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Cyber Aspects Of Non Kinetic Warfare Politics Essay

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Cyber Aspects Of Non Kinetic Warfare Politics


Essay
Post World War-II, there has been a paradigm shift in the nature of conflict and pattern of statecraft primarily due
to; advent of nuclear weapons, Revolution in Military Affairs, rapid advancement in information technologies, rise
of Non State Actors and effects of globalization. These transformations have made use of military or kinetic
options for advancing states policies less attractive, as not only the war is too costly, it is also too damaging
even to the victor. Consequently, the non-kinetic dimensions of statecraft i.e. Informational, Diplomatic and
Economic have gained ascendancy and prominence in shaping the global security narratives. Historically, the Cold
War model is the most sustained and successful application of non-kinetic domains where dissolution of USSR
was brought about through application of non-kinetic means.
Since our independence, Pakistan has remained in a state of perpetual conflict with its arch rival India. Until 28
May 1998, the main threats to Pakistan were primarily in the kinetic domain and so were our responses. However,
after the overt nuclearization of South Asia, the threat paradigm has been further compounded to involve host of
kinetic as well as non-kinetic challenges not only from India but also from other hostile or potentially hostile actors.
In our case, there are many drivers for this shift, but nuclear capability and the ongoing conflict in Afghanistan
remain the most important ones. A strategic reappraisal of our security calculus particularly within the non-kinetic
domain is extremely important.
Aforesaid, carry out an in-depth study of Non Kinetic Warfare and its application in today`s environment and the
challenges it poses to Pakistan with a view to recommending suitable response options to prepare armed forces to
effectively meet challenges it poses to Pakistan with a view to recommending suitable response options to prepare
armed forces to effectively meet challenges at hand.

SUB THEME
During last two decades, role of information technology has enhanced considerably in warfare. Today, through the
application of latest cyber technology, massive quantities of information concerning individuals or organizations
can be collected, processed, stored and targeted. Attacks in the domain of cyber warfare can disable official
websites and networks, disrupt or disable essential grids among many other possibilities. With the rapid spread
of information technology in Pakistan, vulnerability to such attacks has also increased manifold.
Aforesaid, carry out an in-depth study of cyber Warfare as an element of Non Kinetic Warfare, its application in
today`s environment and the challenges it poses to Pakistan with a view to recommend suitable response options
at national and army level.

ABSTRACT OF RESEARCH ON CYBER ASPECTS OF NON


KINETIC WARFARE
The non kinetic warfare is a new buzzword these days. To lay the conceptual foundations of non-kinetic warfare, it
is pertinent to understand the terms kinetic and non-kinetic. We can differentiate between kinetic and nonkinetic actions basing on whether it has a physical damage i.e. injuring, killing or destruction of an intended
enemy. In the modern context, non kinetic warfare is a synonym to unconventional or non-traditional
methodologies. To be effective, non kinetic warfare may precede or succeed kinetic application. This study briefly
dilates upon the concept of non kinetic warfare, its materialization in different forms with main focus on cyber
aspects of non kinetic warfare.

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To this end, an attempt has been made to study the whole range of cyber warfare, assess threat to Pakistan and
suggest suitable measures to exploit the true potential of this new phenomenon, simultaneously defending own
vulnerabilities. Laying down short and long term measures, establishment of a policy making organization at
national level and a cyber warfare cell at armed forces level has been recommended. The starting point of the

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whole structure however, would be the improvement of awareness about information technology among masses.

PREFACE
When history is at its turning point, nations have three choices. First is to live in the past; relishing triumph,
elaborating myths, and eventually becoming a part of the past. The second choice is to fight change. Certainly, all
change is not for the better. The third alternative is to embrace the future with all of its uncertainties and becoming
part of the change.
Uncertainty has always been essential part of war. With a large variety of war waging means available, the enemy
will be much more dynamic, versatile and unpredictable in nature. True face of the enemy might never reveal
whereas the damage is caused beyond proportions.
Contemplation of such scenarios has led the world to the conceptualization of rather a new dimension called non
kinetic warfare. Within the sphere of non kinetic warfare, though, threats emanating from use of cyber space
assume greater importance and are hence the focal point of this research study. In this paper, I have dilated upon
the subject of cyber warfare as an emerging arena for waging non kinetic wars. In the end, I have examined cyber
threat in the context of Indo-Pak Sub-continent and put forth some useful recommendations to prepare ourselves
for the future.
I would like to thank here my Sponsor DS Lt Col Sajid Amin for his valuable guidance and my wife who assisted
me in compiling this paper.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Serial
Subject
Page
1.
Chapter I Introduction, Aim and Scope
1
2.
Chapter II Conceptual Contours of Non Kinetic Applications
a. The Conceptual Foundation and Definition
b. Historical Perspective
c. Various Dimensions of Non-kinetic warfare
d. Conclusions
3
4
5
8
3.
Chapter III Cyber Warfare An Emerging Non-kinetic Dimension
a. Cyber Warfare Definition, Tools and Techniques
b. Cyber Warfare and non-kinetic Warfare
c. Conclusions
10
11
14
4.
Chapter IV Threat Perception and Response
a. Indian Threat Potential
b. Own Vulnerabilities / Response
c. Threat Response
15
16
17

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5.
Chapter V Recommendations
19
6.
Bibliography
23
Annexes
A. Characteristics of Cyber War
B. Potential Cyber Attack Weapons
C. Prospective Cyber Attack Targets
26
27
29

CHAPTER I
CYBER DIMENSION OF NON-KINETIC WARFARE
To win one hundred victories in one hundred battles is not the acme of skill.
To subdue the enemy without fighting is the acme of skil [1] l.
Sun Tzu

Introduction
Post Cold War developments have brought about two paradigm changes in the international relations; first,
splitting up of states` power between State and Non State Actors (NSAs) and second, surfacing of geo-economics
as the essential ingredient of interstate relationships. The active role of supranational organizations e.g. United
Nations and other regional / economic forums, proliferation of nuclear weapons, Revolution in Military Affairs and
advancements in information technology have rendered the use of military or kinetic options less attractive for the
developing states, not only because of the cost/consequences of all such conflicts, but also the inherent difficulty
to keep them limited. It is potentially damaging too even to the victor. As a result, the non-kinetic dimensions of
statecraft i.e. Informational, Economic, and Diplomatic, have gained significance in moulding the global security
narratives.

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Conflict and war are inherently kinetic in execution. As Carl von Clausewitz said, true competitors would rarely
engage in conflict, as mutual destruction would surely occur. The technological advantage afforded by faster
communications, precision guided munitions and improved surveillance and reconnaissance means is difficult to
ignore. Computer network based warfare is rising in utilization. Several models and analogies have been argued
to explain deterrence and conflict in cyberspace.
Cyber warfare involves non physical attacks on information data and its collection process aimed at damaging,
disrupting or destroying decision making process. It is both offensive and defensive, ranging from methods that
prohibit the enemy from exploiting information to corresponding measures to guarantee the availability, reliability, ,
and interoperability of friendly information assets.
While eventually military in nature, cyber warfare is also waged in political, economic, and psycho-social arenas
and is applicable over the entire national security spectrum from peace to war and from tooth to tail. It capitalizes
on the growing sophistication, connectivity, and reliance on information technology (IT). That is why, as we
address the challenges of the 21st century, we must take into account rapid technological developments in
information management and dispensation, that are indicative of, many believe to be the beginning of a postindustrial age; the Information Age.
Pakistans Armed forces, like others, are becoming increasingly dependent upon the civilian information
infrastructure, which is essentially world-wide. Commercial systems are no less vulnerable than their military
counterparts. In this situation, it is critical for Pakistan to work out a strategy to utilize the benefits of the
information technology, while revitalizing itself against the threats posed by Cyber warfare.
Pakistan is in the evolution process of developing a meaningful approach to develop and employ Cyber warfare

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means against the enemy and defend against such attacks. The sphere of Cyber warfare falling in the strategic
domain requires response at the national level in general and at army level in particular. Therefore, there is a need
to develop an understanding of the cyber warfare, analyze the threat to Pakistan, and recommend measures to
enhance national war effort.

Aim
To carry out an in-depth study and analysis of cyber aspects of Non Kinetic Warfare, highlighting threat
dimensions, response options and directions for the future with particular reference to Pakistan.

Scope
An Endeavour will be made to seek answer to the following questions:-

a. What is the genesis of Non Kinetic Warfare?


b. How does Non Kinetic Warfare manifests in various
forms?
c. The conceptual contours of cyber warfare?
d. The prospects of cyber threat in our scenario?
e. How to prepare ourselves for the future?

CHAPTER II
CONCEPTUAL CONTOURS OF NON KINETIC
APPLICATIONS
General
6. The nuclear overhang and the rising cost of warfare both in men and material, envisage that the future wars will
predominantly be fought in the non-kinetic domain. These wars will incorporate the will of the people as primary
target. The growing significance of non-kinetic approaches and methods in present strategic environment
necessitate the development of credible non-kinetic capabilities by the contemporary states, in addition to the
kinetic deterrence, to project power; solve problems and secure interests.
7. It is about time to reject the conventional concept of war fighting in the kinetic realm and think about solving
conflicts in ways other than those of causing destruction and bloodshed. In this chapter an effort will be made to
examine the rapid growth in the arsenal of non-kinetic warfare, so as to highlight appropriate actions that states
and their predominantly kinetic armies could undertake in the future. The terms kinetic and non-kinetic are new
buzzwords in the military literature at present, although, Sun Tzu had already described the non-kinetic approach
as the pinnacle of the art of war [2] , during the 6th century BC.

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The Conceptual Foundation and Definition


7. To lay the conceptual foundations of non-kinetic warfare it is pertinent to understand the terms kinetic and
non-kinetic. Very few United States Department of Defense (DoD) resources define the term kinetic. This
word is absent from the DoD Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms [3] and not clearly defined in other
major doctrinal publications of the United States Joint Staff, the Army, Navy or Marine Corps. The Air Force
Doctrine Document 2 (AFDD2) Operations and Organization is perhaps the only major United States doctrinal
publication that attempts to define the terms kinetic or non-kinetic. Under the heading Effects-Based
Considerations for Planning, the document states that:Kinetic actions are those taken through physical, material means like bombs, bullets, rockets, and other
munitions. Non-kinetic actions are logical, electromagnetic, or behavioral, such as a computer network attack on
an enemy system or a psychological operation aimed at enemy troops. While non-kinetic actions have a physical
component, the effects they impose are mainly indirect functional, systemic, psychological, or behavioral [4] .
8. The above quoted document uses means to characterize kinetic actions, however non-kinetic actions are

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describe with the help of effects. This is an incongruent way of defining a pair of antonyms. It may not satisfy all
the situations. For example: firing a warning shot into the air can be classified both as kinetic and non-kinetic? It
fits into both of the Air Force Doctrine Document (AFDD) 2 definitions i.e. use of physical means (kinetic) as
well as indirect effects it causes (non-kinetic). It is, therefore, imperative to define both terms in a uniform manner,
either depending upon use of means or the ensuing effects. While the similar means may be employed for both
kinetic and non-kinetic actions, the method / technique of their employment will decide its kinetic or non kinetic
application. More often than not, a single action can have both tangible and intangible effects. We can differentiate
between kinetic and non-kinetic actions basing on whether it has a physical damage i.e. injuring, killing or
destruction of an intended enemy. In simple words, kinetic results into inflicting physical damage on the
anticipated target; while non-kinetic is the effect of that damage. For example, even though North Koreas
nuclear test in early February 2013, involved physical destruction, its intended effects were a show of strength and
deterrence to the enemies. Hence, this test fire may be termed as a non-kinetic action.

Historical Perspective
11. The concept of non-kinetic approach towards warfare is as old as warfare itself. Many of historys greatest
generals had a natural sense for it. Like the Sun Tzu began his discourse on warfare in his famous book Art of
War by saying:
Generally, in war the best policy is to take a state intact; to ruin it, is inferior to this. To capture the enemys army
is better, than to destroy it; to take intact, a battalion, a company or a five-man squad is better than to kill them.
For, to win one hundred victories in one hundred battles; is not the acme of skill, to subdue the enemy without
fighting is the acme of skill Thus, those skilled in war subdue the enemys army without battle. They capture
his cities without assaulting and overthrow his state without prolonged operations. Your aim must be, to take Allunder-Heaven intact. So your troops are not worn out and your gains will be complete. This is the art of offensive
strategy [5] .

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12. While Sun Tzus immense work on the art of war is primarily about the way of fighting, it is evident from the
above mentioned quotation that, he did not idealize kinetic operations as the perfect route to victory. He preferred
to win through ideas without resorting to fighting and destruction. Thus, according to him, non-kinetic strategy was
superior to one that was kinetic.
13. In 1989, William S. Lind proposed that the emerging Fourth Generation Warfare would be dispersed,
undefined due to nonexistent distinction between war and peace [6] . In this kind of warfare the objective has
transformed into non-kinetic impairment of the enemy`s will instead of the kinetic destruction of military forces,
This is because of the prevalent sociopolitical-economic environment that the kinetic warfare, today, is more of a
liability than at any time in history.
14. In the middle of the 20th century, the British strategic theorist B.H. Liddell Hart advocates the indirect
approach in strategy. The wisest strategy, he argued, avoids the enemys strength and probes for weakness.

Various Dimensions of Non-kinetic Warfare


15. Prevalent Environment. At present, the anarchic state structure almost globally leads to a state of continued
conflict. These conflicts are mostly in the psychological domain. In addition, the advancements in the informational,
diplomatic, economic, ideological, and technological means have relegated the military prong to merely a support
role. With expansion in the IT and growing globalization, it has become possible now to generate desired effects
through non-lethal components of DIME [7] (Diplomatic, Informational, Military & Economics) matrix.
16. Strategic Prospects. Geo-economic environment has intensified interstate competition, reducing space for
kinetic conflicts; thereby moving them into the ideological, informational and cyber domains. Resource wars are
the new phenomena, coming up in the face of quickly depleting resources and rapidly growing population. Supernational organizations or aligned states have greater share in defining economies and policies worldwide; hence
non relevance with their agenda is a convincing threat scenario. Hence, Nations are being exploited by adversarial
states, non-state actors, International Financial Institutions, international media, publishing houses, think tanks,
intellectual and writing forums, human right organizations, children and labor laws, and international trade
agreements like, World Trade Organization and International Atomic Energy Agency etcetera.
17. Non-Kinetic apparatus. The commonly used apparatus is:a. Military (to compliment the non-kinetic domains).
b. Diplomatic tentacles, traders, economists, bankers, politicians, Non State Actors, Trans-national Companies,
Multi-national Companies, Non-governmental Organizations & international organisations like United nations,
European Union, International Court Justice, World Bank etc.
18. Domains of Non Kinetic Challenges

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a. Information & Media Operations. The sole aim of the information and media operations is to flood massive
volume of information into the mind of the consumer. This flooding leaves the audience unable to filter the right
from wrong. Whether information is believed, ignored or distrusted will depend upon the intellectual standing of the
receiver and reputation and credibility of the sender.
b. Cyber Warfare. Attacks in this domain can disable / deny official networks and websites, disrupt or disable vital
services, steal or modify classified data and cripple financial systems & electricity grids -- among many other
possibilities. Most recent applications are [8] :-

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Attack on Iranian Natanz nuclear enrichment facility by Stuxnet virus.


Indian and Pakistan hackers defacing and hacking each others websites.
There is even talk of US predator drones command & control systems becoming a victim of cyber warfare.
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Russia and China employ armies of cyber experts for hacking while raising of a US Cyber Command and
declaration by US to consider a cyber attack as an act of war speaks of its current and future importance.

Dissertations

c. Diplomacy. In 21st Century, diplomacy has eclipsed military as the most important tool of statecraft as now it
alone can impair the will of an adversary to a level of shaking down willingness without having to resort to kinetic
actions.
d. Soft Power. It is the ability to use others through co-option and luring in and its currencies are values, ethics,
culture, policies and institutions.
e. 4th Generation Warfare, Sub Conventional Warfare & Proxies. These are kinetic application tools of Smart
Power, where while remaining under full blown military / kinetic applications, they work to induce enemy's political
decision makers that their strategic goals are either unattainable or too expensive for the perceived benefit.
f. Non-kinetic energy weapons. To enhance the efficacy of Non kinetic Applications certain explicit theories have
been devised which aim to draw benefits out of chaos and disorganization. Visible expressions are evident in
present times. Salient ones are:Creative Chaos Theory [9] . Here existing chaos is either aggravated or deliberately created to force major
adjustments / modifications in state structures. Libya & Arab Spring are recent examples; Pakistan needs to draw
lessons from these situations as similar applications are within the realm of possibility.
Shock Doctrine/ Disaster Capitalism [10] . This theory asserts that states deliberately profit from public perplexity
following man-orchestrated or natural disasters. Contracting out of oilfields in Iraq to western oil companies is a
clear expression.
Disruptive Technologies [11] . New technology has also enabled states to cause extensive damages within the
natural and human spheres to their adversaries. Diagram - 1haarp_wave_propagation.jpg
HAARP Theory. It proposes tampering of ionosphere & geo-physical domain for purposeful military and civilian
application [12] . Visible signs of its manifestation exist in terms of weather and geo-physical manipulations [13] .
Mind Control Sciences [14] . The theory revolves around making a deliberate attempt to manage publics
perception on a subject through sensitization. Although in its early stages of development, it is a potent threat for
the future [15] .

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Extremely Low Frequency & Directed Energy Weapons [16] . (Diagram 1) ELF uses radio waves as a weapon to
create incapacitation and disruption without resorting to destruction; whereas Directed Energy weapons are the
newest in the range of destructive weapons but with tremendous potential and range of utility. Applications in this
domain are presently experimental in nature but fast reaching operational status.
18. Conclusions. Following important conclusions emerge which help assimilate non-kinetic challenges and thus
merit attention:Non-kinetic means will be preferred over the kinetic means to achieve national aims and objectives.

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The main purpose of non-kinetic application will be to trigger, exploit, or amplify internal instabilities and fault lines
of the target nations in order to impair national will and resolve.
Information technology and electronic & print media will be the primary means of application.
Cyber domain will be used to augment these means, so as to magnify future threats. Ever improving technology
will add to its effectiveness.
Kinetic domain will remain relevant as means of deterrence, while non-kinetic means are concurrently
strengthened and developed.

CHAPTER III
CYBER WARFARE - AN EMERGING NON KINETIC
DIMENSION
It has belatedly begun to dawn on people that industrial civilization is coming to an end. Its unraveling . . . brings
with it the threat of more, not fewer, warswars of a new type [17] .
Alvin and Heidi Toffler

General
23. Cyber warfare is an outcome of information age paraphernalia like satellites, electronic mailing system,
internet, computers and micro-chip. Growing use of these tools in all fields of life, makes it mandatory for various
elements of national power to absorb, store, evaluate, use and exchange large volumes of information. This
necessitates establishment of versatile management structures. These systems invariably contain inbuilt strengths
and vulnerabilities. Exploiting such vulnerabilities of the enemy has come up as a new dimension of war craft
termed as cyber warfare.
24. Cyber warfare can manipulate all three components of the nation-state: the people, the government, and the
military. This is a new pattern of warfare in which there is no need to send formations of soldiers or armada of
warships, instead computer viruses and logic bombs in microprocessor control units and memory chips, may
cause a wide spread disorder of every tier of society including military systems.

Cyber Warfare Definition, Tools and Techniques


25. Definition
a. Before we can define cyber warfare, it is important to understand Information Warfare (IW) which, in the
technical sense has been defined as Actions taken to achieve information superiority by affecting adversarys
information, information based processes, and information systems, while defending ones own information,
information based processes and information systems. [18] This being universal in nature does not demarcate the
military aspects of IW. Military related definition on IW, as used by U.S. Department of Defence is, Actions taken
to achieve information superiority in support of national military strategy by affecting adversarys information and
information systems while leveraging and defending our information and information systems. [19]
b. Cyber warfare is defined as Non-kinetic, offensive actions taken to achieve information superiority by affecting
enemy information based processes, information systems and computer-based networks. [20] From the definition,
cyber warfare appears to be the sub-set of IW that involves actions taken within the cyber space as opposed to the
physical space or world. The cyber space is a virtual reality enclosed within a collection of computers and
networks. One most relevant to cyber warfare is the internet and related networks (military or civil) that share
media within or with the internet.
26. Characteristics of Cyber Warfare. [21] Attached as Annex A.
27. Potential Cyber Attack Weapons. [22] Attached as Annex B.

Cyber Dimension of Non Kinetic Warfare


28. The Conceptual Framework

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a. Once we talk of cyber dimension of non-kinetic warfare then all the related terms like software war, net war,
hackers war, cyber attacks and cyber terrorism converge at one point becoming synonymous to each other. The
tools, modus operandi, actors and even the underlying philosophy; all become part of Non Kinetic warfare.
Dominant feature, however, remains the use of cyber space as a medium to wage war and cause massive
disruption.

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b. Due to inexpensive availability of IT tools, likelihood of cyber attacks as means of non-kinetic warfare has
become high. Such attacks can be launched by terrorists to spread terror, by criminals for petty financial gains or
by nation-states who cannot afford to wage war against their adversaries through conventional means. These will
not only target the web sites of government organizations and private companies, but can also attack more highvalue targets such as the networks that control vital economic or power infrastructures.
c. Possible scenarios of cyber attacks in the realm of non-kinetics can be:(1) Deny the target nation, its communications and financial resources.
(2) Cause an absolute failure of the telephone and electrical supply systems. The loss of electrical power only can
result in chaos and disorder due to a variety of problems.
(3) Use internet (which includes sites from all the major news sources) to spread fake information or simply disable
all the news sources on the internet.
(4) Zero out financial accounts of the important government or private offices, institutions or persons.
(5) Misroute trains, crumple the air traffic control system and cause failure of all utilities.
(6) Through hacking, change the composition of steel at a mill to make it susceptible to cracking in extreme
hot/cold weather or manipulate components of a food product to add some amounts more than the normal so that
it is large enough to become toxic.
(7) Through computer malfunctions, cause detonation or failure of military weapon systems, leaving a country
vulnerable to conventional, or worse, Weapons of Mass Destruction attacks.
(8) Cause widespread environmental damage through explosions at computer-controlled chemical factories,
undetected leaks in oil pipelines and the bursting of dams.
(9) Fatalities that would result from these attacks include deaths from transportation accidents, exposure to
extreme temperatures caused by power failures, drowning from burst dams, riots etcetera.
29. Actors and their Motives. Hundreds of individuals, groups of people or even nations could be considered as
potential actors. Anyone with a computer, modem, and telephone can access almost any portion of the information
from any location whereas; detecting and tracing such activity can be extremely difficult. The identified actors are:a. Hackers. Although most publicized cyber intrusions are credited to lone computer-hacking hobbyists, such
hackers pose insignificant threat of widespread or long-duration damage to national-level infrastructures. A bulk of
hackers does not, in fact, have a motive to do so. Nevertheless, their large worldwide population poses a relatively
high threat of an isolated or brief disruption causing serious damage.
b. Hacktivists. [23] This is a small population of politically motivated hackers, which may include individuals and
groups who have intentions against their own or foreign governments. They pose a medium-level threat of carrying
out an isolated but damaging attack. Most international hacktivist groups, however, appear bent on propaganda
rather than damage to critical infrastructures. Pro-Beijing Chinese hackers over the past three years have
conducted mass cyber protests in response to events such as the 1999 NATO bombing of Chinese embassy in
Belgrade and the more recent EP-3 incident.

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c. Industrial Spies and Organized Crime Groups. [24] International corporate spies and organized crime
organizations also pose a medium-level cyber threat through their ability to conduct industrial espionage and
large-scale monetary theft, respectively.
d. Terrorists and their Sympathizers. [25] Conventional terrorists, despite their intentions to damage a nations
interests are less developed in their computer network capabilities. Hot pursuit after the 9/11 attacks, however,
revealed increasing use of cyber means by the terrorist groups, for planning, financial transactions and
communication security. In the near future, terrorists are likely to stay focused on traditional attack methods as
bombs still work better than bytes.
e. Targeted Nation-States. [26] This breed of actors has emerged especially after the 9/11 incident and is mainly
the concern of U.S. Several nation-states, including not only Afghanistan, but also U.S. Designated supporters of
terrorism, such as Syria, Iraq, Iran, Sudan and Libya could possibly develop cyber warfare capabilities and direct
those against U.S and her allies.
f. Thrill Seekers. Any conflict that plays out in cyberspace will invariably draw a huge number of hackers who
simply want to gain notoriety through high profile attacks.
g. National Governments. The threats from institutionalized cyber warfare programmes would range from
misinformation and low-level nuisance web page defacements to espionage and serious infrastructural disruption
with loss of life.
30. Prospective Targets. [27] Attached as Annex C.

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Cyber Aspects Of Non Kinetic Warfare Politics Essay

Conclusions
31. Following conclusions can be drawn from the preceding discussion:a. Clearly, computer technology is the way of the future and computers are at the heart of every aspect of our
existence. Military operations are no exception. Both offensively and defensively, computer technology is, and will
increasingly become critical to military operations.
b. Far from taking months to assemble the forces necessary to carry out a huge conventional kinetic attack, a
cyber attack could cause the same damage instantly. Further, the attack could originate from a great distance,
giving little warning or opportunity for defence.
c. Due to inexpensive availability and the effects achieved, cyber warfare will become a popular tool of weaker
nations or aggressive groups for waging non-kinetic wars against stronger adversaries.
d. Cyber warfare has enormous potential for mass destruction. Cyber warfare may be distinguished from other
weapons of mass destruction (WMD) as one that is only a weapon of mass destruction as applied under
circumstances and not a WMD . It is a low budget/low risk, and high-technology vehicle for mass destruction.
e. The tradecraft needed to employ technology and tools effectively remains an important limiting factor for
individuals or groups to fulfill their agenda. Therefore, among the array of cyber threats, as seen today, only
government sponsored programs are likely to develop capabilities of causing widespread, long-duration damage
to critical infrastructures.
f. Because of civilian domination in this sector, folding civilians into military will become an integral part of future
combat.

CHAPTER - IV
THREAT PERCEPTION AND RESPONSE
One ounce of silicon and effective information exploitation may be worth more than a ton of uranium. [28]
Indian Defence Review

Assessing the Chances of a Cyber War in the Sub-continent


32. Salient aspects of transitory indicators of warfare in Indo-Pak Sub-continent are:-

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General. A review of the global scene over the past few decades reveals that potential nuclear warfare has given
way to restricted nuclear deterrence; total war has given way to limited war; there has been a rise in irregular or
non-kinetic warfare; and there has been an increasing propensity on the part of nation-states to demonstrate their
military power rather than actually use it.
Post-1971; Absence of Major War in the Subcontinent. In the context of the Indo-Pak Sub-continent, there has
been no major war since 1971. Besides the prohibitive cost of a conventional war, it is the lack of any significant
military edge in the conventional capabilities of both nations and, thus, the inability to achieve a clear and decisive
military victory which has contributed to the absence of a large-scale conventional war. This again points towards
possibilities of a limited war as contended earlier.

Myth of Nuclear War


Contrary to Western media propounding the theory of South Asia becoming a nuclear flashpoint [29] , it is being
felt that nuclear weapons have contributed more to prevention of a major war rather than war-fighting in the region.
There is also a widespread belief that nuclear war cannot be won and must not be fought, and in the case of India
and Pakistan, neither side has such a high stake in the war and its outcome to risk a nuclear exchange. General
Donn A. Starry of the U.S. Army had also felt that nuclear weapons, especially at operational and tactical levels,
have become non-relevant means of seeking political goals likely to be considered appropriate by modern nationstates [30] .
All future wars therefore, are likely to be short with limited objectives as the presence of nuclear deterrence
mitigates the possibility of occurrence of protracted conventional war. Similarly, presence of a credible
conventional deterrence also prevents the adversary from resorting to war.
Assumption. It is therefore; safe to assume that given the constraints of nuclear war, the belligerents will exploit IW
related facets in an overall limited conflict to degrade the will of the other.

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Cyber Aspects Of Non Kinetic Warfare Politics Essay

Indian Threat Potential


33. Indian dominance in the computer software and hardware manufacture and availability of her experts all over
the world provides her a great strategic advantage over Pakistan. Present Indian share of software export in the
international market to the tune of U.S. dollars 1 billion, amply reflects their current standing and the potential in
computer related fields. With this formidable computer base, it is logical to conclude that should Indians decide to
exploit computer advantage to wage a cyber war against Pakistan, the threat could be quite potent. The
capabilities of Indian agencies in this field are though not known but our vulnerabilities are likely to grow as we
increase our dependence on imported and hired computer software and hardware systems. Following extracts
from various articles and studies [31] will serve as an estimate of Indian threat potential:a. India is being recognized as the cyber giant of tomorrow.
b. India has brand named information technology (IT) as India Tomorrow.

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c. Indians claim that IT is to India, what oil is to Gulf.


d. West acknowledges that India has the potential to become a global superpower in the knowledge economy.
e. Software services contribute 7.5% of the GDP growth of India.
f. Exports in the IT sector will account for 35% of total exports from India by 2008.
g. In India there will be 2.2 million jobs in IT by year 2008.
h. IT sector by 2010 will attract foreign direct investment of $4.5 billion.
j. Overall revenues from the IT sector will be nearly $90 billion including $50 billion in exports by 2010.
k. General V.P. Malik ex Indian Army Chief, insistently stressed upon the message that "Cyber war is to the 21st
century what Blitzkrieg was to the 20th". He took series of measures and initiated modernization plans in this
regard.
l. Tools like electromagnetic pulse (EMP) bombs that can fry electronic circuit boards and computer viruses are
some areas India is looking at with great interest.
m. In year 2000 a classified IT Roadmap spelt out the objectives and action plan for the spread of IT in the Indian
army. The document has decreed that all its officers and junior leaders will become computer literate by the year
2002.
n. In year 2001, the Army Institute of IT began its first course at its temporary campus in Hyderabad to teach
combat leaders the rudiments of IW and its related facets. Simultaneously, three army technology institutes, two
located at Sikanderabad and one at Pune, began to introduce it as part of their syllabus.
o. Among other initiatives, the celebrated National Defence Academy has started offering a BSc in computer
sciences since year 2000.

Threat Response
34. To guard against our cyber vulnerabilities we need to develop a vision that should include determination to
harness and leverage IT as an essential part of the requirement to maintain the military strength of Pakistan in the
global arena and to protect against non-kinetic vulnerabilities arising from foreign exploitation of IT. These nonkinetic vulnerabilities however, cannot be combated by the Armed Forces alone. A coherent response at national
level will thus be needed integrating civil and military both. In the backdrop of the same, suggested response
measures are:-

a. The Need for a Change in Mindset. The explosion of IT


has set in motion a virtual tidal wave of change that is
profoundly affecting organizations and individuals in
multiple dimensions. The military is no exception. To catch
up with rest of the world, we need a quick change in our
mindset from conventional to more dynamic field of IT in
all its manifestations.
b. IT Awareness. To our misfortune we have not benefited from the revolution in IT to the desired level. We lack
not only in general awareness about IT but also in the expertise required to effectively employ and counter its
various war related dimensions. As a long term measure IT culture is required to be promoted in our
schools/colleges. To meet the existing cyber threat on the contrary, a degree of awareness about the potential

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Cyber Aspects Of Non Kinetic Warfare Politics Essay

threat is required to be developed at required levels. The focus on following areas will greatly help to achieve the
desired goals:(1) Our existing standing operating procedures for controlling information activities in the country are not in
consonance with the information age. Working out an elaborate set of rules to address information security issues
and establishment of a cyber organization at national level may help formulating a code of conduct in this regards.

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(2) General awareness with regards to cyber threat especially for personnel handling/operating the computer
systems in government/private sector as well as in Armed Forces.
(3) Introduction of various facets of cyber activities as a separate discipline in technical universities/institutions to
broaden the base of understanding and awareness at grass roots level.
c. Cyber Warfare Policy. War must not be considered an exclusive domain of the military, is a lesson of history
which is being seen more vividly as a result of this new dimension of warfare. Barring rare instances, isolation of
military, national, public and private information systems is impossible today. There is, therefore, a definite need to
have a comprehensive IT and cyber warfare policy weaving all the elements for a coherent response.
d. Internet as a Medium for Propaganda. With internet in everyones reach, there is dire need in the country to
enhance the level of awareness about this media tool. Following need to be carefully addressed for formulating a
more cogent policy towards this aspect:Inclusion of elaborate rules governing internet in National Media Policy.
Use of internet to boast issues of national interest.
Measures to offset the propaganda by adversaries through the internet.
Encourage private sector to establish web sites to promote national and foreign policy.
e. Role of Private Sector. Cyber warfare in the realm of asymmetry is also the application of a destructive force
against the nation's critical infrastructures. The private sector must protect itself against targeted hacker attacks
aiming at economic espionage, theft of information etcetera. These can pose serious economic security risks for
the nation.

f. Professional Military Education (PME) and Training.


Raising awareness of the threat, opportunities, and
vulnerabilities inherent in the changes underway can best
be done through the PME structure. PME must serve as a
change agent for the military grappling with the information
age.
g. Re-look at the Intelligence Setup. Intelligence organizations will have to be strengthened and reorganized. They
need to be split into specialized branches for dealing with specific threats such as net and cyber crimes and all
other issues related to the cyber warfare.

h. Research and Development. It must start at the university


level. Unfortunately, non-availability of funds mars
requisite efforts in this direction. Armed forces, with
required facilities already in place, must make concerted
efforts to harness offensive and defensive cyber warfare
capabilities.
CAHPTER - V
RECOMMENDATIONS
Victory smiles on those who anticipate the changes in the character of war, not upon those who wait to adapt
themselves after the changes occur.
Guilio Douhet
35. Having dilated upon various aspects of cyber warfare, Indias advances in the field and own response
parameters, few recommendations are offered for consideration.
Establishment of a Policy Cell. Effects of cyber warfare can best be synchronized if these are coordinated at the

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highest policy level as they combine more than one agency. At present there is no policy formulating body in
Pakistan, which can clearly define strategic direction and also ensure coordinated execution of cyber warfare.
Therefore, establishment of a Cyber Policy Cell preferably in the Ministry of Science and Technology is
recommended. It should integrate following:SUPARCO.
Countrys leading software development companies.
Representative from Military Operations and Intelligence Directorates.
Representatives from Pakistan Navy and Air Force.
This cell should undertake in-depth study of cyber warfare with a view to:Ascertaining existing IT potential within the country that can be integrated towards achievement of goals in the
field of cyber warfare.
Carryout assessment of the threat in its totality with its implications for Pakistan.
Determine parameters of advances required in the field of cyber warfare and policy measures required to be
implemented.

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National Objectives in the Field of Cyber Warfare. Attainment of cyber warfare capability should be added in our
list of national objectives. Following is recommended in this regard:-

Short Term 3 to 5 Years


Standardize and streamline acquisition and development of vital information systems for all elements of national
power; political, economic, psychological and military fields.
Attain indigenous capability of software development.
(c) Attain complete self sufficiency in operation and maintenance of all computerized systems.
(d) Develop expertise to monitor all computer related systems on induction, to detect any possible signs of
chipping and use of microbes.
(2) Long Term 10 Years
(a) Develop industrial base for indigenous development and production of computer hardware.
(b) Shielding and hardening of computer sites, vital data bases and communication centers against physical and
EMP threat.
(c) Develop credible deterrence against internal and external cyber warfare threats.
c. National Policy Guidelines on Cyber Warfare
Education Policy. Comprehensive education in Computer Sciences must be immediately introduced. Our
education system should progressively bring about awareness of IT. In the long term our education system should
produce sufficient expertise for various segments of cyber warfare programme.
Media Policy on Internet. Role played by our private sector in exploiting the advantages of internet is dismal. A
strong media policy offering incentives in this particular form of media must be promoted. National media should
also have a clear mandate in this field.
Defence Policy. All elements of national power be employed to develop a viable cyber warfare capability, to
guarantee safety and redundancy of information assets against cyber attacks in the short term and credible
deterrence through cyber strike capability in the long term.
Cyber Warfare Policy. A combined team of experts; Army, media, persons from IT field and others should be
formed to frame a time targeted and money bounded cyber warfare policy.
(6) Subordination to Military Strategy. Cyber warfare policy and the actions initiated thereto must fit carefully into
an overall strategy of war. A Cyber Warfare Cell at Joint Staff Headquarters be established to co-ordinate
offensive/defensive measures as part of military strategy. A suitable organizational set-up within respective
Signals/Electronic Warfare Directorates of each service be also created to co-ordinate and execute all cyber
warfare related measures flowing downwards.
d. Development of Cyber Warfare Capability
Joint Research. A competent research organization be created at the national level. The research organization,
headed by a single competent executive authority, on the line of Atomic Research Commission, with adequate
staff must evaluate and harness the potentials in the field of cyber warfare.

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Increase Awareness. Institute measures for increasing awareness of policy makers, information system managers
and general public in cyber warfare.
Security of Information Systems. Increase security of information systems by use of encryption technology and
security software. Additionally, carryout regular security analysis of vital information systems and make users
security conscious.
Ensure Contractors Accountability. By making them contractually responsible for the security of information
systems that they supply. We should commence building our own software, especially for systems that affect
national security.
Employment of Hackers. Due recognition should also be given to the computer hackers. They should be
constructively employed to check the system integrity and wage cyber attacks against the adversary when
required.

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Offensive Cyber Plans. As in other forms of warfare, offensive cyber plan would also turn out to be the best
defence against cyber attack. It would be much cheaper and easier to plan and launch a cyber attack as
compared to organizing defence against own systems.
e. PME. While some progress has been made toward bringing PME into the information age, the process needs to
be accelerated. Curriculums must be amended so that students become current in IT.

Conclusion
Operations within the information domain will become as important as those conducted in the domains of sea,
land, air, and space.
Joint Vision 2020
36. The information revolution, startlingly fast as it is, shows no signs of slowing. The description of non-kinetic
warfare and its cyber aspects, given in this monograph is neither definitive nor conclusive. The discussion is
intended primarily to stimulate thinking in unique and more meaningful ways about how warfare in the 21st century
may be fundamentally different than it is today. And, of equal importance, evaluating what we should be doing now
in order to prepare ourselves for the present and the future alike.
37. Cyber warfare stands as the predominant defining feature of warfare in the 21st century. In the non-kinetic
calculus, it contains opportunities, which if exploited in the right earnest will afford maximum security to the nation.
But the serious dangers resulting from ignoring its importance can only be ignored at the peril of the national
sovereignty. In our environment its problems are not so compounded as in the case of developed nations.
However, our quest for modernization and growing dependence on computers is likely to fully expose us to cyber
threat in near future. Indian dominance in computer industry amply reflects her potentials and standing in the
computer related technologies. Should India decide to exploit her domination, the threat could become meaningful.
The recommendations proffered in the study will not only help to create awareness in the field of cyber warfare but
in tandem will also reduce our vulnerabilities. It must however be remembered that in the field of cyber warfare
best defence lies in the offensive cyber actions.
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