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MODERN PHYSICS

Introduction to blackbody radiation spectrum:

A body which absorbs all radiation that is incident on it is called a perfect blackbody. When radiation

allowed to fall on such a body, it is neither reflected nor transmitted. Such a black body after absorbing the

incident radiation gets heated and starts emitting radiation of all possible wavelengths. In practice, perfect

blackbody does not exist and we can have objects that are only close to a blackbody. A blackbody, on heating,

can emit all radiations it has absorbed and is called blackbody radiation. Figure shows the energy distribution

curves in which energy density E (energy emitted by the blackbody per unit area of the surface) is plotted as a

function of wavelength at different temperatures of the blackbody.

The important points that can be noted down from these curves are

1. All curves shows a peak suggesting that the emitted intensity is maximum at a particular wavelength.

2. An increase in temperature results in an increase in the energy emitted.

3 .As the temperature increases, the peak shifts to lower wavelength.

1. Stefan-Boltzmann law

It states that the total energy density E0 of radiation emitted from a blackbody is directly proportional to

the fourth power of its absolute temperature T.

i.e., E0 T4

Or E0 = T4

where is a constant called Stefans constant with numerical value equal to 5.6710-8 Wm-2K-4. This law

agrees well with the experimental results.

2. Wiens displacement law

It states that the wavelength m corresponding to the maximum emissive energy decreases with

increasing temperature.

i.e., m

T

Or m T = b,

where b is called the Wiens constant and is equal to 2.910-3 mK.

3. Wiens law

Using laws of thermodynamics and classical concepts, Wien developed an expression for energy density

as,

() =

This law holds good for smaller values of wavelength.

4. Rayleigh-Jeans law

Rayleigh derived an expression for the energy density of radiation based on classical theory which is

given by,

() =

This law holds good only for large values of wavelength.

As per the Rayleigh-Jeans law, the radiant energy increases with decreasing wavelength and a

blackbody must radiate all the energy at very short wavelength. But in actual practice, it doesnt happen so. The

failure of Rayleigh-Jeans law to explain the aspect of very little emission of radiation beyond the violet region

towards the lower wavelength side of the spectrum is referred as ultraviolet catastrophe.

Both Wiens law and Rayleigh-Jeans law indicates failure of classical theory in explaining blackbody radiation.

Max Planck proposed a law based on quantum theory. According to this, atoms or molecules absorb or

emit radiation in quanta or small energy packets called photons. If is the frequency of photons, then its

energy can be explained as E=h where h=6.63x10-34Js is called Plancks constant. Applying quantum theory,

Planck obtained an expression for energy density of blackbody radiation as,

() =

----------------- (1)

is very large

This law agrees well with the experimental observation of blackbody radiation and is valid for all wavelengths.

1. For shorter wavelengths:

i.e., when is small,

Or i.e.,

>>1 hence ( )

() =

i.e., () =

hc

k

Hence at smaller wavelengths, Plancks radiation law reduces to Wiens law.

Since

=+

=+

hc

kT

or =

hc

kT

() =

i.e., () =

Photoelectric effect:

Emission of electrons from a metal surface when light of suitable energy falls on it is called

photoelectric effect. The experimental setup for observing photoelectric effect consists of a pair of metal plate

electrodes in an evacuated discharge tube connected to a voltage source as shown:

When light of suitable energy is incident on the cathode, electrons are emitted and a current flows across the

discharge tube. Some special features of photoelectric emission are:

1. It is an instantaneous process-there is no time interval between the incidence of light and the emission of

photoelectrons.

2. There is a minimum frequency for the incident light called threshold frequency, below which no photoelectric

emission occurs. This depends upon the nature of the material of the emitter surface. The energy

corresponding to the threshold frequency, called the work function is the minimum energy required to release

an electron from the emitter surface.

3. For a given frequency of the incident light, photocurrent is directly proportional to the intensity of the

incident light.

4. The photoelectron emission can be stopped by applying a reverse voltage to the phototube. ie., by making the

emitter electrode positive and the collector negative. The negative collector potential required to stop the

photoelectron emission is called the stopping potential.

Einsteins Theory:

Photoelectric effect can be explained on the basis of quantum theory of light. When the energy equal to

work function of the metal is incident on the metal surface, the incident photon liberates electrons from their

bound state. When the incident photon carries energy in excess of the work function, the extra energy appears as

the kinetic energy of the emitted electron. When the intensity of light increases, the number of photoelectrons

emitted increases but their kinetic energy remain unaltered. When a photon of frequency is incident on a

metal surface of work function , then,

h = + ( mv2)max

1

2

This is known as Einsteins photoelectric equation.

Since = h0, it can also be written as,

( mv2)max = h - = h(-0)

2

1

( mv2)max = h -

2

1

2

Compton Effect:

When X-rays are scattered by a solid medium, in addition to the scattered X-rays of same frequency,

there exist some scattered X-rays of a slightly lower frequency (higher wavelength). Compton observed this

phenomenon and is called Compton Effect.

Compton Effect can be explained on the basis of the quantum theory and laws of conservation of energy and

momentum. Consider an x-ray photon of energy h incident on an electron at rest.

After the interaction, the X-ray photon gets scattered at an angle with its energy changed to h and

the electron which was initially at rest recoils at an angle . It can be shown that the increase in wavelength is

given by

h

=

(1- cos )

m0 C

When = 90 , =

0

m0 C

= 0.0242. This constant value is called Compton wavelength.

The Photoelectric Effect and Compton Effect conclusively established the particle behavior of light. The

phenomena of interference, diffraction and polarization give exclusive evidence for the wave behavior of light.

Hence we have to conclude that light behaves as an advancing wave in some phenomena and it behaves as a

flux of particles in some other phenomena. Therefore we say that light exhibits wave-particle duality.

De-Broglies hypothesis:

De-Broglie extended the wave particle dualism of light to the material particles. This is known as deBroglie hypothesis. According to this hypothesis, material particles in motion possess a wave character. The

waves associated with material particles are called matter waves or de-Broglie waves.

According to Plancks theory of radiation,

E = h

--------- (1)

where is the frequency associated with the radiation.

According to Einsteins mass-energy relation,

E = mc2

--------- (2)

where m is the mass of the photon and c is the velocity of light

i.e., h = mc2 =>

h

hc

= mc 2

= mc

Or, =

(since = )

A beam of high energy electrons can be obtained by accelerating them in an electric field. Consider an

electron starting from rest when accelerated with a potential difference V, the kinetic energy (E) acquired by the

electron is given by,

1

2

Thus,

Or

i.e.,

mv 2

2

m2 v 2

2m

p2

2m

= eV

= eV

=eV =E

where v is the velocity of the electron, m its mass and p the momentum.

Now the momentum may be expressed as,

p = 2mE = 2meV

Hence the de-Broglie wavelength =

2mE

2meV

To test de-Broglie hypothesis, Heisenberg and Schrdinger formulated theories whereas G.P.Thomson,

Davisson and Germer conducted experiments.

Davisson-Germer experiment:

The electron diffraction experimental setup used by Davisson and Germer to verify de-Broglies

hypothesis is as shown:

The filament F is heated to produce electrons via thermionic emission. These electrons are passed

through a narrow aperture forming a fine beam of accelerated electrons. The electron beam was then made to

incident on a single crystalline sample of Nickel. The electrons scattered at different angles were counted using

a detector. The experiment was repeated by recording the scattered electron intensities at various positions of

the detector.

A sharp maximum occurred in electron density at an angle () of 500 with the incident beam for an

accelerating potential of 54 V. The angle of incidence corresponding to this is 250 and from figure, glancing

angle (angle of diffraction) is 650. From X-ray diffraction experiment, spacing of the planes responsible for

diffraction was found to be 0.091 nm.

Assuming first order diffraction, Braggs law can be written as,

= 2d sin = 20.09110-9sin65 = 0.165 nm.

By de-Broglie relation,

(. . )

= 0.167nm

Thus Davisson and Germer experiment directly verifies the de-Broglie hypothesis.

1. Matter waves are associated with moving particle.

2. Wavelength of matter waves is inversely proportional to the velocity with which the particle is moving

h

( = ). Hence a particle at rest has an infinite wavelength.

mv

3. Wavelength of matter waves is inversely proportional to the mass of the particle. Hence wavelike behavior

of heavier bodies is not very evident whereas wave nature of subatomic particles could be observed

experimentally.

4. Wave function is used to define a matter wave which is related to the probability of finding a particle at any

place at any instant.

5. Matter waves are represented by a wave packet made up of a group of waves of slightly differing

wavelengths. Hence we talk of group velocity of matter waves rather than the phase velocity (velocity of a

single wave). The group velocity can be shown to be equal to the particle velocity.

Phase velocity:

General expression for a wave is Y = A cos (t-kx)

where Y = Displacement at any instant t, A = Amplitude of vibration, = 2 is the angular frequency and

2

k = is the wave vector or wave number.

Phase velocity or wave velocity of a wave is the velocity of the wave when phase is constant.

i.e., t-kx = constant

or, kx = t + constant

t

or, x = + constant

k

Group velocity:

The de-Broglie waves are represented by a wave packet and hence we have group velocity associated

with them. Group velocity is the velocity with which the wave packet travels.

Consider two waves having same amplitude but having slightly different frequency and wave number

represented by the equations

Y1 = A cos (t-kx)

Y2 = A cos [(+ ) t (k+ k) x]

The resultant displacement due to the superposition of the above two waves is,

Y = Y1 + Y2

= A cos (t-kx) + A cos [(+ ) t (k+ k)x]

A+ B

A B

) cos (

),

2

2

2k + k

2 +

k

Y = 2A cos {(

)t(

) x} cos {(

)t (

) x}

2

2

2

2

As the difference in frequency of the two waves is very small, we can assume,

2+ 2 and 2k+k 2k

k

Y = 2Acos {(

)t (

) x} cos (t-kx)

2

2

The velocity of the resultant wave (group velocity) is given by the speed with which a reference point, say the

maximum amplitude point, moves. Taking the amplitude of the resultant wave as constant, we have,

k

2Acos {(

)t (

) x} = constant

2

2

k

or, (

)t (

) x = constant

2

2

or, x =

+ constant

Group velocity vg =

vg =

Phase velocity, vp =

= vp k ----- (1)

Group velocity, vg =

vg =

= vp

dvp k

dk

dk

+k

dk

2

= vp+ ( )

= vp+ ( )

= vp+ ( )

But

= vp+ ( )

1

d( )

d

1

2

(From eq (1))

dvp

dk

dvp

d( )

dvp

1

d()

dvp d

1

d() d

dvp d

d d(1)

1 dvp

Energy of a photon E = h or =

E

h

------ (1)

2

d = ( ) dE ------(2)

h

Further, k =

dk = ( ) dp

h

2p

since =

------(3)

(2E)

h

Substituting the value of d and dk from equations (2) and (3) in the expression for group velocity,

d dE

vg = = ------ (4)

dk

dp

If a particle of mass m is moving with a velocity vparticle, its energy is given by,

1

E = mv2particle =

-------(5)

2

2

Substituting this in equation (4),

vg =

=

dE

dp

p

d2

dp

m

mVparticle

= vparticle

Hence vg = vparticle

Phase velocity, vp =

Further, Wave number k =

Thus

vp =

=

=

=

=

(2E)

h

2p

h

mc2

2p

since =

(2E)

h

(Since E = mc2)

mvparticle

c2

vparticle

vphase vparticle = c2

But vg = vparticle

vphase vg = c2

We know, the group velocity vg =

dk

1

d = 2d and dk = 2 d( )

Thus vg =

d

dk

2d

1

2 d( )

1

d

Or, d( ) =

vg

d

1

d( )

vparticleg

-------- (1)

[since vg = vparticle]

1

E = mv2 + V

2

1

Then, h = mv2 + V

2

Assuming V as a constant potential and differentiating the above equation,

h d = m vparticle dv

mv

or, d = ( particle ) dv

h

Substituting this in equation (1),

1

m dv

d( ) =

h

Integrating,

1

mv

=

+ constant

i.e.,

+ constant

or, =

+ constant

**************

1 .a) 1) If the momentum of a particle is increased to four times, the de-Broglie wavelength is

i) become twice

ii) become for times

iii) become one-fourth

iv) become half

2) Blackbody radiation spectrum, maximum intensity is shifting towards

i) shorter wavelength ii) longer wavelength

iii) no change

iv) none of these

3) Group velocity of wave is equal to

i) V phase

ii) V particle

iii) Velocity of light

iv) none of these

4) de-Broglie wavelength of an electron accelerated by a potential of 60 V is

i) 1.85

ii) 1.58

iii) 1.589

iv) 1.57

(4 marks)

b) Describe Davisson-Germer experiment to prove the dual nature of matter waves. (8marks)

c) Explain phase velocity and Group velocity. Derive de-Broglie wavelength using Group velocity. (8 marks)

Dec 08/ Jan 09

1 a) 1) The de-Broglie wavelength associated with an electron of mass m and accelerated by a potential V is

h

2mVe

i)

ii)

iii)

iv)

Vem

2Vem

2mVe

2) Davisson and Germer were the first to demonstrate:

i) The straight line propagation of light

ii) The diffraction of photons

iii) The effective mass of electron

iv) None of these

3) Electrons behaves as waves because they can be:

i) Deflected by an electric field

ii) Diffracted by a crystal

iii) Deflected by magnetic field

iv) They ionize a gas

4) In Davisson-Germer experiment, the hump is most prominent when the electron is accelerated by

i) 34 volts

ii) 54 volts

iii) 60 volts

iv) 80 volts

(04 Marks)

b) Define phase velocity and group velocity. Show that group velocity is same as particle velocity. (08 Marks)

c) Derive de-Broglie wavelength using Group velocity. (04 Marks)

d) Compare the energy of a photon with that of a neutron when both are associated with wavelength of 1 .

Given that mass of neutron is 1.678 10 -27 kg. (04 Marks)

June-July 2009

1) a) 1) An electron and a proton are accelerated through same potential. The ratio of de-Broglie wavelength

e/p is

i) 1

ii)

me

iii)

mp

mp

mp

iv)

me

me

i) Single valued

ii) Finite

iii) Continuous

iv) all the above

3) In a blackbody radiation spectrum, the maximum energy peaks shift towards the shorter wavelength side

with the increase in temperature. This confirms

i) Stefans law

ii) Weins law

iii) Rayleigh-Jeans law

iv) Plancks law

4) The group velocity of the particle is 3106 m/s, whose phase velocity is

i) 6.06106 m/s

ii) 31010 m/s

iii) 3 nm/s

iv) 1.51010 m/s (04 Marks)

b) Describe Davisson and Germer experiment for confirmation of deBroglie hypothesis. (08 Marks)

c) Explain phase and group velocity. Calculate the de-Broglie wavelength of a bullet of mass 5 gm moving

with a velocity 20 km/hr. (08 Marks)

Dec.09/Jan.10

1 a)1) Wiens law is deduced from Plancks radiation formula under the condition of

i) Very small wavelength and temperature

ii) Large wavelength and temperature

iii) Small wavelength and high temperature

iv) Large wavelength and small temperature

2) The Compton wavelength is given by

i) h/m0C2

ii) h2/m0C2

iii) h/m0C

iv) h2/2m0C

3) Which of the following relations can be used to determine de-Broglie wavelength associated with a

particle?

h

h

h

i)

ii)

iii)

iv) All of these

Vm

2mE

2mVe

6

4) If the group velocity of a particle is 310 m/s, its phase velocity is

i) 100 m/s

ii) 3106 m/s

iii) 3108 m/s

iv) 31010 m/s (04 Marks)

b) What is Plancks radiation law? Show how Wiens law and Rayleigh-Jeans law can be derived from it.

(06 Marks)

c) Define group velocity. Derive relation between group velocity and phase velocity. (06 Marks)

d) A fast moving neutron is found to be have a associated de-Broglie wavelength 2. Find its kinetic energy

and group velocity of the de-Broglie waves. (04 Marks)

May/June 2010

1 a) 1) In a blackbody radiation spectrum, the Wiens distribution law is applicable only for

i) Longer wavelength

ii) Shorter wavelength

iii) Entire wavelength iv) None of these

2) The de-Broglie wavelength associated with an electron of mass m and accelerated by a potential V is

h

2mVe

i)

ii)

iii)

iv)

Vem

2Vem

2mVe

3) Electrons behaves as a wave because they can be

i) Diffracted by a crystal

ii) Deflected by magnetic field

iii) Deflected by electric field

iv) Ionise a gas

4) If the group velocity of de-Broglie wave is 4108 m/sec, its phase velocity is

i) 12108 m/sec

ii) 2.25108 m/sec

iii) 5.33108 m/sec iv) 1.33108 m/sec (04 Marks)

b) Explain duality of matter waves.

(04 Marks)

c) Define phase velocity and group velocity. Show that group velocity is equal to particle velocity. (08 Marks)

d) Calculate the momentum of the particle and de-Broglie wavelength associated with an electron with a

kinetic energy of 1.5 keV. (04 Marks)

January 2011

1 a) 1) Green light incident on a surface releases photoelectrons from the surface. If now blue light is incident

on the same surface, the velocity of electrons

i) increases

ii) decreases

iii) remains same

iv) becomes zero

2) Rayleigh-Jeans theory of radiations agree with experimental results for

i) all wavelengths

ii) shorter wavelengths only

iii) longer wavelengths only

iv) middle order wavelengths only

3) The de-Broglie wavelength of an electron accelerated to a potential difference of 100 volts is

i) 1.2

ii) 10

iii) 100

iv) 12

4) The wave nature associated with electrons in motion was verified by

i) photoelectric effect

ii) Compton effect

iii) diffraction by crystals iv) Raman effect (04Marks)

b) State and explain de-Broglies hypothesis.

(04 Marks)

c) Define phase velocity and group velocity. Obtain the relation between group velocity and particle velocity.

Obtain the expression for de-Broglie wavelength using group velocity. (08 Marks)

d) Find the kinetic energy and group velocity of an electron with de-Broglie wavelength of 0.2 nm. (04 marks)

*************

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