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SEGI UNIVERSITY COLLEGE

FOUNDATION IN SCIENCE
CHEMISTRY LABORATORY MANUAL
SUBJECT: CHEMISTRY 1
CHEMISTRY LAB REPORT
Year 2012

LECTURER: MS Leong
GROUP 2-F

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Experiment 1:
Tasks:
1. Pipette 25.0 cm3 of sulphuric acid, H2SO4 into a conical flask.
2. Add 2-3 drops of phenolphthalein and titrate the solution with the standard NaOH until the
first permanent pink colour is observed.
3. Repeat the procedure for consistent results.
Theory:
A titration is a process in which a measured amount of solution is reacted with a known volume
of another solution (one of the solution has an unknown concentration) until a desired end point
is reached. The endpoint of a titration is the point in the titration at which an indicator dye just
changes colour to signal the stopping point of titration. As all the reactant and product in this
reaction are colourless, an indicator dye is added to the sulphuric acid, H 2SO4, to let us know
when all the acid present has been exactly neutralized by adding base.
Objective:
To determine the concentration of a solution of sulphuric acid, H2SO4,using standard sodium
hydroxide solution, NaOH.
Apparatus:
Burette, Retort Stand, Burette Clamp, 250ml beaker, 25ml measuring cylinder, funnel, conical
flask.
Materials:
Sulphuric acid, H2SO4, Standard sodium hydroxide, NaOH (4.00g dm-3), Phenolphthalein dye
(indicator), Distilled water.
Procedure:
1. 25.0 cm3 of sulphuric acid, H2SO4, solution is measured and transferred into a conical flask.
2. 2-3 drops of phenolphthalein is added into the sulphuric acid, H 2SO4 , solution in the conical
flask
3. The conical flask is shaken so that both solutions are mixed well.
4. The burette is rinsed with a little distilled water for several times and filled with an unknown
volume of standard sodium hydroxide, NaOH, solution.
5. The burette is clamped vertically on the retort stand.
6. The conical flak that containing sulphuric acid, H2SO4, with the addition of 2-3 drop of
phenolphthalein solution is placed on a white piece of paper at the base of the retort stand.
7. The initial volume of the standard sodium hydroxide, NaOH, solution is recorded.
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8. The sodium hydroxide, NaOH, solution is added slowly into the conical flask while the
conical flask is shaken throughout the activity.
9. The sodium hydroxide, NaOH, solution is added until the colourless solution in the conical
flask changes to the first permanent pink (endpoint/neutral point) is observed.
10. The final volume (rough volume) of standard sodium hydroxide, NaOH, solution on the
burette is recorded.
11. The titration process is repeated for three times to obtain the average volume of the standard
sodium hydroxide, NaOH, solution that is more accurate at the endpoint (neutral point).
Therefore, a consistent result is obtained.
12. Observed and recorded the data. Recorded the result in a table form.

Results:
Table of result: Burette readings

Numbers of titrations

1(rough)

Final readings/cm3

38.0

38.7

37.3

37.4

Initial reading/cm3

13.0

12.0

12.0

12.0

Volume of base(standard
sodium hydroxide,
NaOH, solution) that
used/cm3

25.0

26.7

25.3

25.4

Calculated by using the


formula: final reading-initial
reading

Total volume od base ( sodium hydroxide , NaOH , solution used /cm 3)


Total number of titration
Averaged volume of
standard sodium
hydroxide, NaOH that is
used/cm3

Calculation :
=

26.7 +25.3+25.4
3
= 25.8cm3

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Discussion:
The first discussion (precaution discussion)
The burette is rinsed with distilled water followed by the standard sodium hydroxide, NaOH,
solution to remove any contaminants. This is due to the present of contaminants may affect the
initial and final reading of the standard sodium hydroxide, NaOH, solution and cause the result
to be inaccurate.
Make sure that the burette is free from leakage before the standard sodium hydroxide, NaOH,
solution is filled into the burette. The burette should be clamped vertically stable and secure on
the retort stand. This is to avoid any accidents from happen during practical session.
Apart from that, the unknown volume of standard sodium hydroxide, NaOH, should be filled
into the burette by using a funnel to avoid leakage and spillage of standard sodium hydroxide,
NaOH, solution to the exposing area of the laboratory working bench during practical session.
As all the reactants and products in the reaction are colourless, an indicator dye
(phenolphthalein) is added to sulphuric acid to determined when all the acid (sulphuric acid,
H2SO4, solution) present has been exactly neutralized by adding base (standard sodium
hydroxide, NaOH, solution). Therefore, two to three drops of phenolphthalein indicator are
added into the sulphuric acid, H2SO4, solution in a conical flask and shaken well to indicate the
endpoint/neutral point of the titration.
The standard sodium hydroxide, NaOH, solution is add slowly into the conical flask while the
conical flask is shaken throughout the activity to ensure the solution is uniformly mixed together.
The standard sodium hydroxide, NaOH, solution is added until the colourless solution in the
conical flask (mixture of sulphuric acid, H 2SO4, solution + phenolphthalein indicator + sodium
hydroxide, NaOH, solution) turn to the first permanent pink is observed (endpoint/neutral point).
Once, the first permanent pink is observed it shown that the desired end point has reached. The
endpoint of a titration is the point in the titration at which an indicator dye just changes colour
to signal the stopping point of the titration. In short, it shown that the titration process has
reached to the endpoint/neutral point and all the sulphuric acid, H 2SO4, solution is neutralized by
adding base which is the standard sodium hydroxide, NaOH, solution.
The initial and the final reading of the standard sodium hydroxide, NaOH, solution is recorded
before and after the titration to obtain the volume of base (standard sodium hydroxide, NaOH )
used to neutralized the acid (sulphuric acid, H2SO4).
It is important to take note that the eyes level should be places perpendicularly to the marking
point of the solution during taking measurements. This is to ensure, the reading at the lower
meniscus is correctly viewed. This is to minimize the present of parallax error, due to the wrong
position of eyes when taking measurement.
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At the beginning of the experiment, a rough titration is made to determine how many volume of
standard sodium hydroxide, NaOH, solution is required to neutralize the sulphuric acid, H 2SO4,
solution.
A piece of white paper is required to put at the base of the
endpoint/neutral point of the solution changes from colourless
concentration of a solution of sulphuric acid, H 2SO4, solution
standard sodium hydroxide, NaOH, solution. In other words, the
sulphuric acid, H2SO4, solution can be determined by titration.

retort stand to observed the


to first permanent pink. The
can be determined by using
concentration of a solution of

Besides that, it is essential to highlights that sulphuric acid, H 2SO4, solution is corrosive. Thus,
the use of hand gloves and safety goggles is required. It is not advices to handle sulphuric acid,
H2SO4, solution and standard sodium hydroxide, NaOH, solution with bare hands. Moreover, it is
advised to wear lab coat and wear cover shoes during the whole experiment. A lab coat is help to
keep clothes protected and close to the body. Whereas cover shoes protect the feet from getting
reach of corrosive chemical substances such as sulphuric acid, H 2SO4, solution. Hair should be
kept away from eyes and tied up for long hair. This is to reduce the possibility of chemical
substances get contact with humans skins.

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The second discussion (theory discussion)


Acidbase titration is quantitative analysis methods where a certain volume of acid of knows
concentration is added into an alkaline solution of know volume but unknown concentration, or
vice versa, with the help of a suitable indicator.
At the endpoint (neutral point), neutralization occurs completely. All the hydrogen ions, H + in
acid react completely with all hydroxide ions, OH-, in alkali.
H+ (aq) + OH- (aq) H2O
At the neutral point (endpoint), that is, when the acid neutralizes the alkali completely, no
hydrogen ions, H+ or hydroxide ions, OH-, is present in a solution. The mixture will have the PH
values of 7.
The acid-base indicators changes colour at the end point where all hydrogen ions, H +, react
completely with hydroxide ions, OH-.
The addition of an acid (sulphuric acid, H2SO4), with base (standard sodium hydroxide, NaOH),
produce water (H20). This indicates that the neutralization process occurred according to the
following equation:
2NaOH + H2SO4 Na2SO4 + 2H2O

The breakdown of H2SO4 molecules produces H+ ions and SO42- ions.


The breakdown of NaOH molecules produces Na+ ions and OH- ions.

H+ ions and OH- ions cannot remain in the form of ions as neutralization reaction produces water.
The H+ ions will combine with OH- to produces water. This is due to neutralization strongly
obeys the formation of water according to the following equation below:
H+(aq) + OH-(aq) H2O
The remaining Na+ ions (come from the breakdown of sodium hydroxide, NaOH, solution), and
the remaining SO42- (come from the breakdown of sulphuric acid, H 2SO4, solution) combine to
form neutral salt that is Na2SO4 which is neutral in PH.
A phenolphthalein indicator is added to determine the volume of standard sodium hydroxide,
NaOH, solution need to be added to 25 cm 3 of sulphuric acid, H2SO4 solution of unknown
molarity.
The colour of the phenolthelein changes from colourless to pink indicates that sodium
hydroxide, NaOH, molecules has completed reacted with sulphuric acid, H 2SO4, molecules to

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form salt Na2SO4 (neutral in PH) and water, H20. Thats give a PH values of 7, which is neutral.
In short, this shown that neutralization process occurred during titration.
Conclusion:
25.0 cm3 of sulphuric acid, H2SO4, required 25.8 cm3 of the sodium hydroxide solution for
complete reaction.
Calculation:
1. Use the values for the averaged total volume of sodium hydroxide, NaOH, added and the
sodium hydroxide, NaOH, concentration to calculate the moles of sodium hydroxide, NaOH
used.
Solution:
From the experiment, the averaged total volume of sodium hydroxide, NaOH, added is 25.8 cm3.
The concentration of sodium hydroxide, NaOH, is...ungiven...
Given the density is 4.00g dm-3
Therefore, by using the formula:

DENSITY =

MASS OF SOLUTION
VOLUME OF SOLUTION

Since the density of the sodium hydroxide solution is 4.00g dm -3, and the volume of the solution
(taken the averaged total volume of sodium hydroxide, NaOH, solution) is 25.8 cm3.
We have the solution:
-3

4.00g dm =

mass of solution ( NaOH)


25.8 cm 3

, changes 25.8 cm3 to dm3

Mass of solution NaOH = 4.00g dm-3 (25.8cm3 1000) dm3


= 0.1032 grams
Therefore the mass of the solution of sodium hydroxide added is 0.1032 grams.
By using the formula:

Numbers of mole=

Mass of solution
Realtive molecular mass
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Since the mass of the solution NaOH is 0.1032 grams, and given the relative molecular mass of
the solution NaOH is 40.o1g/mol then it can be calculated as shown below:
The relative molecular mass of NaOH = 23.0 + 16.0 + 1.01
= 40.01g/mol
Number of moles =

0.1032 grams
40.01 g /mol

= 0.00258mol
2. Write and balance an equation to show how sulphuric acid, H 2SO4 reacts with sodium
hydroxide, NaOH in an equation.
The balance equation of sulphuric acid, H2SO4 reacts with sodium hydroxide, NaOH is shown
below:
2NaOH + H2SO4 Na2SO4 + 2H2O
3. Calculate the moles of sulphuric acid, H2SO4 used in the reaction, using the moles of sodium
hydroxide, NaOH calculated in (1) and the balanced equation in (2).
Solution:
Since,
The numbers of moles of sodium hydroxide, NaOH calculated in (1) is 0.0025mol
The balanced equation in (2) is 2NaOH + H2SO4 Na2SO4 + 2H2O
2NaOH
2
0.00258mol

+ H2SO4
:

Na2SO4 + 2H2O
1

2mol of NaOH: 1mol H2SO4


1

0.00258mol of NaOH: 2
0.00258mol H2SO4
=0.0129mol of H2SO4
Therefore, the number of moles of sulphuric acid, H2SO4 is 0.0129mol.
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