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Annotated Bibliography

Alleviating World Hunger

Eddie Angelbello
Professor Malcolm Campbell
UWRT 1103
October 21, 2015

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Annotated Bibliography
Food Security: Framing the Issue. The McKnight Foundation. The McKnight
Foundation, n.d. Web. 11 October 2015.
The McKnight Foundation is a Minnesota-based family foundation that seeks the
broad mission of improving the quality of life for this generation and generations
to come. Their article entitled Food Security: Framing the Issue comments on
one main issue under the broad canopy of that missionworld hunger. The

Tyler Rapp 10/25/2015 4:14 PM

Comment [1]: What type of source is this?

article explains food security as the long-term goal that has been adopted by many
of the worlds hunger relief organizations. Food security means having access to
enough food at all times for an active and healthy life, the article explains. The
same paragraph also touches on the environmental aspect of the production side
of food security, explaining that it pertains to the ability to sustain adequate
production in environmentally sound ways.
The article notes the significant strides toward international food security made
during the First Green Revolution since the 1960s; however, it also suggests that
the work is far from over as it explains that much of the effects of the Green
Revolution flew right over the heads of impoverished local farmers. The Second
Green Revolution, the article contends, would consist of biogenetics
advancements that would enable these farms to grow crops in any conditions. Of
course this raises environmental questions, but this article states that the hesitation
caused by such questions is the greatest threat to finding a permanent solution.
This article is comes from a trusted organization and website, and thus it is
reliable. The source is relatively unbiased, but presents more of the point of view

Tyler Rapp 10/25/2015 4:12 PM

Comment [2]: Why is it trusted?

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of those who believe in a second, and much more technological Green
Revolution. I am certainly going to use this source to present this side of the
argument, but I will need to consult other objective sources as well that offer the
point of view which is against biogenetics used in crops.
Carrington, Daisy. Can a palm weevil cure world hunger. CNN News 5 August 2014.
Web. 19 October 2015.
In this CNN article, Daisy Carrington examines the prospects of a somewhat
unusual but not so far out solution. It is one that might make some readers cringe.
The solution proposed by Mohammed Ashour and his fellow founders of Aspire
is to attack world hunger making better use of edible insects. Carringtons article
specifically focuses on Aspires pilot program in Ghana, which is the prime
example of their goal of introducing insect farming into countries where insect
consumption is common, but where harvesting has always been done by hand.
While some might blindly assume that insects could never provide a nutritional
diet, statistics show otherwise. Carrington cites a report from the UN Food and
Agricultural Organization which found that insects provide just as much protein
as beef, while offering higher levels of nutritional necessities like iron, potassium,
zinc, phosphorous, and some amino acids, all of which are lacking among the
general population of many underdeveloped countries. Governments provide iron
and other supplemental pills, but, according to Ashour, locals rarely take them.
Ashour wants to provide nutrition in a way more culturally acceptable and more
economically beneficial. He states that this would also benefit impoverished local
farmers who have plenty of land but lack the resources and soil to harvest a profit.

Tyler Rapp 10/25/2015 4:12 PM

Comment [3]: Alphabetize citations

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His plan could provide a source of income while saving millions of lives from
malnutrition and hunger in the process.
This is a popular news article from CNN, so while it can be trusted, I will have to
do some extra research to ensure that the facts are correct. Also, much of the
article consists of quotes or information straight from Ashour, so it is slightly
biased, and I would need to examine opposing points of view or possible flaws in
his plan. With this in mind, I will definitely use this article for my essay to
examine the many proposed alternate solutions to world hunger.
Giampietro, Mario. The Precautionary Principle and Ecological Hazards of Genetically
Modified Organisms. Ambio Vol. 31. No. 6 (September 2002): 466-470. JSTOR.

Tyler Rapp 10/25/2015 4:13 PM

Comment [4]: Elaborate more?
Tyler Rapp 10/25/2015 4:14 PM
Comment [5]: alphabetize

Web. 9 October 2015.

The UN Conference recognized the precautionary principle on Environment and
Development in 1992. This states that all environmental risks, regardless of
uncertainty or ignorance, should be dealt with carefully. This principle points to
an important and scary part of a bold attempt to address any global issue
sometimes we simply have no idea what the ramifications of our actions could be.
Our actions could be harmless, or they could devastate the entire world. In this
academic, pier-reviewed article, Mario Giampietro contends that this is too broad
of a range and too high of a risk for us to fully integrate Genetically Modified
Organisms into our everyday lives. The consequences of this perturbation should
be considered on various different hierarchical levels and nonequivalent
dimensions of interest, states Giampietro before describing the fact that no one

Tyler Rapp 10/25/2015 4:14 PM

Comment [6]: good
Tyler Rapp 10/25/2015 4:14 PM
Comment [7]: * peer

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could have scientifically predicted the possibility of Mad Cow Disease developing
from the use of animal protein to feed herbivorous livestock during the 1980s.
Most of Giampietros article goes on to explain in various ways that much more
research is needed before we allow GMOs to take over the world. He warns
against the concept of GMOs favoring efficiency heavily over adaptability, and
the ways in which this could disrupt the strength and livelihood of our
ecosystems. The strategic hesitation and research recommended by Giampietro is
at odds with the views laid out in the McKnight foundation article which describe
this hesitation as the biggest threat to advancements in alleviating world hunger.
The article is definitely reliable as it is pier reviewed and is found through an
academic database. I will use the article in my research essay to counter the points
of views of those who believe that the immediate use of genetically modified
organisms to improve crop and livestock efficiency is the most promising solution
to global hunger.
Miller, Anna Medaris. Are GMOs Really That Harmful to Eat? U.S. News and World
Report 29 April 2015. Web. 8 October 2015.
Points of view on Genetically Modified foods range from the firm stand that
advocates make in stating that they have been held to the same standards as
normal foods to the comparison of GMOs today to smoking in the 1950s. In her
article on U.S. News and World Report, Anna Medaris Miller brings together
these two very different opinions and to offer an inconclusive message to
consumers. Her article highlights the diverse range of views on GMOs. While the
FDA has approved genetically modified foods, some argue the reliability and the

Tyler Rapp 10/25/2015 4:15 PM

Comment [8]: * peer

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legality of that decision. Famous primatologist Jane Goodall, along with her
friend, Steven Druker, the executive director for the non-profit Alliance for Biointegrity believe that a consensus has not been reached in the scientific
community when it comes to the safety of GMOs, which is one of the
prerequisites for certification by the FDA. They believe that there is significant
evidence, in fact, that points to destructive effects of these foods. While advocates
for genetically engineered foods claim that there is no correlation between
genetically modified food and abnormalities in animal and human activity,
scientists like Goodall and Druker compare these claims to those made about
smoking in the 1950s, when no correlation had been discovered (or released to the
public) between smoking and harmful effects on the lungs and body.
This article is reliable as it comes from a popular news source, and it is unbiased
because it examines both sides of the issue. In terms of usefulness, the article
offers no ultimate, decisive claim, but only further explains the arguments of each
side in the issue, thus the article could be used to explain these opposing opinions
and the uncertainty that comes along with the disagreement, but it cannot be used
to support one side over the other.