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ERT 245- Heat and Mass Transfer in Biological Systems

Laboratory Module

EXPERIMENT 6
EVALUATE HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT OF PLATE HEAT
EXCHANGER

1.0 OBJECTIVE
1.1

To determine of the effect of the parallel flow and counter flow arrangement to the
system efficiency.

1.2

To determine the effect of flow rate variation on the plate heat exchanger.

2.0 INTRODUCTION
The SOLTEQ Heat Transfer Service Unit (Plate Heat Exchanger) (Model: HE104-P
& HE104-P-A) has been designed specifically to demonstrate the working principles of
industrial heat exchangers in the most convenient way possible in the laboratory
classroom. The equipment consists of a plate heat exchanger mounted on a support
frame. The external surface of the piping is insulated. Two temperature measuring
devices are installed in both the inside and outside tubes to measure the fluid
temperatures accurately. The flow rates are measured using independent flowmeters
installed in each line.

3.0 THEORY
Plate heat exchangers are used extensively in the food and beverage industries due to
the fact that they are easily taken apart for cleaning and inspection.
The general equation for heat transfer across a surface is:
Q = U A Tm

(1)

where,
Q
U
A
Tm

=
=
=
=

heat transfer per unit time, W


the overall heat transfer coefficient, W/m2C
heat transfer area, m2.
the mean temperature difference, the temperature driving force,

C
The mean temperature difference is normally expressed in terms of log-mean
temperature difference,
For counter-current flow:

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ERT 245- Heat and Mass Transfer in Biological Systems

Tlm

Laboratory Module

T1 t 2 T2 t 1
T t
ln 1 2
T2 t 1

(2)

T1 t 1 T2 t 2
T t
ln 1 1
T2 t 2

(3)

For co-current flow:

Tlm

Tlm
T1
T2
t1
t2

=
=
=
=
=

log mean temperature difference


inlet hot water temperature
outlet hot water temperature
inlet cold water temperature
outlet cold water temperature

From the energy balance principle:


Power Emitted = Power Absorb + Power Loss
Where,

Power Emitted, WE QH H CpH (TH ,in TH ,out )


Power Absorbed, WA QC C CpC (TC ,out Tc ,in )

Efficiency for the system can be calculated by applying the following equation:

Power Absorbed
100%
Power Emitted

Overall heat transfer coefficient, U

Power Absorbed
t m Area

Where,
Area = surface of contact area
= (width x length) x (number of plates 1)

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ERT 245- Heat and Mass Transfer in Biological Systems

Laboratory Module

An example of schematic diagram for the flat plate heat exchanger, which is described in
detail is shown as below:

Figure 1: Counter Current Flow

Figure 2: Parallel

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ERT 245- Heat and Mass Transfer in Biological Systems

Laboratory Module

4.0 EQUIPMENT AND SPECIFICATIONS


4.1 Equipment

8
9
8
7

3
5
4

7
8

Figure 3: Rear view of the Heat Transfer Service Unit


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Pump
Circulation Valve, V2
Pump Inlet Valve, V1
Water Tank
Heater
Level Switch
Drain Valve
Water Tank Cover

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ERT 245- Heat and Mass Transfer in Biological Systems

Laboratory Module

2
1

2
3

1
5

1
4

1
6

1
0

2
0
1
8

2
5
2
4

2
2

1
1
1
9

1
7

Figure 4: Front view of the Heat Transfer Service Unit


9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

Temperature Controller
Temperature Selector
Main Switch
Water Outlet
Water Inlet
Temperature Indicator
Flow Meter ,FI1
Flow Meter, FI2
Flow Meter Control Valve, V7
Flow Meter Control Valve, V8
Control Valve
Plate Heat Exchanger
Temperature Sensor, T1
Temperature Sensor, T2
Temperature Sensor, T3
Temperature Sensor, T4
Temperature Sensor, T5

4.2 Specifications
Area

= surface of contact area


= (width x length) x (number of plates 1)
= (0.1245 x 0.3099) x (4 1)
= 0.116 m2

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1
2
5

1
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ERT 245- Heat and Mass Transfer in Biological Systems

Laboratory Module

5.0 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES

5.2

Experiment 1: Parallel Flow Arrangement

5.2.1 Set hot water inlet temperature on the temperature controller at 60 C.


5.2.2 Position of the valves for parallel flow.

Position
Open
Close

Valve
V4, V5
V3, V6

5.2.3 The cold water flow rate is set constant at 3 LPM.


5.2.4 Set hot water flow rate QH at 5 LPM.
5.2.5 Record the hot and cold water temperatures at inlet and outlet once
conditions have stabilized.
5.3

Experiment 2: Counter Current Flow Arrangement

5.3.1 Set hot water inlet temperature on the temperature controller at 60 C.


5.3.2 Position of the valves for counter current flow.

Position
Open
Close

Valve
V3, V6
V4, V5

5.3.3 The cold water flow rate is set constant at 3 LPM.


5.3.4 Set hot water flow rate QH at 5 LPM.
5.3.5 Record the hot and cold water temperatures at inlet and outlet once
conditions have stabilized.

6.0 RESULTS ,CALCULATIONS & DISCUSSION


1. Table of data for exp 1 & 2

TT1
TC(out) (C)

TT2
TC(in) (C)

TT3
TH(in) (C)

TT4
TH(out) (C)

3. Determine the system efficiency of parallel and counter current flow arrangement.
Show your calculations.

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ERT 245- Heat and Mass Transfer in Biological Systems

Laboratory Module

Parallel Flow:
Power emitted
Power absorbed

= QH H CpH (THin - THout)


= QC C CpC (TCout TCin)

Power lost

= power emitted - power absorbed

Efficiency

= power emitted 100%

power absorbed

Log mean temperature difference


TH , in TC , in TH , out TC , out
LMTD, tm
TH , in TC , in

ln
TH , out TC , out

power absorbed
t m area
Overall heat transfer coefficient, U =

Where,
Area = surface of contact area
= (width x length) x (number of plates 1)
= (0.12 x 0.23) x (6 1)
= 0.14 m2

Initial Values of Variables to be used:


Controlled hot water temperature
= 60C
Hot water flow rate QH
= 5.0 LPM
Cold water flow rate QC
= 2.0 LPM

It will be necessary to refer to standard tables for values of density () and


specific heat (Cp). Utilize appropriate conversion factors to ensure
consistency of units when making calculations.

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ERT 245- Heat and Mass Transfer in Biological Systems

Laboratory Module

Counter Current Flow:


Power emitted
Power absorbed

= QH H CpH (THin - THout)


= QC C CpC (TCout TCin)

Power lost

= power emitted - power absorbed


power absorbed

System efficiency, = power emitted 100%


Log mean temperature difference
LMTD, tm

H , in

TC , out TH , out TC , in

TH , in TC , out

ln

H , out

TC , in

power absorbed
t m area
Overall heat transfer coefficient, U =

Where,
Area = surface of contact area
= (width x length) x (number of plates 1)
= (0.12 x 0.23) x (6 1)
= 0.14 m2

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ERT 245- Heat and Mass Transfer in Biological Systems

Laboratory Module

Initial Values of Variables to be used:


Controlled hot water temperature
= 60C
Hot water flow rate QH
= 5.0 LPM
Cold water flow rate QC
= 2.0 LPM
It will be necessary to refer to standard tables for values of density (p) and
specific heat (Cp). Utilize appropriate conversion factors to ensure
consistency of units when making calculations.

7.0 CONCLUSION
1. Compare the system efficiency of parallel and counter current flow.
2. Discuss the effect of flow rate variation on the plate heat exchanger operating
performance.

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ERT 245- Heat and Mass Transfer in Biological Systems

Laboratory Module

8.0 APPENDIX
Table 1: Properties of water (saturated liquid)
C
21.11
26.67
30.00
31.00
32.00
32.22
34.00
34.30
34.65
35.15
35.65
35.90
36.20
36.40
37.25
47.20
48.89
50.00
51.50
54.44
54.65
55.00
55.05
55.50
56.50
57.00
57.25
59.70
60.00
65.00
65.55

Cp
kJ/kg. K
4.179
4.179
4.176
4.175
4.174
4.174
4.174
4.174
4.174
4.174
4.174
4.174
4.174
4.174
4.174
4.174
4.174
4.175
4.176
4.179
4.179
4.179
4.179
4.179
4.180
4.180
4.180
4.181
4.179
4.183
4.183

kg/m3
997.40
995.80
995.26
995.10
994.94
994.90
994.23
994.14
993.99
993.83
993.61
993.53
993.38
993.35
993.02
989.42
988.80
988.18
987.36
985.70
985.61
985.46
985.42
985.22
984.71
984.48
984.41
983.16
983.30
980.60
980.30

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