current, surface voltage and
Power

Electric current, voltage required at surface and power

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Downhole pressure data

Enter gauge data if available, usually pump intake and


pump discharge pressures

Enter ESP related parameters as follows:


Pump depth
Depth of the pump
Operating
frequency

Frequency of operation of the pump

Length of cable

Used to calculate surface voltage. Normally the same as the


pump depth, but could be much longer for sub sea ESP wells.

Gas separation
efficiency

Enter the percentage of free gas at the pump intake that is


separated and flows up the annulus.

Number of stages

Number of pump stages

Pump wear factor

Enter the fraction that represents degradation of pump head.


Zero is no wear, one indicates no head will be developed. This
can be used to model pumps stages that are worn due to sand or
scale production or any other factor that downgrades pump
performance.

Enter correlation

Select the most appropriate flow correlation for the application.


Use a matched correlation where available

2.8.6.2 Performing the QuickLook Calculation


Click Calculate to display the calculation screen and Calculate again to begin the
computation of the pressure traverses.

Note that PROSPER always calculates from the bottom up for ESP systems
since, in order to find the tubing GOR above the pump, conditions at the pump
intake where gas separation takes place must be known. The calculation of
the downward pressure traverse from the entered tubing head pressure is
therefore iterative.

Select between the up pass and down pass using the buttons located beside the Case
box as in the following example:

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Click Plot to display the pressure traverses and the calculated pump intake and
discharge pressures, down hole average rate across the pump (RB/day), free gas
fraction at the pump intake and electrical parameters:

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If the well bore, inflow and ESP assumptions are all correct, the two pressure traverses
will overlay and the measured and calculated intake and discharge pressures and
surface voltages should coincide.
The following guidelines may be useful in diagnosing ESP wells:

The pump discharge pressure is the tie point for the system. First match the
pump discharge pressure (if available) from the top down traverse. The pump
discharge pressure depends only on the weight and frictional resistance to the
flow rate through the tubing to surface.
Next match the pump intake pressure from the top down traverse. If the
calculated and measured pressure differential (head) across the pump is
different, then the assumptions of pump wear, fluid density (water cut) and
pump frequency should be examined.
The top down traverse will now give the resulting bottom hole flowing
pressure. This should be compared with the bottom up calculation and will
indicate any discrepancy with the inflow performance module assumptions.

2.8.7 QuickLook for HSP


The HSP QuickLook principle is identical to that for ESP wells, i.e. pressure traverses
are calculated from top to bottom and vice-versa. If the assumptions regarding well and
HSP conditions (e.g. pump and turbine speed, wear factor, water cuts, wellhead
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pressure, IPR etc.) are correct, the two calculated traverses will overlay.
2.8.7.1 Input
The HSP QuickLook is accessed from the Matching menu. Clicking QuickLook from the
Matching menu displays the following screen:

Select the required pump and turbine from the buttons at the top of the screen.
Enter well test parameters as follows:
Tubing head pressure
Liquid rate
Water Cut
Produced GOR (solution GOR plus
free gas)
Static Bottom Hole Pressure (reservoir
pressure)
Enter measured data as follows:
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Downhole pressure data

Enter gauge data if available, usually pump intake


and pump discharge pressures

Enter HSP related parameters as follows:


Pump depth
Depth of the pump
Pump Speed Method

The pump speed can be either entered or calculated


by the program (see below)

Pump Speed

Speed at which pump is operated

Power Fluid rate

This defines the power fluid rate injected to power the


turbine

Power Fluid Surface Back


Pressure

Minimum surface pressure of the injection circuit line

Number of Pump stages

Number of stages of the pump

Pump wear factor

Enter the fraction that represents degradation of


pump head. Zero is no wear, one indicates no head
will be developed.

Number of Turbine Stages

Number of stages of the turbine

Enter correlation

Select the most appropriate flow correlation for the


specific application. Use a matched correlation where
available

Equipment

Select the pump and the turbine from the PROSPER


database

Pump Speed Method (NEW!!!)


Two options of Pump Speed Method are available:
Entered

The pump speed is entered by the user in the HSP input data and is used
by the program to determine the power fluid rate that is able to satisfy the
condition that the power consumed by the pump is equal to the power
produced by the turbine.
This method is the standard to calculate the gradient (or VLP curves for
simulators like GAP) as in general the pump speed is known

Calculated This method calculates the speed required in order to operate the pump
at the maximum overall efficiency for the value of the power fluid rate
entered in the HSP input data section and suitable to satisfy the condition
that the power consumed by the pump is equal to the power produced by
the turbine

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In some cases there could be multiple solutions: PROSPER will determine the one with
highest overall efficiency.
This means that once the pump operating parameters (pump speed, power fluid rate,
etc.) have been defined, both modes of calculation will be equivalent.
2.8.7.2 Performing the QuickLook Calculation
Click Calculate to display the calculation screen and Calculate again to begin the
computation of the pressure traverses. Note that PROSPER always calculates from the
bottom up for HSP systems since, in order to find the tubing GOR above the pump,
conditions at the pump intake where fluid mixing takes place must be known. The
calculation of the downward pressure traverse from the entered tubing head pressure is
therefore iterative.
Select between the up pass and down pass using the buttons located beside the Case
box as in the following example:

Click Plot to display the pressure traverses and the calculated pump intake and
discharge pressures, down hole average rate across the pump (RB/day) and pump and
turbine parameters:

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If the wellbore, inflow and pump and turbine assumptions are all correct, the two
pressure traverses will overlay and the measured and calculated intake and discharge
pressures should coincide.
The following guidelines may be useful in diagnosing HSP wells:

The pump discharge pressure is the tie point for the system. First match the
pump discharge pressure (if available) from the top down traverse. The pump
discharge pressure depends only on the weight and frictional resistance to the
flow rate through the tubing to surface.
Next match the pump intake pressure from the top down traverse. If the calculated
and measured pressure differential (head) across the pump is different, then the
assumptions of pump wear, fluid density (water cut) and pump speed should be
examined.
The top down traverse will now give the resulting bottom hole flowing pressure.
This should be compared with the bottom up calculation and will indicate any
discrepancy with the inflow performance module assumptions.

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2.8.8 Tubing Parameters


This option allows the match parameters for the tubing pressure drop correlations to be
accessed. They can be reset to their un-matched values, or new values entered directly.

2.8.9 Pipeline Parameters


This option allows the match parameters for the surface piping pressure drop
correlations to be accessed. They can be reset to their un-matched values, or new
values entered directly.

2.8.10 Correlation Thresholds


This option allows the User to specify alternative correlations to use for tubing or
pipeline when the angle (from the vertical for tubing and from the horizontal for pipelines)
exceeds a User-specified threshold value. This option is useful for modelling the riser
for a long sub sea tieback or for a highly deviated surface pipeline. Enter the
appropriate angles and correlations. Select Yes to the question Use Threshold Angle to
enable the feature. When enabled, the calculation screens will indicate that this option is
active.

2.9

Calculation Menu
This chapter describes all the calculation methods available in PROSPER and how to
calculate system production rates, run sensitivity analyses, generate lift curve tables etc.
The available calculation types are:
Inflow (IPR)
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This option calculates the IPR, that is to say, the relationship between tubing intake rate
and the bottomhole flowing pressure (BHFP). The Inflow calculation allows to quickly run
sensitivities without the need to calculate the system solution rate. This is especially
convenient for e.g. frac program design, gravel pack design, perforation programming.
System (Ipr+Vlp)
This option will calculate both the tubing outflow (VLP) and tubing inflow (IPR) curves
and determine the system operating rate and bottom hole flowing pressure. It also
allows to perform sensitivity analyses with a wide range of variables. Sensitivity plots
can easily be generated.
Three options are available:
- 3 variables (for naturally flowing wells)
- 4 variables and
- Multi-Variables ( up to 10 variables).
Gradient (Traverse)
This option enables the user to generate gradient plots. If the correlations have been
matched, the gradients will be generated using the tuned correlations.
VLP (Tubing curves)
This option enables the generation of VLP curves that can be exported for use in
various commercial reservoir simulators and Petroleum Experts' MBAL and GAP programs.
Three options are available:
- 3 variables (for naturally flowing wells)
- 4 variables and
- Multi-Variables ( up to 10 variables).
Choke Performance
This is a convenient choke calculator for flow rates, pressure drop or choke settings.
Choke Performance Curves can be visualised.
Generate for GAP
Allows to automatically calculate well performance data for gas lifted or naturally flowing
wells for use in Petroleum Experts GAP production system network modelling program. Not
available when Enthalpy Balance is in use.
Bottom Hole Pressure from Wellhead Pressure
This option allows to calculate flowing bottom hole pressure from the wellhead pressure.
This method is only available when using the Pressure and Temperature and Rough
Approximation options.

2.9.1 Inflow (IPR)


This calculation type enables the User to determine the IPR as the reservoir and fluid
parameters change.
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To select this calculation type, choose Calculation Inflow (IPR) from the main menu
toolbar.

A few data on the fluid quality are required, along with the selection of the rate range for
which to run the calculation.
As far as the rate method is concerned, select one of the following:

Automatic Linear
The program works out the AOF (IPR Absolute Open Flow) for various sensitivity
variables entered and for each AOF creates 20 evenly spaced rates for sand
face pressures calculations.

Automatic Geometric
As for Automatic Linear, it works out the AOF for various sensitivity variables
entered and for each AOF creates 20 geometrically spaced rates for sand face
pressures calculations.

Use this option when evaluating minimum stable flow rates.

User selected
One can either enter a table of up to 20 rates directly, or use PROSPER to G
enerate them. Click Generate from the User Selected rate entry screen and the
following screen will be presented:

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Enter values for the first and last rates in the table plus the number of entries required.
Depending on the selection of Linear or Geometric spacing, PROSPER will calculate
the required rate table.
Use the Try button for the preview of the entered range and Done to confirm.

User selected rates can be useful when using the AOF is inappropriate for the
range of sensitivity variables to be considered.

Click OK, then if a sensitivity analysis is to be performed, enter values for up to 3


sensitivity variables as on the following screen example:

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The range of Inflow variables available depend on the particular IPR model entered in S
ystem Inflow performance.
For each of the selected variables enter the values by hand, or click Generate to have
PROSPER calculate a range of values as follows. The Generate feature is exactly the
same as the one for the Rate Method entry.
Leaving the sensitivity variable screen empty will run the calculation with the
default parameters entered in the main IPR section.
The Combinations button can be used to enter particular scenarios to calculate. Refer
to Sensitivity Combinations in the section related to System Calculation for more
details.
Once set up the Inflow sensitivity variables, click OK Calculate to calculate the IPR
pressures. The results will be reported in a table:

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In the Variables area scroll teh various parameter to display the desired sensitivity.
The results can be exported to different destinations (like for example the Clipboard) by
selecting Export.
Clicking on Report will instead export the results to a Report sheet.
Click Plot to display a screen similar to the following:

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On this plot by pressing on the VARIABLES option on the menu bar, one can
get a display of all the variables that have been calculated during IPR
calculations, like skin, dP skin etc. These can be plotted as well.

2.9.2 System (Ipr + Vlp)


The Calculation System (Ipr +Vlp) calculation type enables the User to determine the
production of a well and the flowing parameters (like BHP, dP, etc.) as the reservoir and
fluid parameters change, according the principles of nodal analysis.
To enter the System Calculation area select CalculationSystem (Ipr+Vlp) from the
menu toolbar.

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The first input screen requires the Top Node Pressure and the data concerning the fluid
quality (e.g. WC and GOR) and allows to select correlations for surface and downhole
equipment as well as select a rate method.

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The Top Node represents the downstream end of the system, hence it is:
-

The manifold if surface equipment is included in the system

The wellhead if no surface equipment is included in the system

The Solution Node represents the point at which the nodal analysis is
performed. Three options are available:
-

Bottom Node. It is the bottomhole, that is, the deepest point in the
downhole equipment

Top Node. See definition in the previous note

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Well Head. It is the Xmas Tree, that is, the upper point of the downhole
equipment.

According to the last two definitions, if no surface equipment is included, Top


Node and Well Head represent the same point.
As far as the Rate Method is concerned, refer to the previous section for details.

The Solution Rate reported is given by the VLP and IPR curves intersection.
These curves are interpolated between the selected calculation rates and so
the result may change according to the rate values used.
It is important that an appropriate rates range and distribution is selected
according to each case in order to avoid significant interpolation errors.

An IPR is required for both Automatic rate methods. For wells having very high
AOFs (e.g. horizontal wells) the well rate is determined mainly by the tubing
size. Manual rate selection may give better results in such cases.

2.9.2.1 Left - Hand Intersection for VLP/IPR curves


LHS: Left-Hand Side
Normally VLP/IPR intersections that occur when the tubing pressures are declining (on
the LHS) are considered to represent unstable flow and are usually ignored.
When Gas Coning occurs, however the GOR is changing constantly for different rates
and it is possible to have two solutions and for the LHS intersection to represent stable
flow. This option allows to consider or not the left-hand intersection.

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2.9.2.2 Sensitivity Variables Screen


Once entered the main input data, select Continue to access the sensitivity variables
screen.
This is organized exactly in the same way as in the Inflow calculation, hence refer to
Section 10.1.1 for details on the use of this entry screen.

Three types of System calculation are available:


3 variables
4 variables and
Multi-Variables

Only the sensitivity variables relevant to the chosen system will be available. For
example, if a well is gas lifted th euser will be given the option of gas injection rate as a
variable. This option will not be available if the well is naturally flowing.

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When tubing diameter is entered as a sensitivity variable, selecting Continue displays a


screen where the User can input the range of nodes over which the sensitivity is
calculated:

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Normally tubing diameter should not be varied in the casing below the tubing shoe. This
option is also useful for determining e.g. the effect of increasing tubing size above a
safety valve while keeping the diameter of the rest of the tubing string diameter
constant.

2.9.2.2.1 Sensitivity Combinations Screen


The Combinations option allows the User to enter specific combinations of field data (or
hypothetical cases) then allow the program to calculate the unknowns. An example of a
Combinations screen is shown below:

If no liquid rates are entered, the program uses the current list of rates (either
internally calculated or User input) and calculates the solution for the combination
of sensitivity variables for each of up to 10 cases.
If liquid rates are entered in the Combinations screen, these take precedence.
The program will then find the VLP and IPR pressures for each combination of
sensitivity variables.
Note that a solution rate is not computed in this case.

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Once sensitivity values have been entered in either the Combinations or Variables
screen, click Continue to display the calculation screen. Sensitivity values temporarily
overwrite variable values that have been entered on other screens. For example:
Pressure at first node, water cut.

2.9.2.3 Calculation Screen


Click Calculate to start the system solution calculations. A calculation screen example
is shown below:

On the right hand side there are the results of the system calculation: solution rates,
FBHP, WHP, WHT, etc.
On the left hand side, instead, there are the calculated parameters related to VLP and
IPR. Scroll to the right to read the results.
In the Variables area it is possible to scroll the different cases or the values of the
sensitivity variables for which the calculation were performed.
Solution Details
To examine the solution in more detail, click the Solution Details button. Individual
solution points can be viewed by clicking on the arrow buttons located beside each
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sensitivity variable. Outflow or Inflow solutions can be viewed as shown in the following
sample screen:

In the case of wells with ESP, HSP, PCP or Jet Pump, the solution details contain all the
results related to the pump.
Plotting Results
The results can be plotted by clicking Plot. The System plot will appear as follows:

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The system plot summarizes all the calculations. Each VLP and IPR curve is identified
by up to 3 numbers posted beside them. The variable names and the corresponding
number labels are shown in the panel to the right of the plot. In the above example,
Curve 1,0,0 is for 4500 psig reservoir pressure, 0 % water cut and 4 STB/day/psi
productivity index.
To plot the solution rates and pressures versus the selected variables, click Sensitivity
and a sensitivity plot will be displayed. To select sensitivity variables to plot, click V
ariables and make the selection on the following screen, for example:

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The Sensitivity screen allows to choose X- and Y-axis variables. Click OK to view the
Sensitivity plot. The program automatically plots the sensitivity values of the X-axis
variable. If variable Combinations have been used, the sensitivity cases will be
automatically plotted.

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The pressure gradient for any particular solution rate can be calculated by clicking Se
nsitivity PvD (Sensitivity Pressure vs. Depth).
Performing Gradient Calculations for a Given Solution
For each of the solutions calculated it is possible to determine the correspondent
gradient. To do so, in the System Calculation screen select Sensitivity PvD:

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Select the desired case by scrolling on the variables, and then Continue and Calculate
to generate the gradient. The results are displayed on the following screen example:

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Click Plot to display the Gradient vs. TVD or Measured Depth:

Click Variables on the plot screen to select which variables to plot.

By clicking the Extended button, a greater range of plot variables can be accessed.
Virtually any combination of computed results can be plotted against each other.

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Return to the standard choice of plot variables by clicking the Original button.
The plots are held in memory until overwritten by a new set of calculations. Plots can
also be displayed or output by selecting Plot from the main menu. The Units menu can
be used to change the display units if required.
Special Note for ESP, HSP, PCP and Jet Pump Applications
When calculating a System solution for a pump equipped well, in the Solution Point
screen lists details of the pump solution such as pump intake pressure etc. (See
example pump solution in the screen below)

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Clicking Pump Plot on the pump solution screen displays the sensitivity solutions plotted
over the pump characteristic curves (this is available only for ESP and HSP). As shown
by the example screen below, the effects of the sensitivity variables on the pump
operating point can be readily evaluated.

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This plot is a powerful tool for evaluating how an ESP design can accommodate future
changes of well conditions.

All pump (both ESP & HSP) designs should be validated by calculating
sensitivities and ensuring that efficient operation at the design rate can be
achieved over the entire range of expected well and pump efficiency
conditions.

For pump (both ESP & HSP) equipped wells, the Sens. PvD gradient calculation shows
the pressure increase across the pump. An example gradient plot is shown below:

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2.9.3 Gradient (Traverse)


The Calculation Gradient (traverse) feature allows the User to calculate flowing
pressure gradient curves at a specified flow rate for varying reservoir and fluid
conditions.
These curves can be compared with published pressure traverse curves or actual well
data. Pressure traverses can also computed for combinations of sensitivity variables.
The effect of changing tubing sizes, SSSV I.D. etc. can be evaluated visually by plotting
the gradient results.
To commence the Gradient calculation, click Calculation Gradient (traverse) from the
main menu and the following screen will be displayed:

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Enter the required data, mostly the same as the one requested by System calculation,
plus the first and the last node for the calculation, which will determine the section of
completion for which to run the gradient calculation.
Then select Continue to access the Sensitivity Variables (or Combinations) screen.
Refer to previous sections for the description of this area.
Selecting Continue again will access the calculation screen. In this screen the User can
select the flow correlations for the downhole and the slug method:

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Click Calculate to compute flowing gradients for all the sensitivity cases. Once the
calculations have been completed, the results tables can be inspected by clicking the
respective variable arrows until the desired variable combination is visible.

Important
The Gradient calculation results report very useful parameters
concerning details on the DP calculation, PVT data, mass flow rates and
in the case of pipeline gradients, characteristic parameters of slugs, etc.

A plot of the gradient results similar to that below can be displayed by then clicking the
Plot button:

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Gradients can be plotted for the well and flow line separately or combined on the one
plot.

2.9.3.1 Options
Every time a Gradient calculation is performed, a number of post-process calculations
are carried out, like for example maximum grain size, erosional velocity, liquid loading
(Turner velocity) and pigging calculations.
The parameters affecting these calculations can be accessed in any Calculation screen
by means of Options button.
This screen can also be accessed from the main menu toolbar by selecting System
Solids.

2.9.3.1.1 Maximum Grain Diameter


This calculation determines the maximum size of sand grain that can be dragged away
by the producing fluid. The calculated Maximum Grain Diameter is reported in the
results table at each calculation step.
This calculation determines the maximum size of sand grain that can be dragged away
by the producing fluid. The calculated Maximum Grain Diameter is reported in the
results table at each calculation step.

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The model implemented in PROSPER is based on internal BP work.


The model is based upon a series of equations derived by Thomas (Reference 3) to
calculate the friction velocity at the limit of solid transport in a liquid / solid system.
Sand will be lifted to the wellhead only if the velocity of the fluid in the wellbore is greater
than the Critical Transport Velocity.
This velocity is function of sand particle size, shape and density and the fluid density and
viscosity.
Two different equations are used: one for oil wells and one for gas well:
1. Oil Wells
The equation used in this case is more applicable to laminar flow, conditions that
are likely to be encountered in oil and / or water wells.

Where:
-

V = Critical Transport Velocity (cm/sec)


equivalent to Superficial Fluid Velocities in PROSPER

N = Dynamic Fluid Viscosity (poise)


equivalent to Mixture Viscosity in PROSPER

g = Gravity (980 cm/sec2)

r = Particle Radius (cm)


This is the parameter calculated by PROSPER

= Fluid Density (gm/cm3)


By default, PROSPER uses a 2.65g/cc sand density. This can be changed in

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the System | Solids section of the main PROSPER menu.


-

= Particle Density (gm/cm3)

2. Gas Wells
The equation used in this case is applicable to high gas flows and does not
include a factor for viscosity: viscosity has only an insignificant effect on lifting
sand.

Where:
-

V = Critical Transport Velocity (ft/sec)


Equivalent to Superficial Fluid Velocities in PROSPER

= Fluid Density (lb/ft3)

= Particle Density (lb/ft3)


By default, PROSPER uses a 2.65g/cc sand density. This can be changed in
the System | Solids section of the main PROSPER menu.

g = Gravity (32.2 ft/sec2)

d = Particle diameter (ft)


This is the parameter calculated by PROSPER

Cd = Drag coefficient for the particle essentially a function of particle shape


at high Reynolds numbers. Cd value for sand grain is 0.85.

In both the oil/water and gas cases, PROSPER knows the fluid velocity in the wellbore.
Therefore, it will calculate the maximum particle diameter that can be transported by the
well flow.
These calculations are important when an attempt is made to cut back the production
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rate so that the well will stop producing sand and will help determine if the formation
sand may be accumulating at the bottom of the well.

References:
1. Fairhurst.CP Sand Transport in the South East Forties Pipe Line, BHRA,
1983
2. Smith.M A Model for Predicting Solids Transport in near Horizontal MultiPhase Oil and Gas Pipe Lines, XFE report 8/2/1993
3. Wasp, Kenny & Gandhi Solid-Liquid Flow Slurry Pipe Line Transportation,
Gulf Publishing Company, Clausthal, Germany 1979

2.9.3.1.2 Erosional Velocity Calculation for Sand Laden Fluids


When gradient traverse calculations are performed the program will estimate the
correspondent value of erosional velocity.
Erosion can be caused by the repeated impact of solid particles on tubing and
pipelines. To avoid this we attempt to estimate the velocity at which erosion will occur.
Normal practise is to use equation of API 14 E. This can be unreliable especially for
clean production where the limiting value of C (125) can be too restrictive. In practice,
values of 1000 for C have been recorded in pipes where no erosion has been detected.

A Conoco paper (An Alternative to API14E Erosional Velocity Limits for Sand Laden
Fluids) challenges API14E on the basis that it can be very conservative for clean service
and is not applicable for conditions where corrosion or sand are present. It proposes a
simple alternative approach that has been verified by a comparison with several multiphase flow loop tests that cover a broad range of liquid-gas ratios and sand
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concentrations. Values of S for different components are proposed in the paper

The constants C and S for the two formulations can be customised by selecting System
Solids and tab button Erosional Velocity or the Options button in any calculation
screen.
PROSPER calculates the erosional velocity for solid-free fluid using the API-14E method
and the entered C value. If the sand production rate has been specified, PROSPER will
calculate the erosional velocity using both the API-14E and Conoco methods and will
then compare the results and will use the computed lower-value of erosional velocity. To
review the computed erosional velocity values using the Conoco method set the value of
C sufficiently high until the values do not change for changing values of C.
After gradient calculations are performed, scroll right on the results screen to view the
erosional velocity values.

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In PROSPER, the C value is calculated and displayed and it is the


responsibility of the User to work out whether for this C value, erosion will
occur or not depending upon the expected operating conditions.

2.9.3.1.3 Gradient (Traverse)-Modified Turner Equation


The Turner Equation is used to study the continuous removal of liquid from gas wells.
This equation is used to determine the minimum velocity of the producing fluid
necessary to drag away the droplets of liquid. The original formulation of the equation is
the following:

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This formulation has been found to be not necessarily reliable.


The original Turner Constant was 20.4. Using the Petroleum Experts 4 mechanistic
model it has been found that 2.04 gives much more reliable results in a wide range of
examples.
This constant can be however changed by the User by selecting SystemSolids from
the main menu, or the Options button and the Liquid Loading tab screen within any
calculation screen.

Results of the calculation of the Turner velocity are reported in the Gradient calculation
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results table, as reported in the figure above.

2.9.3.1.4 Pigging
This calculation can be used to describe the pigging characteristics of the flow in
pipelines.
Assuming 100% removal efficiency of a sphere and that all the liquid removed by the
sphere is in the form of a continuous slug, the pigged slug volume can be estimated by
integrating the difference between the liquid hold-up and the no-slip hold-up in the
pipeline. Also the time to produce the slug can be calculated from

These are the additional results reported in the Gradient Traverse results table:
Pigged Slug Length
Pigged Slug Volume (cumulative pigged slug volume for the given pipe element
node)
Time to Produce Pigged Slug Length
Time for Pigged Slug to reach Outlet
Pigging Efficiency can be entered by User.

2.9.3.2 Note on HSP


Two options of Pump Speed Method are available:
Entered

The pump speed is entered by the user in the HSP input data and is used
by the program to determine the power fluid rate that is able to satisfy the
condition that the power consumed by the pump is equal to the power
produced by the turbine.
This method is the standard to calculate the gradient (or VLP curves for
simulators like GAP) as in general the pump speed is known

Calculated This method calculates the speed required in order to operate the pump
at the maximum overall efficiency for the value of the power fluid rate
entered in the HSP input data section and suitable to satisfy the condition
that the power consumed by the pump is equal to the power produced by
the turbine

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In some cases there could be multiple solutions: PROSPER will determine the one with
highest overall efficiency.
This means that once the pump operating parameters (pump speed, power fluid rate,
etc.) have been defined, both modes of calculation will be equivalent.

2.9.4 VLP (Tubing Curves)


An important PROSPER application is generating tubing lift curves for use in reservoir
and total system simulators.
Three options of calculation are available:
VLP curves 3 Variables.
The lift curves can be generated for a set of 3 sensitivity variables. The option
is used for naturally flowing wells.
VLP curves 4 Variables
The lift curves can be generated for a set of 4 sensitivity variables. The option
is used for artificially lifted wells.
VLP curves Multi-Variables
The lift curves can be generated for a set of up to 10 sensitivity variables. The
option is mainly used to generate lift curves for gas lifted wells with an extra
sensitivity on casing pressure (suitable to model and optimise in GAP gas lift
injection networks)

2.9.4.1 VLP (Tubing) Curves - 3 Variables


To generate lift curves for naturally flowing wells select Calculation VLP (tubing curves)
3 Variables from the menu toolbar.
The input screen entry are similar to the ones required by System calculation (refer to
the correspondent section for reference). The values of Top Node Pressure, Water Cut
and GOR entered in this screen will be neglected if these variables will be selected as
sensitivity parameters.

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When User Selected rates are used, the user can enter rates in terms of Liquid, Oil or
Gas. The results will be given in terms of the specified rate type, but depending on the
type of well, PROSPER will first convert the rates to equivalent oil or gas to calculate the
VLP pressure. This feature can be used when preparing lift curves for high GOR oil
wells. Remember when using gas rates, that increasing the water cut will also increase
the liquid production rate. Extreme VLP pressures can easily result.
Gauge Data: The information on the Gauge Data is used for Integrated Field
Management (IFM) Applications. These can be left blank for use in IPM suite of tools.
Click Continue to access the Select Variables screen and set up the required sensitivity
variables.
To generate lift curves for simulator (like Eclipse) for an oil well, the VLP is generally
calculated for the following sensitivity variables:
Variable 1: Pressure at first node
Variable 2: Water cut
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Variable 3: Gas Oil Ratio


An example calculation variables screen for generating lift curves is shown below:

Select the variables required by the external application and enter a list of values for
each. Click Continue to access the calculation screen, then select Calculate to
generate the lift curves. An example lift curve calculation screen is shown below:

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The calculated VLP results can now be exported to a number of external application
programs. Once the calculations have been completed, click Plot to visually check the
results and Export Lift Curves to access the export selection screen.
Currently, PROSPER supports the following export formats:

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PROSPER Manual

Schlumberger - ECLIPSE
Welldrill - SIMCO 3
ExxonMobil - Pegasus
SSI COMP4
FranLab FRAGOR
SSI COMP3
LandMark - VIP
Roxar - MORE
Petroleum Experts GAP/MBAL
Shell - MoReS
BeCip - ATHOS
Amoco - GCOMP
Chevron-CHEARS
ExxonMobil-EMPOWER
ConocoPhillips-PSim
CMG-IMEX/GEM

.ECL
.SIM
.MOB
.CP4
.FRA
.CP4
.VIP
.MOR
.TPD
.MRS
.ATH
.GCM
.CHE
.Hyd
.WBH
.IMX

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PROSPER appends the export file with a suffix corresponding to the selected file format
as shown in the table above. Depending on the export format selected, the User will be
prompted for a file name and additional data such as table number, flow table I.D. etc.
Refer to the simulator documentation for further details.

Simulators have varying requirements for VLP sensitivity variables. If the


correct variables have not been selected for calculation, PROSPER may not be
able to correctly export the VLP file. Pay particular attention to GLR and GORs.
To model artificially lifted wells, reservoir simulators require 4 variable lift
curves. Refer to the following section for details.

2.9.4.2 VLP (Tubing) Curves - 4 Variables


To model artificially lifted wells, an additional sensitivity variable is required. This option
allows calculation of four variable sensitivities (provided the total number of sensitivity
combinations is less than 10,000) and export of lift curves for gas lifted and ESP, HSP,
etc. equipped wells. Set up, calculation and export of 4 variable tubing curves follows
the same procedures as described above (Section 10.1.6.1) for regular tubing curves.
An example of a 4 variable VLP calculation for a gas lifted well is shown on the following
screen:

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A Note on Preparing Lift Curves


Because of the large number of calculations that must be performed, preparing lift
curves can be a time consuming process, so it is important to obtain good results at the
first attempt. Due to the extreme range of flowing conditions that must be covered by
the lift curve tables, problems with the computations are occasionally encountered. The
following discussion covers some of the points that should be addressed when planning
a lift curve calculation run.

Finding a VLP correlation that performs well for the entire range of rates that must
be spanned by the lift curves can be difficult. Some correlations handle slug flow (e.
g. Hagedorn Brown) but fail in the mist flow regime e.g. after injection gas
breakthrough. Care must be exercised in selecting correlations to ensure that the

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wells are properly represented over the most important range of flow rates to be
modelled in the simulation.

Problems can occur for extremes of water cut and GOR. e.g. if the oil production
rate is fixed, the liquid production rate becomes very high as the water cut
approaches 100%. To maintain lift in a high water cut well, a specific GLR is
required. If injection gas is expressed in terms of GOR injected, the required GOR
approaches infinity as the water cut approaches 100%. A huge range of GOR
injected is therefore required to model the well. The use of liquid rates and injection
GLRs in oil well lift curve tables is recommended to avoid such problems.

Depending on the particular simulator used, it is not possible to pass the variable
names or units between programs. Users are reminded to ensure that the sensitivity
variables and output units used in PROSPER are consistent with those expected by
the simulator. In particular, gas units (MMscf Vs Mscf), gas lift (GLR Vs Gas Lift
Injection Rate) and rates (Oil Vs Liquid) should be checked.

PVT correlations should only be used within the range of temperature and pressure
for which they were derived. Occasionally, combinations of tubing curve variables
require an excessive VLP pressure to pass the specified rate, and the PVT
correlation may fail. Occasionally, PROSPER may halt rather than continuing the
calculation with a fictitious result. The user may have to revise the range of variables
or select a different PVT correlation in such cases. Beware of chokes and
restrictions in the equipment description that may result in excessive calculated
pressure drops. If using externally generated PVT tables, they must span the entire
calculation range. Make sure that GOR is constant above bubble point, and the FVF
is decreasing.

Provided the user enters the rates by hand, it is not necessary to enter an IPR to
calculate VLP tables. PROSPER needs the IPR to find the calculation rates if an
Automatic rate method has been selected. Automatic rate selection is not available
for 4 Variable VLP calculations.

Oil well lift curves can now be calculated in terms of gas rates for specialised
applications. Make sure that the liquid rates that result from the choice of GOR,
water cut etc. does not result in impossible liquid rates. Be especially careful when
there are chokes and restrictions in the system.

A Note on preparing lift curves for ESP equipped wells


There are 2 options available for generating ESP lift curves:

Tubing Curves (standard)


Lift curves for simulators

The 'Tubing Curves (Standard)' option will prompt the user to enter the bottom hole
pressure, i.e. the first node pressure corresponds to the bottom hole pressure.
PROSPER will perform the calculations from the deepest node (i.e. bottom hole) to the
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pump depth. Using the pump performance curves, Pump Head is calculated for the
given frequency, water cut etc. and therefore the Pump Discharge Pressure can be
calculated. PROSPER then determines the PVT of the oil above the pump after
accounting for possible gas separation. The pressure drop above the pump is then
calculated to find the top node arrival pressure. These calculations are performed for
each required production rate. The VLP Pressure value indicated corresponds to the
Pressure at the end point of the system; i.e. if there is no surface equipments entered,
the VLP Pressure will correspond to the wellhead pressure, if surface equipment is
entered, then VLP Pressure will correspond to the Manifold Pressure.
'Lift Curves for Simulators' require tables of rates and BHPs ordered by THP. The Lift
curves for Simulators option allows input of Top Node pressure, water cut, operating
frequency etc. PROSPER iterates to find the pressure at the deepest node (VLP) for the
given top node pressure. For this case the Top Node Pressure will correspond to the
Wellhead Pressure (if there are no surface equipments entered) or the Manifold
Pressure (If there are surface equipments entered). The VLP Pressure will correspond
to the Bottom Hole Pressure or the pressure at the last point in the downhole equipment
section.

VLP lift curves for simulators or Petroleum Experts applications (GAP and MBAL)
can be batch generated for groups of wells by PROSPER from GAP. Refer to the
GAP documentation for details.

A Note on preparing lift curves for HSP equipped wells (NEW!!!)


Two options of Pump Speed Method are available:
Entered

The pump speed is entered by the user in the HSP input data and is used
by the program to determine the power fluid rate that is able to satisfy the
condition that the power consumed by the pump is equal to the power
produced by the turbine.
This method is the standard to calculate the gradient (or VLP curves for
simulators like GAP) as in general the pump speed is known

Calculated This method calculates the speed required in order to operate the pump
at the maximum overall efficiency for the value of the power fluid rate
entered in the HSP input data section and suitable to satisfy the condition
that the power consumed by the pump is equal to the power produced by
the turbine
In some cases there could be multiple solutions: PROSPER will determine the one with
highest overall efficiency.
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This means that once the pump operating parameters (pump speed, power fluid rate,
etc.) have been defined, both modes of calculation will be equivalent.

2.9.4.3 VLP (Tubing) - Multi Variables


PROSPER can generate lift curves for up to 10 variables as shown below:

The VLP Multi Variable should be used when modeling and optimising simultaneously
gas lifted oil field and gas lift distribution network both in GAP. This is achieved by
generating the VLPs with an extra sensitivity variable, casing pressure.

2.9.5 Choke Performance


This is a general purpose choke performance calculator. Only PVT data input is
required to calculate flow rates given the choke size and pressures, choke setting to
achieve a specified flow rate etc. To access the choke performance calculator, click C
alculation Choke Performance and the following selection screen may be displayed
(depending on the Choke Method selected):
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Calculation Options
Select the required calculation option from the following:
Predict Mass Flow Rate
PROSPER determines the flow rate for specified choke opening and inlet
and outlet pressures

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Predict Pressure Drop


PROSPER calculates the pressure drop across a specified choke opening
for a given flow rate and inlet pressure
Predict Choke Valve Setting
PROSPER finds the choke size for a specified rate and inlet an outlet
pressures.
Choke Method
Select a choke calculation method from the following options:
Petroleum Experts
This is an in-house developed choke model based on Perkins work (SPE
20633).
HYDRO
There are 3 distinct methods for modelling specific choke equipment. Until
performance testing is completed and documentation issued, these choke
methods should not be used.

ELF
A model based on Perkins (SPE 20633) approach along with discharge
coefficients determined by the author (Stephane Rastoin of ELF Aquitaine at
TUALP). This is also the recommended method used to calculate pressure
drops down hole for SSSVs and restrictions. It should be used for the
majority of applications.

Enter the following data:

GOR
Water Cut
Inlet Pressure
Inlet Temperature
Outlet Pressure
Outlet Temperature
Choke setting

This value overrides the GOR entered on the PVT data screen.
Pressure upstream of the choke
Upstream temperature
Downstream pressure
Downstream temperature
Orifice size

Click Calculate, and PROSPER will calculate the liquid and mass flow rates. Similar
screens are used to enter data for the dP and Choke Setting prediction options. For
critical flow conditions, it may take some time for the calculation to converge.

If the ELF Choke model is selected, after a calculation the Choke


Performance Curve is plotted at the bottom of the screen

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Selecting the choke model in PROSPER


To select the choke model to be used to model chokes, SSSVs and
Restrictions, access the Surface Equipment screen and select from the dropdown menu Choke Method the desired model

When one of the enthalpy balance temperature models (Improved


Approximation or Enthalpy Balance) is selected, the choke calculation
will account for changes of temperature due to Joule-Thomson effect

2.9.6 Generate for GAP


This option is used to calculate well performance curves for Petroleum Experts General
Allocation Program (GAP).
PROSPER can be run from within GAP in a batch mode for generating performance
curves for groups of wells or independently of GAP by selecting this option.
PROSPER will automatically calculate solutions for gas lifted or naturally flowing wells. If
the solutions are then saved in a .OUT file, GAP can pick up the data required to
calculate performance curves at a later time. For more information, refer to the GAP
documentation.

2.9.7 Bottom Hole Pressure from Wellhead Pressure


This option allows to calculate flowing bottom hole pressure from the wellhead pressure.
This method is only available when using the Rough Approximation option.
Input data required are gas, water and oil rate information as well as wellhead
temperature and pressure.
This information can be in one of several formats (e.g. Liquid rate, WC and GOR, etc.)
and the correct format for the data can be selected at the top of the appropriate
columns. If the data type in a particular column is changed while there is data already in
that particular column, then the data will be converted to the new type.
In the case of gas lifted wells the gas lift gas rate is required and in the case of ESP
lifted wells the pump frequency must be entered.

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The table is quite large allowing to start off with up to 16000 rows of data which is
automatically expandable up to 32000 rows. The data can be scrolled with the scrollbar
at the right hand side of the screen.
Appropriate vertical lift and surface pipe correlations can be selected at the bottom of
the screen.
Selecting the import button allows to bring in data from an outside source. Table data
can be saved to file using the export button and plots using either time or the log of time
can also be viewed and exported using the plot feature. Within the plot screen data can
be enabled or disabled point by point or in a block manner by using the right-click
mouse button.

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Data can be ordered with relation to time by using the sort button. This will also remove
any blank rows between data in the table.

2.9.7.1 References
SPE PAPER 22870
Modelling of Well bore Heat Losses in Directional Wells Under Changing Injection
Conditions
K Chu and S Thakur, Amoco Production Co.

2.9.8 Note on Enthalpy Balance Model


The Predicting Pressure and Temperature analysis option can be used to generate
temperature and pressure profiles in producing wells.
This rigorous thermodynamic model Enthalpy Balance considers heat transfer by
conduction, radiation, forced and free convection. Heat transfer coefficients are
calculated using thermodynamic data held in a User-definable database. The
temperature prediction calculations are transient, allowing sensitivities against flowing
time to be run for both wells and pipelines. This temperature model requires
considerably more input data and computation time for either Predicting Pressure Only
or the Rough or Improved Approximation temperature models. Enthalpy Balance
should be applied only when the desired result is the temperature. The additional
computational effort cannot be justified for pressure loss calculations.
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Both pressure and temperature losses across chokes and restrictions are accounted
for. A theoretical outline of the Enthalpy Balance model is given in Appendix B.
Temperature prediction is useful for generating temperature profiles in:
pipelines
sub sea wells
high pressure/temperature exploration wells
predicting temperature/pressure profiles to help predict wax/hydrate
deposits.
accounting for Joule-Thompson effects

PROSPER 's Enthalpy Balance temperature model is one of the most accurate
temperature prediction methods available.

The Enthalpy Balance (or Improved Approximation) temperature


calculations must commence from a known condition. This is usually the
reservoir pressure and temperature. As a consequence, calculating from a
downstream node (unknown temperature) to an upstream node (known
temperature) is not meaningful. For injectors, calculations commence from
the known wellhead pressure and temperature.

2.9.9 Reset Results


NEW!!!
In the calculation menu the Reset Results has the objective to erase any results
previously calculated in the model.

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After accessing this option, select the calculation to reset and then select Reset: the
program will erase the desired results.

2.10 Design Menu


The Design Menu enables the User to perform various artificial lift designs.
From this menu the User can access the design modules for the following artificial lift
technologies:
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Gas Lift (continuous)


Electrical Submersible Pump
Hydraulic Drive Downhole Pump
Progressive Cavity Pump
Coiled Tubing GasLift
Jet Pump
Sucker Rod Pump
Gas lift (intermittent)
The design menu is active only if an artificial lift method has been selected in the
main Options screen.
The design option will correspond to the artificial lift method selection in the main
Option screen.
Artificial lift design is not enabled when the Enthalpy Balance temperature
model is in use.

From the Design menu the Database containing all the information about gas lift valves,
ESP pumps, motors, cables, etc. is accessible. A dedicated section is reported at the
end of the chapter.
In the following sections each of the design options are illustrated.

2.10.1 Continuous Gas Lift Design


The gas lift design can be used to design and optimise the design of gas lifted wells.
The program will determine the spacing and size of unloading valves and calculate the
valve test rack setting pressures.
Designs can also be performed for existing wells having mandrels installed at fixed
depths.
Design performance can be evaluated using the Gas Lift QuickLook or calculating
system sensitivities.
2.10.1.1Menu Options
If gas lift was selected as a lift method in the Options menu the following additional
options will be available in the DesignGaslift menu:
New Well
Existing Mandrels
Gas Lift Adjustments
The gas lift design section of the program can be used to determine the optimum gas lift
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equipment for a given well. PROSPER calculates the maximum production rate
possible, the corresponding optimum gas lift rate, the valve spacing and size to unload
the well and the test rack setting pressure for each valve for surface calibration.
Designs can also be prepared for wells having mandrels already set at fixed depths.
Before the User can proceed ahead with artificial lift design, PVT, downhole equipment
and IPR information must be input.

2.10.1.2New Well
Selecting Design Gas Lift New well from the Design menu will display the Gas Lift
Design input screen:

In this screen it is possible to enter the input data for the gas lift design task.
The input data screen is divided into several areas. The Input parameters panel is
used to enter the design operating conditions. The other panels allow the User to enter
the design options for a given application.

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2.10.1.2.1 Setting Up the Design Problem


Setting the artificial lift design problems is defining the various parameters in the figure
above. These are described below:
Design Rate Method

Entered By User
Use this option when designing for a given production rate and gas lift gas injection
rate or when modelling the performance of an existing installation. If Check
Conformance with IPR is selected, the program will modify the rate and the gas
injection rate, if necessary, to honour the IPR.
If a maximum production calculation has been previously done, the lift gas and
design production rates can be User Entered. The design rate can be entered
either in terms of liquid or oil production only. The design lift gas injection is entered
as the Maximum gas available.

Calculated from Maximum production


PROSPER will find the maximum possible oil production rate by determining both
the optimum gas injection rate and depth. This is achieved by calculating the oil
production for a given GLR injected and increasing the GLR until the optimum is
found.

Calculated from Maximum revenue


Using User-entered economic parameters for oil and sales gas revenue, produced
water processing and lift gas cost, the program will find the gas lift design that
maximises total revenue (oil and gas revenue less water and injection gas
processing costs). The same search procedure as for Maximum production is
carried out using the cost function in place of the oil production rate.
For both Maximum production and Maximum revenue design methods, a
maximum liquid rate is required to be input. This allows the User to honour
production constraints imposed by surface facilities or off take targets.

Input Parameters
Having set up the calculation options, enter values for the following variables on the Input
Parameters panel:

Maximum gas available


Set to the maximum gas available at normal operating pressure for
maximum rate or revenue methods.

For Entered by User designs, set to the actual injection for the design
production rate.
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Maximum gas during unloading


Enter the maximum gas available at the unloading pressure for unloading
the shallowest valve.
Flowing top node pressure
If surface equipment has been entered, this is the manifold pressure
Otherwise, enter the flowing wellhead pressure.
Unloading top node pressure
Enter a lower unloading pressure if e.g. the separator is bypassed during
unloading
Otherwise leave set the same as flowing top node pressure.
Operating injection pressure
Available gas injection system pressure available at the casing head.
This is not the final operating injection pressure.
If the Safety equipment option has been selected, pressure losses along
surface pipes are computed also.
Kick off injection pressure
Leave set to normal injection system pressure unless an auxiliary source
of high pressure kicks off gas is available.
This pressure is used to space the first unloading valve. If a sufficiently
high pressure is entered, then no unloading valves will be needed.
Desired dP across valve
User selected design pressure loss across valve orifice to ensure well
and gas injection system pressure stability. Usually in the order of 100200 psi.
Maximum Depth of Injection
Constrains the maximum injection depth to be shallower than the
production packer.
Water cut

Design producing water cut.

Minimum Spacing
Sets the minimum spacing between valves. Use 200 - 400 ft normally.
Static gradient of load fluid
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Density of fluid to be balanced by casing pressure during unloading.

Minimum transfer dP
Only active when Ignoring IPR for Unloading has been selected. If
set to zero, unloading valve trims will be sized to inject sufficient gas to
lower the unloading tubing pressure to the transfer pressure at the valve
depth.
Increasing the value of Minimum transfer dP will lower the unloading GLR
injected and reduce trim sizes.
Referring to the sketch below, the transfer pressure is:
(Pmin) = Ppd - (Ppd - Pid) * % minimum transfer dP /100
Increasing the injection GLR shifts the tubing gradient during unloading closer to
the objective gradient line (i.e. to the left). The unloading valve trim is sized for
the GLR corresponding to the required transfer pressure. Values of 5 to 25%
are commonly used.

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Unloading valve trim sizing depends on whether or not the IPR is used to
determine well flow rates while unloading. Existing Users should review this
section carefully.

Maximum port size


Depends on valve series selected. PROSPER will select multiple orifice
valves for high gas injection rates if the design injection cannot be passed
by one valve of Maximum port size.
Safety For Closure Of Last Unloading Valve
Extra dP to ensure that the last unloading valve before the orifice is closed
Thornhill-Craver ReRating- DeRating Percentage for Valves and for Orifice

This coefficient is used to scale down the maximum gas injection rate that
can be flowed through a valve or the orifice. As the maximum gas rate is
decreased, this means that to flow the same gas rate as the original case
(with no de-rating), larger valve or orifice should be used

Valve Type

Casing sensitive valves


o Enter the minimum casing pressure drop to close valves.

Tubing sensitive valves


o Enter the percentage difference in Pcasing - Pwh to close valves.

Proportional response valves Proportional


o PROSPER determines the closing pressure as part of the design
calculations.

Valve Settings (Casing pressure operated valves only)


For casing pressure operated valves, there are 3 options for setting valve dome
pressures:

Pvc = Gas Pressure


PROSPER in this case sets valve dome pressures to balance the casing
pressure at depth. Unloading valves will close when the casing pressure drops
below this value. A small value of Casing Pressure to Close Valves will ensure
that the unloading valves will remain shut.
This design method ensures maximum injection depth and hence maximises

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production rates.

All Valves Pvo = Gas Pressure


Dome pressures are set so that valves open with the design casing pressure at
depth. The casing pressure must be reduced by at least R(Pvo - Pt) to close
valves for this option. PROSPER designs using the maximum of dP to close
valves or the calculated closing pressure drop. This method reduces the
available injection pressure and will result in lower production rates.

This is the recommended design setting when designing new wells.

First Valve Pvo = Gas Pressure


The first valve dome pressure is set to open on the design casing pressure at depth.
Subsequent valves are set to close on design casing pressure. This method gives
additional safety for the opening of the first unloading valve without sacrificing
available pressure for the deeper unloading valves.
Pmin - Pmax
Enter fraction of TEF

Injection Point
Before the gas lift design is performed, the User can decide if the operating valve is a
gas lift valve or an orifice.
Dome Pressure Correction above 1200 psi
There are two equations for dome pressure temperature correction for dome pressures
above 1200 psi.

No

PROSPER will use the standard API temperature correction method for all
pressures. This method is known to be inaccurate at high pressures. The option is
provided for convenience in comparing results from hand calculations etc.

Yes
The API method is used below 1200 psi, and an improved algorithm is used
above 1200 psi. This is the default and recommended option.

Check Rate Conformance with IPR


When selected, PROSPER will re-calculate the system solution rate at each step in the
design process to ensure that the design rate can be met. This prevents for example, a
design being done for an unrealistic Enter by User rate.

For speed in comparing designs, this option can be set to No. However, the
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User must be aware that the design rate may not be able to be met by the
well.
Vertical Lift Correlation
Select the most appropriate correlation for the application. Matched VLP correlations
should be used when available.
Surface Pipe Correlation
Select the most appropriate correlation for the application. Surface pipes (when
entered in surface equipment) form part of the gas lift system in PROSPER and are
accounted for when calculating unloading pressures and flowing pressure losses. This
can be important for sub-sea systems where the flow line head can be significant.
Using IPR for Unloading

Yes
This is the recommended PROSPER unloading valve trim sizing method.
Unloading valves are sized to achieve a minimum flowing gradient above the
valve assuming that the load fluid is being produced. The IPR is used to
calculate the well production rates during unloading. Minimum transfer dP (as
explained under inputs below) is ignored for this option.

No
This is the standard hand-calculation method. Unloading valve trims are sized to
achieve the GLR required to lower the tubing pressure to the transfer pressure.
The GLR is based on the full design production rate - the actual production rate
during unloading is not calculated. This results in the selection of larger valve
trims. Minimum transfer dP is used to increase the transfer pressure, thereby
reducing the unloading gas requirement and valve trim size.

Orifice Sizing On
Two options are available:
Calculated dP at Orifice
Min dP Across Orifice

2.10.1.2.2 Gas Lift Valve Selection


Once the design problem has been set, the next stage is to tell PROSPER the kind of
valves that will be picked up from database for design.
On the right-hand side of the input Gas Lift Design input screen there is a navigator
window that allows selecting the type of valves to use in the design from an internal
database.
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Please refer to the end of this chapter for an illustration of how to access
and edit the database for the gas lift valves

2.10.1.2.3 Performing the Design (New Well)


Once the input data has been defined and the valves type selected, click Continue to
access the Gas Lift design screen. The following example is for casing sensitive
valves:

A screen similar to that above will be displayed if design for Maximum

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Rate or Maximum Revenue has been selected.


If the design rate is Entered by User, the upper (Rate calculation) part of
the screen is not displayed.
Displaying the Well Performance Curves / Finding Design Rate (New Well)
The first step is to find the design production rate.
Click Get Rate. PROSPER will calculate the Gas Lift Performance Curve
and determine the optimum Gas Lift injection rate and maximum oil
production rate.

The Get Rate process calculates oil production as a function of gas


injected.

When the calculations have finished, the results can be displayed in the form of a well
performance curve by clicking Plot. A graph similar to the following will appear:

The target design rate and GLR injected can be read off the performance curve plot.
The design rate is:

PROSPER Manual

The maximum oil production shown in the Performance curve plot, provided that
the available gas injection and liquid production rate limits have not been
exceeded.
In case the maximum gas available is exceeded by the highest oil rate on the
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plot, the oil rate corresponding to maximum available gas is taken as design
rate.
PROSPER will design for the maximum oil production rate entered in the main
input screen, if it exceeds the rate calculated from the performance curve.
The performance curves can span several flow regimes. Discontinuities in
some flow correlations may cause occasional curve fitting problems. In such
cases, a correlation such as Hagedorn Brown may give better results.

Calculating Valve Spacing


To perform the valve spacing, click Design.

The program will then determine the depth of the operating valve and the spacing
for the unloading valves. Depending on the design settings, this will usually take
more than one pass.
On the first pass, the injection and unloading valve depths are determined
assuming no casing pressure drop to close valves.
Having determined the number of valves to use, the operating valve depth is
revised to reflect the new operating casing pressure.
The spacing procedure is repeated using the revised operating casing pressure
until the number of unloading valves and their setting depths no longer change.
When Check Rate Conformance with IPR is set to Yes, PROSPER recalculates the solution rate and reduces the design rate if necessary. The final
design production and Gas Lift injection rates are displayed on the design
gradient plot.

Displaying the Position of the Unloading Valves


To display the position of the unloading valves and the final design condition, click Plot.
A plot similar to the following will be displayed:

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The plot shows the tubing and casing pressure gradients for the design rate plus the
position of the operating and unloading valves. The unloading fluid gradients are plotted
also. The design data box lists the Actual production and injection rates together with
the operating surface casing pressure.
Results
To display the valve details click Results and the table with the results will be displayed.

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Click on Calculate to calculate the Dome Pressure and the TestRack Opening Pressure
(valve setting pressure at 60C).

The valve depths, tubing pressure, unloading gas injection rate and trim sizes
are shown in the left screen panel.

The Dome pressure corresponds to the Dome Pressure at 60 deg F and not
at the valve operating temperature.
The test rack opening pressure is calculated using the relationship
Ptro = (Pd @ 60 deg F) / (1 R)
Where Ptro = Test Rack Opening Pressure
Pd @ 60 deg F = Dome Pressure at 60 deg F.
R = Ratio of Port Area to Bellow Area of Valve.

Valve types are identified as Valve for unloading valves or Orifice for the last
mandrel if the injection point is selected as orifice. No opening or dome
pressure calculations are made for the orifice.

The design parameters such as valve depth, opening and closing pressures, orifice size
etc. are displayed in the table. Use the scroll thumb below the table to scroll right to see
items e.g. R-value, not visible in the display window.

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Design Sensitivity on Port Size


By selecting Change Valve it is possible to re-calculate the parameters
associated to the valve sizes.

Once a design has been completed, its performance should be checked over
the range of expected well conditions. Transfer the gas lift design and valve
setting details into Equipment Gas Lift, then use Calculation System to
compute sensitivities. Alternatively, Matching Quicklook can be used to
evaluate a design.

2.10.1.3Existing Mandrels Design


This option enables the User to design gas lifted artificial lift systems for existing
installations.
To perform the fixed mandrel depth design, click Design | Gas lift design | Existing
mandrels. The following input screen will be displayed:

This screen is similar to the Gas lift Design (New well) screen, except that the variables
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relating to spacing the valves have been removed.

2.10.1.3.1 Setting Up the Design Problem


Setting the artificial lift design problems is defining the various fields in the figure above
reported.

Please refer to the previous section for the description of the entry fields.

For this design type options for the choice of the first valve can be selected:
First Valve Choice
Completion Fluid to SurfaceUnloading valves will be placed assuming that
completion fluid fills up the entire well and thus must be unloaded from the entire
well.

This is the most conservative unloading requirement and is the default


option.
Completion Fluid Level Calculated PROSPER estimates the standing liquid
level from the reservoir pressure and static pressure gradient. Any mandrels that
are above this depth will be set with Dummy valves.

This approach can save valves for low pressure reservoirs. The User must
be certain that work over fluids can leak off to balance the reservoir
pressure

Minimum Squeeze PI Method (ELF)This method can be used when the well
productivity is sufficient to ensure that completion fluids can be squeezed into the
formation during unloading. An unloading tubing gradient is calculated by taking
the static reservoir pressure and increasing the injected GLR, until the gradient
arrives at the design top node pressure. Unloading valves are spaced by
comparing this tubing gradient with the available casing pressure at depth.

This method can be used when the well productivity is sufficient to ensure
that completion fluids can be squeezed into the formation during
unloading.

2.10.1.3.2 Defining the Depths of Existing Mandrels


After setting up the input for the design problems, next, click Mandrels and enter the
measured depths of the existing gas lift mandrels as in the example shown below.
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Enter the depth of all mandrels in the well, including those fitted with dummy
valves.
PROSPER will select the best depths for the operating and unloading valves
from this list.
When more mandrels are available than needed for the current design,
PROSPER will automatically set dummies at the intermediate depths.
The valve type initially entered is unimportant.
PROSPER will overwrite the valve type when it performs the design.

This table is effectively a list of the potential valve depths and can be used to prepare
designs for new wells where equipment limitations determine the available mandrel
depths.

PROSPER Manual

If entries are made in the Casing Pressure drop or Max. Gas Injected fields
on the mandrel depth screen shown in the figure above, these values will
overwrite the values entered on the main design screen.

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Leave these fields blank to design using the same values of pressure drop or
gas injection for each unloading valve.

The mandrel depths can be picked up from either Matching QuickLook or E


quipment Gas Lift using the Transfer button, or entered by hand. The usual
PROSPER editing facilities are available for manipulating the table entries.

2.10.1.3.3 Gas Lift Valve Selection


Having entered the mandrel depths, select a valve series using the navigator window on
the right, as for the Gas Lift Design (New well) case. This will define the set / type of
valves that will be used for design.
2.10.1.3.4 Performing the Design (Existing Mandrels)
Click Continue to access the gas lift design calculation screen.
If a calculated rate design method has been selected, a screen similar to the following
will be displayed:

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Displaying the Well Performance Curves / Finding Design Rate (Existing)


Click Get Rate, and the program will calculate the Gas Lift Performance Curve and
determine the optimum gas injection rate and production rate for the well given the
available injection gas rate and pressure limits.
Performing the Design
To run the design, click on Design.
The design rate calculation begins by selecting a GLR Injected and a low
production rate.
A pressure traverse is calculated from the THP downwards using the gas lifted
GLR until the casing pressure equals the tubing pressure less the Desired dP
across valves.
A check is then made to find the next shallowest mandrel. The traverse is
calculated from the next shallowest injection mandrel depth down to the sand
face using the non-Gas Lifted fluid gradient.
The IPR and VLP pressures are compared.
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The rate is increased and the calculation repeated until an intersection with the
IPR (rate solution) is found.
The injection GLR is increased until the optimum production rate is found.
This procedure ensures that the available mandrel depths are honoured at every
calculation step.

Once the calculations have stopped, click Plot to make a plot of the production rate Vs
gas injected. It is similar to that of a new well design.
Calculating Mandrels with Valves / Displaying their Position
The design is performed for the target rate by clicking Design. Once the calculation has
finished, the design can be checked graphically by clicking the Plot button to display a
plot similar to the following:

The Design proceeds as follows:


The annulus pressure gradient plot begins at the design casing pressure and
traverses down to the first valve.
It is then shifted back as the casing pressure is lowered to close the unloading
valve. The annulus traverse is recalculated from surface with the reduced
pressure and continues down to the next valve and so on until the operating valve
depth is reached.
PROSPER will optionally check the design rate for conformance with the IPR
and reduce the design rate if necessary.
The design gradient plot shows the Actual design production and Gas Lift
injection rates together with the injection pressure at surface while injecting at the
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orifice.
Calculating the Valve Test Rack Setting Pressures (Existing)
To display the valve setting calculations, click Results from the Design screen. Click Ca
lculate, and PROSPER will determine the dome pressures and test rack setting
pressure for the selected valves as in the following example:

Click Calculate to determine the Dome and the TestRack Opening pressure will be
updated for the new valve series.

PROSPER Manual

To access parameters such as the transfer pressure and port size, click on the
scroll arrow at the bottom of the Input parameters panel.
To perform sensitivity calculations for the current design, the valve depths
must be transferred to Equipment Gas Lift before making calculations.
Based on flowing tubing pressures PROSPER determines the injection point
during production.
NEW!!! Design Sensitivity on Port Size
By selecting Change Valve it is possible to re-calculate the parameters
associated to the valve sizes.

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2.10.1.3.5 Valve Spacing


Valve spacing is not affected by the choice of unloading method, but the trim size
selection depends on whether the well IPR is used for calculating the unloading rate or
not.
The following discussion refers to casing sensitive valves.

For the design rate and GLR injected, a pressure traverse is calculated from the
top node (including the flow line, if present) downwards using the gas lifted
flowing gradient.

The injection depth is the depth at which the flowing tubing pressure equals the
casing pressure gradient less the design dP loss across the orifice or the
Maximum Injection Depth (packer depth), whichever is the shallower. This step
establishes the flowing tubing pressure gradient to be used for valve spacing.

The shallowest unloading valve is placed at the depth that balances the tubing
load fluid pressure with the casing pressure (less a 50 psi safety margin) at that
depth.

Further unloading valves are placed by traversing down between the load fluid
pressure gradient and gas lifted tubing pressure gradient (calculated for the
design gas lifted production rate) lines.

Valves are placed ever deeper until the inter-valve spacing equals the pre-set
minimum, or the maximum injection depth has been reached.

Once the first pass design is complete, PROSPER re-calculates the flowing
gradient tubing using the current operating valve depth. For casing sensitive
valves, the valve depths are re-calculated to allow for the casing pressure drop to
close valves. The process is repeated until the valve depths no longer change.

When Check Rate Conformance with IPR is set to Yes, the solution rate is checked to
ensure that it can be achieved. PROSPER reduces the design rate if necessary and
repeats the spacing exercise.

2.10.1.3.6 Designing with Tubing Sensitive Valves


Tubing sensitive valves operate with a constant casing pressure and rely on increasing
tubing pressure as the well unloads to close the unloading valve and transfer injection to
lower valves.

To prepare a design for tubing sensitive valves, the required input is the same as
for Casing Sensitive valves except that instead of entering the casing pressure
drop to close valves, the percentage Pcasing - Pwh to close valves is r
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2.10.1.3.7 Spacing Procedure for Tubing Sensitive Valves


The injection point is found as for casing sensitive valves by finding the intersection of
the minimum tubing gradient line and the casing pressure gradient (less a 50 psi safety
margin).
The first unloading valve is spaced as for the casing sensitive case.
Intermediate unloading valves are spaced by traversing down using the load fluid
gradient from the transfer pressure to intersect the casing pressure gradient for the
operating injection pressure. The transfer pressure (tubing pressure at which the
unloading valve closes) is calculated using the value of % Pcasing -Pwh as follows:

The surface pressure corresponding to the specified % difference between the


operating tubing and casing pressures is calculated.

A straight line is extended from this point to intersect the tubing pressure at the
injection point. The valve transfer pressure is defined at any depth by this line.

A small value of % difference results in transfer pressures close to the flowing tubing
gradient. While this results in a design with few unloading valves, any small increase
in flowing tubing pressure may cause unloading valves to re-open.

A larger value of % Pcasing -Pwh will increase the transfer pressure further away
from the flowing tubing gradient. This provides a greater safety margin against
multi-point injection, but requires the unloading valves to be spaced more closely.

Selecting transfer pressures using only the % Pcasing - Pwh straight line can result in
shallow valves having a too conservative transfer pressure and the deeper valves may
transfer too close to the tubing gradient line. PROSPER adjusts the design transfer
pressures so that valves are spaced efficiently while at the same time ensuring a good
safety margin against multipoint injection.

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Having performed a design, it is recommended that the Matching Quicklook


and Design Gas Lift Diagnostic sections be used to check the design and
examine the effect of varying design and producing conditions.

2.10.1.3.8 Proportional Valves


Merla proportional valves are a hybrid of tubing- and casing- sensitive characteristics.

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Some points to note about proportional valves are:


a) The dome is not charged with any gas. As such dome pressure is 0 psig.

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b) The closing pressure for the valve is provided by a spring which is set to apply a
certain compression force.
c) The valve stem has a tapered end which fits into the tapered end of the port.
d) As such even when the valve is in the open position, the tubing pressure will have
an influence on the opening or closing of the valve.
Advantages of a Proportional Response Valve:
a) Since there is no gas charge, the valve is unaffected by well temperature. As
such the design of these valves becomes simpler. Errors due to inconsistent
flowing temperature are also eliminated.
b) The valves proportional response to production pressure fluctuations makes it
automatically maintain tubing pressure gradient and the right gas injection rate.
In the database of PROSPER for a Proportional Valve, a number of parameters are
required. The following describes these various parameters

a) Fe: this represents the dynamic value of the Av / Ab ratio (Av = Valve Port Area
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& Ab = Bellow Area), which is calculated from experimental data by solving the
valve opening / closing pressure equations. The parameter Fe corresponds to
the term R for a Casing Sensitive Valve.
b) SMALL, MEDIUM, LARGE: there are three configurations for the same valve.
For each configuration a value of Fe and the slope of K and M are defined
c) Pcf: this corresponds to the Injection Pressure i.e. the Gas pressure in the casing
annulus.
d) Pvc: this corresponds to the Spring Adjustment Pressure
e) K: this is a correction parameter that is used to quantify the maximum possible
rate that can be injected through the valve.
f) M: represents the slope of throttling line. (The throttling line represents the rate
that can be injected through the valve for reducing values of tubing pressure for a
constant Injection pressure)
Further information about these various parameters can be found in Gas Lift Manual
by Gabor Takacs. (PennWell Corp).

2.10.1.4Gas Lift Adjustments


The existing Gaslift Design sections allow the User to select and size gas lift equipment
for specified design conditions. Gaslift Adjustments provides additional calculations for
testing gas lift designs under operating conditions. Surface casing pressures when restarting production are presented in addition to input parameters needed for setting up
automatic well controllers.
To set up a Gaslift Adjustments calculation, enter the following items:

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These are the required input data:


- Downstream Pressure Constraint
Surface pressure the well must flow against
- Kick off Casing Head Pressure
Absolute maximum available casing injection pressure
- Lift Gas Network Normal Pressure
Normal operating pressure of injection gas system
- Safety Margin For Lift Gas Control
Control pressure drop across gas injection choke
- Maximum CHP Under Normal Operation
Injection pressure available downstream of control choke. Difference of
network and control pressures.
- Min CP decrease to Close Last Unloading Valve
Specified pressure drop to close deepest unloading valve
- Lift Gas Temperature
Temperature of injected gas at the casing head
- Target Liquid Production Rate
Design production rate for Gaslift adjustments calculations.
- Water Cut
Design water cut for Gaslift adjustments calculations
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- Production (Total) GOR


Solution and free gas production (does not include injection gas)
- Vertical Flow Correlation
Select appropriate correlation. Matched correlations should be used
where available.
- Dome Pressure Correction (above 1200 psig)
When Yes is selected, an improved dome pressure correction is used.
The API temperature correction is always used below 1200 psi.
Once the input data entry is complete, the User has to make sure that the correspondent
valves are transferred. Select Valves and then Transfer to transfer the valve info from
Gas Lift Design or from QuickLook:

Once the gaslift equipment details are entered the flowing gradient or static gradient
can be estimated:
Flowing
Calculations are made for flowing conditions at the User-entered target production rate.
PROSPER calculates well performance curves for gas injection at each mandrel depth.
Production rates and pressures at surface and mandrel depth are determined.
Annulus volume and bottoms up times are also calculated. The flowing gradient for the
operating condition can be plotted with opening and closing pressures for each
unloading valve displayed.

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Static
Calculations are made for shut-in conditions. The static tubing gradient is determined
using the liquid density calculated for the producing water cut. When the reservoir
pressure cannot support a full liquid column, a gas gradient is used back to surface.

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2.10.1.5Gaslift Valve Performance


The Valve Performance Clearinghouse (VPC) is a non-profit making organisation
formed by a consortium of major oil companies. Its objective is to become a repository
for the collection, analysis and distribution of gas lift valve performance data and
correlations to member companies and licensees. This information has been made
available to Petroleum Experts and a framework to utilise it is included in Prosper in
the Gaslift Valve Performance section.
The database required to implement this feature is not distributed by Petroleum
Experts and must be obtained from the VPC.
This implementation consists of two parts
Database inspection and valve performance curve calculation and display
Gaslift Design and QuickLook integration
Valve performance calculations will be used to determine the required port size or gas
rate through a given valve
2.10.1.5.1 Valve Performance Clearinghouse (VPC)
Valve Performance Clearinghouse (VPC)
The Valve Performance Clearinghouse (VPC) is a non-profit making organisation
formed by a consortium of major oil companies. Its objective to become a repository
for the collection, analysis, and distribution of gas lift valve performance data and
correlations to member companies and licensees. Tests are conducted at the
Southwest Research Institute compliant to the API 11V2 RP specification. Test data
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and correlations are proprietary to member companies, and are licensed to nonmembers for a fee on a per-valve basis.
This information has been made available to Petroleum Experts and a framework to
utilise is included in this version of PROSPER.
The database required to implement this feature will not be distributed with PROSPER
by Petroleum Experts and must be obtained from VPC.
The Valve Performance Clearinghouse is a service offered by Decker Technology. Its
objectives are
Establish an independent source for the collection, consolidation, and distribution
of valve performance data and correlations to members.
Perform tests on gaslift valves selected by the members using the API 11V2 RP
Develop correlations using the Decker Technology proprietary method to predict
gas passage for any pressure and temperature conditions with an accuracy of
better than +/-20%.
Provide a Valve Performance Reference manual containing performance data and
correlations for all valves tested by the VPC.
Decker Technology, Inc.
2238 McCurdy Road
Stone Mountain, GA 30087
Phone: 770-496-9680
Fax: 770-496-9681
E-mail: decktech@bellsouth.net

2.10.2 Intermittent Gas Lift


Intermittent gas lift may be considered for wells at low reservoir pressure or wells with
high pressures but low productivity.
The method is transient and complex. Today, the various approaches still rely on
approximations and rules of thumb.
The following pictures show the various stages of a cycle in intermittent gas lift from the
instant the bottom valve opens:
Liquid accumulates in the tubing. This is the slug.
When the slug reaches a certain size, gas lift enters the tubing and lift the slug to the
surface.
The static liquid film against the inner diameter of the tubing falls back and the process
is repeated.

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PROSPER can be used to design intermittent gas lift systems.


For the valves depth estimation two options are currently available:
- the constant surface closure method and the
- the optiflow design procedure.
Please refers to "Gas Lift Manual" by Gabor Takcs, for more details about the theory
behind both options.
This is the default artificial lift method in gas lifted fields where formation pressures to
not allow continuous flow any more.
It is also suitable for wells with relatively high formation pressure but low productivity.
Method of Operation
Lift gas is periodically injected into the well at a depth close to the perforations. This gas
is used to displace the column of liquid that accumulated while the gas lift valve was
closed. If the correct amount of gas is injected, the liquid slug of oil is lifted to the well
head and into the surface flowline. Efficient operation occurs when the slug arrives at the
surface intact, in advance of gas bubble breakthrough.
Basic Operation of 1 cycle

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A. Operating Valve is closed formation fluids are accumulating above it. Casing &
Tubing pressures at depth increase until desired slug length has accumulated.
B. Lift gas is injected at a high instantaneous rate, creating a large gas bubble.
C. This gas bubble lifts the slug to surface
D. After the slug enters the flow line, high pressure gas produces entrained liquid
droplets until pressure falls to separator pressure; the operating valve closes; the
standing valve re-opens and the cycle commences again.
The Intermittent cycle
Accumulation period starts as soon as the standing valve opens and allows wells
fluids to accumulate in the well adding to the slug remaining from the previous cycle of
fluid that did not reach surface
Injection-lifting period starts as soon as the gas lift valve opens and gas enters
the well and lasts until the slug has completely entered the flowline
After flow period when the slug leaves the wellhead, the well contains high
pressure gas column with entrained liquid droplets and the high velocity gas also lifts
part of the liquid film wetting the tubing inside wall thus adding to the amount of well
fluid produced. This period ends when the decreasing gas pressure allows the
standing valve to re-open and the accumulation period commences again.
During the whole of the lifting period, the slug length is reduced by liquid fallback and
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gas breakthrough.
Since the lifting of liquid slugs in intermittent gas lift is a transient process accurate
analytical solutions do not exist. The approaches used require some assumptions.
Daily Production = Production per cycle * no. of cycles per day
Slug length is user-determined, but one should consider that a long slug requires a long
production time and fewer cycles per day, whereas a shorter slug length allows more
cycles per day. This relationship is not necessarily linear. In practise, it has been found
that maximum daily production is obtained when a starting slug length equal to 40-50%
of the static liquid column is used.
Liquid FallBack
This needs to be determined in order to be able to design an accurate Intermittent Gas
Lift installation. Empirical studies of liquid slug and gas bubble velocity (e.g. White et al
JPT 1963) showed that gas velocity was fairly constant whereas slug velocity varies with
the ratio of injection and production pressures but reaches an essentially constant value
very rapidly. Liquid fallback is minimised if slug velocity is maximised.
Liquid Fallback is determined by

FB =

D
Vs
1+
Vb

Bubble velocity is assumed constant and slug velocity is determined by solving


simultaneously, the flow rate through an orifice and the equation of the forces acting on a
liquid slug in motion up the tubing.

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Valve Spacing
In order to use normal gas lift pressure, it is usually necessary to design a valve
unloading string to allow the stepwise transfer of the injection point from the surface
down to the operating valve
Constant surface closing pressure commonly used for single-point injection
systems assumes a constant surface closing pressure for all valves in the unloading
valve string
Optiflow design procedure is suited for wells with poor information on well
potential. Assuming that the operating point as well as the production rate are unknown
this permits injection of gas at the deepest possible point at all times. This is done by
moving the operating point down the well such that the inflow is sufficient to prevent
operation of the next lower valve. Assumes 50% of the lift gas pressure at depth as the
tubing pressure at each valve depth.

2.10.3 Electrical Submersible Pump Design


The Design Electrical Submersible Pump section allows the User to design an ESP
installation.
The design is performed in two steps:
1. Determine the required pump head to achieve a specified production rate
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2. Select a suitable combination of pump, motor and cable for the application.
ESP data entered in the System Electrical Submersible Pumps input menu is not
utilised by the ESP design section. The design results will overwrite this section.
In the main ESP Design screen the design parameters can be entered:

The parameters are self-explanatory, except for the four parameters:


Gas Separator Efficiency
It represents the efficiency of separation of gas in case there is
free gas and a downhole separator is installed
Motor Power Safety Margin
This factor adds a safety margin to the power strictly necessary to
lift the design rate. For example, if the safety margin is 10%, the
pump power requirement will be increased of 10%
Pump Wear Factor
This factor takes in account of the deterioration of the pump
performance. A wear fa