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Industrial Automation | Electrical4u
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Due to the rapid advances in technology, all industrial processing
systems, factories, machinery, test facilities, etc. turned from
mechanization to automation. A mechanization system needs human
intervention to operate the manual operated machinery. As new and
efficient control technologies evolved, computerized automation control
is being driven by the need for high accuracy, quality, precision and
performance of industrial processes. Automation is step beyond the
distance. processed and controlled by complex microprocessor systems or PC based data processing controllers.11/21/2015 Industrial Automation | Electrical4u mechanization which makes use of high control capability devices for an efficient manufacturing or production processes.com/industrialautomation/ 2/14 . to control industrial processes and machinery by replacing as much as possible labour intervention and dangerous assembly operations with automated ones. and liquid levels can be sensed simultaneously.electrical4u. In industrial control a wide number of process variables such as temperature. Industrial automation is the use of control devices such as PC/PLCs/PACs etc. All these variables are acquired. power and speed of operation. http://www. flow. What is Industrial Automation? The word ‘Automation’ is derived from ancient Greek words of Auto (means self) Matos (means moving). automation systems provides superior performance in terms of precision. pressure. Thus. As compared with manual systems. a mechanism move by itself or self dictated is called automation.
efficient and reliable production system. equipment scheduling.electrical4u.com/industrialautomation/ 3/14 . The various types of closed loop control techniques ensure the process variables to follow the set points. plant start up or shutdown. automation system employs different other functions such as computing set points for control systems. In recent years. The automated system needs special dedicated hardware and software products for implementing control and monitoring systems. The control systems along with monitoring adapted to the operating environment in an industry for flexible. etc. monitoring system performance. the number of such products have been developed from various vendors which providing their specializing software and hardware http://www. In addition to this basic function.11/21/2015 Industrial Automation | Electrical4u Control systems are the essential parts of an automation system.
Hence increased productivity and efficiency per hour of labor input. In other hand. without compromising on accuracy. Some of these vendors are Siemens.electrical4u. To improve the product quality http://www. the industry or in other words manufacturers is challenged by the factors like withstand to harsh manufacturing environments. ABB. automated control systems able to work for long hours. Some the following are the reasons used to justify the automation. National Instruments.11/21/2015 Industrial Automation | Electrical4u products.com/industrialautomation/ 4/14 . To increase the labor productivity Automation increases the production rate by producing greater output for a given labor input. meeting latest energy efficient standards and to offer a robust level of security. Reasons for Automating As we are living in the highly competitive business environment. etc. AB. Omron and so on. It is not possible for human workers to work for long hours without losing accuracy.
To reduce the labor or production cost The automated systems help the industries to save a great deal in the long term by substituting automated machinery in place of human labor so that unit production cost is reduced. are to be periodically monitored as a routine task to maintain their set levels. But the automation system performs operations with greater conformity and uniformity to the quality specifications. etc.com/industrialautomation/ 5/14 . there may be a compromise on quality specifications of the product. http://www. process variables like temperature. pensions and costs with employees. The automated system also reduces the labor shortage by substituting automated operations in place of labor. pressure. industrial processes are controlled and monitored at all stages in order to produce a qualitative end product. To reduce routine manual tasks In many industrial applications.electrical4u. By using the automation systems. Thus an automation system creates the automatic working condition by employing closed loop control systems. Automation equipment running smoothly or uniformly 24×7 not only increases the productivity. but also consequently results excellent return on investment by saving salaries.11/21/2015 Industrial Automation | Electrical4u One of the chief benefits of the automation is that the reduction of fraction defect rate. liquid level. With the manual operation of manufacturing process. workforce costs.
The automated machines are able to work in the hazardous environments and other extreme environments. Also.com/industrialautomation/ 6/14 . automated systems provide a communication link between the process area and supervising (monitor and control) area. especially in lifethreatening conditions (chemical and high temperature conditions).11/21/2015 Industrial Automation | Electrical4u To improve safety By implementing automated system. work is made safer by transferring the worker from an active participation location in the process to the supervising role.electrical4u. For such cases. thereby allowing operators to control and monitor the industrial http://www. Thus an industrial automation system prevents the accidents and injuries to the workers. To assist remote monitoring Most of the industrial operations have to be controlled remotely for convenient and long distance monitor and control of process variables. these systems make use of industrial robots in place of human workers.
relays. http://www. The figure below shows the structure of industrial automation which describes the various functional elements of IA. strain gauges. Actuators convert the electrical or pneumatic signals to the physical process variables. Various sensors include thermocouples. etc. The best example of this remote control is the automated electric power grid control. Finally the controllers produce the computed outputs and are applied as electrical or pneumatic signal inputs to the actuating elements. Sensing and Actuating Elements The sensors or sensing elements convert the physical process variables such as flow. temperature. flexible and lowcost system platform that consists of various elements which performs a wide variety of functions like sensing. Some of the actuators include control valves.electrical4u. Functional Elements of Industrial Automation An industrial automation (IA) is an integrated. analysing. pressure. and decisions in order to produce the control output. control. The signals from these sensors are used for processing.com/industrialautomation/ 7/14 . etc.11/21/2015 Industrial Automation | Electrical4u processes from a remote location. supervision and monitoring related to industrial processes. into electrical or pneumatic form. RTDs. etc. The various control techniques are implemented to produce the required output by comparing current sensed process variable with set values. motors.
These controllers can be continuous control systems or sequential/logic control depends on the structure of control nature. digital I/O. analog I/O and communication modules such that they can operate at industry environment conditions to control the various process parameters.11/21/2015 Industrial Automation | Electrical4u A special category of the instruments is smart instruments which are integrated systems of sensing or actuating elements with the capability of communicating with field buses.com/industrialautomation/ 8/14 .electrical4u. PLCs are come with dedicated software so that these are capable of being programmed to perform corresponding control operations. http://www. A modern type of control device used in automation systems is the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). The controller processes the sensing values and supervisory values and depends on the control structure. These smart devices consist of signal conditioning circuit internally and facilitates to connecting directly to the communication link in the industrial bus system. it produce the control output to various actuating devices. PLCs have rugged CPU. Control System Elements These are the microprocessor based electronic controllers or simply industrial computers that accept the signals from various sensors as well as command signals from supervisory systems or from human operators.
SCADA is one of the graphical user interface which remotely controls the industrial operations.11/21/2015 Industrial Automation | Electrical4u Human Machine Interface or operator interface is a graphical interface for the operators which displays the process information such as process variable status. shutdown and other emergency operations. generating alarm signals. Also. etc. performance monitoring. http://www. startup.electrical4u. These process station PCs are responsible for functions like set point computations. diagnostics. Distributed control systems (DCS) provide their own HMI for the graphical display of various industrial parameters. logging results to the database. Supervisory Control Elements Supervisory control performs higher level control over the automatic controllers which further controls the smaller subsystems.com/industrialautomation/ 9/14 . The major elements of this level are process station PCs and Human Machine Interfaces.
Also.11/21/2015 Industrial Automation | Electrical4u Human Machine Interface or operator interface is a graphical interface for the operators which displays the process information such as process variable status. generating alarm signals. Process Plant Automation http://www. Distributed control systems (DCS) provide their own HMI for the graphical display of various industrial parameters. the industrial automation systems are majorly classified into two types. Types of Industrial Automation Systems Industrial automation is the use of computer and machinery aided systems to operate the various industrial operations in well controlled manner. etc. Depends on the operations involved. logging results to the database. namely process plant automation and manufacturing automation.electrical4u. SCADA is one of the graphical user interface which remotely controls the industrial operations.com/industrialautomation/ 10/14 .
cement industry. automatic controllers and monitoring systems acquire the process information from sensors and correspondingly drives the actuator systems. Level 0 or Plant: This level consists of machines which are closest to processes. Some of the industries are pharamaceutical. In this. sensors and actuators are used to translate the signals from the machines and physical variables for the purpose of analysis and to produce the control signals. The above figure shows the process automation system hierarchy. high reliable control of the physical process variables. It consists of various layers representing widespread of components in a process plant. Thus the overall process plant is automated to produce the high quality. paper industry. Some of the tasks of this • • • http://www.11/21/2015 Industrial Automation | Electrical4u In process industries. etc. more productive. Direct Process Control: In this level. petrochemical.com/industrialautomation/ lelvel are Data acquisation Plant monitoring • Dara checking Open and closed loop control 11/14 .electrical4u. the product results from many chemical processes based on some raw materials.
machining. production target. inspection and packaging. etc. glass and ceramic. the manufacturing automation becomes very flexible and efficient. Some of these manufacturing industries include textile and clothing. Tasks of this level include • Market and Customer analysis • • Orders and sale statistics • Production planning Capacity and order balance. maintenance management. Manufacturing Automation System The manufacturing industries make the product out of materials using machines/robotics. etc.11/21/2015 Industrial Automation | Electrical4u • Reporting Plant Supervisory Control : This level commands the autmatic controllers by setting the targets or set points. New trends in manufacturing systems have been using automation systems at every stage such as material handling. With the computer aided control and industrial robotic systems. food and beverages. It looks after the control equipment for an optimal process control. etc. and so on. The below figure shows the manufacturing automation system hierarchy in which all functional levels are automated by using different automation tools. Tasks of this level includes • Production dispatch • Inventory control • Production supervision. Plant Management: This is the higher level of the process plant automation.electrical4u. It deals more with commercial activities than technical activities. assembling. These levels include http://www. production reporting. paper making. Some of the tasks of this level are • Plant monitoring performance • Optimal process control • Plant coordination • Failure detection. etc. Production Scheduling and Control: This level solves the decision making problems like resource allocation.com/industrialautomation/ 12/14 .
Archit Malhotra and 32. Various automated controllers like PLCs are employed for such control of machines. Enter your suggestion/comment here Name : Enter your name here Email : Enter your email here Location : http://www. etc. Enterprise Level: This level does all the management related activities such as production planning and scheduling. control and scheduling.11/21/2015 Industrial Automation | Electrical4u Machinery Level: In this level various sensing and actuating devices controls the manufacturing process. Tasks of this level include data collection. Like Share Akhil Chenna. signal check and machine control.electrical4u. Shop Floor Level: It is a supervisory automated level where supervision and coordination of several manufacturing cells are carried out.com/industrialautomation/ 13/14 . Plant Level: This automation level performs the activities of production monitoring. HMIs employed at this level facilitate to control all the manufacturing process variables remotely. Cell or Group Level: This is another automation level at which operation of a group of machines within a manufacturing cells are co ordinated. etc.589 others like this. It is an instrumentation level of machine control.
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