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Approaching Modern Project Management for Software Development

Abstract
:
(GO through entire paper and write what is there in this paper, how u
approached what conclusion are you expecting)

Introduction:
Many project management methodologies being used today, are either the
wrong methodologies or are not applied fully [1]. Some project managers see
methodologies as impractical and bureaucratic, relying on their gut instinct when
it comes to managing projects. If project management methodologies come
across as too complex to use in real-world projects, project managers will look for
their own shortcuts. Given enough time, anyone can be trained to adhere to a
project methodology.
It has been recognised over the last 30 years that project management is
an efficient tool to handle novel or complex activities. It has been suggested that
it is more efficient than traditional methods of management, such as the practice
of functional divisions in a formal hierarchical organisation, for handling such
situations. The process of bringing new projects on stream and into the market
imposes demands on established organisations and necessitates different
management techniques from those required to maintain day-to-day operations.
In such circumstances, where companies have a finite, unique and unfamiliar
undertaking, the techniques of project management can be successfully
implemented. These undertakings would call for more and faster decision making
techniques than possible in a normal operation and making the right choices will
be critical to company success. [12]
The use of project management has become associated with such novel
complex problems, which are inevitably called a project. Consequently the
success of project management has often been associated with the final
outcome of the project. Over time it has been shown that project management
and project success are not necessarily directly related. The objectives of both
project management and the project are different and the control of time, cost
and progress, which are often the project management objectives, should not be
confused with measuring project success. Also, experience has shown that it is
possible to achieve a successful project even when management has failed and
vice versa.
There are many examples of projects which were relatively successful
despite not being completed on time, or being over budget, e.g. the Thames
Barrier, the Fulmar North Sea oil project or Concorde, all of which turned out to
be relative successes, even though the project control aspect of them failed. It
can therefore be argued that the relationship between the two is less dependent
than was first assumed, and in order to measure project success a distinction
should be made between the success of a project and the success of the project
management activity.
This paper attempts to provide a logic for the distinction between project
management and the project. Starting from a definition of the two terms, it will
outline the factors which affect their success, the individuals involved and their

Bryde. Before the 1950s. During each phase. It is more and more realised that a project management approach should be contingent upon its context. due to its multidisciplinary nature (Smyth and Morris. Although still relatively new. e. In the 1950s. The third stage. the PM as such was not recognised. Meredith and Mantel (2006). Literature Review : The project management as a human activity has a long history. a number of documents are produced as part of the project control process.g.respective orientations and the relationship between these elements. based on numerical methods.g. However. Turner (1999). Maylor (2005). e. tools and techniques were developed to support the management of complex projects. Projects are usually split into phases often along the lines of initiation. A large number of (managerial) handbooks outlining the methods and techniques of PM have been published. require a set of defined rules and principles to be managed effectively and come to a successful conclusion. Despite a growing number of publications. Roberts (2007). which . It also discusses the implications of the situation where the project fails but the project management process is perceived to have succeeded or vice versa. This area of managing projects is called project management. Reflecting these changes in the managerial practices. the field of Software Engineering has its own Bodies of Knowledge that include various methodologies. 1993. 2007). generally accepted definition of a project and project management. Morris. construction of Egyptian pyramids in 2000 BC may be regarded as a project activity. Maylor (2005) determines three major stages of the PM historical development. was in the 1950s. Müller (2009). project management has emerged as its own field. supported by bodies of knowledge and researches across many discipline. Andersen et al (2004). control (Planning. Project management has a more applied nature than other management disciplines. Bruijn et al (2004) Kerzner (2005). Turner and Turner (2008). there is no unified theoretical basis and there is no unified theory of project management. All software projects. regardless of their size. of given specification. there is no universal. the body of academic literature on PM has evolved and burgeoned. It is also noted that a shift is observed over time in development of project management – from focus on sole project management to the broader management of projects and strategic project management (Fangel. Today. frameworks. International Journal of Project Management and Project Management Journals became the flagship publication outlets for PM scholars and practitioners. The dominant thinking was based on “one best way” approach. complexity or industry. Although the PM has formed as a distinct research field. financial and material resources are organised in a novel way to undertake a unique scope of work. from the 1990s onwards is characterised by the changing environment in which projects take place. the start for the modern Project Management era. 1994. Execution) and closure. tools and techniques supported by a continuous growing base of research. This idea of project management has been around for a long time. Turner (1999) develops a generic definition of a project: A project is an endeavour in which human. 2003). as a distinctive research area.

g. although much of the theory centered on the use of tools and techniques. Organisational Behaviour. SMART technique. designing. building. and training programs that expanded the project management genre. Project Methodologies Project management has grown from the early initiatives in the U. but they remain universal. At least 20 different methodologies are competing to be the best methodology. since the 1960s. seminars. Conflict management and others. mainly promulgated through their internal policies. 2006. Yet. defense and aerospace sectors in the late 1950s and 1960s [2]. Information Technology. Critical path. Engineering and Construction. These disciplines include such areas as Operation Management. Kloppenberg and Opfer. PMI. The authors found that only 11% of journal publications on the subject of project management fell under the “Innovation” heading. and Quality and Management. Project Finance and Accounting. discovering. in which PM is being applied and developed. and this list of methodologies keeps on growing. 2003. (Explain these techniques in short if you need more number of pages) Most projects share a common life cycle. one of these eight allied disciplines is “Technology Application / Innovation / New Product Development / Research and Development”. Strategy/Integration. In a recent article. Betts and Lansley. testing. Scheduling techniques.S. Kwak and Anbari (2009) review relevant academic journals and identify eight allied disciplines. such as:       PERT/Gantt charts. procedures. this area showed sustained upward interest. Crawford et al. 1995. and deploying projects can be chaotic [3]. Many articles. The Organizations that achieved early project management successes. and hence the number of publications. With the incorrect methodology. Some companies have their own unique customised methodology for developing products or services. . and lessons learned. importantly. This is not to say that these projects are all designed and executed the same way. so as to achieve beneficial change defined by quantitative and qualitative objectives.. Overall. others simply use standard commercial off-the-shelf methodologies. There have been several attempts to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art research in PM and outline its trends and future directions (e.constraints of cost and time. as they pass similar phases during the life cycle of the project. Notably. Themistocleous and Wearne. Organisational issues. Selection of apt Project Methodology There are no similar development methodologies. 2004. Kwak and Anbari (2009) conclude that the mainstream PM research proceeds largely in the “Strategy / Integration / Portfolio Management / Value of PM / Marketing” direction (30% of all publications examined by the authors). 2002).

There is no guarantee that the team will deliver if it just follow a chosen methodology. (b) project administration. Wit [10] and Kumar: (a) objectives. project managers simply select the available methodology and continue to develop their projects with that same methodology. These step-by-step approaches do not work because they do not cope with human and technical unpredictability. the trend is shifting to the more iterative or incremental style of methodologies [4. (h) politics. • profitability. This shows the need for a methodology to be more flexible than a formal waterfall approach. which have been identified by various authors. The current literature.The project methodology that is chosen represents merely the framework for the real work to be done and indicates where creativity is needed. Inflexible processes are often too constraining and fall short of delivering a project to operations or production [5]. Therefore. A range of variables and factors will affect the ability to achieve these goals. they must first determine that the methodology is the correct one. (c) third parties. • client satisfaction. for example. (f) contracting. The most logical solution is to simply evolve the product as the client's needs change along the project development process. Many times. Most project developments are wrongly approached with the assumption that the methodology used is well-understood. would imply that the success of a project is dependent on having: • a realistic goal. (e) human parties. (d) relations with client. they raise issues and risks and try to manage reactively [4]. competition and market ability.5]. When unpredictable results occur on a project. The following list has been derived from the writings of Cash and Fox[6]. • market availability. (i) efficiency. the development process is immediately provided with more resources and attention to get it back on track. • the implementation process. Success of a project The definition of a project has suggested that there is an orientation towards higher and long-term goals. (j) conflicts and (k) profit. Baker et al. • competition. cost and schedule overruns start occurring. and the project can be easily planned and estimated. .8]. Kerzner [9].[7. In fact. profitability. Many project managers find it difficult to give up control as provided in traditional development. Project managers often lack the controls to measure and respond to the unpredictable. • third parties. Thus. When a project begins to fail. Clients seldom complete requirement specifications because their requirements are constantly changing. Important parameters within the goals will be return on investment. Morris and Hugh [11]. • a definite goal. (g) legal agreements. • the perceived value of the project.

ensuring correct and adequate information flows. • inadequately defined tasks. Avots[12]): • inadequate basis for project. • wrong person as project manager. This would start to explain why projects can succeed or fail independently of the project management process. Duncan and Gorsha [13]) stresses the importance of techniques in . The factors which may cause the project management to fail to achieve these would include (see. Kerzner [9]. accommodating employees' personal goals with performance and rewards. • management techniques mis-used. These factors would suggest that successful project management requires planning with a commitment to complete the project. • top management unsupportive. These are the definitions of a goal and the implementation process. careful appointment of a skilled project manager. The majority of literature on project management (see. Success of Project Management The definition of project management suggests a shorter term and more specific context for success. satisfying the project schedule. changing activities to accommodate frequent changes on dynamic.Only two of the items from this list would lie directly within the scope of project management as previously defined. The narrow definition of tasks in successful project management provides an indicator of why project management success and project success are not directly correlated. • project closedown not planned. because the larger set of objectives are satisfied instead of the narrow subset which constitutes project management. adequate quality standards. spending time to define the project adequately. At the point when the project management is completed the short-term orientation could be one of failure but the long-term outcome could be a success. • lack of commitment to project. This would indicate that project management and its techniques are only a subset of the wider context of the project. • lack of project management techniques. A project may still be successful despite the failings of project management because it meets the higher and long-term objectives. correctly planning the activities in the project. The outcomes of project management success are many. for example. They would include the obvious indicators of completion to budget. for example. Project management plays a role in project success but that role is affected by many other factors outside the direct control of the project manager. and meeting the project goal. and making a fresh start when mistakes in implementation have been identified.

The hard part is to roll it out and make it part of the company's everyday culture. Project management methodologies have been around for decades. Duncan and Gorsha claim that project management is an important part in project success. Other writers have incorporated what might loosely be called people skills alongside these more administrative functions. Importance project life cycles Successful implementation of any project methodology is a project itself. They do not consider the wider criteria which will affect the project once in use. and indicate that it should be abandoned or changed. Avots. They also emphasise that a project can be a success despite a poor project management performance. Posner [14] and Jaafari [15] stressed personal. project management is purely a subset of the project as a whole. among others. These include work breakdown structures. then it is suggested that the broader decisions in selecting a suitable project in the first place are more likely to influence the overall success of the project than can be achieved merely through the techniques of project management. The first is . The concentration on techniques may be considered as the 'hard' issues in project management. They stress how successful implementation of techniques contributes to a successful project. That is the point at which project management ends. having one can be a big help. These are under-costing. Such well-defined strategies will assist in providing a satisfying and successful implementation of a project. it is possible to tailor strategies and methodologies which are specific to a certain situation. overspending and late delivery. Implicit in all the above literature is the claim that projects end when they are delivered to the customer. These methodologies usually have two components. The techniques may help to identify the unfeasible nature of the project. The techniques may help to ensure a successful implementation of the project. Avots . They are the easily measured and quantified concepts of time and cost. bearing in mind that good project management can contribute towards project success but is unlikely to be able to prevent failure. technical and organisational skills as being necessary to help control projects and achieve successful results. but first started to become popular in Information System (IS) in the early 1970s [4]. If. He suggested that by gathering sufficient site information and being aware of project considerations and constraints. philosophies and methodologies of project implementation have been stressed by Kumar as the most important factor in achieving success. Lackman has discussed the different tools available to a project manager to achieve success. They make a distinction between project success and the success of project management. Duncan and Gorsha identified three problem areas which indicate the success of a project. Although managers can manage projects without a formal methodology. but if the project is fundamentally flawed from the start it would be unlikely that techniques alone could salvage it. For example Randolph and Posner N. in studying the reasons for project management failure. It is suggested that project planning is needed to overcome these problems.achieving project objectives. These people skills are 'soft' issues in management. argued that failure could be avoided by paying careful attention to the project management factors which caused failure. as this argument implies. client information sheets and project plans. The early development of strategies.

Additionally. The following are the most commonly used agile methodologies:          Extreme Programming (XP) Scrum Crystal methodology Dynamic Systems Development Methodology (DSDM) Rapid Application Development (RAD) Adaptive software development Lean development Feature-driven development . the majority have three to five. Many managers tend to stick with the heavyweight methodology because they want to predict the entire project until the last man-hour. While project life cycles can have many phases. Execution and Closure. (Explain a little about life cycle) The Agile Methodologies Project or development managers are still facing controversy between the agile and heavyweight methodologies. 17. without requiring a long learning curve. Presenting a consistent approach to project management via standards also allows project managers to cover for one another when the need arises. while the second consists of templates or forms required at specific portions of that process. They include some type of project start-up or initiation. project teams are hailing the agile family of methodologies as remarkable because. at last. While the process itself is the true methodology. First. Project management methodologies are important for two reasons. compared to those in the heavyweight family [2]. 18]. The second reason that methodologies are important is that they provide novice project managers with the tools to manage projects. Project life cycles generally go hand in hand with project methodologies. The end of each phase provides a convenient project review point for senior management to institute go or no-go decisions. this trend is starting to emerge worldwide [17]. Currently. Projects that use agile methodologies are now starting to report improved time line and cost savings. Industries that use agile methodologies include financial. This allows people from anywhere in the organisation to talk with one another using the same terms and the same definitions for those terms. non-traditional ways of building complex products and systems. a project construction or implementation stage and finally a project evaluation or post implementation review [4. Agile methodologies present new. a series of methodologies contributes directly to the business. they standardise the way in which an organisation manages its projects. and many more service industries. many companies favour the agile methodologies. whereas the project teams tend to stick with dynamic shorter cycles [2. IT. Furthermore. Planning. The Project Management Life Cycle has four phases: Initiation. utilities. most project managers consider the templates and forms to be part and parcel of the methodology. and also allows project managers to plan the next phases in more detail. Such life cycles break a project’s life into a series of phases or stages. telecom.an overall process for doing things. 16].

Due to the complexity and diversity of skills needed to perform SingleTime Effort. many organisations falsely assume they may simply “command” early planning data for Single-Time Effort. and in many cases. modern managers work to solicit individual contributions. A project staff often includes many people who do not report administratively to this manager and may even be at a higher corporate level. Because Single-Time Effort projects are only performed once. It becomes illogical and unfair to hold a Project Manager responsible for deliverables and dates when they have such limited and tainted authority over their team. The Project Manager must also define and explain the responsibilities they will have to the project. Organisations must address this condition with well-defined roles. organises and controls the project with the team and not for the team. and then deploying available staff to specific work packets for specific windows of time. It is impossible to create final. A modern Project Manager must establish clear roles and responsibilities needed for the success of their project. Vital attributes that are required for modern project management: Project planning focuses on breaking down the total effort into assignable units. Because of their experience with the early. have never been done before [19]. With larger team size and the complexity and duration of the project. clearly stated responsibilities. full release of people to a project and a corporate resource . create consensus within the project team. A complete discovery process is typically required before stable plans are feasible. facilitate group decisions and create an environment where it is possible for people on the project to accomplish their work with a minimum of distractions. Perhaps the most significant influence of modern project management is on project plans and the planning process.Agile methodologies better suit small projects where smaller project teams are involved. This “authority” is often compromised by the priorities. The modern Project Manager plans. they are quickly exposed by their impractical or unreasonable edits. stable plans early in the life of the project. Instead. it is impractical for the project manager to be the task expert of all work that must be done. these managers typically have only functional authority over their team. Even more vexing is the tendency of out-of control organisations to improve the “look” of productivity by deploying the same people to multiple simultaneous projects. views and occasional interference of the actual administrative managers. estimating this work. Many smaller companies do not use heavyweight methodologies and prefer the more agile approach to building solutions [17]. Further. the choice of a heavyweight methodology is purely from a command and control perspective. stable plans of Continuing Effort. defining the most efficient order in which the work should be performed. This often dooms a project to failure as it is operating with totally invalid set of expectations and strategies [19]. Organising a project structure begins with defining what is expected of the Project Owner along with each member of the Project Team. When these managers attempt to blindly dictate direction. these early plans must be repeatedly “re-base lined” as new information becomes available. While preliminary and highly speculative projections may and should be produced.

not quantity. The New Methodology. 2008 from http://www. 2001.” Performance and productivity may then be measured by comparing planned hours. and Supporting Methodologies and Processes for Projects. Fisher. I 'Why does project management fail?' California Management Review 12 (1969) 77-82 . [5] Wasileski. S. CONCLUSION AND ABSTRACT should co-relate) References: [1] Howes. Single-Time Efforts are measured based on creating quality. ACM 2005. Auerbach Publications. Technical paper No. 2001. Inc. D C Factors affecting project success National Technical Information Services. [6] Cash. New Directions in Project Management. It is critical to first verify the completion of promised deliverables. New York (1989) [10] Wit. [2] Charvat. 2005. start dates and finished dates against the actuals. Pages 20-29. A D 'Measurement of project success' Project Management 6 (3) (1988) 164-170 [11] Morris. N. [4] Tinnirello. scheduling.. Fisher. J. measurements must be against revised and relevant baseline plans. and controlling Van Nostrand Reinhold. 3 (September 1986) [12] Avots.martinfowler. B N. B N. 2003. R. Kinnington Oxford. H and Fox. Objective criteria for completeness and quality must be met before a deliverable is considered “done. Modern Project Management Successfully Integrating Project Management Knowledge Areas and Processes. a systems approach to planning. Project Management Methodologies: Selecting.. G H Preconditions of Success and Failure in Major Projects Templeton College. durations. the Oxford Centre for Management Studies.com/articles. N-74-30092 (September 1974) [8] Baker. American Management Association Press. However. Conclusion : (GO through Entire paper and generate a para of conclusion. P.management process that insures team members are never over-deployed to multiple projects. H Project management. M. Learning Organization Principles & Project Management. [3] Fowler. D C Project management in the public sector: success and failure patterns compared to private sector projects National [9] Kerzner. Implementing. Inc. Proceedings of SIGUCCS'05. J. New York. Canada. Retrieved March 3. P W G and Hugh. C. D and Murphy. Florida. D and Murphy. R 'Elements of successful project management' J Systems Management (1992) 10-12 [7]Baker. John Wiley & Sons. instead of comparing performance against the original plans created during the first days of a project.

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