vibration

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vibration

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Singiresu S. Rao

Question 1.1:

1. Bad effects: (a) Blade and disk failure in turbines

(b) Poor surface finish in metal cutting

Good effects: (a) vibratory conveyors and hoppers

(b) Pile driving and vibratory finishing processes

2. Means to store potential energy: spring

Means to store kinetic energy: mass

Means by which energy is lost: damper

3. Degree of freedom is the minimum numbers of independent coordinates required

to determine completely the positions of all parts of a system at any instant of

time.

4. A discrete system is one that has a finite number of degrees of freedom. A

continuous system is one that has an infinite number of degrees of freedom. Any

continuous system can be approximated as a discrete system.

5. It may not be possible to disregard damping always, especially if the system is

excited near resonance.

6. Yes. If the differential equation is nonlinear, the corresponding system will be

nonlinear.

7. If the system parameters are completely known and the magnitude of excitation

acting on the vibratory system is known at any given time, the resulting vibration

is known as deterministic vibration. Examples are (i) simple pendulum, and (ii)

vibration of a cantilever beam subjected to harmonic base motion.

If the system parameters and/or excitation of a system are random or

nondeterministic, the resulting vibration is called random vibration. Examples are

(i) vibration of an automobile due to road roughness, and (ii) vibration of a

multistory building subjected to an earthquake.

8. Standard methods of solving differential equations, Laplace transform methods,

matrix methods, and numerical methods.

9. In parallel.

10. Spring stiffness is the force necessary to deform the spring by a unit amount.

Damping constant is the force necessary to cause a unit velocity across the

damper.

11. Viscous damping, Coulomb (dry-friction) damping, and solid(hysteretic) damping.

12. Fourier series in terms of trigonometric functions, complex Fourier series, and

frequency spectrum.

13. Cycle: The movement of vibratory body from its equilibrium position to its

extreme position in one direction, then to the equilibrium position, then to its

extreme position in other direction, and back to equilibrium position is called a

cycle of vibration.

Amplitude: The maximum displacement of a vibrating body from its equilibrium

position is called the amplitude of vibration.

Phase angle: The angular difference between the occurrence of the maxima of two

harmonic motions having the same frequency is called the phase difference.

Linear frequency: The number of cycles per unit time.

Period: The time taken to complete one cycle of motion is called the period.

Natural frequency: If a system, after an initial disturbance, is left to vibrate on its

own, the frequency with which it oscillates without external forces, is known as

its natural frequency.

2 1

= .

14. =

f

15. Frequency: Angular velocity of the rotating vector ().

Phase: If the vertical projection of the rotating vector is nonzero at time t = 0, the

angular difference from the occurrence of zero vertical projection to t = 0 is called

the phase.

Amplitude: maximum projection of the rotating vector on the vertical axis.

16. If

x1 (t ) = A sin 1t

and

x 2 (t ) = A sin 2 t = A sin(1t + 1t )

,

1

t

x(t ) = x1 (t ) + x 2 (t ) = 2 A sin ( 1t + 1t ). cos 1

2

2

17. When two harmonic motions, with frequencies close to one another, are added,

the resulting motion exhibits a phenomenon known as beats. In beat phenomenon,

the amplitude builds up and dies down at a frequency known as beat frequency.

18. Decibel (dB) is defined as:

X

dB = 20 log

X

0

where X 0 is a specified reference value of X.

Octave: The frequency range in which the maximum value is twice the minimum

value is called an octave band.

19. When a periodic function is approximated by n terms of the Fourier series, the

approximation improves everywhere except in the vicinity of the discontinuity as

the value of n increases. This phenomenon is called the Gibbs phenomenon.

20. If a function, defined only in the interval 0 to , is extended arbitrarily to include

the interval to 0 for the purpose of Fourier series expansion, the resulting

expansion is known as the half-range expansion.

Question 1.2:

1. T

2. F

3. T

4. T

5. T

6. T

7. T

8. T

9. T

10. F

Question 1.3:

1. resonance

2. energy

3. mass

4. periodic

5. simple

6. period

7. frequency

8. synchronous

9. phase difference

10. infinite

11. discrete

12. coordinates

13. free

14. forced

15. natural

16. f (t ) = f (t )

17. half

18. harmonic

19. 104.72 rad/s

20. 0.01 s

Question 1.4:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

b

a

c

a

c

b

c

b

9. a

10. a

11. b

12. c

13. a

14. b

15. a

16. a

Question 1.5:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

b

c

e

d

a

Question 1.6:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

c

e

a

d

b

Question 1.7:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

b

c

e

d

f

h

g

a

Question 2.1:

1. Assume that the system is underdamped. Then by measuring the amplitudes of

vibration m cycles apart, the logarithmic decrement () can be computed as

1 x

= ln 1

m x m +1

(2)2 + 2

2. No.

3. Mass moment of inertia, torsional damping constant, torsional stiffness, and

angular displacement, respectively.

k

4. Since the natural frequency is given by n =

, a decrease in m will cause the

m

natural frequency to increase.

m

2

= 2

, a decrease in k will cause

5. Since the natural period is given by =

k

n

the natural period to increase.

6. Due to the damping present in the surroundings.

7. To avoid resonance.

8. Two. Constants are determined using two initial conditions ( usually, using the

initial values of the variable and its derivative).

9. Energy method cannot be used for damped systems.

10. No dissipation of energy due to damping.

11. If the system is underdamped or critically damped, the frequency of damped

vibration will be smaller than the natural frequency of the system.

12. Logarithmic decrement can be used to determine the damping constant of a

system by experimentally measuring any two consecutive displacement

amplitudes.

13. Since hysteresis damping depends on the area of the hysteresis loop (in the stressstrain diagram), the maximum stress influences hysteresis damping.

14. Critical damping corresponds to a damping ratio of one. It is important because

the motion will be aperiodic (non-oscillatory) with critical damping.

15. It is mostly dissipated as heat.

16. Equivalent viscous damping is defined such that the energy dissipated per cycle

during harmonic motion will be same in both the actual and the equivalent

viscous dampers. Equivalent viscous damping factor need not be a constant. For

h

example, in the case of hysteresis damping, ceq =

, indicating that the

17. Several mechanical and structural systems can be approximated, reasonably well,

as single degree of freedom systems.

g

18. n =

st

where st is the static deflection under self-weight and g is the acceleration due to

gravity.

19. Mechanical clock, Wind turbine.

c

c

=

c c 2 km

Logarithmic decrement ( ):

c

2

=

=

1 2 m d

Loss coefficient: It is the ratio of energy dissipated per radian and the total strain

energy.

Specific damping capacity: It is the ratio of energy dissipated per cycle and the

total strain energy.

21. (i) Damping force is independent of the displacement and velocity.

(ii) Damping force depends only on the normal force (weight of the mass)

between the sliding surfaces.

(iii) Governing equation is nonlinear.

22. Complex stiffness = k + ih = k (1 + i )

h

where k = stiffness, i = 1 , h = hysteresis damping constant, and = = a

k

measure of damping.

23. Hysteresis damping constant (h) is the proportionality constant that relates the

damping coefficient (c) and the frequency ( ) as

h

c= .

24. Hammer, baseball bat, pendulum used in Izod impact testing of materials.

25. One.

26. Time constant is the value of time which makes the exponent in the solution

c

t

m

x(t ) = x 0 e

equal to -1.

27. A graph that shows how changes in one of the parameters of the system will

change the roots of the characteristic equation of the system is known as the root

locus plot.

28. Negative damping corresponds to an unstable system.

29. A system whose characteristics do not change with time is called a time invariant

system.

Question 2.2:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

T

T

T

F

F

F

T

T

9. T

10. F

11. T

12. T

13. F

14. T

15. T

16. T

17. T

18. T

19. T

20. T

21. T

22. F

Question 2.3:

1. kinetic, potential

2. harmonic

3. torsional

4. percussion

5. continues

6. N

7. loss

8. rigid

9. critical

10. amplitude

11. natural

12. logarithmic

13. d = 1 2 n

14. 63.2%

15. faster

16. damped

Question 2.4:

1. b

2. c

3. c

4. b

5. a

6. a

7. b

8. b

9. a

10. c

11. b

12. b

13. a

14. b

15. b

16. c

17. b

18. a

19. a

Question 2.5:

1 g

2 d

3 f

4 a

5 b

6 e

7 c

Question 2.6:

1

2

3

4

5

c

a

d

e

b

Question 3.1:

1. If the applied force is F (t ) = F0 cos t , the steady-state vibration response will

have the following characteristics:

x p (t ) = X cos t

Amplitude = X =

F0

k m 2

Frequency =

Phase = 0 (no phase difference between applied force and response).

2. For simplicity, consider an underdamped system. The steady-state response under

a harmonic force F (t ) = F0 cos t is given by

F0

x p (t ) =

cos t

2

k m

F0

= st = constant static

k

deflection of the mass due to F0 . This amounts to no effect on steady-state

response since the vibration due to additional time-dependent forces can be

considered to be about the new static equilibrium position of the mass.

3. For an underdamped system,

Maximum amplitude

Magnification factor =

deflection of mass under constant force

X

1

=

or

2

st

1

n

4. If

< 1 , then

> 1 or > n .

n

st

5. In the neighborhood of resonance, the amplitude (X) is given by

X = st

2

and the phase angle by

= tan 1 () = .

2

6. Phase corresponding to peak amplitude is given by

2

2

2 r

2

1 2 1

1 2 1

=

=

with

tan

r

1

tan

2

1 (1 2 )

1 r

= tan 1

= tan 1 ( w) where w < 2 . Hence < 90 0 .

7. Because it avoids the amplitude from reaching a value of infinity.

8. Forced equation of motion:

..

m x + c x + k x = F (t ) = F0 cos t

Vector representation:

m 2 X

cX

F0

kX

10. Beating: This is a phenomenon that occurs when the forcing frequency is close to,

but not exactly equal to, the natural frequency of the system.

st

, is called

= n

Transmissibility: When a system is subjected to harmonic base motion, the ratio

of the amplitude of the response to that of the base motion is called the

displacement transmissibility.

Complex stiffness:

The term, k (1 + i ) , in the equation of motion of a hysteretically damped system

is called complex stiffness.

Quadratic damping:

When the damping force is proportional to the square of the velocity of the mass,

the corresponding damping is said to be quadratic damping.

11. For small values of r (r << 1) , both the inertia and damping force will be small,

which result in a small phase angle . Then the magnitude of the applied force

will be nearly equal to the spring force. For large values of r (r >> 1) , will be

nearly , and all the applied force will be overcoming the large inertia force.

Hence the response will be small.

12. Addition of damping reduces the force transmitted to the base only when r < 2 .

13. For small values of damping, the force transmitted to the base due to rotating

unbalance increases from zero to a peak value, then decreases for a while, and

then increases as the speed of the machine increases.

14. Yes.

15. Yes, theoretically possible.

16. Harmonic response is assumed.

17. Yes, under the following conditions:

(a) small damping values

(b) away from resonance.

18. Yes, only for

1.

n

19. Using mass of the system equal to the total mass of the machine, and magnitude

of the applied harmonic force equal to the centrifugal force, m e 2 , due to the

rotating unbalance.

20. Frequency of response will be . The response will be harmonic.

21. Peak amplitude ( X p ) occurs when X is maximum. Resonance amplitude ( X r )

occurs when r = 1 . For underdamped systems, X p > X r .

22. It is simple to handle mathematically. Governing differential equation will be

linear.

23. Self-excited vibration is one that results when the external force is a function of

the motion parameters of the system (such as displacement, velocity or

acceleration).

24. Transfer function is defined as the ratio of the Laplace transform of the output (or

response function) to the Laplace transform of the input (or forcing function),

assuming zero initial conditions.

25. By substituting i for s.

26. Graphs of logarithm of the magnitude of the frequency transfer function versus

logarithm of the frequency and phase angle versus logarithm of the frequency are

known as Bode diagrams.

27. A decibel is defined as 10 times the logarithm to base 10 of the ratio of two power

quantities.

Question 3.2:

1. T

2. T

3. T

4. F

5. T

6. T

7. T

8. F

9. F

10. T

11. T

12. T

13. T

14. T

15. T

16. T

Question 3.3:

1. harmonic

2. harmonic

3. transient

4. resonance

5. magnification

6. beating

7. transmissibility

8. impedance

9. bandwidth

10. quality

11. Coulomb

12. large

13. complex

14. turbulent

15. motion

16. self-excited

17. diverges

18. Laplace

19. transfer function

20. F(s)

21. algebraic

Question 3.4:

1. b

2. a

3. a

4. a

5. a

6. b

7. c

8. b

9. a

10. b

11. a

Question 3.5:

1d

2a

3f

4e

5c

6b

Question 3.6:

1c

2e

3a

4d

5b

Question 4.1:

1. Any periodic function can be expressed as a sum of harmonic functions using

Fourier series.

2. a. Representing the excitation by a Fourier integral.

b. Using the method of convolution integral

c. Using the method of Laplace transfor

d. Numerical integration of equations of motion

system to an arbitrary excitation is called Duhamel integral.

4. When an impulse of magnitude F is applied at t = 0 , the initial conditions can be

~

F

~

m

5. Equation of motion of a system subjected to base excitation y (t ) is given by

..

..

m z + c z + kz = m y where z = x y .

6. Response spectrum is a graph showing the variation of the maximum response,

such as maximum displacement , with the natural frequency of a single degree of

freedom system to a specified forcing function.

7. It can treat discontinuous functions without any particular difficulty.

It automatically takes into account the initial conditions.

8. The response spectrum associated with the fictitious velocity associated with the

apparent harmonic motion is called pseudo spectrum.

9. x( s ) = L x(t ) = e st x(t ) dt

0

Z ( s ) = ms 2 + cs + k

Admittance ( Y ( s ) ):

1

1

Y (s) =

=

2

Z ( s ) ms + cs + k

11. Step function and linear function.

12. If the forcing function is neither periodic nor harmonic, there will be no

resonance conditions.

2

13. If the period is T, the first harmonic frequency is given by 1 =

.

T

14. n th frequency ( n ) is given by n = n.1 ; n = 2,3,L

15. Transient response is due to initial conditions. Steady state response is due to the

applied force.

16. First order system is one whose governing differential equation is of order one.

17. A large force acting over a short period is called an impulse.

at x = 0

18. (i) ( x) =

0 at x 0

(ii)

( x) dx = 1

Question 4.2:

1. T

2. T

3. T

4. F

5. T

6. T

7. T

8. T

9. T

10. F

11. T

12. T

13. T

Question 4.3:

1. superposing

2. Fourier

3. short

4. impulse

5. convolution

6. response

7. convolution

8. steady

9. algebraic

10. reciprocal

11. momentum

12. impulse

13. undamped

14. pseudo

15. Fourier

16. initial

17. impulse

18. steady state

19. X(s)

20. F(s)

21. Second

22. 1

Question 4.4:

1. b

2. b

3. c

4. c

5. b

6. b

7. a

8. b

9. b

10. a

11. a

12. c

13. c

14. a

15. b

16. a

17. b

18. a

Question 4.5:

1c

2e

3a

4f

5b

6d

Question 4.6:

a2

b5

c1

d3

e4

Question 5.1:

1. Number of degrees of freedom

= (number of masses in the system)(number of possible types of motion of each

mass)

2. If the mass matrix is not diagonal, the system is said to have mass coupling.

If the damping matrix is not diagonal, the system is said to have velocity coupling.

If the stiffness matrix is not diagonal, the system is said to have elastic coupling.

3. Yes.

4. (a) Six: for a rigid body

(b) Infinity: for an elastic body.

5. The coordinates that lead to equations of motion that are both statically and

dynamically uncoupled, are known as principal coordinates. They are useful since

the resulting equations of motion can be solved independently of one another.

6. Due to symmetry of influence coefficients; that is, the force along xi to cause a

unit displacement along x j is same as the force along x j to cause a unit

displacement along xi .

7. Node is a point in the system which does not move during vibration in a particular

mode.

8. Static coupling: If a static force is applied along xi , it causes displacement along

x j as well.

Dynamic coupling: If a dynamic force is applied along xi , it causes displacement

along x j as well.

Coupling of the equations of motion can be eliminated by using a special system

of coordinates known as principal coordinates.

9. Impedance matrix [ Z (i )] is defined by [ Z (i )] X = F 0

where,

Z rs (i ) = 2 mrs + i c rs + k rs

10. By giving initial conditions that simulate the displacement pattern of the

particular mode shape.

11. Degenerate system is one for which at least one of the natural frequencies is zero

( that is, the stiffness matrix is singular ) .

Examples:

Two railway cars connected by a spring.

Two rotors connected by an elastic shaft.

12. At the most, six, corresponding to three translational and three rigid body

rotational motions.

13. The frequency transfer function can be obtained by substituting s = i in the

general transfer function.

14. One.

Question 5.2:

1. T

2. F

3. T

4. F

5. T

6. T

7. T

8. T

9. T

10. T

11. F

12. F

13. F

14. F

15. T

16. T

17. T

18. T

19. T

20. T

Question 5.3:

1. natural/principal/normal

2. independent

3. resonance

4. initial

5. mass moments of inertia, torsional springs

6. coupling

7. rigid

8. static

9. dynamic

10. velocity

11. uncoupled

12. stability

13. physically

14. free

15. forced

16. characteristic

17. elastic

Question 5.4:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

a

b

c

a

c

a

a

b

Question 5.5:

1c

2a

3d

4b

Question 5.6:

1b

2d

3e

4c

5a

Question 6.1:

1. The flexibility influence coefficient, aij , is defined as the deflection at point i due

to a unit load at point j.

The stiffness influence coefficient, k ij , is defined as the force at point i due to a

unit displacement at point j when all the points other than the point j are fixed.

If [a] and [k ] denote the flexibility and stiffness matrices, respectively, then

[k ] = [a] 1 and [a ] = [k ] 1 .

2. Equations of motion:

..

[ m] x + [c ] x + [ k ] x = F

or

..

3. Elastic potential energy (strain energy):

1 T

V = x [k ]x

2

Kinetic energy:

.T

.T

1

T = x [ m] x

2

4. The generalized mass matrix will have nonzero non-diagonal terms as:

m11 m12 L m1n

m

m22 L m2 n

21

[ m] =

M

mn1 mn 2 L mnn

5. The mass matrix [m] is always positive definite because the kinetic energy,

.

1

T = x [m] x , cannot be negative or zero for nonzero velocity vector x .

2

6. No. The stiffness matrix [k ] is positive definite only if the system is constrained

and stable. For a semi-definite system, the matrix [k ] will be singular and is said

to be just positive (not positive definite).

7. The generalized coordinates are a set of n independent coordinates that describe

the motion of an n degree of freedom system uniquely. They may be lengths,

angles or other set of numbers. On the other hand, if Cartesian coordinates are

used to describe an n degree of freedom system, we may require more than n

coordinates along with certain constraints to describe the system uniquely.

8. Lagranges equations:

d T T V

+

= Q (j n ) ; j = 1,2, L, n

dt q. q j q j

j

where q j =

q j

t

coordinate q j , T = kinetic energy , V = strain energy, and t = time.

9. Matrix eigenvalue problem:

2 [ m] X = [ k ] X

where 2 is the eigenvalue and X is the eigenvector.

10. Mode shape is same as the eigenvector X in the eigenvalue problem,

2 [ m] X = [ k ] X

(E.1)

The eigenvector X

(i )

substituting i2 in Eq. (E.1) and solving the resulting linear algebraic equations to

find X

(i )

:

(i )

[ [ m] [ k ] ] X = 0

11. n distinct natural frequencies.

2

i

eigenvalue problem, instead of general eigenvalue problem, that needs to be

solved to find the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a system:

[ D] X = [ I ] X = X

13. Frequency equation:

2 [ m] + [ k ] = 0

or

[ I ] [ D] = 0

where = 2 and [ D] = [k ] 1 [m] .

14. Orthogonality of normal modes X

X

( j)T

[ m] X

(i )

( j)T

=0

(i )

implies

for i j

(i )

and X

[k ] X = 0 for i j

Orthogonal modal vectors implies

(i ) T

X [ m] X

and

(i ) T

(i )

= 1; i = 1, 2, L , n ;

(i )

X [k ] X = i2 ; i = 1, 2, L , n

15. Any set of n linearly independent vectors in an n-dimensional space is called a

basis in that space.

(i )

n

x = ci X

(i )

(i )

as

(E.1)

i =1

(i ) T

ci = X [m] x ; i = 1, 2,L, n

(E.2)

Equations (E.1) and (E.2) denote the expansion theorem. The expansion theorem

is very useful in finding the response of multidegree of freedom systems subject

to arbitrary forcing conditions according to a procedure known as modal analysis.

17. Modal analysis procedure:

(i)

Solve the eigenvalue problem and find eigenvalues and eigenvectors

of the system.

(ii)

Express the solution vector in terms of normal modes (or eigenvectors)

using the expansion theorem. The constants used are known as

generalized coordinates.

(iii)

second order ordinary differential equations.

Apply the known initial conditions and find the generalized

(iv)

coordinates( or generalized displacements ).

Using the known generalized displacements, find the physical

(v)

displacements of the system.

18. A rigid body mode is one in which the system moves as a rigid body ( either in

translatory or rotary motion ).

The rigid body mode, X

(0)

(0)

[k ] X = 0

The frequency corresponding to the rigid body mode will be zero.

19. A degenerate system is an unrestrained system for which at least one eigenvalue

is zero ( corresponding to a rigid body motion or mode ).

20. Use only r modes ( r < n ) in the modal analysis so that the displacement vector of

the n degree of freedom system, x , is expressed as

r

(i )

x(t ) = qi (t ). X ;

r < n.

i =1

.T

1

R = x [c ] x

2

where [c] is called the damping matrix.

22. Proportional damping: is one in which the damping matrix [c] is assumed to be a

linear combination of the mass and stiffness matrices as:

[c ] = [ m ] + [ k ]

where and are constants.

Modal damping ratio ( i ): is defined by

+ i2 = 2 i i

where i is the i th natural frequency of the system.

Modal participation factor ( qi ): is the i th generalized coordinate used in the

expansion theorem:

n

x(t ) = qi (t ). X

(i )

i =1

23. When the system is damped, and damping is not proportional damping, that is,

when [c] [m] + [k ]

24. Routh-Hurwitz criterion can be used to investigate the stability of a multidegree

of freedom system.

Question 6.2:

1. T

2. F

3. T

4. T

5. T

6. T

7. T

8. T

9. F

10. T

11. F

12. T

13. T

14. F

15. T

16. T

17. T

Question 6.3:

1. force

2. i, j

3. stiffness

4. orthogonal

5. influence

6. generalized

7. 0

8. singular

9. six

10. modal

11. basis

12. expansion

13. modal

14. uncoupled

15. basis

16. energy

17. characteristic

18. Maxwells

19. symmetric

20. stable

21. synchronous

22. stiffness, mass

Question 6.4:

1. c

2. a

3. c

4. a

5. b

6. b

7. b

8. a

9. c

10. b

11. a

12. b

13. a

Question 6.5:

1c

2f

3d

4h

5b

6g

7a

8e

Question 7.1:

1. Dunkerleys formula, Rayleighs method, Holzers method, matrix iteration

method, and Jacobis method.

2. Higher natural frequencies of a system are large compared to its fundamental

frequency.

3. The frequency of vibration of a conservative system vibrating about an

equilibrium position has a stationary value in the neighborhood of a natural mode.

This stationary value, in fact, is a minimum value in the neighborhood of the

fundamental natural mode.

4. The fundamental frequency given by Dunkerleys formula will always be smaller

than the exact value

The fundamental frequency given by Rayleighs method will always be larger

than the exact value.

5. Rayleighs quotient ( R ):

T

R = =

2

X [k ] X

T

X [ m] X

6. Holzers method is a trial and error method. In this method, first a trial frequency

of the system is assumed and a solution is found when the assumed frequency

satisfies the constraints of the system.

7. In matrix iteration method, a trial vector X 1 is assumed for the mode shape, and

is premultiplied by the dynamical matrix [D]. The resulting column vector is

normalized, usually by making one of its components to unity. The normalized

column vector premultiplied by [D] to obtain a third column vector, which is

normalized in the same way as before, and becomes still another trial column

vector. The process is repeated until the successive normalized column vectors

converge to a common vector. The converged vector represents the fundamental

1

eigenvector and the constant used in the normalization process denotes 2 where

8. Yes, provided we use [ D] 1 in place of [D] for premultiplication in the matrix

iteration method.

9. A procedure known as matrix deflation is used to find a deflated matrix [ Di ] to

be used in place of the dynamical matrix [D] for premultiplication in the matrix

iteration method.

10. The matrix iteration method finds one eigenvalue and the corresponding

eigenvector at a time while the Jacobis method finds all the eigenvalues and

eigenvectors simultaneously.

11. Rotation matrix, [R ] , is defined as

L 0

1 0

0 1

L 0

row i

cos

sin

[ R1 ] =

O

n n

row j

sin

cos

M

O

( E.1 )

column

i

column

j

where

2 d ij

tan 2 =

( E.2 )

d d

ii

jj

[ D ] = [ R1 ]T [ D ][ R1 ]

( E.3 )

the off-diagonal components d ij and d ji of [D] will be reduced to zero. By

carrying out the computations according to Eq. ( E.3 ) using different rotation

matrices [ R2 ], [ R3 ],L , the final matrix [D] will be reduced to a diagonal matrix.

The diagonal elements will then represent the eigenvalues and the columns of the

product of rotation matrices [ R1 ][ R2 ]L denote the eigenvectors of the matrix [ D] .

12. Standard eigenvalue problem:

[ [D] [I ] ] X = 0

where is the eigenvalue and X is the eigenvector.

13. The general eigenvalue problem

[k ] X = 2 [k ] X

( E.1 )

can be converted to a standard eigenvalue problem as

[ D] X = X

( E.2 )

1

where = 2 and [ D] = [k ] 1 [m].

However, [ D] will be nonsymmetric in Eq. ( E.2 ) although [k ] and [m] are

symmetric. Choleski decomposition method can be used to express [k ] as

( E.3 )

[k ] = [U ]T [U ]

where [U ] is an upper triangular matrix, and Eq. ( E.1 ) can be converted to a

standard eigenvalue problem as

[ D] Y = Y

( E.4 )

T 1

1

( E.5 )

where [ D] = ( [U ] ) [ m ] [ U ]

and Y = [U ] X or X = [U ] 1 Y .

The matrix [D] in Eq. ( E.4 ) will be symmetric.

14. If [u ij ] = [U ] is an upper triangular matrix, its inverse, [a ij ] = [U ] 1 , can be

determined as follows:

[U ] [U ] 1 = [ I ]

Equating the corresponding elements on both sides of Eq. ( E.1 ), we can

determine the elements of [U ] 1 .

Question 7.2:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

F

T

F

T

T

T

T

8. T

9. F

10. T

11. T

Question 7.3:

1. upper triangular

2. Choleski

3. zero

4. expansion

5. largest

6. upper, lower

7. eigenvector

8. static

9. trial and error

10. Holzers

11. deflation

Question 7.4:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

a

b

b

a

c

a

Question 7.5:

1d

2e

3a

4b

5c

Question 8.1:

1. Equations of motion will be partial differential equations for continuous systems

and ordinary differential equations for discrete systems.

2. Infinity

3. No. Because they are taken care, in an indirect way, in generating the influence

coefficients.

4. Wave equation:

2w 2w

c2 2 = 2

x

t

P

.

where c =

w( x, t ) = w1 ( x ct ) + w2 ( x + ct )

where w1 and w2 are arbitrary functions of x c t and x + c t , respectively,

which are determined from the initial conditions.

5. Wave velocity gives the velocity with which the waves w1 ( x c t ) and

w2 ( x + c t ) propagate in the positive and negative directions of the x-axis,

respectively.

6. Boundary conditions for a simply supported end of a beam:

(i)

Thin beam theory (w = transverse displacement):

2w

w = 0, EI 2 = 0

x

Timoshenko beam theory (w = transverse displacement, = bending

(ii)

slope): w = 0, EI

=0

x

7. Possible boundary conditions at the ends of a string:

(i)

Fixed end: w = 0

(ii)

String connected to a pin that can move in a perpendicular direction:

w

P

= 0 ( P = tension in string )

x

w

(iii) Free end :

=0

x

(iv)

Elastically supported by a spring of stiffness k :

~

w

P

= k w

~

x

8. Frequency equations:

For discrete systems: Polynomial equation.

For continuous systems: Transcendental equation.

9. For tensile force, the natural frequencies of the beam increase.

10. As the axial force (compressive) approaches the Euler buckling load, Pcri , the

natural frequency of the beam approaches zero.

11. The beam becomes less stiff when the effects of shear deformation and rotary

inertia are considered.

12. Drumhead, cover of a cylindrical soda can.

13. The maximum potential (strain) energy is equal to the maximum kinetic energy.

14. The Rayleighs quotient, which gives 12 , attains minimum at the exact

fundamental mode. Hence any other mode, used as an approximation, yields a

larger value of 12 than the exact value.

15. In Rayleighs method, a one-term solution is assumed for the mode shape. In the

Rayleigh-Ritz method, a multi-term solution is assumed for the mode shape.

l d 2W ( x) 2

dx

EI

2

dx

A(W ( x) )2 dx

0

Question 8.2:

1. T

2. T

3. F

4. T

5. T

6. T

7. T

8. T

9. T

10. F

Question 8.3:

1. wave

2. characteristic

3. product

4. initial

5. positive

6. flexural, torsional

7. Euler- Bernoulli

8. fourth

9. increases

10. thick

11. membrane

12. plate

13. fundamental/first

14. bending moment

15. ordinary

16. stiffness

17. kinetic

18. strain

Question 8.4:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

b

a

c

a

c

b

a

Question 8.5:

1d

2c

3b

4a

Question 8.6:

1b

2d

3a

4c

Question 8.7:

1c

2a

3b

Question 9.1:

1. Impact processes, such as pile driving and blasting;

Rotating and reciprocating machinery such as engines, compressors, and motors;

Transportation vehicles such as trucks, trains, and aircraft;

Flow of fluids in pipes.

2. Balancing of machines;

Control of natural frequencies;

Introduction of damping;

Use of vibration isolation;

Use of vibration absorbers.

3. Static balancing; the unbalance can be corrected by removing or adding material

in a single plane.

4. (i) First, add a known weight W L in the left plane at a known angular position

and measure the displacement and phase of vibration at the two bearings, while

the rotor is rotating at speed .

(ii) Remove W L and add a known weight W R in the right plane at a known

angular position and measure the resulting vibration while the rotor is running at

speed .

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

(iii) Using relevant vector equations, find the unbalance vectors U L and U R in

the left and right planes, respectively.

(iv) Balance the rotor by adding equal and opposite balancing weight B L and B R

as B L = U L and B R = U R .

Whirling is defined as the rotation of the plane made by the line of centers of the

bearings and the bent shaft.

Any rotating system responds in two different ways to damping, depending upon

whether the forces rotate with the shaft or not. When the positions at which the

forces act remain fixed in space, the damping is called stationary damping. On the

other hand, if the positions at which they act rotate with the shaft in space, the

damping is called rotary damping.

A critical speed is one at which the frequency of rotation of a shaft equals one of

the natural frequencies of the shaft. For an undamped system, the critical speed is

given by

k

n =

m

where k and m denote the stiffness and mass of the shaft.

Instability in a flexible rotor system can occur due to reasons such as internal

friction, eccentricity of the rotor, and oil whip in the bearings.

For a single-cylinder engine, the equivalent rotating mass ( mc ) can be made zero

by counter-balancing the crank. However, the equivalent reciprocating mass ( m p )

cannot be balanced.

For a multi-cylinder engine, the axial displacements ( li ) and angular orientations

( i ) of cylinder i from those of the first cylinder ( i = 2, 3, L, N ) can be selected

to balance the inertia forces in x and y directions (vertical and horizontal

directions) and the moments about the z and x- axes.

10. Force transmitted to the base of a vibrating system can be reduced.

The vibrating mass can be protected from the base vibration.

11. A vibration absorber is a spring-mass system that is added to a vibrating system

so that the natural frequencies of the resulting system are away from the

excitation frequency.

12. Vibration isolator involves the design of spring and/or damper to reduce the

vibration (transmissibility). Vibration absorber involves the design of a new

spring-mass system to be added to the original vibrating system so that the natural

frequencies of the resulting system are away from the excitation frequency.

13. Yes.

14. Yes. The frequency of the machine-isolator-supporting system ( 2 ) decreases

with a soft spring. The force transmissibility becomes smaller with a reduced

value of 2 .

the square of the speed ( angular frequency ) of the machine.

The force transmitted to the foundation increases with the speed of the machine.

16. Static balancing involves balancing an unbalanced mass in a single plane.

Dynamic balancing involves balancing the unbalanced masses in two different

planes. Since any unbalanced mass in a single plane can be replaced by two

unbalanced masses in two different planes, dynamic balancing implies static

balancing.

17. Dynamic balancing involves balancing an unbalanced mass of an elongated rotor.

The amount of unbalance and the plane in which it occurs are difficult to

determine using a static test.

18. Because of the flexibility of the shaft. Source of shaking force is the inertia force

due to the rotor mass rotating off-center with an eccentricity.

19. Yes. It reduces large amplitudes of vibration as the machine passes through the

first peak during startup and stopping.

20. A vibration isolator that uses external power to perform the function of isolation

is called an active vibration isolator.

21. Passive isolation consists of a spring and/or a damper to reduce the vibration

transmitted to the mass from base motion or the force transmitted to the base from

the vibrating mass. There is no external power used in passive isolation. On the

other hand, active isolation involves the use of a servomechanism with a sensor,

signal processor and an actuator for isolation. External power is used in active

isolation.

Question 9.2:

1. T

2. T

3. T

4. T

5. T

6. T

7. F

8. T

9. T

10. F

11. F

12. T

13. F

14. T

Question 9.3:

1. resonance

2. less

3. vibration

4. critical

5. piston

6. secondary

7. high

8. small

9. source

10. passive

11. actuator

12. absorber

13. two

14. static

15. single

16. unbalance

17. vibration

18. critical

19. instability

Question 9.4:

1. a

2. b

3. c

4. a

5. a

6. c

7. a

8. b

9. c

10. a

11. b

Question 9.5:

1d

2a

3b

4c

Question 10.1:

1. (i) To ensure safety of machinery and structures.

(ii) To find natural frequencies of a machine or structure to select the operational

speeds of nearby machines to avoid resonance.

(iii) To find the discrepancy between theorectical and actual vibration

characteristics of systems.

(iv) For system identification.

2. A vibrometer is an instrument that measures the displacement of a vibrating body.

If the instrument that measures the displacement of a vibrating body also records

the measured displacement, it is called a vibrograph.

3. A transducer is a device that transforms changes in mechanical quantities (such as

displacement, velocity, acceleration or force) into changes in electrical quantities

(such as current or voltage).

4. A strain gage consists of a fine wire whose resistance changes when it is subjected

to mechanical deformation. When the strain gage is bonded to a structure, it

experiences the same strain as the structure and hence its resistance change gives

the strain applied to the structure.

5. The gage factors of a strain gage ( K ) is defined as

(R / R ) 1 + 2

K=

(L / L )

where R = initial resistance, R = change in resistance, L = initial length of wire

(strain gage) , L = change in length of wire, and = Poissons ratio of the wire.

6. A transducer is a device that transforms values of physical variables into

equivalent electrical signals. When a transducer is used in connection with other

components that permit the processing and transmission of the signal, the device

is called a pickup.

7. Piezoelectric material is one that generates electrical charge when subjected to a

deformation or mechanical stress.

Examples: quartz and Rochelle salt.

8. When an electrical conductor, in the form of a coil, moves in a magnetic field, a

voltage, proportional to the relative velocity of the coil, will be generated. This is

the working principle of an electrodynamic transducer.

9. An LVDT (linear variable differential transformer) transducer consists of a long

magnetic core, a primary coil wrapped around the center of the core, and two

secondary coils wrapped around at the two ends of the core. The magnetic core

can move freely inside the coils in the axial direction. When an a.c. input voltage

is applied to the primary coil, an output voltage, depending on the amount of axial

displacement of the core, will be induced in the secondary coils.

10. A seismic instrument is a vibration pickup which can be used to measure the

displacement of a mass relative to the base on which it is mounted.

11. The frequency range of a seismometer is given by 3

5 where n is the

n

12. An accelerometer is an instrument that measure the acceleration of a vibrating

body.

13. The distortion in the wave form of a recorded signal due to different phase (time)

lags affecting different harmonic components of the signal is called the phaseshift error. It becomes important when the vibration signal consists of a sum of

two or more harmonic components.

14. Scotch yoke mechanism, and a device consisting of two identical unbalanced

masses rotating at the same speed in opposite directions.

15. An electromagnetic shaker is a device that is based on the following principle.

When current passes through a coil placed in a magnetic field, a force

proportional to the current and the magnetic flux density is produced. This force

accelerates the component placed on the shaker table.

16. If a particular part or location of a machine or structure is found to have excessive

deflection through the operational deflection shape measurement, that part or

location can be stiffened subsequently to increase the natural frequency of the

machine or structure beyond its operational frequency range.

17. Experimental modal analysis deals with the determination of natural frequencies,

damping ratios and mode shapes through vibration testing.

18. Since the response of a system exhibits a sharp peak at resonance when the

forcing frequency is equal to its natural frequency, the natural frequencies can be

determined from the frequency response function.

19. Single-reed instrument (Fullarton tachometer), multi-reed instrument (Frahm

tachometer), and stroboscope.

20. Plot of H (i ) versus frequency . Real and imaginary components of response

versus frequency, and vector diagram of the real component versus the imaginary

component of the response.

21. The graphs showing the variations of the magnitude of the response and its phase

angle of a single degree of freedom system in the frequency domain are called

Bode diagrams. These diagrams can be used to find the natural frequency and the

damping ratio of the system.

22. Nyquist diagram is constructed by plotting the real and imaginary parts of the

frequency response function of a single degree of freedom system along the

horizontal and vertical axes of a graph for a range of frequencies. The Nyquist

diagram will be in the form of a circle.

23. The mode superposition principle states that the dynamic response is given by a

linear superposition of the normal modes of vibration of the system. In

experimental modal analysis, the response of the system to vibration is measured

and the results are used to identify the modal (natural) frequencies, mode shapes

and the system parameters, namely, the equivalent mass, stiffness and damping

ratio.

24. Breakdown maintenance, preventive maintenance, and condition-based

maintenance.

25. Any change in the pattern of the orbits can be used to identify faults such as

misalignment in shafts, unbalance in shafts, shaft rub, wear in journal bearings,

and hydrodynamic instability in lubricated bearings.

1

k = 4 ( x x) 4 f ( x) dx

x(t ) , at time t, x is the mean value, and is the standard deviation of x(t ) .

Cepstrum, c( ) , is defined as the inverse Fourier transform of the logarithm of

the power spectrum:

c( ) = F 1 log{S X ( )}

where the power spectrum, S X ( ) , of the time signal x(t ) is given by

S X ( ) = [F{x(t )}]

with F { } denoting the Fourier transform of

2

F {x(t )} =

T /2

1

x(t ) e i t dt

T T / 2

Question 10.2:

1. T

2. T

3. T

4. T

5. T

6. T

7. F

8. T

9. F

10. T

11. T

12. T

13. T

14. T

15. T

Question 10.3:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

transducer

charge

spring-mass-damper

accelerometer

accelerometers

velometer

resonance

cantilever

contact

{ }:

10. frequency

11. health

12. octave

13. deformation

14. unconstrained/free-free

15. load

16. accelerometers

17. spectrum

18. vibration

19. bathtub

20. changes

21. power spectrum

Question 10.4:

1. b

2. a

3. a

4. a

5. c

6. a

7. b

8. c

9. a

10. c

11. b

Question 10.5:

1d

2c

3b

4e

5a

Question 11.1:

1. The governing differential equation and the associated boundary conditions are

replaced by finite difference equations. For this, each derivative is replaced by its

finite difference equivalence. This leads to a system of linear algebraic equations

instead of a differential equation.

2. The Taylors series expansions for xi +1 and xi 1 can be expressed about the grid

point i as

h2

h3

&x&i + &x&&i + L (E.1)

xi +1 = xi + hx& i +

2

6

2

h

h3

&x&i &x&&i + L (E.2)

xi 1 = xi hx& i +

2

6

where xi = x(t = t i ) and h = t i +1 t i = t. By taking two terms only and

substracting Eq.(E.2) from (E.1) , we get the central difference formula for the

first derivative as

1

dx

x& i =

=

( xi +1 xi 1 )

(E.3)

dt t i 2h

By taking three terms only and adding Eqs.(E.1) and (E.2), we get the central

difference formula for the second derivative as

1

d 2x

&x&i = 2 = 2 ( xi +1 2 xi + xi 1 ) (E.4)

dt t i h

3. A conditionally stable method is a numerical method that requires the use of the

time step ( t ) smaller than a critical time step ( t cri ). If t is chosen to be larger

than t cri , the method becomes unstable.

4. The Runge-Kutta method requires the function value at a single previous point to

find the function value at the current point. The central-difference method

requires function values at two previous points to find the function value at the

current point.

5. If a derivative is to be approximated at a boundary point using the finite

difference method, it may require the use of the function value at a grid point

outside the material (which is called a fictitious grid point). For example, if

d

= 0 at a boundary (grid point i), the use of central difference approximation

dx

gives

1

d

= 2

=0

dx i

2h

where 1 = ( x 1 = x1 x = x1 h) with 1 denoting a fictitious grid point.

6. Tridiagonal matrix is a square matrix that has non-zero elements only along the

main diagonal and each diagonal that lies on either side of the main diagonal.

7. The acceleration of the system is assumed to vary linearly between two instants of

time, t i and t i + .

linearly between two time stations t i and t i +1 so that

t ti

( &x&i +1 &x&i )

&x&(t ) = &x&i +

( E.1 )

t i +1 t i

where &x&i = &x& ( t i ) and t i t t i +1 . By integrating Eq. ( E.1 ) once and twice, we

can find expressions for the velocity x& and displacement x , respectively.

9. If a numerical integration method requires the use of the equilibrium equation at

time t i +1 to find the solution xi +1 , it is called an implicit integration method. If a

numerical integration method requires the values of the response at previous time

steps t i and t i 1 , including the use of the equilibrium equation at time t i , to find

method.

10. No, not directly.

Question 11.2:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

F

T

T

F

T

T

F

T

Question 11.3:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

closed

derivatives

three

mesh/grid

Taylors

conditionally

unstable

recurrence

Question 11.4:

1. c

2. a

3. a

4. c

5. b

6. a

7. c

8. a

9. b

10. a

Question 11.5:

1e

2a

3b

4c

5f

6d

Question 12.1:

1. The basic idea behind the finite element method is to replace the actual structure

by several pieces called finite elements. The finite elements are assumed to be

interconnected at certain points known as nodes. A simple solution is assumed

within each element and equilibrium of forces at the nodes and compatibility of

displacements between the elements are enforced. This leads to a system of

equations valid for the overall structure (assembly of elements) whose solution

yields an approximate solution of the problem.

2. The shape function, N i ( x, y ) , is a polynomial in x and y defined such that its

value is 1 at node i (with coordinates xi and y i ) and 0 at all other nodes j (with

coordinates x j and y j ) of the finite element.

between local and global coordinate systems. It permits conversion of element

matrices (such as stiffness matrices) derived in a local coordinate system to those

valid in a global coordinate system so that the element matrices can be assembled

to derive a system or overall matrix.

4. Transformation of nodal displacements of one coordinate system to those of

another coordinate system.

5. The rows and columns of the system matrices and system load vectors

corresponding to zero degree of freedom are deleted.

6. By using symmetry conditions. The system must remain symmetric even after

deformation. Hence suitable displacement conditions are to be incorporated along

axes of symmetry.

7. Because the variation of displacement within an element is expressed as a

polynomial in terms of its nodal displacement values (unknowns).

8. A consistent mass matrix is a mass matrix derived using the same displacement

model that is used for deriving the element stiffness matrix.

9. A lumped mass matrix is a mass matrix derived by distributing the mass of the

element to its various nodes.

10. In the finite element method, an approximate solution is assumed within each

finite element. In the Rayleigh-Ritz method, an approximate solution is assumed

for the whole system. In the case of structural problems, the potential energy of

the complete system is minimized in both the finite element and Rayleigh-Ritz

methods to derive the system equilibrium equations.

11. The distributed load is used to compute the virtual work of the element. By

equating this virtual work with the virtual work associated with the equivalent

joint forces and the associated virtual joint displacements, the expressions for the

equivalent joint forces are derived.

Question 12.2:

1. T

2. T

3. F

4. T

5. F

6. T

7. F

8. T

9. T

10. T

Question 12.3:

1. finite elements

2. nodes/joints

3. approximate

4. shape

5. two

6. three

7. displacement

8. consistent

9. lumped

10. dynamic

11. transformation

Question 12.4:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

a

a

b

b

a

b

c

c

Question 12.5:

1d

2c

3a

4b

Question 13.1:

1. If the governing differential equation is nonlinear, the vibrating system is

nonlinear.

2. Nonlinearity of the system may be due to the nonlinearity associated with the

mass, damper or spring.

3. Spring stiffness.

4. The frequency of the response increases with the amplitude for a hardening spring

and decreases for a softening spring.

5. Subharmonic oscillations are oscillations whose frequencies ( n ) are related to

the forcing frequency ( ) as

n =

; n = 2,3,4,L

n

6. Jump phenomenon is one where the amplitude of vibration increases or decreases

suddenly as the excitation frequency is increased or decreased. Thus there exist

two amplitudes of vibration for certain values of the forcing frequency.

7. In the Ritz-Galerkin method, an approximate solution of the problem is found by

satisfying the governing nonlinear equation in the average.

8. Phase plane: It is a graph with displacement and velocity denoting the two

coordinate axes.

Trajectory: As time changes, the state of a system or solution changes. The graph

showing the variation of the solution with time in the phase-plane is called the

trajectory.

Singular point: A singular point is a point in the phase plane where the velocity

and the force are zero. It corresponds to a state of equilibrium of the system.

Phase velocity: The velocity with which a representative point moves along a

trajectory in the phase-plane is called the phase velocity.

through them have a constant slope, c. In the method of isoclines, we fix the slope

dy

dy

by giving it a constant value c1 and solve the equation,

= ( x, y ) = c1 for

dx

dx

the trajectory. The curve ( x, y ) c1 = 0 thus represents an isocline in the phase

plane. We plot several isoclines h1 , h2 , L by giving different values c1 , c 2 , L to

dy

the slope

= ( x, y ) . These isoclines are then used to plot the trajectory passing

dx

through any specific point in the phase plane.

10. For a nonlinear spring with deformation x , the restoring force can be expressed

dy

dy

is a strictly increasing

as f ( x ) . If

= constant, the spring is linear. If

dx

dx

dy

function of x , the spring is called a hard spring. If

is a strictly decreasing

dx

function of x , the spring is called a soft spring.

11. Subharmonic oscillations are oscillations whose frequencies ( n ) are related to

the forcing frequency ( ) as

n =

; n = 2,3,4,L

n

Superharmonic oscillations are oscillations whose frequencies ( n ) are related to

the forcing frequency ( ) as

n = n ; n = 2,3,4,L

12. In the solution of the pendulum equation of the form

( E.1 )

x + 02 x + x 3 = 0 ,

If a two-term solution is assumed as

x(t ) = x0 (t ) + x1 (t )

( E.2 )

the resulting expressions of x0 (t ) and x1 (t ) make x(t ) given by Eq. ( E.2 )

approach infinity as t tends to infinity although the exact solution of Eq. ( E.1 ) is

known to be bounded for all values of t. One of the terms in the expression of

x1 (t ) is called a secular term.

13. A simple pendulum whose pivot point is subjected to harmonic motion in the

vertical direction.

14. Stable node: It is a point in the phase plane towards which all trajectories

converge as t .

Unstable node: It is a point in the phase plane from which all trajectories move

away as t .

Saddle point: If one solution tends to the origin while the other tends to infinity in

the phase plane, the origin is called a saddle point and it corresponds to unstable

equilibrium.

Focus: If the trajectory is in the form of a logarithmic spiral, the equilibrium point

or origin is called a focus.

Center: If the trajectory is a circle with origin as the equilibrium point, the motion

will be periodic and hence stable. The equilibrium point ( origin ), in this case, is

called the center.

15. In certain vibration problems involving nonlinear damping, the trajectories,

starting either very close to the origin or far away from the origin, tend to a single

closed curve, which corresponds to a steady-state periodic ( not harmonic )

solution of the system. This means that every solution of the system tends to a

periodic solution as t . The closed curve to which all the solutions approach

is called a limit cycle.

16. Certain electrical feedback circuits controlled by valves where there is a source of

power that increases with the amplitude of vibration.

Question 13.2:

1. T

2. T

3. F

4. T

5. F

6. T

7. T

8. T

9. T

10. T

11. T

12. T

13. T

14. T

15. T

Question 13.3:

1. nonlinear

2. superposition

3. Mathew

4. Mathew

5. phase

6. trajectory

7. phase

8. jump

9. two

10. algebraic

11. self-excited

12. autonomous

13. isoclines

14. limit

Question 13.4:

1. a

2. b

3. b

4. a

5. a

6. a

7. c

8. b

9. b

10. a

11. b

Question 13.5:

1c

2e

3a

4b

5d

Question 13.6:

1b

2d

3a

4c

Question 14.1:

1. Each outcome of an experiment , in the case of a random variable, is called a

sample point. If n experiments are conducted, all the n possible outcomes of the

random variable constitute what is known as the sample space of the random

variable.

Each outcome of an experiment , in the case of a random process, is called a

sample function. If n experiments are conducted, all the n possible outcomes of

the random process constitute what is known as the ensemble of the process.

2. The probability density function , p X ( x) , of a random variable X is defined by

p X ( x).dx = Probability of realizing the value of X in the interval x and x + dx.

The probability distribution function, PX ( x) , of a random variable X is defined as

PX ( x) = Probability of realizing the value of X less than or equal to x.

The probability density and distribution functions are related as

dP ( x)

p X ( x) = X

dx

X = X =

x p

( x) dx

2 = ( x X ) 2 p X ( x) dx

5. Covariance between the random variables X and Y, denoted XY , is defined as

follows:

XY = E [( x X )( y Y )]

(x

)( y Y ) p X ,Y ( x, y )dxdy

6. Correlation coefficient of X and Y ( XY ):

XY

XY

where X and Y are the standard deviations of X and Y, respectively, and XY

XY =

7. 1 XY 1

8. Marginal density function is the density function of one random variable obtained

from a joint density function. For example, the marginal density function, p X (x) ,

can be obtained from p XY ( x, y ) as

p X ( x) =

XY

( x, y ) dy

denoted as R(t1 , t 2 ) :

R (t1 , t 2 ) = E[ x1 x 2 ] =

x x

1 2

p( x1 , x 2 ) dx1 dx 2

where x1 and x 2 denote the values of the random process x(t ) at t1 and t 2 ,

respectively, and p ( x1 , x 2 ) is the joint density function of x1 and x 2 .

10. A stationary random process is one for which the probability distributions remain

invariant under a shift of the time scale. On the other hand, a nonstationary

random process is one for which the probability distributions are functions of

time.

11. The autocorrelation function of a stationary random process, R( ) , is bounded as

follows:

2 + 2 R( ) 2 + 2

where and are the mean and standard deviation of the process.

12. Ergodic process is a stationary random process for which we can obtain all the

probability information from a single sample function and assume that it is

applicable to the entire ensemble.

13. If x(t ) is an ergodic random process, and x i (t ) denotes a typical sample function

of duration T, the averages of x(t ) can be computed by averages with respect to

time along x i (t ) . Such averages are called temporal averages. For example, the

temporal averages of x(t ) , denoted as x(t ) , is defined as

T /2

1

x ( i ) (t )dt

T T

T / 2

x(t ) = E [x ] = lim

14. A Gaussian random process (x(t ) ) is one for which the probability density

function is given by

1

p ( x) =

2 x

1 x x

2 x

The Gaussian random process is used frequently in vibration analysis because of

the following reasons:

( i ) It is simple to use.

( ii ) Most physical random processes can be very well modeled as Gaussian

processes.

15. The Parsevals formula for a periodic function, x(t ) , states that the mean square

value of x(t ) is equal to the sum of the squares of the absolute values of the

Fourier coefficients.

Thus if

x(t ) =

c e

n =

in 0t

x (t ) =

2

n =

2

n

For a stationary random process, S ( ) is defined as the Fourier transform of

R( )

where R( ) is the autocorrelation function.

2

White noise: A random process whose power spectral density is constant, with

respect to frequency, is called white noise.

Band-limited white noise: It is random process for which the power spectral

density is constant over a frequency band.

Wide-band process: It is a stationary random process whose spectral density

function S ( ) has significant values over a range or band of frequencies which is

approximately the same order of magnitude as the center frequency of the band.

function S ( ) has significant values only in a range or band of frequencies

whose width is small compared to the magnitude of the center frequency of the

process.

17. E[ x 2 ] = R( = 0) =

S ( ) d

If the mean is zero, the variance of the stationary random process, x(t ) , is given

by

x2 = R(0) = S ( ) d

18. The response of a single degree of freedom system to a unit impulse is called the

impulse response function.

19. Response of a single degree of freedom system, x(t ) , using Duhamel integral:

t

x(t ) = F ( ) g (t ) d =

F ( ) e

n ( t )

sin d (t ) d

m

d

0

0

where F ( ) = force applied at time and g (t ) is the impulse response

function due to a unit impulse applied at .

20. If the forcing frequency on a single degree of freedom system is assumed as

x(t ) = e i t , the response can be expressed as

~

y (t ) = H ( ) e i t

~

1

H ( ) =

1

{(1 r 2 ) 2 + (2 r ) 2 }2

n

21. The power spectral densities of the input, S x ( ) , and the output, S y ( ) , are

related by the complex frequency response function, H ( ) , as

where r =

S y ( ) = H ( ) S ( )

22. Wiener-Khintchine relations:

1

S ( ) =

R ( ) e i d

2

R ( ) =

S ( ) e

Question 14.2:

1. T

2. F

3. T

4. T

5. T

6. T

7. T

8. T

9. T

10. T

11. F

Question 14.3:

1. deterministic

2. random

3. random

4. parameter

5. variance

6. joint

7. single

8. bivariate

9. multivariate

10. t

11. engodic

12. bell

13. zero,one

14. infinite

15. power

16. wide-band

17. narrow-band

18. Fourier

19. band-limited

Question 14.4:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

a

c

a

c

a

b

a

b

9. b

10. b

11. c

12. c

Question 14.5:

1c

2f

3a

4e

5b

6d

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