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# Answers to Review Questions

## Mechanical Vibrations, Fifth Edition in SI Units

Singiresu S. Rao

Question 1.1:
1. Bad effects: (a) Blade and disk failure in turbines
(b) Poor surface finish in metal cutting
Good effects: (a) vibratory conveyors and hoppers
(b) Pile driving and vibratory finishing processes
2. Means to store potential energy: spring
Means to store kinetic energy: mass
Means by which energy is lost: damper
3. Degree of freedom is the minimum numbers of independent coordinates required
to determine completely the positions of all parts of a system at any instant of
time.
4. A discrete system is one that has a finite number of degrees of freedom. A
continuous system is one that has an infinite number of degrees of freedom. Any
continuous system can be approximated as a discrete system.
5. It may not be possible to disregard damping always, especially if the system is
excited near resonance.
6. Yes. If the differential equation is nonlinear, the corresponding system will be
nonlinear.
7. If the system parameters are completely known and the magnitude of excitation
acting on the vibratory system is known at any given time, the resulting vibration
is known as deterministic vibration. Examples are (i) simple pendulum, and (ii)
vibration of a cantilever beam subjected to harmonic base motion.
If the system parameters and/or excitation of a system are random or
nondeterministic, the resulting vibration is called random vibration. Examples are
(i) vibration of an automobile due to road roughness, and (ii) vibration of a
multistory building subjected to an earthquake.
8. Standard methods of solving differential equations, Laplace transform methods,
matrix methods, and numerical methods.
9. In parallel.
10. Spring stiffness is the force necessary to deform the spring by a unit amount.
Damping constant is the force necessary to cause a unit velocity across the
damper.
11. Viscous damping, Coulomb (dry-friction) damping, and solid(hysteretic) damping.
12. Fourier series in terms of trigonometric functions, complex Fourier series, and
frequency spectrum.

13. Cycle: The movement of vibratory body from its equilibrium position to its
extreme position in one direction, then to the equilibrium position, then to its
extreme position in other direction, and back to equilibrium position is called a
cycle of vibration.
Amplitude: The maximum displacement of a vibrating body from its equilibrium
position is called the amplitude of vibration.
Phase angle: The angular difference between the occurrence of the maxima of two
harmonic motions having the same frequency is called the phase difference.
Linear frequency: The number of cycles per unit time.
Period: The time taken to complete one cycle of motion is called the period.
Natural frequency: If a system, after an initial disturbance, is left to vibrate on its
own, the frequency with which it oscillates without external forces, is known as
its natural frequency.
2 1
= .
14. =

f
15. Frequency: Angular velocity of the rotating vector ().
Phase: If the vertical projection of the rotating vector is nonzero at time t = 0, the
angular difference from the occurrence of zero vertical projection to t = 0 is called
the phase.
Amplitude: maximum projection of the rotating vector on the vertical axis.
16. If
x1 (t ) = A sin 1t
and
x 2 (t ) = A sin 2 t = A sin(1t + 1t )
,
1
t
x(t ) = x1 (t ) + x 2 (t ) = 2 A sin ( 1t + 1t ). cos 1
2
2
17. When two harmonic motions, with frequencies close to one another, are added,
the resulting motion exhibits a phenomenon known as beats. In beat phenomenon,
the amplitude builds up and dies down at a frequency known as beat frequency.
18. Decibel (dB) is defined as:
X

dB = 20 log
X
0
where X 0 is a specified reference value of X.
Octave: The frequency range in which the maximum value is twice the minimum
value is called an octave band.
19. When a periodic function is approximated by n terms of the Fourier series, the
approximation improves everywhere except in the vicinity of the discontinuity as
the value of n increases. This phenomenon is called the Gibbs phenomenon.
20. If a function, defined only in the interval 0 to , is extended arbitrarily to include
the interval to 0 for the purpose of Fourier series expansion, the resulting
expansion is known as the half-range expansion.

Question 1.2:
1. T
2. F
3. T
4. T
5. T
6. T
7. T
8. T
9. T
10. F
Question 1.3:
1. resonance
2. energy
3. mass
4. periodic
5. simple
6. period
7. frequency
8. synchronous
9. phase difference
10. infinite
11. discrete
12. coordinates
13. free
14. forced
15. natural
16. f (t ) = f (t )
17. half
18. harmonic
20. 0.01 s
Question 1.4:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

b
a
c
a
c
b
c
b

9. a
10. a
11. b
12. c
13. a
14. b
15. a
16. a
Question 1.5:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

b
c
e
d
a

Question 1.6:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

c
e
a
d
b

Question 1.7:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

b
c
e
d
f
h
g
a

Question 2.1:
1. Assume that the system is underdamped. Then by measuring the amplitudes of
vibration m cycles apart, the logarithmic decrement () can be computed as
1 x
= ln 1
m x m +1

## The damping ratio ( ) can be found as

(2)2 + 2

2. No.
3. Mass moment of inertia, torsional damping constant, torsional stiffness, and
angular displacement, respectively.
k
4. Since the natural frequency is given by n =
, a decrease in m will cause the
m
natural frequency to increase.
m
2
= 2
, a decrease in k will cause
5. Since the natural period is given by =
k
n
the natural period to increase.
6. Due to the damping present in the surroundings.
7. To avoid resonance.
8. Two. Constants are determined using two initial conditions ( usually, using the
initial values of the variable and its derivative).
9. Energy method cannot be used for damped systems.
10. No dissipation of energy due to damping.
11. If the system is underdamped or critically damped, the frequency of damped
vibration will be smaller than the natural frequency of the system.
12. Logarithmic decrement can be used to determine the damping constant of a
system by experimentally measuring any two consecutive displacement
amplitudes.
13. Since hysteresis damping depends on the area of the hysteresis loop (in the stressstrain diagram), the maximum stress influences hysteresis damping.
14. Critical damping corresponds to a damping ratio of one. It is important because
the motion will be aperiodic (non-oscillatory) with critical damping.
15. It is mostly dissipated as heat.
16. Equivalent viscous damping is defined such that the energy dissipated per cycle
during harmonic motion will be same in both the actual and the equivalent
viscous dampers. Equivalent viscous damping factor need not be a constant. For
h
example, in the case of hysteresis damping, ceq =
, indicating that the

## equivalent viscous damping depends on the frequency ( ).

17. Several mechanical and structural systems can be approximated, reasonably well,
as single degree of freedom systems.
g
18. n =

st
where st is the static deflection under self-weight and g is the acceleration due to

gravity.
19. Mechanical clock, Wind turbine.

c
c
=
c c 2 km
Logarithmic decrement ( ):
c
2
=
=
1 2 m d

## 20. Damping ratio( ): =

Loss coefficient: It is the ratio of energy dissipated per radian and the total strain
energy.
Specific damping capacity: It is the ratio of energy dissipated per cycle and the
total strain energy.
21. (i) Damping force is independent of the displacement and velocity.
(ii) Damping force depends only on the normal force (weight of the mass)
between the sliding surfaces.
(iii) Governing equation is nonlinear.
22. Complex stiffness = k + ih = k (1 + i )
h
where k = stiffness, i = 1 , h = hysteresis damping constant, and = = a
k
measure of damping.
23. Hysteresis damping constant (h) is the proportionality constant that relates the
damping coefficient (c) and the frequency ( ) as
h
c= .

24. Hammer, baseball bat, pendulum used in Izod impact testing of materials.
25. One.
26. Time constant is the value of time which makes the exponent in the solution

c
t
m

x(t ) = x 0 e
equal to -1.
27. A graph that shows how changes in one of the parameters of the system will
change the roots of the characteristic equation of the system is known as the root
locus plot.
28. Negative damping corresponds to an unstable system.
29. A system whose characteristics do not change with time is called a time invariant
system.
Question 2.2:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

T
T
T
F
F
F
T
T

9. T
10. F
11. T
12. T
13. F
14. T
15. T
16. T
17. T
18. T
19. T
20. T
21. T
22. F
Question 2.3:
1. kinetic, potential
2. harmonic
3. torsional
4. percussion
5. continues
6. N
7. loss
8. rigid
9. critical
10. amplitude
11. natural
12. logarithmic
13. d = 1 2 n
14. 63.2%
15. faster
16. damped

Question 2.4:
1. b
2. c
3. c
4. b
5. a
6. a
7. b
8. b
9. a
10. c

11. b
12. b
13. a
14. b
15. b
16. c
17. b
18. a
19. a
Question 2.5:
1 g
2 d
3 f
4 a
5 b
6 e
7 c
Question 2.6:
1
2
3
4
5

c
a
d
e
b

Question 3.1:
1. If the applied force is F (t ) = F0 cos t , the steady-state vibration response will
have the following characteristics:
x p (t ) = X cos t

Amplitude = X =

F0
k m 2

Frequency =
Phase = 0 (no phase difference between applied force and response).
2. For simplicity, consider an underdamped system. The steady-state response under
a harmonic force F (t ) = F0 cos t is given by
F0

x p (t ) =
cos t
2
k m

F0
= st = constant static
k
deflection of the mass due to F0 . This amounts to no effect on steady-state
response since the vibration due to additional time-dependent forces can be
considered to be about the new static equilibrium position of the mass.
3. For an underdamped system,
Maximum amplitude
Magnification factor =
deflection of mass under constant force
X
1
=
or
2
st

1
n

## For a constant force F0 , = 0 and hence x p (t ) =

4. If

< 1 , then

> 1 or > n .
n

st
5. In the neighborhood of resonance, the amplitude (X) is given by

X = st
2
and the phase angle by

= tan 1 () = .
2
6. Phase corresponding to peak amplitude is given by
2
2

2 r
2
1 2 1
1 2 1

=
=

with
tan
r
1
tan
2
1 (1 2 )

1 r

= tan 1

## For < 1 (underdamped system),

= tan 1 ( w) where w < 2 . Hence < 90 0 .
7. Because it avoids the amplitude from reaching a value of infinity.
8. Forced equation of motion:
..

m x + c x + k x = F (t ) = F0 cos t
Vector representation:

m 2 X
cX

F0

kX

## 9. Response becomes infinity.

10. Beating: This is a phenomenon that occurs when the forcing frequency is close to,
but not exactly equal to, the natural frequency of the system.

st

, is called
= n

## the quality factor of the system.

Transmissibility: When a system is subjected to harmonic base motion, the ratio
of the amplitude of the response to that of the base motion is called the
displacement transmissibility.
Complex stiffness:
The term, k (1 + i ) , in the equation of motion of a hysteretically damped system
is called complex stiffness.
When the damping force is proportional to the square of the velocity of the mass,
the corresponding damping is said to be quadratic damping.
11. For small values of r (r << 1) , both the inertia and damping force will be small,
which result in a small phase angle . Then the magnitude of the applied force
will be nearly equal to the spring force. For large values of r (r >> 1) , will be
nearly , and all the applied force will be overcoming the large inertia force.
Hence the response will be small.
12. Addition of damping reduces the force transmitted to the base only when r < 2 .
13. For small values of damping, the force transmitted to the base due to rotating
unbalance increases from zero to a peak value, then decreases for a while, and
then increases as the speed of the machine increases.
14. Yes.
15. Yes, theoretically possible.
16. Harmonic response is assumed.
17. Yes, under the following conditions:
(a) small damping values
(b) away from resonance.
18. Yes, only for

1.
n

19. Using mass of the system equal to the total mass of the machine, and magnitude
of the applied harmonic force equal to the centrifugal force, m e 2 , due to the
rotating unbalance.
20. Frequency of response will be . The response will be harmonic.
21. Peak amplitude ( X p ) occurs when X is maximum. Resonance amplitude ( X r )
occurs when r = 1 . For underdamped systems, X p > X r .
22. It is simple to handle mathematically. Governing differential equation will be
linear.
23. Self-excited vibration is one that results when the external force is a function of
the motion parameters of the system (such as displacement, velocity or
acceleration).

24. Transfer function is defined as the ratio of the Laplace transform of the output (or
response function) to the Laplace transform of the input (or forcing function),
assuming zero initial conditions.
25. By substituting i for s.
26. Graphs of logarithm of the magnitude of the frequency transfer function versus
logarithm of the frequency and phase angle versus logarithm of the frequency are
known as Bode diagrams.
27. A decibel is defined as 10 times the logarithm to base 10 of the ratio of two power
quantities.
Question 3.2:
1. T
2. T
3. T
4. F
5. T
6. T
7. T
8. F
9. F
10. T
11. T
12. T
13. T
14. T
15. T
16. T
Question 3.3:
1. harmonic
2. harmonic
3. transient
4. resonance
5. magnification
6. beating
7. transmissibility
8. impedance
9. bandwidth
10. quality
11. Coulomb
12. large
13. complex
14. turbulent
15. motion

16. self-excited
17. diverges
18. Laplace
19. transfer function
20. F(s)
21. algebraic
Question 3.4:
1. b
2. a
3. a
4. a
5. a
6. b
7. c
8. b
9. a
10. b
11. a
Question 3.5:
1d
2a
3f
4e
5c
6b
Question 3.6:
1c
2e
3a
4d
5b
Question 4.1:
1. Any periodic function can be expressed as a sum of harmonic functions using
Fourier series.
2. a. Representing the excitation by a Fourier integral.
b. Using the method of convolution integral
c. Using the method of Laplace transfor
d. Numerical integration of equations of motion

## 3. The equation denoting the response of an underdamped single degree of freedom

system to an arbitrary excitation is called Duhamel integral.
4. When an impulse of magnitude F is applied at t = 0 , the initial conditions can be
~

## taken as x(t = 0) = 0 , x(t = 0) =

F
~

m
5. Equation of motion of a system subjected to base excitation y (t ) is given by
..

..

m z + c z + kz = m y where z = x y .
6. Response spectrum is a graph showing the variation of the maximum response,
such as maximum displacement , with the natural frequency of a single degree of
freedom system to a specified forcing function.
7. It can treat discontinuous functions without any particular difficulty.
It automatically takes into account the initial conditions.
8. The response spectrum associated with the fictitious velocity associated with the
apparent harmonic motion is called pseudo spectrum.

9. x( s ) = L x(t ) = e st x(t ) dt
0

## 10. Generalized impedance ( Z ( s ) ):

Z ( s ) = ms 2 + cs + k
Admittance ( Y ( s ) ):
1
1
Y (s) =
=
2
Z ( s ) ms + cs + k
11. Step function and linear function.
12. If the forcing function is neither periodic nor harmonic, there will be no
resonance conditions.
2
13. If the period is T, the first harmonic frequency is given by 1 =
.
T
14. n th frequency ( n ) is given by n = n.1 ; n = 2,3,L
15. Transient response is due to initial conditions. Steady state response is due to the
applied force.
16. First order system is one whose governing differential equation is of order one.
17. A large force acting over a short period is called an impulse.
at x = 0
18. (i) ( x) =
0 at x 0

(ii)

( x) dx = 1

Question 4.2:
1. T
2. T
3. T
4. F
5. T
6. T
7. T
8. T
9. T
10. F
11. T
12. T
13. T
Question 4.3:
1. superposing
2. Fourier
3. short
4. impulse
5. convolution
6. response
7. convolution
9. algebraic
10. reciprocal
11. momentum
12. impulse
13. undamped
14. pseudo
15. Fourier
16. initial
17. impulse
19. X(s)
20. F(s)
21. Second
22. 1

Question 4.4:
1. b
2. b
3. c
4. c
5. b
6. b
7. a
8. b
9. b
10. a
11. a
12. c
13. c
14. a
15. b
16. a
17. b
18. a
Question 4.5:
1c
2e
3a
4f
5b
6d
Question 4.6:
a2
b5
c1
d3
e4

Question 5.1:
1. Number of degrees of freedom
= (number of masses in the system)(number of possible types of motion of each
mass)
2. If the mass matrix is not diagonal, the system is said to have mass coupling.
If the damping matrix is not diagonal, the system is said to have velocity coupling.
If the stiffness matrix is not diagonal, the system is said to have elastic coupling.
3. Yes.
4. (a) Six: for a rigid body
(b) Infinity: for an elastic body.
5. The coordinates that lead to equations of motion that are both statically and
dynamically uncoupled, are known as principal coordinates. They are useful since
the resulting equations of motion can be solved independently of one another.
6. Due to symmetry of influence coefficients; that is, the force along xi to cause a
unit displacement along x j is same as the force along x j to cause a unit
displacement along xi .
7. Node is a point in the system which does not move during vibration in a particular
mode.
8. Static coupling: If a static force is applied along xi , it causes displacement along
x j as well.
Dynamic coupling: If a dynamic force is applied along xi , it causes displacement
along x j as well.
Coupling of the equations of motion can be eliminated by using a special system
of coordinates known as principal coordinates.
9. Impedance matrix [ Z (i )] is defined by [ Z (i )] X = F 0
where,
Z rs (i ) = 2 mrs + i c rs + k rs
10. By giving initial conditions that simulate the displacement pattern of the
particular mode shape.
11. Degenerate system is one for which at least one of the natural frequencies is zero
( that is, the stiffness matrix is singular ) .
Examples:
Two railway cars connected by a spring.
Two rotors connected by an elastic shaft.
12. At the most, six, corresponding to three translational and three rigid body
rotational motions.
13. The frequency transfer function can be obtained by substituting s = i in the
general transfer function.
14. One.

Question 5.2:
1. T
2. F
3. T
4. F
5. T
6. T
7. T
8. T
9. T
10. T
11. F
12. F
13. F
14. F
15. T
16. T
17. T
18. T
19. T
20. T
Question 5.3:
1. natural/principal/normal
2. independent
3. resonance
4. initial
5. mass moments of inertia, torsional springs
6. coupling
7. rigid
8. static
9. dynamic
10. velocity
11. uncoupled
12. stability
13. physically
14. free
15. forced
16. characteristic
17. elastic

Question 5.4:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

a
b
c
a
c
a
a
b

Question 5.5:
1c
2a
3d
4b
Question 5.6:
1b
2d
3e
4c
5a
Question 6.1:
1. The flexibility influence coefficient, aij , is defined as the deflection at point i due
to a unit load at point j.
The stiffness influence coefficient, k ij , is defined as the force at point i due to a
unit displacement at point j when all the points other than the point j are fixed.
If [a] and [k ] denote the flexibility and stiffness matrices, respectively, then
[k ] = [a] 1 and [a ] = [k ] 1 .
2. Equations of motion:
..

[ m] x + [c ] x + [ k ] x = F
or
..

## [m] x + [c] x + [a] 1 x = F

3. Elastic potential energy (strain energy):
1 T
V = x [k ]x
2

Kinetic energy:
.T

.T

1
T = x [ m] x
2
4. The generalized mass matrix will have nonzero non-diagonal terms as:
m11 m12 L m1n
m
m22 L m2 n
21

[ m] =
M

mn1 mn 2 L mnn
5. The mass matrix [m] is always positive definite because the kinetic energy,
.

1
T = x [m] x , cannot be negative or zero for nonzero velocity vector x .
2
6. No. The stiffness matrix [k ] is positive definite only if the system is constrained
and stable. For a semi-definite system, the matrix [k ] will be singular and is said
to be just positive (not positive definite).
7. The generalized coordinates are a set of n independent coordinates that describe
the motion of an n degree of freedom system uniquely. They may be lengths,
angles or other set of numbers. On the other hand, if Cartesian coordinates are
used to describe an n degree of freedom system, we may require more than n
coordinates along with certain constraints to describe the system uniquely.
8. Lagranges equations:

d T T V
+
= Q (j n ) ; j = 1,2, L, n

dt q. q j q j
j

where q j =

q j

## = generalized velocity, Q (j n ) = nonconservative generalized

t
coordinate q j , T = kinetic energy , V = strain energy, and t = time.
9. Matrix eigenvalue problem:
2 [ m] X = [ k ] X
where 2 is the eigenvalue and X is the eigenvector.
10. Mode shape is same as the eigenvector X in the eigenvalue problem,
2 [ m] X = [ k ] X
(E.1)
The eigenvector X

(i )

## corresponding to the eigenvalue i2 can be computed by

substituting i2 in Eq. (E.1) and solving the resulting linear algebraic equations to
find X

(i )

:
(i )

[ [ m] [ k ] ] X = 0
11. n distinct natural frequencies.
2
i

## 12. Dynamic matrix = [ D] = [k ] 1 [m] . It is useful because it leads to a special

eigenvalue problem, instead of general eigenvalue problem, that needs to be
solved to find the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a system:
[ D] X = [ I ] X = X
13. Frequency equation:
2 [ m] + [ k ] = 0
or

[ I ] [ D] = 0
where = 2 and [ D] = [k ] 1 [m] .
14. Orthogonality of normal modes X
X

( j)T

[ m] X

(i )

( j)T

=0

(i )

implies

for i j

(i )

and X
[k ] X = 0 for i j
Orthogonal modal vectors implies
(i ) T

X [ m] X
and
(i ) T

(i )

= 1; i = 1, 2, L , n ;

(i )

X [k ] X = i2 ; i = 1, 2, L , n
15. Any set of n linearly independent vectors in an n-dimensional space is called a
basis in that space.

(i )

n

x = ci X

(i )

(i )

as

(E.1)

i =1

## where the constants ci can be determined as

(i ) T

ci = X [m] x ; i = 1, 2,L, n
(E.2)
Equations (E.1) and (E.2) denote the expansion theorem. The expansion theorem
is very useful in finding the response of multidegree of freedom systems subject
to arbitrary forcing conditions according to a procedure known as modal analysis.
17. Modal analysis procedure:
(i)
Solve the eigenvalue problem and find eigenvalues and eigenvectors
of the system.
(ii)
Express the solution vector in terms of normal modes (or eigenvectors)
using the expansion theorem. The constants used are known as
generalized coordinates.

(iii)

## Uncouple the equations of motion and solve the resulting system of n

second order ordinary differential equations.
Apply the known initial conditions and find the generalized
(iv)
coordinates( or generalized displacements ).
Using the known generalized displacements, find the physical
(v)
displacements of the system.
18. A rigid body mode is one in which the system moves as a rigid body ( either in
translatory or rotary motion ).
The rigid body mode, X

(0)

## , can be found by solving the equations:

(0)

[k ] X = 0
The frequency corresponding to the rigid body mode will be zero.
19. A degenerate system is an unrestrained system for which at least one eigenvalue
is zero ( corresponding to a rigid body motion or mode ).
20. Use only r modes ( r < n ) in the modal analysis so that the displacement vector of
the n degree of freedom system, x , is expressed as
r

(i )

x(t ) = qi (t ). X ;

r < n.

i =1

## 21. Rayleighs dissipation function ( R ) is defined as

.T

1
R = x [c ] x
2
where [c] is called the damping matrix.
22. Proportional damping: is one in which the damping matrix [c] is assumed to be a
linear combination of the mass and stiffness matrices as:
[c ] = [ m ] + [ k ]
where and are constants.
Modal damping ratio ( i ): is defined by

+ i2 = 2 i i
where i is the i th natural frequency of the system.
Modal participation factor ( qi ): is the i th generalized coordinate used in the
expansion theorem:
n

x(t ) = qi (t ). X

(i )

i =1

23. When the system is damped, and damping is not proportional damping, that is,
when [c] [m] + [k ]
24. Routh-Hurwitz criterion can be used to investigate the stability of a multidegree
of freedom system.

Question 6.2:
1. T
2. F
3. T
4. T
5. T
6. T
7. T
8. T
9. F
10. T
11. F
12. T
13. T
14. F
15. T
16. T
17. T
Question 6.3:
1. force
2. i, j
3. stiffness
4. orthogonal
5. influence
6. generalized
7. 0
8. singular
9. six
10. modal
11. basis
12. expansion
13. modal
14. uncoupled
15. basis
16. energy
17. characteristic
18. Maxwells
19. symmetric
20. stable
21. synchronous
22. stiffness, mass

Question 6.4:
1. c
2. a
3. c
4. a
5. b
6. b
7. b
8. a
9. c
10. b
11. a
12. b
13. a
Question 6.5:
1c
2f
3d
4h
5b
6g
7a
8e
Question 7.1:
1. Dunkerleys formula, Rayleighs method, Holzers method, matrix iteration
method, and Jacobis method.
2. Higher natural frequencies of a system are large compared to its fundamental
frequency.
3. The frequency of vibration of a conservative system vibrating about an
equilibrium position has a stationary value in the neighborhood of a natural mode.
This stationary value, in fact, is a minimum value in the neighborhood of the
fundamental natural mode.
4. The fundamental frequency given by Dunkerleys formula will always be smaller
than the exact value
The fundamental frequency given by Rayleighs method will always be larger
than the exact value.
5. Rayleighs quotient ( R ):
T

R = =
2

X [k ] X
T

X [ m] X

6. Holzers method is a trial and error method. In this method, first a trial frequency
of the system is assumed and a solution is found when the assumed frequency
satisfies the constraints of the system.
7. In matrix iteration method, a trial vector X 1 is assumed for the mode shape, and
is premultiplied by the dynamical matrix [D]. The resulting column vector is
normalized, usually by making one of its components to unity. The normalized
column vector premultiplied by [D] to obtain a third column vector, which is
normalized in the same way as before, and becomes still another trial column
vector. The process is repeated until the successive normalized column vectors
converge to a common vector. The converged vector represents the fundamental
1
eigenvector and the constant used in the normalization process denotes 2 where

## 1 is the fundamental eigenvalue.

8. Yes, provided we use [ D] 1 in place of [D] for premultiplication in the matrix
iteration method.
9. A procedure known as matrix deflation is used to find a deflated matrix [ Di ] to
be used in place of the dynamical matrix [D] for premultiplication in the matrix
iteration method.
10. The matrix iteration method finds one eigenvalue and the corresponding
eigenvector at a time while the Jacobis method finds all the eigenvalues and
eigenvectors simultaneously.
11. Rotation matrix, [R ] , is defined as
L 0

1 0
0 1
L 0

row i
cos
sin

[ R1 ] =

O
n n

row j
sin
cos

M
O

( E.1 )
column
i

column
j

where
2 d ij

tan 2 =
( E.2 )
d d
ii
jj

## By carrying out the computations as

[ D ] = [ R1 ]T [ D ][ R1 ]
( E.3 )
the off-diagonal components d ij and d ji of [D] will be reduced to zero. By
carrying out the computations according to Eq. ( E.3 ) using different rotation
matrices [ R2 ], [ R3 ],L , the final matrix [D] will be reduced to a diagonal matrix.
The diagonal elements will then represent the eigenvalues and the columns of the
product of rotation matrices [ R1 ][ R2 ]L denote the eigenvectors of the matrix [ D] .
12. Standard eigenvalue problem:
[ [D] [I ] ] X = 0
where is the eigenvalue and X is the eigenvector.
13. The general eigenvalue problem
[k ] X = 2 [k ] X
( E.1 )
can be converted to a standard eigenvalue problem as
[ D] X = X
( E.2 )
1
where = 2 and [ D] = [k ] 1 [m].

However, [ D] will be nonsymmetric in Eq. ( E.2 ) although [k ] and [m] are
symmetric. Choleski decomposition method can be used to express [k ] as
( E.3 )
[k ] = [U ]T [U ]
where [U ] is an upper triangular matrix, and Eq. ( E.1 ) can be converted to a
standard eigenvalue problem as
[ D] Y = Y
( E.4 )
T 1
1
( E.5 )
where [ D] = ( [U ] ) [ m ] [ U ]
and Y = [U ] X or X = [U ] 1 Y .
The matrix [D] in Eq. ( E.4 ) will be symmetric.
14. If [u ij ] = [U ] is an upper triangular matrix, its inverse, [a ij ] = [U ] 1 , can be
determined as follows:
[U ] [U ] 1 = [ I ]
Equating the corresponding elements on both sides of Eq. ( E.1 ), we can
determine the elements of [U ] 1 .
Question 7.2:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

F
T
F
T
T
T
T

8. T
9. F
10. T
11. T
Question 7.3:
1. upper triangular
2. Choleski
3. zero
4. expansion
5. largest
6. upper, lower
7. eigenvector
8. static
9. trial and error
10. Holzers
11. deflation
Question 7.4:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

a
b
b
a
c
a

Question 7.5:
1d
2e
3a
4b
5c
Question 8.1:
1. Equations of motion will be partial differential equations for continuous systems
and ordinary differential equations for discrete systems.
2. Infinity
3. No. Because they are taken care, in an indirect way, in generating the influence
coefficients.

4. Wave equation:
2w 2w
c2 2 = 2
x
t
P
.
where c =

## Traveling wave solution:

w( x, t ) = w1 ( x ct ) + w2 ( x + ct )
where w1 and w2 are arbitrary functions of x c t and x + c t , respectively,
which are determined from the initial conditions.
5. Wave velocity gives the velocity with which the waves w1 ( x c t ) and
w2 ( x + c t ) propagate in the positive and negative directions of the x-axis,
respectively.
6. Boundary conditions for a simply supported end of a beam:
(i)
Thin beam theory (w = transverse displacement):
2w
w = 0, EI 2 = 0
x
Timoshenko beam theory (w = transverse displacement, = bending
(ii)

slope): w = 0, EI
=0
x
7. Possible boundary conditions at the ends of a string:
(i)
Fixed end: w = 0
(ii)
String connected to a pin that can move in a perpendicular direction:
w
P
= 0 ( P = tension in string )
x
w
(iii) Free end :
=0
x
(iv)
Elastically supported by a spring of stiffness k :
~

w
P
= k w
~
x
8. Frequency equations:
For discrete systems: Polynomial equation.
For continuous systems: Transcendental equation.
9. For tensile force, the natural frequencies of the beam increase.
10. As the axial force (compressive) approaches the Euler buckling load, Pcri , the
natural frequency of the beam approaches zero.
11. The beam becomes less stiff when the effects of shear deformation and rotary
inertia are considered.
12. Drumhead, cover of a cylindrical soda can.
13. The maximum potential (strain) energy is equal to the maximum kinetic energy.
14. The Rayleighs quotient, which gives 12 , attains minimum at the exact
fundamental mode. Hence any other mode, used as an approximation, yields a
larger value of 12 than the exact value.

15. In Rayleighs method, a one-term solution is assumed for the mode shape. In the
Rayleigh-Ritz method, a multi-term solution is assumed for the mode shape.
l d 2W ( x) 2
dx
EI
2
dx

## Rayleighs quotient for a beam, R( ) = 2 = 0 l

A(W ( x) )2 dx
0

Question 8.2:
1. T
2. T
3. F
4. T
5. T
6. T
7. T
8. T
9. T
10. F
Question 8.3:
1. wave
2. characteristic
3. product
4. initial
5. positive
6. flexural, torsional
7. Euler- Bernoulli
8. fourth
9. increases
10. thick
11. membrane
12. plate
13. fundamental/first
14. bending moment
15. ordinary
16. stiffness
17. kinetic
18. strain

Question 8.4:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

b
a
c
a
c
b
a

Question 8.5:
1d
2c
3b
4a
Question 8.6:
1b
2d
3a
4c
Question 8.7:
1c
2a
3b
Question 9.1:
1. Impact processes, such as pile driving and blasting;
Rotating and reciprocating machinery such as engines, compressors, and motors;
Transportation vehicles such as trucks, trains, and aircraft;
Flow of fluids in pipes.
2. Balancing of machines;
Control of natural frequencies;
Introduction of damping;
Use of vibration isolation;
Use of vibration absorbers.
3. Static balancing; the unbalance can be corrected by removing or adding material
in a single plane.
4. (i) First, add a known weight W L in the left plane at a known angular position
and measure the displacement and phase of vibration at the two bearings, while
the rotor is rotating at speed .

(ii) Remove W L and add a known weight W R in the right plane at a known
angular position and measure the resulting vibration while the rotor is running at
speed .

5.
6.

7.

8.
9.

(iii) Using relevant vector equations, find the unbalance vectors U L and U R in
the left and right planes, respectively.
(iv) Balance the rotor by adding equal and opposite balancing weight B L and B R
as B L = U L and B R = U R .
Whirling is defined as the rotation of the plane made by the line of centers of the
bearings and the bent shaft.
Any rotating system responds in two different ways to damping, depending upon
whether the forces rotate with the shaft or not. When the positions at which the
forces act remain fixed in space, the damping is called stationary damping. On the
other hand, if the positions at which they act rotate with the shaft in space, the
damping is called rotary damping.
A critical speed is one at which the frequency of rotation of a shaft equals one of
the natural frequencies of the shaft. For an undamped system, the critical speed is
given by
k
n =
m
where k and m denote the stiffness and mass of the shaft.
Instability in a flexible rotor system can occur due to reasons such as internal
friction, eccentricity of the rotor, and oil whip in the bearings.
For a single-cylinder engine, the equivalent rotating mass ( mc ) can be made zero
by counter-balancing the crank. However, the equivalent reciprocating mass ( m p )

cannot be balanced.
For a multi-cylinder engine, the axial displacements ( li ) and angular orientations
( i ) of cylinder i from those of the first cylinder ( i = 2, 3, L, N ) can be selected
to balance the inertia forces in x and y directions (vertical and horizontal
directions) and the moments about the z and x- axes.
10. Force transmitted to the base of a vibrating system can be reduced.
The vibrating mass can be protected from the base vibration.
11. A vibration absorber is a spring-mass system that is added to a vibrating system
so that the natural frequencies of the resulting system are away from the
excitation frequency.
12. Vibration isolator involves the design of spring and/or damper to reduce the
vibration (transmissibility). Vibration absorber involves the design of a new
spring-mass system to be added to the original vibrating system so that the natural
frequencies of the resulting system are away from the excitation frequency.
13. Yes.
14. Yes. The frequency of the machine-isolator-supporting system ( 2 ) decreases
with a soft spring. The force transmissibility becomes smaller with a reduced
value of 2 .

## 15. Shaking force ( unbalanced force ) in an unbalanced machine is proportional to

the square of the speed ( angular frequency ) of the machine.
The force transmitted to the foundation increases with the speed of the machine.
16. Static balancing involves balancing an unbalanced mass in a single plane.
Dynamic balancing involves balancing the unbalanced masses in two different
planes. Since any unbalanced mass in a single plane can be replaced by two
unbalanced masses in two different planes, dynamic balancing implies static
balancing.
17. Dynamic balancing involves balancing an unbalanced mass of an elongated rotor.
The amount of unbalance and the plane in which it occurs are difficult to
determine using a static test.
18. Because of the flexibility of the shaft. Source of shaking force is the inertia force
due to the rotor mass rotating off-center with an eccentricity.
19. Yes. It reduces large amplitudes of vibration as the machine passes through the
first peak during startup and stopping.
20. A vibration isolator that uses external power to perform the function of isolation
is called an active vibration isolator.
21. Passive isolation consists of a spring and/or a damper to reduce the vibration
transmitted to the mass from base motion or the force transmitted to the base from
the vibrating mass. There is no external power used in passive isolation. On the
other hand, active isolation involves the use of a servomechanism with a sensor,
signal processor and an actuator for isolation. External power is used in active
isolation.
Question 9.2:
1. T
2. T
3. T
4. T
5. T
6. T
7. F
8. T
9. T
10. F
11. F
12. T
13. F
14. T

Question 9.3:
1. resonance
2. less
3. vibration
4. critical
5. piston
6. secondary
7. high
8. small
9. source
10. passive
11. actuator
12. absorber
13. two
14. static
15. single
16. unbalance
17. vibration
18. critical
19. instability
Question 9.4:
1. a
2. b
3. c
4. a
5. a
6. c
7. a
8. b
9. c
10. a
11. b
Question 9.5:
1d
2a
3b
4c

Question 10.1:
1. (i) To ensure safety of machinery and structures.
(ii) To find natural frequencies of a machine or structure to select the operational
speeds of nearby machines to avoid resonance.
(iii) To find the discrepancy between theorectical and actual vibration
characteristics of systems.
(iv) For system identification.
2. A vibrometer is an instrument that measures the displacement of a vibrating body.
If the instrument that measures the displacement of a vibrating body also records
the measured displacement, it is called a vibrograph.
3. A transducer is a device that transforms changes in mechanical quantities (such as
displacement, velocity, acceleration or force) into changes in electrical quantities
(such as current or voltage).
4. A strain gage consists of a fine wire whose resistance changes when it is subjected
to mechanical deformation. When the strain gage is bonded to a structure, it
experiences the same strain as the structure and hence its resistance change gives
the strain applied to the structure.
5. The gage factors of a strain gage ( K ) is defined as
(R / R ) 1 + 2
K=
(L / L )
where R = initial resistance, R = change in resistance, L = initial length of wire
(strain gage) , L = change in length of wire, and = Poissons ratio of the wire.
6. A transducer is a device that transforms values of physical variables into
equivalent electrical signals. When a transducer is used in connection with other
components that permit the processing and transmission of the signal, the device
is called a pickup.
7. Piezoelectric material is one that generates electrical charge when subjected to a
deformation or mechanical stress.
Examples: quartz and Rochelle salt.
8. When an electrical conductor, in the form of a coil, moves in a magnetic field, a
voltage, proportional to the relative velocity of the coil, will be generated. This is
the working principle of an electrodynamic transducer.
9. An LVDT (linear variable differential transformer) transducer consists of a long
magnetic core, a primary coil wrapped around the center of the core, and two
secondary coils wrapped around at the two ends of the core. The magnetic core
can move freely inside the coils in the axial direction. When an a.c. input voltage
is applied to the primary coil, an output voltage, depending on the amount of axial
displacement of the core, will be induced in the secondary coils.
10. A seismic instrument is a vibration pickup which can be used to measure the
displacement of a mass relative to the base on which it is mounted.
11. The frequency range of a seismometer is given by 3

5 where n is the
n

## natural frequency of the mass.

12. An accelerometer is an instrument that measure the acceleration of a vibrating
body.

13. The distortion in the wave form of a recorded signal due to different phase (time)
lags affecting different harmonic components of the signal is called the phaseshift error. It becomes important when the vibration signal consists of a sum of
two or more harmonic components.
14. Scotch yoke mechanism, and a device consisting of two identical unbalanced
masses rotating at the same speed in opposite directions.
15. An electromagnetic shaker is a device that is based on the following principle.
When current passes through a coil placed in a magnetic field, a force
proportional to the current and the magnetic flux density is produced. This force
accelerates the component placed on the shaker table.
16. If a particular part or location of a machine or structure is found to have excessive
deflection through the operational deflection shape measurement, that part or
location can be stiffened subsequently to increase the natural frequency of the
machine or structure beyond its operational frequency range.
17. Experimental modal analysis deals with the determination of natural frequencies,
damping ratios and mode shapes through vibration testing.
18. Since the response of a system exhibits a sharp peak at resonance when the
forcing frequency is equal to its natural frequency, the natural frequencies can be
determined from the frequency response function.
19. Single-reed instrument (Fullarton tachometer), multi-reed instrument (Frahm
tachometer), and stroboscope.
20. Plot of H (i ) versus frequency . Real and imaginary components of response
versus frequency, and vector diagram of the real component versus the imaginary
component of the response.
21. The graphs showing the variations of the magnitude of the response and its phase
angle of a single degree of freedom system in the frequency domain are called
Bode diagrams. These diagrams can be used to find the natural frequency and the
damping ratio of the system.
22. Nyquist diagram is constructed by plotting the real and imaginary parts of the
frequency response function of a single degree of freedom system along the
horizontal and vertical axes of a graph for a range of frequencies. The Nyquist
diagram will be in the form of a circle.
23. The mode superposition principle states that the dynamic response is given by a
linear superposition of the normal modes of vibration of the system. In
experimental modal analysis, the response of the system to vibration is measured
and the results are used to identify the modal (natural) frequencies, mode shapes
and the system parameters, namely, the equivalent mass, stiffness and damping
ratio.
24. Breakdown maintenance, preventive maintenance, and condition-based
maintenance.
25. Any change in the pattern of the orbits can be used to identify faults such as
misalignment in shafts, unbalance in shafts, shaft rub, wear in journal bearings,
and hydrodynamic instability in lubricated bearings.

## 26. Kurtosis ( k ) is defined as the fourth order moment:

1
k = 4 ( x x) 4 f ( x) dx

## where f ( x) is the probability density function of the instantaneous amplitude,

x(t ) , at time t, x is the mean value, and is the standard deviation of x(t ) .
Cepstrum, c( ) , is defined as the inverse Fourier transform of the logarithm of
the power spectrum:
c( ) = F 1 log{S X ( )}
where the power spectrum, S X ( ) , of the time signal x(t ) is given by
S X ( ) = [F{x(t )}]
with F { } denoting the Fourier transform of
2

F {x(t )} =

T /2

1
x(t ) e i t dt

T T / 2

Question 10.2:
1. T
2. T
3. T
4. T
5. T
6. T
7. F
8. T
9. F
10. T
11. T
12. T
13. T
14. T
15. T
Question 10.3:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

transducer
charge
spring-mass-damper
accelerometer
accelerometers
velometer
resonance
cantilever
contact

{ }:

10. frequency
11. health
12. octave
13. deformation
14. unconstrained/free-free
16. accelerometers
17. spectrum
18. vibration
19. bathtub
20. changes
21. power spectrum
Question 10.4:
1. b
2. a
3. a
4. a
5. c
6. a
7. b
8. c
9. a
10. c
11. b
Question 10.5:
1d
2c
3b
4e
5a
Question 11.1:
1. The governing differential equation and the associated boundary conditions are
replaced by finite difference equations. For this, each derivative is replaced by its
finite difference equivalence. This leads to a system of linear algebraic equations
instead of a differential equation.

2. The Taylors series expansions for xi +1 and xi 1 can be expressed about the grid
point i as
h2
h3
&x&i + &x&&i + L (E.1)
xi +1 = xi + hx& i +
2
6
2
h
h3
&x&i &x&&i + L (E.2)
xi 1 = xi hx& i +
2
6
where xi = x(t = t i ) and h = t i +1 t i = t. By taking two terms only and
substracting Eq.(E.2) from (E.1) , we get the central difference formula for the
first derivative as
1
dx
x& i =
=
( xi +1 xi 1 )
(E.3)
dt t i 2h
By taking three terms only and adding Eqs.(E.1) and (E.2), we get the central
difference formula for the second derivative as
1
d 2x
&x&i = 2 = 2 ( xi +1 2 xi + xi 1 ) (E.4)
dt t i h
3. A conditionally stable method is a numerical method that requires the use of the
time step ( t ) smaller than a critical time step ( t cri ). If t is chosen to be larger
than t cri , the method becomes unstable.
4. The Runge-Kutta method requires the function value at a single previous point to
find the function value at the current point. The central-difference method
requires function values at two previous points to find the function value at the
current point.
5. If a derivative is to be approximated at a boundary point using the finite
difference method, it may require the use of the function value at a grid point
outside the material (which is called a fictitious grid point). For example, if
d
= 0 at a boundary (grid point i), the use of central difference approximation
dx
gives
1
d
= 2
=0
dx i
2h
where 1 = ( x 1 = x1 x = x1 h) with 1 denoting a fictitious grid point.
6. Tridiagonal matrix is a square matrix that has non-zero elements only along the
main diagonal and each diagonal that lies on either side of the main diagonal.
7. The acceleration of the system is assumed to vary linearly between two instants of
time, t i and t i + .

## 8. Linear acceleration method is one in which the acceleration is assumed to vary

linearly between two time stations t i and t i +1 so that
t ti
( &x&i +1 &x&i )
&x&(t ) = &x&i +
( E.1 )
t i +1 t i
where &x&i = &x& ( t i ) and t i t t i +1 . By integrating Eq. ( E.1 ) once and twice, we
can find expressions for the velocity x& and displacement x , respectively.
9. If a numerical integration method requires the use of the equilibrium equation at
time t i +1 to find the solution xi +1 , it is called an implicit integration method. If a
numerical integration method requires the values of the response at previous time
steps t i and t i 1 , including the use of the equilibrium equation at time t i , to find

## the value of the response at t i +1 , the method is known as an explicit integration

method.
10. No, not directly.
Question 11.2:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

F
T
T
F
T
T
F
T

Question 11.3:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

closed
derivatives
three
mesh/grid
Taylors
conditionally
unstable
recurrence

Question 11.4:
1. c
2. a
3. a
4. c
5. b
6. a
7. c
8. a
9. b
10. a
Question 11.5:
1e
2a
3b
4c
5f
6d

Question 12.1:
1. The basic idea behind the finite element method is to replace the actual structure
by several pieces called finite elements. The finite elements are assumed to be
interconnected at certain points known as nodes. A simple solution is assumed
within each element and equilibrium of forces at the nodes and compatibility of
displacements between the elements are enforced. This leads to a system of
equations valid for the overall structure (assembly of elements) whose solution
yields an approximate solution of the problem.
2. The shape function, N i ( x, y ) , is a polynomial in x and y defined such that its
value is 1 at node i (with coordinates xi and y i ) and 0 at all other nodes j (with
coordinates x j and y j ) of the finite element.

## 3. A transformation matrix, [ ] , relates the nodal displacements of an element

between local and global coordinate systems. It permits conversion of element
matrices (such as stiffness matrices) derived in a local coordinate system to those
valid in a global coordinate system so that the element matrices can be assembled
to derive a system or overall matrix.
4. Transformation of nodal displacements of one coordinate system to those of
another coordinate system.
5. The rows and columns of the system matrices and system load vectors
corresponding to zero degree of freedom are deleted.

6. By using symmetry conditions. The system must remain symmetric even after
deformation. Hence suitable displacement conditions are to be incorporated along
axes of symmetry.
7. Because the variation of displacement within an element is expressed as a
polynomial in terms of its nodal displacement values (unknowns).
8. A consistent mass matrix is a mass matrix derived using the same displacement
model that is used for deriving the element stiffness matrix.
9. A lumped mass matrix is a mass matrix derived by distributing the mass of the
element to its various nodes.
10. In the finite element method, an approximate solution is assumed within each
finite element. In the Rayleigh-Ritz method, an approximate solution is assumed
for the whole system. In the case of structural problems, the potential energy of
the complete system is minimized in both the finite element and Rayleigh-Ritz
methods to derive the system equilibrium equations.
11. The distributed load is used to compute the virtual work of the element. By
equating this virtual work with the virtual work associated with the equivalent
joint forces and the associated virtual joint displacements, the expressions for the
equivalent joint forces are derived.
Question 12.2:
1. T
2. T
3. F
4. T
5. F
6. T
7. F
8. T
9. T
10. T
Question 12.3:
1. finite elements
2. nodes/joints
3. approximate
4. shape
5. two
6. three
7. displacement
8. consistent
9. lumped
10. dynamic
11. transformation

Question 12.4:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

a
a
b
b
a
b
c
c

Question 12.5:
1d
2c
3a
4b
Question 13.1:
1. If the governing differential equation is nonlinear, the vibrating system is
nonlinear.
2. Nonlinearity of the system may be due to the nonlinearity associated with the
mass, damper or spring.
3. Spring stiffness.
4. The frequency of the response increases with the amplitude for a hardening spring
and decreases for a softening spring.
5. Subharmonic oscillations are oscillations whose frequencies ( n ) are related to
the forcing frequency ( ) as

n =

; n = 2,3,4,L
n
6. Jump phenomenon is one where the amplitude of vibration increases or decreases
suddenly as the excitation frequency is increased or decreased. Thus there exist
two amplitudes of vibration for certain values of the forcing frequency.
7. In the Ritz-Galerkin method, an approximate solution of the problem is found by
satisfying the governing nonlinear equation in the average.
8. Phase plane: It is a graph with displacement and velocity denoting the two
coordinate axes.
Trajectory: As time changes, the state of a system or solution changes. The graph
showing the variation of the solution with time in the phase-plane is called the
trajectory.
Singular point: A singular point is a point in the phase plane where the velocity
and the force are zero. It corresponds to a state of equilibrium of the system.
Phase velocity: The velocity with which a representative point moves along a
trajectory in the phase-plane is called the phase velocity.

## 9. An isocline is defined as the locus of points at which the trajectories passing

through them have a constant slope, c. In the method of isoclines, we fix the slope
dy
dy
by giving it a constant value c1 and solve the equation,
= ( x, y ) = c1 for
dx
dx
the trajectory. The curve ( x, y ) c1 = 0 thus represents an isocline in the phase
plane. We plot several isoclines h1 , h2 , L by giving different values c1 , c 2 , L to
dy
the slope
= ( x, y ) . These isoclines are then used to plot the trajectory passing
dx
through any specific point in the phase plane.
10. For a nonlinear spring with deformation x , the restoring force can be expressed
dy
dy
is a strictly increasing
as f ( x ) . If
= constant, the spring is linear. If
dx
dx
dy
function of x , the spring is called a hard spring. If
is a strictly decreasing
dx
function of x , the spring is called a soft spring.
11. Subharmonic oscillations are oscillations whose frequencies ( n ) are related to
the forcing frequency ( ) as

n =

; n = 2,3,4,L
n
Superharmonic oscillations are oscillations whose frequencies ( n ) are related to
the forcing frequency ( ) as
n = n ; n = 2,3,4,L
12. In the solution of the pendulum equation of the form
( E.1 )
x + 02 x + x 3 = 0 ,
If a two-term solution is assumed as
x(t ) = x0 (t ) + x1 (t )
( E.2 )
the resulting expressions of x0 (t ) and x1 (t ) make x(t ) given by Eq. ( E.2 )
approach infinity as t tends to infinity although the exact solution of Eq. ( E.1 ) is
known to be bounded for all values of t. One of the terms in the expression of
x1 (t ) is called a secular term.
13. A simple pendulum whose pivot point is subjected to harmonic motion in the
vertical direction.
14. Stable node: It is a point in the phase plane towards which all trajectories
converge as t .
Unstable node: It is a point in the phase plane from which all trajectories move
away as t .
Saddle point: If one solution tends to the origin while the other tends to infinity in
the phase plane, the origin is called a saddle point and it corresponds to unstable
equilibrium.
Focus: If the trajectory is in the form of a logarithmic spiral, the equilibrium point
or origin is called a focus.

Center: If the trajectory is a circle with origin as the equilibrium point, the motion
will be periodic and hence stable. The equilibrium point ( origin ), in this case, is
called the center.
15. In certain vibration problems involving nonlinear damping, the trajectories,
starting either very close to the origin or far away from the origin, tend to a single
closed curve, which corresponds to a steady-state periodic ( not harmonic )
solution of the system. This means that every solution of the system tends to a
periodic solution as t . The closed curve to which all the solutions approach
is called a limit cycle.
16. Certain electrical feedback circuits controlled by valves where there is a source of
power that increases with the amplitude of vibration.
Question 13.2:
1. T
2. T
3. F
4. T
5. F
6. T
7. T
8. T
9. T
10. T
11. T
12. T
13. T
14. T
15. T
Question 13.3:
1. nonlinear
2. superposition
3. Mathew
4. Mathew
5. phase
6. trajectory
7. phase
8. jump
9. two
10. algebraic
11. self-excited
12. autonomous
13. isoclines
14. limit

Question 13.4:
1. a
2. b
3. b
4. a
5. a
6. a
7. c
8. b
9. b
10. a
11. b
Question 13.5:
1c
2e
3a
4b
5d
Question 13.6:
1b
2d
3a
4c
Question 14.1:
1. Each outcome of an experiment , in the case of a random variable, is called a
sample point. If n experiments are conducted, all the n possible outcomes of the
random variable constitute what is known as the sample space of the random
variable.
Each outcome of an experiment , in the case of a random process, is called a
sample function. If n experiments are conducted, all the n possible outcomes of
the random process constitute what is known as the ensemble of the process.
2. The probability density function , p X ( x) , of a random variable X is defined by
p X ( x).dx = Probability of realizing the value of X in the interval x and x + dx.
The probability distribution function, PX ( x) , of a random variable X is defined as
PX ( x) = Probability of realizing the value of X less than or equal to x.
The probability density and distribution functions are related as
dP ( x)
p X ( x) = X
dx

X = X =

x p

( x) dx

## Variance of a random variable X:

2 = ( x X ) 2 p X ( x) dx

## 4. The distribution involving two random variables is called a bivariate distribution.

5. Covariance between the random variables X and Y, denoted XY , is defined as
follows:
XY = E [( x X )( y Y )]

(x

)( y Y ) p X ,Y ( x, y )dxdy

## where p X ,Y ( x, y ) is the joint density function of X and Y.

6. Correlation coefficient of X and Y ( XY ):

XY
XY
where X and Y are the standard deviations of X and Y, respectively, and XY
XY =

## is the covariance of X and Y .

7. 1 XY 1
8. Marginal density function is the density function of one random variable obtained
from a joint density function. For example, the marginal density function, p X (x) ,
can be obtained from p XY ( x, y ) as

p X ( x) =

XY

( x, y ) dy

## 9. The mathematical expectation of x1 x 2 is called the autocorrelation function,

denoted as R(t1 , t 2 ) :

R (t1 , t 2 ) = E[ x1 x 2 ] =

x x

1 2

p( x1 , x 2 ) dx1 dx 2

where x1 and x 2 denote the values of the random process x(t ) at t1 and t 2 ,
respectively, and p ( x1 , x 2 ) is the joint density function of x1 and x 2 .
10. A stationary random process is one for which the probability distributions remain
invariant under a shift of the time scale. On the other hand, a nonstationary
random process is one for which the probability distributions are functions of
time.
11. The autocorrelation function of a stationary random process, R( ) , is bounded as
follows:
2 + 2 R( ) 2 + 2
where and are the mean and standard deviation of the process.

12. Ergodic process is a stationary random process for which we can obtain all the
probability information from a single sample function and assume that it is
applicable to the entire ensemble.
13. If x(t ) is an ergodic random process, and x i (t ) denotes a typical sample function
of duration T, the averages of x(t ) can be computed by averages with respect to
time along x i (t ) . Such averages are called temporal averages. For example, the
temporal averages of x(t ) , denoted as x(t ) , is defined as
T /2

1
x ( i ) (t )dt
T T
T / 2

x(t ) = E [x ] = lim

14. A Gaussian random process (x(t ) ) is one for which the probability density
function is given by
1

p ( x) =

2 x

1 x x
2 x

## where x and x denote the mean and standard deviation of x.

The Gaussian random process is used frequently in vibration analysis because of
the following reasons:
( i ) It is simple to use.
( ii ) Most physical random processes can be very well modeled as Gaussian
processes.
15. The Parsevals formula for a periodic function, x(t ) , states that the mean square
value of x(t ) is equal to the sum of the squares of the absolute values of the
Fourier coefficients.
Thus if
x(t ) =

c e

n =

in 0t

x (t ) =
2

n =

2
n

## 16. Power spectral density function, S ( ) :

For a stationary random process, S ( ) is defined as the Fourier transform of
R( )
where R( ) is the autocorrelation function.
2
White noise: A random process whose power spectral density is constant, with
respect to frequency, is called white noise.
Band-limited white noise: It is random process for which the power spectral
density is constant over a frequency band.
Wide-band process: It is a stationary random process whose spectral density
function S ( ) has significant values over a range or band of frequencies which is
approximately the same order of magnitude as the center frequency of the band.

## Narrow-band process: It is a stationary random process whose spectral density

function S ( ) has significant values only in a range or band of frequencies
whose width is small compared to the magnitude of the center frequency of the
process.
17. E[ x 2 ] = R( = 0) =

S ( ) d

If the mean is zero, the variance of the stationary random process, x(t ) , is given
by

x2 = R(0) = S ( ) d

18. The response of a single degree of freedom system to a unit impulse is called the
impulse response function.
19. Response of a single degree of freedom system, x(t ) , using Duhamel integral:
t

x(t ) = F ( ) g (t ) d =

F ( ) e

n ( t )

sin d (t ) d

m
d
0
0
where F ( ) = force applied at time and g (t ) is the impulse response
function due to a unit impulse applied at .
20. If the forcing frequency on a single degree of freedom system is assumed as
x(t ) = e i t , the response can be expressed as
~

y (t ) = H ( ) e i t
~

## where H ( ) is called the complex frequency response function. It is given by

1
H ( ) =
1
{(1 r 2 ) 2 + (2 r ) 2 }2

## and is the viscous damping ratio.

n
21. The power spectral densities of the input, S x ( ) , and the output, S y ( ) , are
related by the complex frequency response function, H ( ) , as
where r =

S y ( ) = H ( ) S ( )
22. Wiener-Khintchine relations:

1
S ( ) =
R ( ) e i d

2
R ( ) =

S ( ) e

Question 14.2:
1. T
2. F
3. T
4. T
5. T
6. T
7. T
8. T
9. T
10. T
11. F
Question 14.3:
1. deterministic
2. random
3. random
4. parameter
5. variance
6. joint
7. single
8. bivariate
9. multivariate
10. t
11. engodic
12. bell
13. zero,one
14. infinite
15. power
16. wide-band
17. narrow-band
18. Fourier
19. band-limited
Question 14.4:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

a
c
a
c
a
b
a
b

9. b
10. b
11. c
12. c
Question 14.5:
1c
2f
3a
4e
5b
6d